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REPORT

ON

500 MW TURBOGENERATOR

STATOR WINDING ASSEMBLY

BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED, HARDWAR

Submitted by,
Akshita Gupta
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY G.B. PANT UNIVERSITY OF AGRI. AND TECH.

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PREFACE
It is a matter of great pleasure for me to present the following report on my INDUSTRIAL TRAINING at B.H.E.L (Haridwar) for 30 days. The objects of training in engineering couse is to correlate the theory with practical aspects and to make students familiar with the difficulties arises during practical application so that they can face challenges boldly while working in the field. As I am a student of electrical engineering so training at BHEL had been particularly beneficial for me. I observe various electrical machineries that are used in different large scale or a small scale industries and different types of power plants. BHEL is very large industry for making the different types of equipments as well as mechanical equipments. The project report consists of manufacturing of turbo generators i.e. constructional features of main parts of turbo generator (500MW), general aspects of large turbo generator, generator series, generator modules, classification of turbo generators etc. with the main stress given on the detailed description of Stator Winding Assembly Design. The basic aim of this report is to study THE CHARACTERISTICS OF WINDINGS IN CASE OF 500MW TURBO GENERATOR as well as the latest manufacturing techniques employed to produce a quality product. It presents a detailed analysis on the manufacture of Turbo generator bars and various insulating materials used in BLOCK-4 & manufacture of various turbo generator parts in BLOCK-1. All in all I have tried my best to present this project report on the summer industrial training done in BHEL, in a very precise and profitable manner. Any suggestions in this direction will be gratefully accepted.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We cannot achieve anything worthwhile in the field of technical education unless or until the theoretical education acquired in the classroom is effectively wedded to its practical approach that is taking place in the modern industries and research institutes. It gives me a great pleasure to have an opportunity to acknowledge and to express gratitude to those who were associated with my training at BHEL. I express my gratitude to BHEL authorities for allowing me to undergo my training in this prestigious organization. My sincere thanks goes to Sh. P.S. Jangpangi (Sr. DGM) for his prodigious guidance, painstaking, attitude reformative and suggestion throughout my summer training schedule. Last but not the least, my sincere thanks to all the staff memb ers of BLOCK-1and BLOCK-4, BHEL, RANIPUR, HARIDWAR

Akshita Gupta

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CONTENTS
Study of Block-1 500 MW Turbo generator Stator Winding Assembly
General Aspects of Turbo generator Design Aspects of Turbo generator
Generator Series & Cooling Systems Generator Modules Specifications of TG sets Type of Turbo generator Stator winding Stator core Rotor Design features

Design Data of 500 MW TG

Design and Constructional features of main parts of TG (500 MW) and Ventilation System Main components of stator winding assembly design 500 MW Turbo generator Stator Bar Manufacturing Details Placing the bars in slot part Bar Support System including support ring Terminal Bushings Electrical Connection of bars Improved version of 500 MW TG with new design features Comparison between 500 MW and 660 MW TG

Conclusion

STUDY OF BLOCK-1
Block-1 is known as ELECTRICAL MACHINE BLOCK. It has got 4 bays as already 4|Page

mentioned i.e. Bay-1, Bay-2, Bay-3 & Bay-4 of sizes 36*482, 36*360, 24*360 & 24*360 m respectively. The Electrical Machine Block is designed for manufacturing Turbo generators, Hydro generators, Heavy and medium sized A.C. or D.C. electrical machines. The production programme of this block is as under: ITEM Turbo generators TYPE Air-cooled bar type Air-cooled V.P.I type Hydrogen-cooled THRI Hydrogen & water cooled THDF type Brushless CAPACITY upto 200 MW upto 160MW 130-270MW 200-800MW upto 800MW

Exciter

This block comprises of the following departments, test stations, electrical test parts and other auxiliary facilities: DESCRIPTION Mechanical Department Assembly Department Test station Electrical Test of parts Auxiliary services and Handling PURPOSE Machining of parts of TG, heavy & medium sized electrical machine Assembly & finishing of TG, heavy & medium sized electrical machines Testing of finished products manufactured by the block. Electrical test of parts for the products manufactured by the block (a) Routine repair tools of equipment (b) Centralized operation of handling facilities the block

TURBOGENERATORS:
Facilities available in this bay are: (a) Machine Section: This section is equipped with large size machine tools such as lathes, vertical boring and 5|Page

drilling machines for machining stator body, rotor shaft, end-shields, bearing etc. for turbo generators. Also it has a special rotor slot-milling machine for cutting slots in rotor shafts. (b) Iron Assembly: This section has facilities for stator core assembly of turbo generators and heavy electrical motors including 1000 T umbrella type press for pressing the cores and transformer for induction heating of retaining rings and armature cores of large size electric motors. (c) Heavy Rotor Assembly Section: It has a 250-ton horizontal press and other necessary facilities for assembly of large size rotors. (d) Stator Winding Section: It has two dust proof stands for stator winding of turbo generators and an installation for heating of stator bars. (e) Armature Rotor Section: It is equipped with installations for laying windings in turbo generators and large size o.k. Armatures. Also it has a dynamic balancing machining for rotors up to 16-ton weight. (f) Armature Rotor Impregnation Section: In this general section assembly of turbo generators, large size arc and d.c. Motors are carried out. (g) Test Stands: Turbo generators Test Stand: It is equipped with 6 MW drive motor and a test pit open circuit, sudden short circuit temperature rise, hydraulic and hydrogen leakage tests are carried out her for turbo generators. (h) Over speed Balancing Tunnel: The dynamic balancing of turbo generator rotors is done on this installation. In that tunnel rotor is rotated at 3000 i.e. if rotor is unbalanced then wt. are put in the ELLEN BOLTS.

LSTG (Large size turbo generators) section


LSTG section is divided into four sections: 1. Main assembly 2. Rotor winding section 3. Stator winding section 4. Core assembly CORE ASSEMBLY: In this section stator core is assembled i.e. assembly of core bar, dovetail, stampings etc. 6|Page

ROTOR WINDING SECTION: In this section rotor winding is assembled as explained earlier. STATOR WINDING SECTION: In this section stator winding is assembled as explained earlier. MAIN ASSEMBLY: After assembling rotor and stator windings the whole assembly of turbo generator is done in that section.

GENERAL ASPECTS OF TURBO GENERATOR

With the increasing pace of industrial & technological developments, powerful and high-speed machines have become a common feature of many industries. Electric motors, turbo generators, hydro generators, high-speed turbines & compressors have become integral and indispensable components of modern industry. Turbo generator is an A.C. Synchronous Machine. These are the Synchronous Generators driven by steam turbines at high speed. They have ratings as high as 1000 MW. The basic operation principle involves the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy. It is necessary to remove the generated losses (heat) in the machine from a point as close as possible to the heat source. So the designer aims at the removal of the heat losses in the most efficient way. Here in BHEL Turbo generators are manufactured having capacity up to 660 MW. Their latest projects going on are the manufacturing of 500 MW and 660 MW Turbo generators. BHEL is the leading manufacturer of high capacity Turbo generators up to 660 MW in India. All modern Turbo alternators are 2-pole machines and their speed is 3000 rpm corresponding to a frequency of 50 Hz. Turbo generators are characterized by long lengths & short diameters. This is because it is not possible to increase the rotor diameter beyond a certain value (1.2 m) owing to the limitations imposed by mechanical 7|Page

considerations like centrifugal force, deflection of shaft and the critical speed. The diameter being limited, the only way to raise the rating is to increase the length; the active core length must be of the order of 10 mm per MVA. The generator is provided with a fast acting fully static / brush less excitation system & dependable services to give prolonged trouble free operation over the years.

500MW Turbo generator is a three phase, horizontally mounted 2 pole cylindrical rotor type machine driven by a directly coupled steam turbine at 3000 rpm. With large lengths of core, it is very difficult to cool the machine, especially its central portions. Infect the cooling of turbo alternators is the most complex engineering problems. All the materials that go into the manufacture of this machine are subjected to rigorous tests and each sub-assembly or component undergoes a series of stage wise tests. Every Turbo generator is fully tested at the plants test bed as per National Electro technical Commission Standards.

Synchronous machine construction. Schematic cross section of a salient-pole synchronous machine. In a large generator, the rotor is magnetized by a coil wrapped around it. The figure shows a two-pole rotor. Salient-pole rotors normally have many more than two poles. When designed as a generator, large salient-pole machines are driven by water turbines. The bottom part of the figure shows the three-phase voltages obtained at the terminals of the generator, and the equation relates the speed of the machine, its number of poles, and the frequency of the resulting voltage.

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DESIGN ASPECTS OF LARGE TURBOGENERATOR


The continuous development in the design of Turbo generators is possible due to improvements in: Materials Insulation Systems Cooling Systems Design features Turbo generators are classified according to cooling adopted in windings of rotor & stator and medium filled inside the machine. Air, hydrogen and water are the coolants used for cooling. Also whether the medium comes in contact directly with the conductor or through the insulation is another aspect. With the present day technology it is theoretically possible to design Turbo generators up to 2000 MVA. Annexure-1 shows the various cooling schemes of Turbo generators. In addition BHEL has acquired gap pick up cooling technology from Russia for 210 MW generators. Annexure -2 presents the various ratings possible with various combinations. TLII with indirect cooling is not discussed as it is used in small generators. TLRI generators are possible from 32 MVA to 300 MVA. THRI generators are generally offered from 180 MVA to 450 MVA. THDD generators (not popular in India) are possible from 400 MVA to 1000 MVA. THDF generators can be offered from 500 MVA to 1300 MVA. THFF generators in which stator and rotor windings are cooled by water is more popular in large ratings of 1500 MVA, 4-pole versions for nuclear applications. Various issues in selecting the module a) Rating b) Application whether GTG or STG and direction of rotation c) Site conditions like cold-water temperature d) Standard IEC, ANSI 9|Page

e) f) g) h) I) j) k)

Operational experience requirements Special requirements like SCR, Voltage and Frequency variation, Overload Capability Efficiency Cost & delivery Transport Availability of tooling Critical speeds and temperature including hot spots

TECHNICAL ISSUES

Selecting a module starts from the knowledge of some or all of the above. Diameters are standardized e.g. 750, 800, 860, 930, 1000, 1075, 1150, and 1230 mm for rotor. Voltages are generally selected from 10.5/11, 15.75/16.5, 21/22, 27 KV although the manufacturer can select the voltage. The permissible stator slots can be in the range of 48 to 84 slots and can be 36 - 48 also. For a given output after deciding the cooling, the rotor diameter is selected from past experience. Active length is selected to obtain the output as well as acceptable from vibration behavior and cooling point of view. The design has to be verified from the above listed issues and customer requirements. Core diameter is constrained from vibrations, type of core suspension, saturation levels, and effect on temperature rises and transport. The vibrations are permitted from type of core suspension, which could be rigid, elastic & spring. Rigid suspension is used in TLRI and THRI machines with built in core in stator frame and elastic suspension is in which core is supported in electric beam for separately built core and is used in air cooled machines unto 190 MVA TLRI (108/41). The vibrations are restricted to 15 vibrations in both. Spring suspension in which the vibrations can be permitted more than 16 microns (up to 20 microns) is used in bigger air-cooled machines , separately built up cores of THRI and all THDD and THDF machines. Additional care has to be taken in restricting core flux density to 1.5 Tesla as it may lead to overheating of steel parts beyond core and also the setting of over fluxing protection is to be checked. Additional temperature rise in stator winding due to extra losses in core is also to be considered. The permissible diameter for rail transport is about 4060 mm in Indian railways and for road transport 4200 mm is possible. However care has to be taken regarding suitability of springs for road transport. With 4200 mm casing diameter and spring suspension core outer diameter is possible up to 2900 mm. Magnetic shunt is used in high capacity machines. Like so the stepping and slitting are to be decided based on requirements. Length of the machine is decided from output, type of cooling, no .of slots, voltage, air gap flux density and permissible behavior from vibrations and critical speed considerations. If experience on previous length - diameter combination is not possible, the design may have to be reworked after detailed calculations in many cycles. Iron length to total length ratio depends upon the type of machines, acceptable combinations of ventilation ducts and lamination packets. 5/8/10 mm is used in indirectly cooled machines and 3/5 mm ducts are used in directly cooled machines. The width of packet is selected, ventilation and temperature raises considerations and also the temperature 10 | P a g e

distribution along the length. Slot width is decided from permissible tooth density and gives good temperature of winding. The conductor dimensions and no. is decided based on the feasibility of manufacture, current density, slot dissipation factor, efficiency, reactance and temperature including hot spots. It is mandatory to work out slot balance upon practices and standards. The knowledge of the following in deciding this as well as slot dimensions is essential. a) Transposition width to pitch ratio b) 360 / 540 transposition and 1 or 2 plan bending is required b) Effective elementary insulation c) Intercolumn insert d) Ripple spring requirements e) Main insulation requirements g) Inner and outer corona protection h) Maximum / minimum permissible conductor width and width to thickens ratio i) Clearances in bar-bar and winding-retaining ring j) Permissible lip and wedge height k) Overhang involutes angles l) Mid-phase transposition, bundling, strip to strip or sleeve connection Rotor slotting is generally standardized for various diameters and type of machine. These are done from the considerations of stresses at various parts, retainingring dimensions, type of machine, flux densities in rotor core and teeth and availability of tooling. The conductor width, insulation parts and wedge dimensions are also optimized. However for a new variant through investigations are required before implementation. Length is decided after fixation of stator length. The rotor length is more by 30 - 40 mm of stator. The requirements of damper slots are to be foreseen.

GENERATOR SERIES & COOLING SYSTEMS:


1. T 2. T 3. T 4. T 5. T A H H H H R I R I D D D I D F

(STATOR COOLING)
I-For indirect cooling D-Direct cooling with gas F-Direct cooling with fluid (water)

(ROTOR COOLING)
R-Radial cooling with gas D-Direct axial cooling with gas

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(COOLING GAS IN CASING)


A-Air cool H-Hydrogen cooled

(TYPE of GENERATOR OR PRODUCT)


T- Turbo generator A.C.

GENERATOR MODULES
According to Russian Design: TURBOGENERATOR MODULE: CAPACITY: THW TYPE 210 MW - TPS 235 MW - NPS

According to Siemens Design (Germany) THRI: TARI: THDF: 108/44 A, 108/44 B, 108/39 & 108/55 93/38, 108/36, 108/41 & 108/46 115/59 & 11 /67

In case of THRI type module 108/44 A, 108/44 B, 108 /39 & 108/55 have the following meanings: u Numerator i.e. 108 means rotor diameter is 1075 mm Denominator i.e. 44, 39 & 55 means the stator length is 4400 mm/3900 mm/5500 mm 44 A means the module is suitable for Gas turbine application (bar impregnation). 44 B means total impregnation including stator core In case of TARI Type Module 93/38, 108/36, 108/41 & 108/46 have the following meaning: Numerator 93 means that the rotor diameter is 930 mm Numerator 108 means that the rotor outer diameter is 1075 mm. Denominator 38, 36, 41 & 46 means that the stator length is 3800 mm, 3600 mm, 4100 mm & 4600 mm respectively. In case of THDF type module the dimensions have the following meaning:

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Numerator 115 means that the rotor diameter is 1150 mm Denominator 59 & 67 means that the stator length is 5900 and 6700 mm respectively. It is to be noted that in Russian design there are no dimensions.

SPECIFICATIONS OF TURBOGENERATOR SETS:


THRI: 210 MW, 235 MW & 250 MW TG Sets (GERMAN Design) T H R I refers refers refers refers to to to to TURBOGENERATOR HYDROGEN GAS COOLED RADIAL COOLING OF ROTOR INDIRECT COOLING

THDF: 500 MW (Already manufactured) : 660 MW TG Sets (Designing being done) T refers to TURBOGENERATOR H refers to HYDROGEN GAS COOLED D refers to DIRECT COOLING OF ROTOR F refers to FLUID COOLING OF WINDING BARS THW: 200 MW Sets (Russian Design ) T refers to TURBOGENERATOR H refers to HYDROGEN GAS COOLED W refers to WATER COOLING Therefore the Turbo generators manufactured at Haridwar so far covers the wide range from 200MW to 500 MW.

TYPE OF TURBOGENERATORS:
The coupling turbine-wise classification is as follows: Type of Turbine Steam Turbines Type of Generator THDF type THRI type Capacity 500 MW 130 MW, 200 - 250 MW

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Nuclear Turbines Gas turbines

THW type TARI type THDF type THW type TARI type

200 / 210 MW Up to 170 MW 500 MW 235 MW Up to 170 MW

The following is the type of stator winding cooling for these generators: Type of Generator THDF Type THRI Type TARI Type THW Type Type of Stator winding cooling Direct Water cooled Indirect Hydrogen cooled Indirect Air cooled Direct Water cooled Type of stator bar conductors Hollow & Solid Cu conductors Solid Cu conductors Solid Cu conductor Hollow & Solid Cu conductor

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DESIGN DATA OF 500 MW TURBO GENERATOR


Generator Type Capacity Load MVA Power Factor Terminal Voltage/ Stator Voltage Speed Rated Current/ Stator Current Frequency Hydrogen pressure Excitation (V & A) Phase Short ckt. Ratio Insulation Class Generator Efficiency Coolant Voltage Var. Frequency Var. : : : : : : THDF -115 / 59 500 MW Base 588 0.85 lagging 21 KV

: :

3000 rpm 16.16 KA

: : : : : : : : : :

50 Hz 3.5 bars (g) 317 V & 4040 A 3 0.48 F 98.64 % Water & Hydrogen 5% 5 % to 3 %

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STATOR WINDING (RATINGS):


1. Conductor Size 2. Conductor Size (uninsulated) 3. Bar Insulation 4. No. of Conductors 5. No. of Conductors per bar per column 6. Mean turn Length 7. No. of slots 8. Short Chording 9. Type of Winding 10. Connections 11. No. of parallel paths 12. No. of coils 13. Cooling Duct 14. Net straight winding copper weight : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8 x 4.6 mm (hollow) 8 x 1.3 mm (solid) 5.85 mm 5 (hollow) 10 (solid) 2 x 9845 mm 48 20 / 24 Lap, Double layer Double Star 2 48 5 x 1.6 mm 8180 Kg

STATOR CORE (RATINGS):


Outer diameter Bore diameter Core length net Core length gross ET sheet steel (thickness) : : : : : 2630 mm 1330 mm 5592 mm 5850 mm 0.50 mm

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Grade of ET steel Slot size No. of slots Net Core weight

: : : :

1.5 W / Kg 48 x 160 mm 48 141784 Kg

ROTOR (RATINGS):
Air gap Rotor diameter Barrel length Total length end to end : 90 mm

: 1150 mm : : 5800 mm 12220 mm

DESIGN FEATURES:

Brushless Excitation Micalastic Insulation End-shield mounted bearing Individual Bar impregnated design Hydrogen Pressure : 3.5 bar Direction of rotation : Anticlockwise at turbine-end towards generator/ clockwise at exciter end.

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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES OF MAIN PARTS OF TURBOGENERATOR (500 MW) & VENTILATION SYSTEM:
The general cross-section of components: the Turbo generator consists of the following

STATOR
Stator frame Spring basket Testing * Alignment of spring basket * Hydraulic testing * Pneumatic testing Stator core Core bar Dovetail assembly Stampings Studs End rings Magnetic shunt Support rings Bus bar assembly Header assembly Stator Winding Ripple springs Hydrogen coolers and end-shields

ROTOR
Rotor Shaft Rotor Winding Rotor Retaining rings Field connections

BEARINGS AND SHAFT SEALS


Various additional auxiliaries for generator operation are: (I) Seal Oil System (ii) Gas System 18 | P a g e

(iii) Primary Water System (iv) Excitation System

STATOR:
The stator comprises of a stator frame as well as stator core and winding assembly. Manufacture of stator frame is performed independently of the stator core and winding assembly production and prior to installation of the winding; the core is linked to the stator frame by means of flat springs.

STATOR FRAME:
The stator frame consists of cylindrical center -section and two end-shields, which are gas-tight and can, withstand explosion pressure in the event of likely hydrogen explosion. The stator end-shields are jointed and sealed to the stator frame with O-rings and bolted flange connections. The stator frame accommodates the stator core and windings. The generator cooler is subdivided into four single sections arranged vertically in the end-shield on the turbine side. In addition, the stator end-shields contain the shaft seal and bearing components. The stator is firmly connected to the foundation with anchor bolts through the stator feet, which are welded on to the frame.

SPRING BASKET:
Spring basket is used to control the vibrations in the core of stator. These are made of Mild steel. About 7 baskets are used in the 500 MW T.G. It consists of springs at its back which controls the vibrations in the core Using Telescope, Collimeter etc. by finding the center of the frame, does alignment of spring baskets.

TESTING:
Using two methods does stator frame testing: 1. HYRAULIC TESTING 2. PNEUMATIC SYSTEM In hydraulic testing frame with end shields on both sides is filled with water at 10 Kg/cm^2 to check the elasticity and plasticity of the material. Maximum plasticity should be 2 mm Maximum elasticity should be 3 mm Pneumatic testing is performed on stator frame to check any leakage in the frame and in this air is filled in the stator body at 6 Kg/cm^2 for 6 to7 hours and after this pressure is checked again. If pressure decreases it means there is leakage in the body. This test is carried out because we have to fill hydrogen in it and if there is any leakage that results in fire. 19 | P a g e

STATOR CORE:
It is one of the most significant parts. Apart from providing support to the stator winding it provides a closed path for flux produced by the winding.

The stator core is stacked from insulated electrical sheet steel laminations & mounted in supporting rings over insulated dovetailed guide bars. It is to be noted that the stacking of core laminations is done in the stator frame in the vertical position with the exciter side downward and is normally done in the stacking pit. Also to obtain smooth slot walls, mandrels / stacking guides are inserted in the stator slots as well as in the holes meant for tension bolts. Axial compression of stator core is obtained by clamping fingers, pressure plates and non-magnetic through type clamping bolts, which are insulated from the core. The supporting rings form part of an inner frame cage. This cage is suspended in the outer frame by a number of separate flat springs (fig. Shown). The flat springs are tangentially arranged on the circumference in sets with three springs each, i.e. two vertical supporting springs on both sides of core and one horizontal spring below the core. The suspension of core is such that the transmission of forced vibration of core to the frame and foundation is restricted effectively. The end-portions of the core are guarded from the end-leakage fluxes by magnetic shunt type shielding provided at both the ends of the generators

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STATOR WINDING:
The high voltage insulation is provided according to the proven MICALASTIC SYSTEM. This system, which adopts Vacuum Pressure Impregnation (VPI) technique with resin poor tape, ensures a nearly void-free insulation and is characterized by its excellent electrical and mechanical properties. The winding bars are made with 540 transposition in the slot-portion. The individual bars consist of hollow and solid strands evenly distributed in the cross-section. At the bar-ends all solid strands are jointly brazed into a connecting sleeve and the hollow strands into a water box from which the cooling water enters and leaves via Teflon insulating hoses connected to the annular manifolds. The electrical connection between the top and bottom bars is made by a bolted connection at the connecting sleeve. The annular manifolds are insulated from the stator frame, permitting the measurements of insulation resistance of the water filled winding. During operation, the annular manifolds are grounded. The MICALASTIC system is fully waterproof and oil-resistant. To protect the stator winding against the damaging effects of magnetic bar bouncing forces under normal load and short circuit in the slots, bottom filler, side ripple spring and ripple spring located beneath the slot wedges ensures permanent firm sitting of the bars in the slot during operation. The gaps between the bars in the stator end windings are completely filled with insulating conformable material and cured after installation. For radial support the end-windings are clamped to a rigid ring of insulating material, which in turn is fully supported by the core pressure plate. The bars are clamped to the support ring with insulating segments held by clamping bolts made from a high strength insulating material (fig. shown). The support ring is free to move axially within the stator frame so that movements of the winding due to thermal expansions are not restricted and is held rigidly to prevent movement in circumferential direction. The stator winding connections are brought out to six bushing located in a compartment of welded non magnetic steel below the generator at the exciter-end. CTs (Current Transformers) for metering and relaying purposes can be mounted on the bushings.

HYDROGEN COOLERS:
The hydrogen cooler is a shell and tube type heat exchanger, which cools the hydrogen gas in the generator.

END-SHIELDS:
The ends of the stator frame are closed by pressure containing end-shields. The endshields feature a high stiffness and accommodate the generator bearings, shaft seals and hydrogen coolers. The end-shields are horizontally split to allow for assembly. 21 | P a g e

ROTOR:
A rotating body with journals supported in bearings is a rotor. Generator rotor houses field windings and provides essential excitation energy needed for the induction of electrical power in stator windings. The rotor of the turbo generator is the most loaded part as far as the mechanical stresses, heating and magnetic saturation are concerned. The design and size of rotor depends mainly on the output of the generator. It also depends on the speed of operation, extent of optimization in mechanical, electromagnetic design, type of cooling employed, design of materials and the insulation system.

ROTOR SHAFT:
The rotor shaft is a solid single piece forging manufactured from a vacuum casing. Slots are milled on a rotor body to accommodate the field winding. The longitudinal slot poles are obtained. Transverse slots are machined on rotor body to reduce double system frequency rotor vibrations caused by deflections in the direction of pole and neutral axis. To ensure quality standard material analysis, only high quality forgings are used, strength tests, mechanical tests and ultrasonic tests are performed on the forging during rotor manufacture. After assembly, the rotor is balanced & subjected to an over speed test at 20 % over speed for 2 minutes.

ROTOR RETAINING RINGS:


Retaining rings are used in the electric generator rotor at both the ends to hold copper coil ends firmly in position against the action of centrifugal forces arising out of the rotor movement and they are some of the most highly stressed and critical components of the generator rotor. Rotor and Retaining rings are very expensive and long lead items.

ROTOR WINDING:
The rotor winding consists of several coils, which are inserted into the slots, and series connected such that two coil groups form one pole. Each coil consists of several series connected turns, each of which consists of two longitudinal and transverse turns, which are connected by brazing in the endsection. The rotor winding consists of several coils, which are inserted into the slots, and series connected such that two coil groups form one pole. Each coil consists of several series connected turns, each of which consists of two half turns, which are connected by brazing in the end-section. The rotor winding consists of silver-bearing de-oxidized copper hollow conductor with two lateral cooling ducts. L-shaped strips of laminated epoxy glass fiber fabric with Nomex filler are used for slot insulation. The slot wedges are made of high conducting material and extended below the seating surface of the retaining rings. 22 | P a g e

The retaining rings are made of non-magnetic high strength steel in order to reduce stray losses. On one side these rings are shrink-fitted onto the rotor body and are of floating type design with the other end free. The rings are further secured in axial position by snap rings.

FIELD CONNECTIONS:
The field current is supplied to the rotor winding through radial terminal bolts and two semi-circular conductors to the exciter leads at the exciter coupling with multi contact plug in contact which allow for unobstructed thermal expansion of the field current leads.

BEARINGS:
The generator rotor is supported on the end-shield mounted on the journal bearings on both ends. A third bearing is located between the exciters. Provision is made for the hydraulic jacking of the rotor shaft operation. To eliminate shaft currents all bearings are insulated from the stator frame and foundation plate resides inside to eliminate shaft currents. A temperature sensing thermocouple is embedded in the lower bearing sleeve so that the measuring points are located directly below the babbit. Vibrations of the bearings are measured by vibration pick-ups. The two generator bearings and the exciter bearing are connected to the turbine oil assembly.

SHAFT SEALS:
Shaft seals are provided at the points where the rotor shaft passes through the stator casing. These radial seal rings are guided in the seal carrier rings which in turn, are bolted to the end-shields. These are insulated to prevent the flow of shaft currents. The seal rings are lined with babbit in the shaft journal side and the gap between the seal ring and shaft is kept optimum to provide effective sealing by forming a continuous stable oil film. The hydrogen side seal oil is supplied to the seal ring via an annular groove in the seal guide this oil emerges out through several circumferentially situated holes. The airside seal oil is supplied to the sealing gap from the seal ring chamber via radial bores and the airside annular groove of the seal ring. To ensure effective sealing, the seal oil pressure in the annular gap is maintained at a higher level than the gas pressure within the generator casing. The airside seal oil pressure is set such that a small quantity of the air - side seal oil only flows to the hydrogen side and vice-versa.

SEAL-OIL SYSTEM:
The shaft seals are supplied with seal oil from two seal oil circuits, which consists of Hydrogen side seal oil circuit, and airside seal oil circuit. 23 | P a g e

GAS SYSTEM:
The gas system contains all equipment necessary for filling the generator with CO2, hydrogen or air and removal of these media, and for operation of the generator filled with hydrogen. In addition the gas system includes a Nitrogen supply.

PRIMARY WATER SYSTEM:


The primary water required for cooling the stator winding is circulated in a closed system. In order to prevent corrosion, only copper, stainless steels or similar corrosion resistant materials are used throughout the entire cooling circuit.

EXCITATION SYSTEM:
An important characteristic of large turbo generators is that the excitation requirements increase sharply with the rating of the machine. Brush less excitation system comprises a direct driven revolving armature arc. Exciter connected through shaft-mounted rectifiers to the rotating field of the turbo generator with no tapping of excitation power between the source of generation and point of supply to the generator field. Today, leading manufacturers offer brush less excitation with rotating diodes as the preferred excitation system. Brush less Excitation System employed in 500 MW TG has the following merits: a) Completely eliminates brush gear, slip rings, field-breaker and exciter bus or cable. b) Eliminates the hazard of changing brushes on load or the need to shut down the set to change brushes. c) Carbon dust is no longer produced and hence the operation is fully dust-free. c) Brush losses are eliminated. d) Operating costs are reduced e) The system is best suited for atmospheres contaminated with oil, salt, chemical etc. and were sparking may be a fire hazard. e) The system is simple and requires practically no maintenance except for an occasional inspection. Maintenance costs are thus reduced. Ideally suited for locations where maintenance is likely to be rare due to continuous demand on the machine. g) Brush less system with shaft mounted pilot exciter is of self generating type and The excitation is unaffected by system faults and disturbances. 24 | P a g e

h) Reliability is better I) Ideally suited for large sets j) Increasingly popular system the world over. Thus the brush less excitation system is so well proven in service with practically no failure due to rotating diodes as to offer great promise for the excitation of the highest rating turbo generators as that of 500 MW envisaged at present.

(500 MW brushless exciter)

VENTILATION SYSTEM AND COOLING CIRCUIT:


The generator is designed for direct water cooling for the stator winding including phase connectors, main bushings and direct hydrogen cooling for the stator core and rotor winding. The losses in the remaining generator components such as friction, windage and stray losses are also dissipated through hydrogen. The type of cooling being exclusively direct, largely eliminates any hot spots and higher differential temperature between adjacent components. As a result the thermal displacement leading to mechanical stresses is eliminated. This applies particularly to the copper conductors, insulation, and rotor body and stator core.

HYDROGEN COOLING CIRCUIT:


The hydrogen is circulated in the generator in a closed circuit by a multistage axial compressor located on the turbine-end. The compressor sucks hot gas from the air-gap and delivers it to the cooler, where it is cooled and re-circulated. The hydrogen at the outlet of the coolers is divided into three flows: the first portion is admitted into the rotor at the turbine-end below the fan-hub for cooling of the turbine-end half of the rotor. The second portion is passed from the cooler sections to the individual frame 25 | P a g e

compartments for cooling of the stator core. The third portion is passed to the stator end winding space at the exciter-end through guide ducts in the frame for cooling of the exciter-end half of the rotor-end of the core-end portions. After carrying away the heat generated at various parts in their paths, these part flows are discharged into the air-gap where they are mixed and then return to the compressor and further to the cooler.

Hydrogen-cooled turbo generator

COOLING OF ROTOR:
The cold gas is admitted at both the ends of the rotor for direct cooling of the rotor winding. The rotor winding is symmetrical relative to the generator centerline and pole axis. Each coil quarter obtained by this symmetry is divided into two cooling zones. The first cooling zone consists of the rotor end winding and the second of the winding portion between the rotor body-end and the mid-point of the rotor. The cold gas is directed to each cooling zone through separate openings directly to the rotor body-end. The hydrogen flows through each individual conductor in closed cooling ducts. The heat removal capacity is selected such that approximately identical temperatures are obtained for all conductors. The gas of the first cooling zone is discharged from the pole center coils into a collecting compartment within the pole area below the end winding. From there the hot gas passes into the air-gap through pole face slots at the end of rotor body. The hot gas of the second cooling zone is discharged into the air gap at mid-length of rotor body through radial openings in the hollow conductors and wedges.

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COOLING OF STATOR CORE:


The cooling of the stator core is achieved through the cold gas admitted to the individual frame compartments, the gas flows through ventilating ducts in the core where it absorbs the heat from the core. To dissipate the higher losses in the core end, the ventilating ring ducts are provided in the core-end portion. These ventilating ducts are provided with the cooling gas directly from the end-winding space. Another part flow is directed from the stator end winding space past the clamping fingers between the pressure plate and core end portion into the air-gap. All the flows mix in the air-gap and cool the rotor body and stator bore surfaces. The gas is then returned to the coolers via the axial-flow fan. An air gap seal fixed onto the stator-winding overhang on exciter-end flows through rotor winding.

PRIMARY WATER COOLING CIRCUIT:


The losses occurring in the generator stator winding, main bushings and phase connectors are dissipated through direct water-cooling. This water, known as primary water is circulated in a closed circuit by means of centrifugal pumps. At the entry to the generator the cooling water flow is divided into two parts. The first part cools the stator winding. This part of the flow enters the generator, the annular manifold on the terminal side and from there to the stator winding bars via insulating flow hoses. Each individual bar is connected to the annular manifold by a separate hose. At the other end, the water passes through similar hoses to another annular manifold and then returns to the primary water tank. This single flow system ensures the elimination of relative movements due to different thermal expansion between the top and bottom bars. The second part cools the phase connectors and the bushings. The bushings and phase connectors consist of thick walled copper tubes through which the water is circulated. The six bushings and the phase connectors arranged in a circle around the stator end winding are hydraulically interconnected so that three parallel flow-paths are obtained. The primary water enters three bushings and exits from the remaining bushings.

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MAIN COMPONENTS OF STATOR WINDING ASSEMBLY DESIGN:


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Stator Winding bar Placing of bars in slot part Bar support system including support ring Terminal Bushings Electrical Connection of bars Components for water-cooling of Stator winding

1.

STATOR WINDING BAR:


Manufacturing of stator Winding bar includes the following:

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F)

Manufacture of transposed bars Overhang Forming Brazing of bar-ends Insulation of bar (MHV Insulation) Corona Protection Testing of bar

GENERAL CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES:


The three-phase stator winding is a fractional pitch two layer consisting of individual bars. Each stator slot accommodates two bars. The slots are uniformly distributed on the circumference of the stator core. The slot bottom bars and top bars are displaced from each other by one winding pitch and connected at their ends to form coil groups. The coil groups are connected together with connecting bus bars inside stator frame. The connecting bus bars are connected to terminal bushings.

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500 MW TG STATOR BAR MANUFACTURING DETAILS


The bar consists of a large number of strands. These may be only solid Cu-conductors or a combination of hollow and solid Cu-conductors as in case of 500 MW TG depending upon the type of Stator Winding Cooling as described earlier. To minimize the stray losses, the individual conductor strands are separately insulated and transposed in the slot portion. The transposition is 540 for 500 MW and 360 for all other generators manufactured so far. The bar consists of four columns side by side in case of 500 MW and two columns for other generators. A vertical separator insulates these columns against each other.

(A) MANUFACTURE OF TRANSPOSED BARS:


1. Cutting & strengthening of strands:
The copper strand i.e. double glass covered rectangular Copper conductor and double glass covered rectangular hollow conductor is straightened and cut to length. It must be ensured that the strand insulation is not damaged. The marked and visually defective portions are to be removed.

2. Removal of strand insulation:


FOR SOFT BRAZED CONNECTION: The insulation at both the ends of strand is removed. FOR HARD BRAZED CONNECTION: The strands for water-cooled winding bars are stripped off insulation at both ends according to dimensions & at 50 to 75 mm for all other type of winding bars. BENDING OF STRANDS: Then bending of strands is done.

TRANSPOSITION OF STRANDS & ASSEMBLING OF BAR HALVES: The strands belonging to a bar half are transposed for number of transpositions and bound together with cotton tape. Both the bars are so assembled and transposed that they form one bar. The cotton tape is then removed. The bar is secured at the untransposed ends in a distance of about 500 mm against filling of strands in one another. CHECKING & IDENTIFICATION OF BARS: The first manufactured bar for a winding is to be checked by the Supervisor Executive. In the course of further manufacture random checks are conducted. 29 | P a g e

It is to be noted that in the course of manufacture, the bars are subjected to numerous electrical tests for quality control, these include, Short test, the Dielectric Dissipation Loss Factor (tan delta measurement) and High Voltage Test at various Stages of manufacture and assembly. Parts of Stator winding bar are: 1. Separators 2. Crossover insulation Separators are further classified as Vertical Separator, Separator in overhang (end-part) and Separator extension at bend.

3. Vertical Separator:
For all types of bars, a vertical separator is inserted between the two halves of the Bar. CROSS-OVER INSULATION: The crossover positions in slot area are provided with crossover insulation i.e. Epoxy Macanese Fleece. The material is cut to bar width. If the strands on the overhang are also transposed than also crossover insulation material 0.25 thick i.e. Polyamide paper Nomex type is to be put. The pieces shall be pushed on one another at respective half spacing. During lifting of the bends, it is ensured that the strand insulation is not damaged. SEPARATOR EXTENSION AT BEND: The separator extension i.e. Nomex glass fleece is inserted in two layers between the bar halves.

TRANSPOSITION OF BARS (540 ELEC.): The bar consists of a large number of separately insulated strands, which are transposed to reduce the skin effect losses. The strands of small rectangular cross-section are provided with braided glass insulation & arranged side by side over the slot width. A vertical separator insulates the individual layers from each other. In the straight slot portion, the strands are transposed by 540. The transposition provides for a mutual neutralization of the voltages induced in the individual strands due to the slot crossfield & end-winding flux leakage and ensures that minimum circulation currents exist. The current flowing through the conductor is thus uniformly distributed over the entire bar-cross-section so that the current dependent losses will be reduced. Thus transposition of bars is done: (1) To reduce Eddy current losses. (2) To equalize the voltage generation

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(3) To minimize the skin effect of A.C. supply so small cross-section of conductor is used & also hollow conductors are used to effect cooling by water.

Side view showing one way of transposing insulated strands in stator bar

CROSSOVER INSULATION: To eliminate inter-turn short at bends during edge-wise bending and leveling of bars in slot portion for proper stack pressing.

PRESSING OF BARS: Firstly the bars are prepared for pressing. The bars with wrapper insulation are coated with Silicon compound (silicon rubber compound and silicon rubber hardener) in about 100 mm length at wrapping ends on all strands towards bar-ends. The treated position is tapped with a tight layer of protecting tape i.e. Cotton tape (supplied in rolls).The bars with micalastic insulation are not treated with silicon rubber application; Technical Separator & technical tapes shall only be removed when the pressing process is stopped. The bars after preparation for pressing, are pressed in temperature controlled heated presses. The bars are wrapped in releasing foil (polyester foil) and so placed in the press that the pressed part of bar lies between the pressing planks/strips. Then the press is closed. Curing is done for minimum 30 minutes. At 160 10C, the temperature rise is to be recorded. Note: During rapid heating, the press is checked many times till the pressure plate are removed & the pressing strips are placed.

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COOLING OF PRESS & REMOVAL OF BARS: The press is then cooled down to 50C and then opened. The bars are removed & released of releasing foil. The edges of the bar are smoothened by sand paper. Pressing of stack bar is done to achieve proper size of bar & consolidation of stack so that it becomes a monolithic.

ELECTRICAL TESTING: In case of water-cooled transposed bars, the electrical testing is done after pressing. To ensure that the copper conductors are firmly bonded together & to give dimensional stability in the slot portion, the bars are cured in an electrically heated press.

(B) OVERHANG - FORMING:


Prior to applying the bar insulation, the barends are bent with a special device which shapes the involutes over a cone shell. This involutes shape ensures uniform spacing of the bars over the entire length of overhang after assembly.

(C) BRAZING OF BAR ENDS:


Before applying the insulation on bar stack and curing, contact sleeves for electrical connection of the bars and water boxes for the cooling water connections are brazed to the bar ends. After manufacturing of the bars, the bars are subjected to numerous electrical and leakage tests for quality control.

(D) INSULATION OF BARS:


The stator winding bars are insulated with Micalastic (trade name) insulation. High quality mica, selected epoxy resins and a matching vacuum impregnation process are the characteristic features of the micalastic insulation for large turbo generators. A consistent development has led to a high quality insulation system, the reliability of which is ensured by continuous quality control. The stator winding of the worlds largest single-shaft generators with an output rating of 1640 MVA and a rated voltage of 27 KV were provided with micalastic insulation. The surface of the bar must be clean and grease-free and to be cleaned by a solvent.

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TAPING OF BARS/MICALASTIC INSULATION TAPING:


The bars are first tapped. In the slot part there are a total no. of 17 layers and in overhang part i.e. front-end there are a total no. of 13 layers. Main insulation comprises of fine mica fleece tape (0.15 x 40) & Mica Splitting Tape (0.18 x 40). The taping is done layer by layer in the same direction with a uniform tape tension (i.e. proper force as possible). Firstly both the base tape layers of fine mica fleece tape are to be tapped 45 to 49% overlapped over the total taping length. For machine taping every layer should be tapped 45 to 49% overlapped. The overlapping position of individual layer is to be adjusted against each other. It must be ensured in the bends that the taping is done 45 to 49% overlap at the outer ends. During machine taping in the slot portion the transition from machine to hand taping is adjusted at the start of the bend for a tape width for every layer from bar-center. After about half the number of layers, the taping is to be started further at the bend. If necessary the taping must be reinforced with a layer of polyester fleece tape after every 5th to 8th layers of main taping at the bends of bar. On the main taping two layers of fine mica fleece tape are applied 45 to 49% overlapped over the entire insulation length of the bar. The bar is tapped slightly overlapped with a separating foil. Every roll of separating foil on its periphery is drilled through the core with 8 holes of approximately 5 mm diameter at the tape center. In the slot part 1st and 2nd tape layers of fine mica fleece tape are taped continuously from one end to other end. Next 13 layers are of mica splitting tape. Last two layers i.e. 16th and 17th are of fine mica fleece tape. Whereas on the overhang part, reduced insulation thickness on the overhang is to be considered. Two layers of basic taping and surface taping respectively should reach up to the end of insulation. First the continuous layers are taped, and then the reduced layers and thereafter-minimum continuous layers are applied. In the overhang part, layers 1 and 2 are of fine mica fleece tape, layers 3-11 are of mica splitting tape and remaining two layers i.e. 12-13 are of fine mica fleece tape.

METHOD OF INSULATION & IMPREGNATION:


For insulation with micalastic, the conductor strands (with internal gas cooling, the ventilation ducts as well) are arranged together to form a compact assembly and set to the required shape. This assembly is then baked with epoxy resin to give it the mechanical strength required for further processing. Following this, several layers of mica tape are applied continuously and half-overlapped to the end-turn and slot portions of the bar. The mica tape consists of a thin high strength baking material to which the mica is bonded by synthetic resin. The number of layers i.e. the thickness of insulation is determined by the voltage of the machine. The taped bars are then dried under vacuum and impregnated with synthetic resin, which by reason of its low viscosity penetrates the 33 | P a g e

insulation thoroughly and eliminates all voids. After impregnation under vacuum, the bars are subjected to pressure, with nitrogen being used as Pressurizing Medium (VPI process). The impregnated bars with direct conductor cooling are then brought to the required dimensions in moulds and cured in an oven at a high temperature. With indirectly cooled windings, up to 20 stator bars are placed in moulds with by insulation and curing. PROPERTIES OF MICALASTIC: Class-F, highly reliable micalastic insulation has the following advantages: Micalastic is an extremely dependable winding insulation system developed for high voltage Turbo-generators. The insulation is applied end to end on the stator bars providing effective protection against over voltages arising during normal and against the high stresses that may occur at the slot ends when HIGH TEST VOLTAGES are applied. Micalastic has a long electrical life. Micalastic is a good conductor of heat by reason of the high mica content and voidfree synthetic resin. Efficient heat transfer is particularly important in machines having thick insulation and having indirect cooling.
Micalastic owes insensitivity to high temperatures. Micalastic does not burn. The flammability is so low that it does not continue to burn after the arc is extinguished & therefore CO2 fire extinguisher systems are not necessary. Micalastic has elasticity and accommodates thermo mechanical stresses. Micalastic provides high resistance to moisture and chemical action. Corrosive gases, vapors, lubricating oil and weak acids, to which the winding may be subjected during operation, do not attack the insulation. Micalastic retains outstanding properties even after years of operation.

DRYING, IMPREGNATION & CURING OF WINDING WITH INSULATION FOR MICALASTIC SYSTEM:
DRYING: The stator winding is to be dried under vacuum 0.1 m bar at (60 5)C for 15 hours, minimum. The drying temperature is to be increased to (65 2)C if the initial viscosity of the impregnating resin mixture is high & for generators with a rated voltage > 16.5 KV. The temperature of the overhang must not be more than 80 C. The temperature distribution should be as uniform as possible. The drying under vacuum can be stopped if the pressure rises, 10 minutes after closing of 34 | P a g e

vacuum valve is less than 0.06 m bar. IMPREGNATION: The impregnating resin mixture is to be heated in the working tank, to (60 3)C or in case of higher initial viscosity and also for generators with a rated voltage > 16.5 KV, it is to be heated to (65 2) C. At a temperature of 50C, the impregnating resin mixture is to be degassed with 15 m bar vacuum. Subsequently the stator windings (core) are to be dipped continuously in resin hardener mix such that the highest locations of the winding are at least 100 mm below the resin level. After 10 minutes of resin stabilization, pressure is increased by application of nitrogen. Pressure is to be raised gradually in uniform stages within 80 minutes to 4 bars and to be maintained for 120 minutes in the impregnation tank. The impregnation of the stator winding is to be monitored continuously. Further it is to be decided whether to increase the pressure or to stop the impregnation process, however the total period of nitrogen pressure cycle shall in any case not exceed 4 hours. The impregnation tank during shut down is to be closed and kept either filled with nitrogen (1.1 bar) or low vacuum.

Impregnation tank

CURING: To prevent heating in the overhang portion, the curing of the impregnated stator winding is to be done with a maximum 160C hot air. The curing period is extended for such a long time till the measurement positions in the 35 | P a g e

core (slot resistance thermometer or adjacent thermocouple) indicate (140 5)C for minimum 8 hours. During curing, the course of temperature is to be monitored with the help of RTDs placed in overhang and stator slot RTDs.

(E) CORONA PROTECTION:


Typical buildup of corona protection: 1. 2. 3. INNER CORONA PROTECTION OUTER CORONA PROTECTION END CORONA PROTECTION

Including Transition coating, High Voltage Insulation, Stator bar (slot end), Stator bar (end winding) and glass tape epoxy protective layer. To prevent potential differences and possible corona discharges between the insulation and the slot wall, the slot sections of the bar are provided with an outer corona protection. This protection consists of a wearresistant, highly flexible coating of conductive alkyd varnish containing graphite. At the transition from the slot to the end-winding portion of the stator bars, a semiconductive coating is applied. On top of this, several layers of semi-conductive and corona protection coating are applied in varying length. This ensures uniform control of the electric field and prevents the formation of corona discharge during operation and during the performance of high voltage tests. A final wrapping of glass fabric tapes impregnated with epoxy resin serves as surface protection. 1. INNER CORONA PROTECTION: One layer of fine mica fleece tape is tightly taped approximately 45 to 49% overlapped. Over the whole length of packing strip, a single length copper strip is laid, soldered on the tinned strand with a soldered iron. A layer of conducting fleece tape overlapped is to be taped on the bar as inner corona protection or inner potential control. Note: It is to be noted that no copper strips or residues of solder must be left between the strands.

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2. OUTER CORONA PROTECTION: It includes:


(I) APPLICATION OF CONDUCTIVE COATING ON BARS (II) PROTECTIVE SLEEVE (FOR WINDING BARS)

(I) APPLICATION OF CONDUCTIVE COATING (WINDING BARS):

The surfaces of the bars must be roughened that these do not show any shining spot. These must be flat, smooth and without any raised portion. The thickness of conductive coating is neglected while calculating slot build-up. Conductive varnish is first coated in the reduced length. Brush can also be used for re-application of small area. The used varnish roller and brush must be clean, solvent-free and dry before dipping into varnish. The varnish is applied uniformly thick with a roller. For bars with MI length = 2 x 30 mm (insulation is continuous in slot and overhang) For bars with wrapper insulation length is reduced so that 1-minute HV test at 1.5 test voltage with the remaining wrapping ends can be performed. Drying time before electrical testing is minimum of 4 hours. The surface resistance of the coating is tested. The length of conducting coating is checked by quality control. The conducting coating is applied further before carrying end corona protection.
(II) PROTECTIVE SLEEVE (FOR WINDING BARS):

Protective sleeves are to be made from conductive polyester fleece material. Length of wrapper (cutting): Core length-20 mm Width of wrapper (cutting): Bar periphery-10 to 20 mm The protective sleeves (wrapper) for the upper layer bar in the region of core compartment are cut in trapezoidal form according to the dimensions of the bar so that these do not lie loose. All the bars are to be checked visually for mechanical damages and painted in the slot region with a conductive varnish. Each time on fresh coats, the protective sleeve (wrapper) is so glued over the bar (made trapezoidal) that the rough fleece side at the bar and overlapping laid on the narrow side of the bar. 3. END CORONA PROTECTION:
The end corona protection is divided in the following application stages:
STAGES VOLTAGE LEVEL

Up to 6.6 KV, no end corona protection Stage-I Stage-II Over 6.6 KV up to 16.5 KV Over 16.5 KV up to 22 KV

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Stage-III

Over 22 KV up to 33 KV

In case of 500 MW TG, Voltage is 21 KV, so we are concerned with stage-II only. Surface treatment: For wrapper insulation, the ends of slot insulation outside outer surface corona application are to be cleaned and smoothened with sand paper. For micalastic insulation, the upper surface of insulation is cleaned for the end of outer corona coating up to 20 mm over ends of specified end corona protection and smoothened with sand paper. A template and colored writing pencil (e.g. brush pen) without electrically conducting media are used for marking of end corona protection. Carbon or greased pencils must not be used for this purpose. Stage II for micalastic COATINGS 1st 2nd 3rd DRYING TIME 4 hrs. 4 hrs. 10 hrs.

1. On straight part of bar: If the first and second coatings are not accommodated on the straight part, the outer surface corona protection is to be extended over the bends and the end corona protection is to be finished on the front sides (overhang).

2. On Overhangs: The conducting varnish is applied overlapping whole of transition coating and in different lengths for the various stages of rated voltage. The conducting varnish is usually so applied that no deposits are formed.

(F) TESTING OF BAR:


The tests are for checking the healthiness of bar.

1.

TESTS AFTER STACK PRESSING:

(I) Inter-Turn Short Test / Inter Strand Short Test i.e. with 300 V: This test is applicable after manufacturing of the bar but before insulation. PURPOSE: This test is to check the self-insulation of strands and to ensure that there is no inter-turn short after forming of bars. 38 | P a g e

Different tapes before test

(II)H.V.Test: HV test is conducted at 1.5 up i.e. test voltage. SCOPE: The HV test is conducted after manufacturing of the stator winding bars. PURPOSE: To exercise QC(Quality Control). TEST EQUIPMENTS: ---- Varian transformer (Variable Voltage Control) ---- Instrument transformer ---- Voltmeter ---- Supply source: Sinusoidal ac voltage, 50 Hz TEST PROCEDURE: While conducting the tests general safety precautions shall be observed. Voltage shall be raised continuously from 0 to the rated test voltage, held at this value for 1 minute and then reduced to the initial value.

2. TESTS ON STATOR WINDING BARS:


To obtain a good (conductive) connection of all insulation surfaces for the entire OCP length is covered with an applied conductive strip e.g. Al foil having a width of atleast 1/3 of the bar height in such a manner so that any OCP length is not more than 200 mm from this test electrode which is directly connected with the grounded test unit. The bars are wrapped tightly with temporary ECP after finish of outer corona paint by way of semi-conducting polyester tape half-overlapped. The bar is then joined at one-end to the HV connection of the test unit. Tests on stator winding bar are given below: (I)Tangent Delta Test: Tan delta test (0.2 Un-1.4 Un) at each 0.2 Un (limit value) i.e. at 0.2 Un (rated Voltage)

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SCOPE: This test covers the details of dissipation factor measurement on the stator winding bar of TG prior to lying. PURPOSE: This test is aimed at determining the insulation condition & for quality control of generator bars. TEST REQUIREMENTS: Stator winding bars are to be insulated, cured & provided with an outer corona protection. TEST EQUIPMENTS: ---- HV transformer with continuously variable voltage control element. ---- Sinusoidal alternating test voltages (50/60 Hz) ---- Voltage Transformer ---- High Voltage loss factor measuring bridge, measuring accuracy 10 4 ---- Compensation Condenser approximately 100 pf TEST PROCEDURE: For dissipation factor measurement, the bar is prepared as follows: All conductor strands and cooling pipes are to be connected to each other at both ends. The bar is provided on its outer corona coating with a conductive strip of Cu or Al foil, having a width of atleast 1/3 of the bar height. There should be a good contact of all insulation surface area with outer corona protection. Protecting ring electrode is to be put on both the OCP ends at a distance of approximately 1mm up to the maximum half insulation thickness. There should be no contact between outer corona protection and protecting ring. Semi-conducting polyester tape is applied with half-overlap for a length of 100 mm, starting from the protecting ring electrodes. The bar is connected to Cox. The protection rings are earthed.

Use of tapes in tan delta test

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PLACING OF BARS IN SLOT PART:


* The stator windings i.e. the manufactured bars are placed in rectangular slots, which are uniformly distributed around the circumference of the stator core.

* A cemented graphitized paper wrapper protects the bars over the slot portion of the bar. The bars fit tightly in the slots. * Side-gaps are filled with side ripple springs, which ensure tight fitting of bars in the slot. Radial positioning of the bar is done with slot wedges. A top ripple spring of high strength fiberglass fabric is placed between the filler and slide strip below the slot wedges. Ripple spring presses the bar against the slot bottom with a specific pre-loading. An equalizing strip is inserted at the slot bottom to compensate any unevenness in the bar shape and the slot bottom surface during bar insertion. The strip is cured after insertion of the bars. These measures prevent vibrations. The specified pre-loading is checked at each slot-wedge. Supporting arrangement of bars in overhang with the windings placed in the slots, the bar ends form a cone-shaped end winding. A small cone taper is used to keep the stray losses at a minimum. (Any gaps in the end winding due to the design or manufacturing are filled with curable plastic fillers, ensuring solid support of the cone-shaped top and bottom layers). The two bar layers are braced with the clamping bolts of high strength fiberglass fabric against a rigid tapered supporting ring of insulation material. Tight seating is ensured by plastic fillers on both sides of the bars, which are cured on completion of winding assembly.

Each end winding thus forms a compact, self supporting arch of high rigidity which prevents bar vibrations during operation and can withstand short-circuit forces. In addition, the end-turn covering provides good protection against external damage.The supporting rings rest on supporting brackets which are capable of moving in the axial direction. This allows for a differential movement between the end windings and the core as a result of different thermal expansions.

BAR SUPPORT SYSTEM INCLUDING SUPPORT RING:


To protect the stator winding against the effects of magnetic forces due to load and to ensure permanent firm seating of the bars in the slots during operation, the bars are inserted with a top ripple spring located beneath the slot wedge. The gaps between the bars in the stator end winding are completely filled with insulating material which in turn is fully supported by the frame. The stator end windings rest on the supporting rings in case of 500 MW TG. The support rings rests on the support brackets.These are capable of moving in the axial direction within the stator frame so that there is a differential movement between the end windings and the core as a result of thermal expansions. Hot curing conforming fillers arranged below the stator bars and the support ring ensures a 41 | P a g e

firm support of each individual bar against the support ring. The bars are clamped to the support ring with pressure plates held by clamping bolts, made from a high strength insulating material. The stator winding connections are brought out to six bushings located in a compartment of welded non-magnetic steel below the generator at the exciter end. Current transformers for metering and relaying purposes can be mounted on the bushings.

TERMINAL BUSHINGS:
Arrangement of terminal bushings: The terminal bushings are water/hydrogen/air cooled depending upon the type of stator winding cooling. The beginnings and ends of the three phase windings are brought out from the stator frame through terminal bushings which provide for HV insulation and seal against hydrogen leakage. The bushings are bolted to the bottom plate of the generator terminal box by the mounting flanges. The generator terminal box located beneath the stator frame at the exciter end is made from non-magnetic steel to avoid eddy current losses and resulting temperature rises. Bushing type generator for relaying and metering purposes are mounted on the bushings outside the generator terminal box. The bus is further connected to the airside connection flange via terminal connectors. Phase-connector and terminal bushings are connected with flexible terminal connections. The cylindrical bushing conductor consists of high conducting copper with a central bore for direct primary water cooling. Construction of bushings: The shrunk on mounting sleeve consists of a gas-tight casting of non-magnetic steel with a mounting flange and a sleeve type extension extruding over entire height of the current transformers. The cylindrical connection ends of the terminal bushing conductors are silver-plated. Connection to the beginning, end, each phase inside the terminal box and to the external bus is by means of flexible connectors. To maintain a uniform and constant contact pressure Belleville washers or tension disc or Belleville locking are used for all bolted connections. Covers with brazed sockets for connection to the water supply are flanged to the ends of the terminal bushing conductors.

ELECTRICAL CONNECTION OF BARS:


The electrical connection between the top and bottom bars is by bolted contact sleeves. At their ends, the strands are brazed into a connecting sleeve, the strand rows being separated from each other by spacers. Non-magnetic clamping bolts press the contact 42 | P a g e

surfaces of the connecting sleeves for the top and bottom bars against each other. Special care is taken to obtain flat and parallel contact surfaces. In order to prevent any reduction in contact pressure or any plastic deformations due to excessive contact pressure, Belleville washers are arranged on the clamping bolts, which ensure a uniform and constant contact pressure. Water supply: The water connection at the stator bar is separate from the electrical connection. As a result no electrical forces can act on the water connection. While the solid strands of the stator bars terminate at the connecting sleeve, the hollow strands are brazed into water boxes, with solid spacers inserted to compensate for the solid strands. Each water box consists of the two parts i.e. the sleeve shaped lower part enclosing the hollow strands and the cover-type upper part. Spacers separate the strand rows from each other. Each water-box is provided with a pipe connection of non-magnetic stainless steel for connection of the hose. The exciter-end water boxes serve for water admission and distribute the cooling water uniformly to the hollow strands of the bar. The hot water is collected on leaving the hollow strands in turbine-end water boxes. The cooling water is then discharged from the generator via the hoses & the ring header. During manufacturing of the stator bars, various checks are performed to ensure water tightness and unobstructed water passages. The flow check ensures that no reduction in the cross-sectional area of the strand ducts has occurred, and that all strands are passed by identical water flows. After brazing of the upper part of water box, all brazed joints are subjected to a Helium Leakage Test followed by a Thermal Shock treatment. The air clearance between the water boxes and bar connections and the clearance relative to the end shield, which is at ground potential, is so kept that additional insulation is not required. Phase Connectors (Connecting Bus bars): The phase connector interconnects the coil groups and links the beginning and ends of the winding to the bushings. They consist of thick walled copper tubes. The stator bar ends coupled to the phase connectors are provided with connecting fittings which are joined to the cylindrical contact surface with Belleville washers on the bolts to maintain a uniform and constant contact pressure. The phase connectors are provided with a MI. In addition a grounded outer corona protection consisting of a semi conducting coating is applied over the entire length. At 43 | P a g e

the beginnings and ends of the phase connectors several layers of semi-conducting and corona protection is applied in varying lengths. The phase connectors are mounted on end winding supporting ring over supporting brackets. Neighboring phase connectors are separated with spacer and tied securely in position. This ensures a high shortcircuit strength and differential movements between phase connectors and end windings are thus precluded.

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COMPARISON BETWEEN 500 MW AND 660 MW TG:


660 MW
# GEN. TYPE # RATING THDF 115 / 67 660 MW / 776 MVA (0.85 P.F.) 21 KV 21.33 KAMPS. 5 BAR (g) 445 V 5587 A 0.52 98.72 %

500 MW
THDF 115 / 59 500 MW / 588MVA (0.85P.F.) 21 KV 16.16 KAMPS. 3.5 BAR (g) 340 V 4040 A 0.48 98.64 %

# TERMINAL VOLTAGE # RATED CURRENT # HYDROGEN PRESSURE # EXCITATION

# SHORT CIRCUIT RATIO # GEN. EFFICIENCY

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CONCLUSION
Under the kind guidance of the helpful staff of BHEL, Haridwar, I have successfully completed the training. This practical training has proved to be very useful. It provided opportunity to encounter with such huge machine like Turbo generators. Training was started on 7th June, 2012 and ended on 6th July, 2012.

The whole training was good learning experience. Not only the knowledge of huge machine was gained but I also got the feel of Pr ofessional World.

The way of working in discipline, makes the trainee realize that engineering is not just studying the structured description but greater is of planning and proper management.

Working in the BHEL for a period of a month and keenly observing all the preleadings in the company has enabled me to understand a lot about Electrical Machines and Professional World.

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