Phrenology

(Taken from Kalat, 2007, p. 83)

Nervous System
• Central nervous system (CNS)
– Brain and Spinal Cord

• Peripheral
– (blue in figure) – Cranial nerves, spinal nerves, peripheral receptor organs

• Autonomic
– (red in figure) – Control of visceral funcion
• Sympathetic • Parasympathetic

CNS
• Two Cerebral hemispheres • The brain stem
– Diencephalon – Mesencephalon (midbrain) – Pons – Medulla Oblongata

• Cerebellum

• Brain is protected by:
– Skull – Meninges – Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Meninges
• Three layers
– Dura mater – Arachnoid – Pia mater

Diagrammatic representation of a section across the top of the skull, showing the membranes of the brain, etc. (Greys769 Taken
from on-line Gray’s Anatomy; Modified from Testut.)

Dura Mater (“hard mother”)
• Continuous with the dura mater that covers the spinal cord • Tough, fibrous connective tissue • Two layer
– Superficial (outer) periosteal layer adheres to the skull – Deep (inner) meningeal layer is in contact with the arachnoid mater

• Meningeal veins course through the dura • Dura punctured by Bridging veins drain underlying neural tissue into sinuses • Dural veinous sinuses form between layers
– Drain blood and CSF and empty into jugular vein

• Three major reflections
– Between the cerebral hemispheres
• Falx cerebri

– Between the cerebellum and the occipital lobe
• Tentorium cerebelli

– Underneath the cerebral hemispheres
• Falx cerebelli

Arachnoid Mater
• Spider-web like nonvascular membrane • In contact with the dura mater above it, and the CSF-filled subarachnoid cavity is below it. (subarachnoid cavity is filled with delicate arachnoid fibers extending down to the pia mater)

• Arachnoid granulations
– protuberances (villi) through the meningeal layer of the dura – Locations of transfer of subarachnoid CSF to veneous system

Pia Mater
• Thin translucent layer • Adheres to the brain surface • Location of the brain blood vessels • Together with the arachnoid are called the pia-arachnoid membrane

• Epidural space (skull and dura mater)
– Rupture of middle menigeal artery, or accumulation of arterial blood in the epidural space, is life-threatening

• Subdural space (dura mater and arachnoid)
– Rupture of bridging veins, leading to subdural hemorrhage, or accumulation of blood in space requires surgical intervention

• Subarachnoid space (arachnoid and pia mater)
– Contains CSF and cerebral blood vessels – Rupture of these vessels leads to subarachnoid hemorrhage
• Condition may be due to
– Trauma – Congenital abnormalities (aneurysms) – High Blood Pressure

Cerebral Dural Venous Sinuses
• • • Endothelial-lined channels, devoid of valves located between the periosteal and meningeal layers of the dura mater Low-pressure return channels for venous blood back to circulatory system

Superior Saggital Sinus Confluence of Sinuses (torcular Herophili) Inferior Saggital Sinus Straight Sinus Vein of Galen Internal Cerebral vein

Cerebral Dural Venous Sinuses

Inferior Petrosal Sinus

Superior Petrosal Sinus Transverse Sinus Sigmoid Sinus Occipital Sinus Marginal sinus

Confluence of Sinuses

Jugular vein

Veinous plexuses

Lateral Surface
• Principle landmarks
– Sylvian fissure – Central sulcus demarcate three of the four lobes – Parieto-occipital sulcus -> preoccipital notch demarcates parietal and temporal lobe divisions from occipital lobe

Frontal Lobe

Parietal Lobe

Insula lies within the Sylvian Fissure
Occipital Lobe

Temporal Lobe

Frontal Lobe
• Primary Motor Area
– Relatively low levels of stimulation of precentral gyrus produce movement – Lesions in this region produce contralateral paralysis.
• Most marked for muscles involved in fine motor movement
Motor Homonculus

Frontal Lobe
• Premotor Motor Area
– Rostal of Precentral Sulcus – Important in initiating motor plans and changing motor plans

Frontal Lobe
• Brodmann’s Area or Frontal Eye Fields
– Between superior and inferior frontal gyri – Important for eye movements

Frontal Lobe
• Broca’s Area
– Bordered by the inferior frontal sulcus and anterior horizontal Ramus – In the left hemisphere is responsible for speech – Lesions in this area result in aphasia

Parietal Lobe
• Primary sensory area
– Delineated by the central and postcentral sulci – Stimulation produces tingling and numbness – Similar contralateral representation as primary motor area.

Temporal Lobe

Wernicke’s area olor Gyri of fc Heschl ption o rm ce Per and fo

Occipital Lobe

Vision

Medial Surface
• Corpus Collosum – Fibers which connect the cerebral hemispheres – Divided into:
• • • • Rostrum (Head) Body Knee Splenium S

B

G R

– Lesion disconnects the hemispheres

• Anterior Commissure
– Fiber bundle – Connects:
• temporal lobes
– olfactory structures in each hemisphere – In humans, anterior limb = olfactory posterior limb: visual and auditory areas

• Surgery to cut the corpus collosum produces Split-brain patients • Can perform familiar tasks bi-manually, but novel tasks are harder to coordinate • Hands often work in opposition to one another.

Patient saw the word “sky” in the LVF and “scraper” in the RVF.
– With his right hand he drew what he could see in his RVF (LH) – With his left hand:
• Left hemisphere (LH) controlled it enough to draw a sky • His RH controlled it enough to draw a scraper. • Neither could combine the words to detect the emergent concept.

Similarly, “hot” in the LVF and “dog” in the RVF produced a picture of an overheating dog, not a weiner in a bun.

Recovery
• Corpus collosum does not heal. • Many alternative interhemispheric connections are present. • Left hemisphere learns to control the right, but subtle effects can still be observed. • Patients also learn strategies

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