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# 11

**Minimum Slab Thickness of Two-way Edge-supported Slabs
**

As specified by ACI Code 9.5.3.3 and 9.5.3.2, for slabs with beams spanning between the

supports on all sides, the minimum thickness shall be as follows:

a. For

fm

α equal to or less than 0.20, minimum slab thickness is determined from

provisions on slabs without interior beams spanning between the supports, shown in

Table (5), but not less than:

• Slabs without drop panels 12.5 cm

• Slabs with drop panels 10.0 cm

Table (5): Minimum thickness of slabs without interior beams

Without drop panels With drop panels

Exterior panels Interior

panels

Exterior panels Interior

panels

Without

edge beams

With

edge

beams

Without

edge

beams

With

edge

beams

∗

33 / l

n

∗

36 / l

n

∗

36 / l

n

∗

36 / l

n

∗

40 / l

n

∗

40 / l

n

∗ ∗

30 / l

n

∗ ∗

33 / l

n

∗ ∗

33 / l

n

∗ ∗

33 / l

n

∗ ∗

36 / l

n

∗ ∗

36 / l

n

∗ ∗ ∗

28 / l

n

∗ ∗ ∗

31 / l

n

∗ ∗ ∗

31 / l

n

∗ ∗ ∗

31 / l

n

∗ ∗ ∗

34 / l

n

∗ ∗ ∗

34 / l

n

* 2

y

cm / kg 2800 f ·

** 2

y

cm / kg 4200 f ·

*** 2

y

cm / kg 5200 f ·

In Table (5),

n

l is the length of clear span in the long direction measured face-to-face of

supports in slabs without beams and face-to-face of beams or other supports in other cases.

For

y

f between the values given in the table, minimum thickness is determined by linear

interpolation. Moreover, for slabs with beams between columns along exterior edges, the

value of

f

α for the edge beam is not to be less than 0.80.

b. For

fm

α greater than 0.20 but not greater than 2.0, the thickness shall not be less than

12

( )

( )

cm 5 . 12

20 . 0 5 36

14000 / f 80 . 0 l

h

fm

y n

≥

− +

+

·

α β

(10)

c. For

fm

α greater than 2.0, the thickness shall not be less than

( )

cm 9

9 36

14000 / f 80 . 0 l

h

y n

≥

+

+

·

β

(11)

d. At discontinuous edges, an edge beam shall be provided with a stiffness ratio

f

α not

less than 0.80 or the minimum thickness required by Eqn. (10) or Eqn. (11) shall be

increased by at least 10 % in the panel with a discontinuous edge.

where

h = overall thickness of slab

f

α = ratio of flexural stiffness of beam section to flexural stiffness of a width of slab

bounded laterally by centerlines of adjacent panels, if any, on each side of beam determined

analytically as follows:

f

α =

s cs

b cb

I E

I E

cb

E = modulus of elasticity of beam concrete

cs

E = modulus of elasticity of slab concrete

b

I = moment of inertia about centroidal axis of gross section of beam

s

I = moment of inertia about centroidal axis of gross section of slab

Another way of determining

f

α is graphically, using Figures 5 and 6.

fm

α = average value of

f

α for all beams on edgs of a panel

β = ratio of clear spans in long to short direction of slab.

13

Figure 5: Beam Stiffness (Interior Beams)

14

Figure 6: Beam Stiffness (Edge Beams)

ACI Code 318-89 (Revised 92) included three different equations for determination of

minimum slab thickness. Two of those equations will be given here for their simplicity, as

they require no prior evaluation of α . The smallest thickness h

min

is given as

15

( )

( )

s

y n

f l

h

β β + +

+

·

1 5 36

14000 / 80 . 0

min

(12)

The largest thickness h

max

is given as

( )

36

14000 / 80 . 0

max

y n

f l

h

+

· (13)

where

s

β = ratio of length of the continuous edges to the total perimeter of the panel.

Summary of Design Procedure for Two-way Edge- supported Solid Slabs Using the

Simplified Methods

Once design compressive strength of concrete and yield stress of reinforcement are

specified, the next steps are followed:

1. Slab thickness is evaluated based on deflection control requirement.

2. The total factored load supported by the slab is calculated. The dead load includes own

weight of the slab in addition to the covering materials it supports. The live load is

dependent on the intended use of the slab.

3. The loads distributed in the short and long directions of each panel are determined as

discussed in earlier sections.

4. Representative 1 m wide design strips to span in the short and long directions are

selected.

5. The shearing force and bending moment diagrams for each of the strips are drawn.

6. Strength of each of the strips in shear is checked.

7. Design the reinforcement at critical negative and positive bending moment sections for

each of the strips. Reinforcement in the short direction is placed closest to the concrete

surface in order to increase the effective depth d in this direction.

8. Prepare design drawings showing the dimensions and the provided reinforcement.

Example (1):

Using the Grashoff coefficients design the simply supported solid slab shown in Figure 7.a.

Assume that the beam webs are 25 cm wide. Weight of flooring materials is 200 kg/m

2

, and

the live load is 500 kg/m

2

. Use

2

/ 250 cm kg f

c

· ′ ,

2

/ 4200 cm kg f

y

· .

16

(a) (b)

Figure 7: (a) Two way solid slab; (b) loads on beams

Solution:

1- Evaluate Slab thickness:

n

l = 5.0 – 0.25 = 4.75 m

Since r = 5/4 = 1.25 < 2.0, the slab is classified as being two way.

The smallest slab thickness is given by

( )

( )

( )

( )

cm

f l

h

s

y n

34 . 12

) 0 1 ( 75 . 3 / 75 . 4 5 36

14000 / 4200 80 . 0 475

1 5 36

14000 / 80 . 0

min

·

+ +

+

·

+ +

+

·

β β

The largest slab thickness is given by

( )

( )

cm

f l

h

y n

51 . 14

36

14000 / 4200 80 . 0 475

36

14000 / 80 . 0

max

·

+

·

+

·

Slab thickness will be taken as 14.0 cm.

2- Determine the total factored load per unit area of the slab:

Own weight of slab = 0.14 × 2.50 = 0.35 ton/m

2

( ) ( )

2

u

m / ton 46 . 1 50 . 0 60 . 1 20 . 0 35 . 0 20 . 1 w · + + ·

3- Evaluate load distribution in both directions:

Rectangularity ratio r = 5/4 = 1.25

Using Grashoff coefficients, 71 . 0 · α , and . 29 . 0 · β

17

Load in the short direction ( )

2

s

m / t 03 . 1 46 . 1 71 . 0 w · ·

For a strip 1 m wide, m ton w

s

/ 03 . 1 ·

Load in the long direction ( )

2

l

m / t 42 . 0 46 . 1 29 . 0 w · ·

For a strip 1 m wide, m ton w

l

/ 42 . 0 ·

4- Select representative 1 m wide design strips to span in the short and long

directions:

Two strips are used, one in the short direction and the other in the long direction.

5- Evaluate shear and bending moment at critical section locations:

Maximum shear force in the short direction ( ) ton 06 . 2 2 / 4 03 . 1 V

max , u

· ·

Maximum shear force in the long direction ( ) ton 05 . 1 2 / 5 42 . 0 V

max , u

· ·

Maximum moment in the short direction ( ) m . t 06 . 2 8 / 4 03 . 1 M

2

max , u

· ·

Maximum moment in the long direction ( ) m . t 31 . 1 8 / 5 42 . 0 M

2

max , u

· ·

6- Check slab thickness for beam shear:

a. Short Direction:

Average effective depth d = 14 –2 –1.2 = 10.8 cm, assuming φ 12 mm bars in both

directions.

( ) ( )( ) ton 79 . 6 1000 / 80 . 10 100 250 53 . 0 75 . 0 V

c

· · Φ

i.e. , slab thickness is adequate in terms of resisting beam shear in the shorter direction.

b. Long direction:

c u

V V Φ <

max ,

i.e. , slab thickness is adequate in terms of resisting beam shear in the longer direction.

7- Design the reinforcement:

a. Short direction:

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

0049 . 0

250 8 . 10 100 9 . 0

06 . 2 10 353 . 2

1 1

4200

250 85 . 0

2

5

·

1

1

]

1

¸

×

− − · ρ

18

Area of flexural reinforcement

s

A = 0.0049 (100) (10.8) = 5.29 cm

2

/m

Use φ 12 mm @ 20 cm at the bottom side of the slab.

For main reinforcement, spacing between bars is not to exceed the smaller of 3(14) = 42 cm

and 45 cm, which is already satisfied.

b. Long direction:

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

003 . 0

250 8 . 10 100 9 . 0

31 . 1 10 6353 . 2

1 1

4200

250 85 . 0

2

5

·

1

1

]

1

¸

×

− − · ρ

Area of flexural reinforcement

s

A = 0.003 (100) (10.8) = 3.24 cm

2

/m

Use φ 12 mm @ 30 cm on top of the short direction reinforcement.

Design of beam B1:

cm l h 25 . 31 16 / 500 16 /

min

· · ·

Try 25 cm × 50 cm cross section.

Factored own weight of beam = 1.2 (0.25) (0.5) (2.5) = 0.375 t/m

Maximum factored moment due to own weight of beam

= t.m 172 . 1 8 / ) 5 ( 375 . 0

2

·

Maximum factored shear due to own weight of beam = ton 937 . 0 2 / ) 5 ( 375 . 0 ·

Loads from the slab, shown in Figure 7.c:

( ) ( ) m / t 92 . 2 2 / 4 46 . 1 2 / S w w

u

'

· · ·

Equivalent load due to shear =

( )

t/m 752 . 1

25 . 1 2

1

1 92 . 2 ·

,

_

¸

¸

−

Equivalent load due to moment =

( )

t/m 297 . 2

25 . 1 3

1

1 92 . 2

2

·

,

_

¸

¸

−

Maximum factored shear = ton 38 . 4 2 / ) 5 ( 752 . 1 ·

Maximum factored moment = m . t 178 . 7 8 / ) 5 ( 297 . 2

2

·

Total factored shear = 0.937 + 4.38 = 5.317 ton

19

Total factored moment = 1.172 + 7.178= 8.35 ton.m

Assuming that φ 8 mm stirrups and φ 12 mm reinforcing bars are used,

d = 50 – 4.0 – 0.80 – 0.60 = 44.6 cm

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

0046 . 0

250 6 . 44 25 9 . 0

35 . 8 10 353 . 2

1 1

4200

250 85 . 0

2

5

·

1

1

]

1

¸

×

− − · ρ

( ) ( )

2

s

cm 13 . 5 6 . 44 25 0046 . 0 A · · , use 4 φ 14 mm bars.

Check section for shear:

( ) ( )( ) ton 0 . 7 1000 / 6 . 44 25 250 53 . 0 75 . 0 V

c

· · Φ

Use cm mm 20 @ 8 φ as minimum shear reinforcement.

See Figure 7.c for reinforcement details.

(c) (d)

Figure 7: (continued); (c) Equivalent loads on beam B1; (d)

reinforcement details

Design of beam B2:

cm l h 0 . 25 16 / 400 16 /

min

· · ·

Try 25 cm × 50 cm cross section.

Factored own weight of beam = 1.2 (0.25) (0.5) (2.5) = 0.375 t/m

Maximum factored moment due to own weight of beam

20

= m . t 75 . 0 8 / ) 4 ( 375 . 0

2

·

Maximum factored shear due to own weight of beam

= ton 875 . 0 2 / ) 4 ( 375 . 0 ·

Loads from the slab, shown in Figure 7.e:

( ) ( ) m / t 92 . 2 2 / 4 46 . 1 2 / S w w

u

'

· · ·

Equivalent load due to shear = 2.92 /2 = 1.46 t/m

Equivalent load due to moment = 2.92 (2/3) = 1.95 t/m

Maximum factored shear = ton 92 . 2 2 / ) 4 ( 46 . 1 ·

Maximum factored moment = m . t 90 . 3 8 / ) 4 ( 95 . 1

2

·

Total factored shear = 0.75 + 2.92 = 3.67 ton

Total factored moment = 0.75 + 3.90 = 4.65 t.m

Assuming that φ 8 mm stirrups and φ 12 mm reinforcing bars are used,

d = 50 – 4.0 – 0.80 – 0.60 = 44.6 cm

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

00254 . 0

250 6 . 44 25 9 . 0

65 . 4 10 353 . 2

1 1

4200

250 85 . 0

2

5

·

1

1

]

1

¸

×

− − · ρ < ρ

min

( ) ( )

2

68 . 3 6 . 44 25 0033 . 0 cm A

s

· · , use 4 φ 12 mm bars.

Check section for shear:

( ) ( )( ) ton 0 . 7 1000 / 6 . 44 25 250 53 . 0 75 . 0 V

c

· · Φ

Use cm mm 20 @ 8 φ as minimum shear reinforcement.

See Figure 7.g for reinforcement details.

8- Prepare design drawings showing the dimensions and the provided reinforcement:

Design drawings are shown in Figure 7.g.

21

(e) (f)

(g)

Figure 7: (continued); (e) equivalent loads on beam B2; (f) beam

reinforcement details; (g) slab reinforcement details

Example (2):

Design the two-way solid slab shown in Figure 8.a. The covering materials weigh 258

kg/m

2

, and the live load is 300 kg/m

2

. Also, calculate the factored load acting on beam C3-

C7-C11-C15 due to slab loads. Use

2

/ 250 cm kg f

c

· ′ and

2

/ 4200 cm kg f

y

· . All beams

are 25 cm wide.

22

Figure 8.a: Two-way solid slab

Solution:

1- Evaluate Slab thickness:

The largest slab thickness is given by

( )

( )

cm

f l

h

y n

51 . 14

36

14000 / 4200 80 . 0 475

36

14000 / 80 . 0

max

·

+

·

+

·

Use a slab thickness of 14.0 cm.

2- Determine the total factored load per unit area of the slab:

( ) [ ]

2

u

t/m 21 . 1 ) 30 . 0 ( 6 . 1 258 . 0 5 . 2 14 . 0 2 . 1 w · + + ·

3- Evaluate load distribution in both directions:

Load distributions, shown in Figure 8.b, are based on Egyptian code load coefficient given

in Table (3).

23

Figure 8.b: Loads in both directions

For panels S1, S2 and S8 :

( )

( )

. 230 . 0 475 . 0 , 25 . 1

87 . 0 0 . 4

87 . 0 0 . 5

· · · · ′ β α and r

For panels S3 and S6:

( )

( )

. 190 . 0 517 . 0 , 33 . 1

87 . 0 0 . 3

87 . 0 0 . 4

· · · · ′ β α and r

For panel S4:

( )

( )

. 230 . 0 475 . 0 , 25 . 1

76 . 0 0 . 4

76 . 0 0 . 5

· · · · ′ β α and r

For panel S5:

( )

( )

. 174 . 0 565 . 0 , 43 . 1

76 . 0 0 . 4

87 . 0 0 . 5

· · · · ′ β α and r

For panel S7:

24

( )

( )

. 295 . 0 396 . 0 , 092 . 1

87 . 0 0 . 4

76 . 0 0 . 5

· · · · ′ β α and r

4- Select representative 1 m wide design strips to span in the short and long

directions:

Six design strips are used, three in the short direction and three in the long direction.

Evaluate shear and bending moment at critical section locations:

Shear force and bending moment diagrams for each of the six strips are shown in Figures

8.c through 8.h.

cm d

avg

8 . 10 2 . 1 2 14 · − − · , assuming φ 12 mm reinforcing bars.

5- Check slab thickness for shear:

( )( ) ( ) ( ) ton 79 . 6 1000 / 8 . 10 100 250 53 . 0 75 . 0 V

c

· · Φ O.K

6- Design the reinforcement:

Strip 1-1:

For m t M

u

. 87 . 0 − ·

( ) ( )

( )( )( ) ( )

002 . 0

250 8 . 10 100 9 . 0

87 . 0 10 353 . 2

1 1

4200

250 85 . 0

2

5

·

1

1

]

1

¸

×

− − · ρ

( ) ( ) /m cm . . . A

s

2

16 2 8 10 100 002 0 · ·

( ) ( ) /m cm . . . A

s,

2

min

52 2 0 14 100 0018 0 · · , use . 30 @ 10 cm mm φ

Figure 8.c: S.F.D and B.M.D for strip 1-1

25

For m t M

u

. 49 . 0 ·

( ) ( ) /m cm . . . A

s,

2

min

52 2 0 14 100 0018 0 · · , use . 30 @ 10 cm mm φ

Strip 2-2:

Figure 8.d: S.F.D and B.M.D for strip 2-2

For m t M

u

. 62 . 0 − ·

( ) ( ) /m cm . . . A

s,

2

min

52 2 0 14 100 0018 0 · · , use . 30 @ 10 cm mm φ

For m t M

u

. 43 . 0 ·

( ) ( ) /m cm . . . A

s,

2

min

52 2 0 14 100 0018 0 · · , use . 30 @ 10 cm mm φ

Strip 3-3:

26

Figure 8.d: S.F.D and B.M.D for strip 3-3

For m t M

u

. 82 . 0 − ·

( ) ( )

( )( )( ) ( )

00189 . 0

250 8 . 10 100 9 . 0

82 . 0 10 353 . 2

1 1

4200

250 85 . 0

2

5

·

1

1

]

1

¸

×

− − · ρ

( ) ( ) /m cm . . . A

s,

2

min

52 2 0 14 100 0018 0 · · , use . 30 @ 10 cm mm φ

For m t M

u

. 51 . 0 ·

( ) ( ) /m cm . . . A

s,

2

min

52 2 0 14 100 0018 0 · · , use . 30 @ 10 cm mm φ

Strip 4-4:

For m t M

u

. 46 . 0 − ·

( ) ( ) /m cm . . . A

s,

2

min

52 2 0 14 100 0018 0 · · , use . 30 @ 10 cm mm φ

For m t M

u

. 26 . 0 ·

27

Figure 8.f: S.F.D and B.M.D for strip 4-4

( ) ( ) m cm A

s

/ 52 . 2 0 . 14 100 0018 . 0

2

min ,

· · , use . 30 @ 10 cm mm φ

Strip 5-5:

Figure 8.g: S.F.D and B.M.D for strip 5-5

For m t M

u

. 95 . 0 − ·

( ) ( )

( )( )( ) ( )

0022 . 0

250 8 . 10 100 9 . 0

95 . 0 10 353 . 2

1 1

4200

250 85 . 0

2

5

·

1

1

]

1

¸

×

− − · ρ

( ) ( ) /m cm . . . A

s,

2

min

52 2 0 14 100 0018 0 · · , use . 30 @ 10 cm mm φ

28

For m t M

u

. 73 . 0 ·

( ) ( ) /m cm . . . A

s,

2

min

52 2 0 14 100 0018 0 · · , use . 30 @ 10 cm mm φ

Strip 6-6:

Figure 8.h: S.F.D and B.M.D for strip 6-6

For m t M

u

. 01 . 1 − ·

( ) ( )

( )( )( ) ( )

00234 . 0

250 8 . 10 100 9 . 0

01 . 1 10 6353 . 2

1 1

4200

250 85 . 0

2

5

·

1

1

]

1

¸

×

− − · ρ

( ) ( ) /m cm . . . A

s

2

53 2 8 10 100 00234 0 · ·

( ) ( ) /m cm . . . A

s,

2

min

52 2 0 14 100 0018 0 · · , use . 30 @ 10 cm mm φ

For m t M

u

. 70 . 0 ·

( ) ( ) /m cm . . . A

s,

2

min

52 2 0 14 100 0018 0 · · , use . 30 @ 10 cm mm φ

7- Prepare design drawings showing the dimensions and the provided reinforcement:

Design drawings are shown in Figure 8.i.

29

Figure 8.i: Reinforcement layout

Load on beam C3-C7-C11-C15:

( ) ( ) m t w

u

/ 84 . 4 2 2 / 4 21 . 1 · · , as shown in Figure 8.j.

Figure 8.j:Tributary loads on beam C3-C7-C11-C13

Summary of Design Procedure for Two-way Edge- supported Ribbed Slabs, Using the

Simplified Methods

Once design compressive strength of concrete and yield stress of reinforcement are

specified, the next steps are followed:

30

1. Determine the overall slab thickness h based on deflection control requirement. Also,

thickness of topping slab t, rib width b, and hollow block size are to be determined

based on code requirements.

2. Calculate the total factored load per unit area.

3. Distribute the loads in the short and long directions of each panel, as discussed in earlier

sections.

4. Select representative design strips to span in the short and long directions. The width of

each of these strips is equal to center-to-center spacing between ribs in each of the two

directions.

5. Draw shearing force and bending moment diagrams for each of the strips.

6. Check rib width for beam shear in the two directions.

7. Design the reinforcement at critical negative and positive bending moment sections of

the ribs in each of the two directions. Reinforcement in the short direction is placed

closest to the concrete surface in order to increase the effective depth d in this direction.

8. Prepare design drawings showing arrangement of ribs and details of the reinforcement.

Example (3):

Design the two-way ribbed slab shown in Figure 9.a. The covering materials weigh 150

kg/m

2

, equivalent partition load is equal to 73 kg/m

2

, concrete hollow blocks are 40 cm × 25

cm × 17 cm in dimension, each 17 kg in weight and the live load is 400 kg/m

2

. Use

2

/ 300 cm kg f

c

· ′ ,

2

/ 4200 cm kg f

y

· . All beams are 30 cm wide.

31

Figure 9.a: Two-way ribbed slab

Solution:

1- Evaluate overall slab thickness and key ribbed slab components:

The smallest slab thickness is given by

( )

( )

( )

( ) ( )

cm

f l

h

s

y n

47 . 19

5 . 1 0 . 1 5 36

14000 / 4200 80 . 0 770

1 5 36

14000 / 80 . 0

min

·

+

+

·

+ +

+

·

β β

The largest slab thickness is given by

( )

( )

cm

f l

h

y n

53 . 23

36

14000 / 4200 80 . 0 770

36

14000 / 80 . 0

max

·

+

·

+

·

Use an overall slab thickness of 23.0 cm.

Topping slab thickness = 23 – 17 = 6 cm

Let width of web be equal to 12 cm

Area of shrinkage reinforcement ( ) ( ) /m cm . A

s

2

08 . 1 6 100 0018 0 · ·

Use m mm/ 6 5 φ in both directions.

2- Determine the total factored load on the slab:

Load per rib, shown in Figure 9.b:

32

Total volume (hatched) = 0.52 × 0.62 × 0.23 = 0.074152 m

3

Volume of hollow blocks = 0.4 × 0.17 × 0.5 = 0.034 m

3

Net concrete volume = 0.074152 - 0.034 = 0.040152 m

3

Weight of concrete /m

2

= 0.040152 (2.5) /(0.52) (0.62) = 0.311 ton/ m

2

Weight of hollow blocks /m

2

= 17 (2)/(0.52) (0.62) (1000) = 0.105 ton/ m

2

( ) ( )

2

u

m / ton 407 . 1 40 . 0 60 . 1 15 . 0 073 . 0 105 . 0 311 . 0 20 . 1 w · + + + + ·

Figure 9.b:Loads per rib

3- Determine load distributions in the two principal directions:

Load distribution according to Egyptian Code coefficients:

r = (8 × 0.87) / (8 × 0.87) = 1.0

35 . 0 · · β α

( )

2

2 1

/ 492 . 0 407 . 1 35 . 0 m t w w · · ·

Load per rib in the first direction:

· rib w

u

/ 0.492 (62/100) = 0.305 t/m

Load per rib in the second direction:

· rib w

u

/ 0.492 (52/100) = 0.256 t/m

4- Select representative design strips in the two principal directions:

One design strips is selected (with the larger loads).

5- Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams:

33

Analyzing the strip shown in Figure 9.c using the BENARI structural analysis software, one

gets the shown shear force and bending moment diagrams.

(c)

Figure 9.c: Internal forces

6- Check web width for beam shear:

For reinforcement in the first direction (the closest to the outside surface of concrete):

Effective depth d = 23 – 2 – 0.60 – 0.8 = 19.6 cm, assuming φ 16 mm reinforcing bars and

φ 6 mm stirrups.

( )( ) ( ) ( )

u c

V ton 78 . 1 1000 / 6 . 19 12 300 53 . 0 75 . 0 1 . 1 V 1 . 1 > · · Φ

Though shear reinforcement is not required, mm 6 4 φ U-stirrups per meter run are to be

used to carry the bottom flexural reinforcement.

7- Design rib reinforcement:

Positive moment reinforcement:

Assuming that a < 6 cm, compressive force in concrete is:

( ) ( ) ( ) a b f C

e c

′ · 85 . 0

C = 0.85 (300) (62) (a) /1000 = 15.81 a ton

( ) ( ) 2 / a d C M M

n u

− Φ · Φ ·

( ) ( ) 100 / 2 / 6 . 19 81 . 15 9 . 0 37 . 1 a a − ·

34

0 25 . 19 2 . 39

2

· + − a a

Figure 9.d: Equivalent section

Solving this equation gives a = 0.5 cm, which means that the assumption made before is

valid, and the other root is too large to be considered.

From equilibrium, C = T

Area of flexural reinforcement

( )

2

88 . 1

4200

) 1000 ( 50 . 0 81 . 15

cm A

s

· ·

Use mm 10 1φ and mm 12 1φ reinforcing bars in each rib.

Negative moment reinforcement:

Since the factored negative moment creates compression in the web, the section at

corresponding location is to be designed as a rectangular section.

For m t M

u

. 44 . 2 − ·

( ) ( )

( )( )( ) ( )

0161 . 0

300 6 . 19 12 9 . 0

44 . 2 10 6353 . 2

1 1

4200

300 85 . 0

2

5

·

1

1

]

1

¸

×

− − · ρ

( ) ( )

2

79 . 3 6 . 19 12 0161 . 0 cm A

s

· · , use mm 16 2 φ per rib.

8- Prepare design drawings:

Figure 9.e shows required rib reinforcement and concrete dimensions.

35

Figure 9.e: Reinforcement layout