# ASEN 3111 Aerodynamics

Exam 1, Sept 18

Fall 2001

Name:
This is a open book, closed note exam. Units of the answers must be consistent with those of the problem statement. Give vectorial solutions as vectors.

1. At entry to circular orbit, the space shuttle is at an altitude of 200km and traveling at 7.8km/s. The standard atmosphere predicts a molecular mean free path of 240m and a density of 1.5 10−10 kg/m3 at this altitude. The shuttle cross-sectional area, normal to the direction of ﬂight is about 131 m2 . What is the ﬁrst approximation to the drag under these conditions? Justify the model you use and the origin of your ﬁrst approximation. There are two parts to the answer: 1. Which ﬂow regime is experienced by the shuttle? Given that we are not given the length √ or span of the space shuttle, we can obtain a characteristic length by taking: L = 131 = 11.4m Thus, Kn = λ/L = 240/11.4 = 21 is much bigger than one and therefore we must use a molecular approach. 2. What is the drag? We are not given any detailed shape of the space shuttle, but we know that in the case of a perfect absorption of the incoming molecules, the drag coeﬃcient would be 2. This is the ﬁrst approximation to the drag coeﬃcient and it tends to underestimate the drag by 10 to 20 percent. Using Cd = 2, we obtain: 1 2 D = ρ∞ U∞ SCd = 0.5 ∗ 1.5 10−10 ∗ (7.8 103 )2 ∗ 131 ∗ 2 = 1.2N 2 2. Show whether the following incompressible ﬂow satisfy the mass conservation equation: V = r cos 2θ ˆ er − r sin 2θ ˆ eθ The equation of continuity in an incompressible ﬂow (in steady state or unsteady ﬂow) is given by: ∇ .V = 0 Substituting the value for ∇ and V : ∇.V = (ˆ er ∂. ˆ eθ ∂. + ).(r cos 2θ ˆ er − r sin 2θ ˆ eθ ) ∂r r ∂θ ∂ ˆ eθ ∂ =ˆ er . (r cos 2θ ˆ er − r sin 2θ ˆ eθ ) + . (r cos 2θ ˆ er − r sin 2θ ˆ eθ ) ∂r r ∂θ ˆ eθ =ˆ er .(cos 2θ ˆ er − sin 2θ ˆ eθ ) + .(−2r sin 2θ ˆ er + r cos 2θ ˆ eθ − 2r cos 2θ ˆ eθ − r sin 2θ ˆ er ) r = cos 2θ + cos 2θ − 2 cos 2θ = 0

The equation of continuity is therefore satisﬁed.

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The velocity of water at the exit of the nozzle is 35m/s.n ˆ )dA A We then note that the integral on the surface has two contributions where the ﬂow crosses the boundary.x = − ¦ ¥Vx (ρV .2 ∗ 2. Nozzle P Control Volume (a) What is the total pressure force exerted by the ﬂow on the wall? We can write the integral form of the momentum equation (equation 2.54 10− 2)2ˆ i = 3575ˆ iN Show all work to receive credit Page 2 of 3 Use back of page if necessary .ASEN 3111 Aerodynamics Exam 1. we have: Fplate = −Fsurf ace. A nozzle is directing water at a ﬁxed wall. the derivative with respect to time is zero. following the previous remark Therefore.n ˆ )dA A §¤ §¤ = − ¦ ¥uˆ i(ρV . The density of water is ρ = 1000kg/m3 and pressure of the air surrounding the nozzle is 1atm. This second contribution has a zero velocity along the x axis and therefore: Fplate = uρuAnozzleˆ i = 35 ∗ 1000 ∗ 35 ∗ π ∗ (1. Sept 18 Fall 2001 3. any pressure force on it must be horizontal and we need consider only the horizontal component of the equation • The body force which is due to gravity is vertical and therefore can be ignored. but it is opposite in direction • The plate being vertical. • The surface force Fsurf ace is equal to the pressure force exerted by the ﬂuid on the plate.4in. The nozzle cross-section is circular with a diameter of 2. The ﬁrst contribution is at the nozzle and the second is far away from the center of the ﬂow.13) and we note the following: • As the ﬂow is assumed steady .

01325 105 P a.ASEN 3111 Aerodynamics Exam 1.5 ∗ 1000 ∗ (352 − 0) = 7. Sept 18 Fall 2001 (b) What is the total pressure at point P ? At point A. therefore its velocity must be VP = 0.81 ∗ 0 + 0.13825 105 P a Show all work to receive credit Page 3 of 3 Use back of page if necessary .01325 105 + 1000 ∗ 9. the ﬂow cannot go up nor down. Writing Bernoulli’s Equation for these two points: 1 2 1 2 PA + ρgZA + ρVA = PP + ρgZP + ρVP 2 2 and by rearranging and noting that ZA = ZP : 1 2 2 PP = PA + ρg (ZA − ZP ) + ρ(VA − VP ) 2 = 1. and the velocity of the ﬂow must be VA = 35m/s. by symmetry. At point P . the pressure of the ﬂow must be the atmospheric pressure (PA = 1atm = 1.