Chapters 15 16 Single | Cerebellum | Organ (Anatomy)

Cerebellum

Little brain Midline vermis Paravermis 2 hemispheres

Cerebellum
Tonsils
Part of the posterior lobe

Cerebellar Peduncles
3 pairs of peduncles
Superior
Midbrain

Middle
Pons

Inferior
Medulla

Cerebellum - Structure
Gray matter White matter Tree of life
Folia or leaves
Gyri

Deep Cerebellar Nuclei
Dentate Emboliform Globose Fastigial ‘Don’t Eat Greasy Food’

Cerebellar Lobes
2 fissures: anterior & posterolateral 3 lobes: anterior, posterior, flocculonodular

Cerebellar Lobes
2 fissures
Anterior Posterolateral

3 lobes
Anterior Posterior Flocculonodular

Longitudinal Divisions
Vermis
Fastigial nucleus

Paravermis
Emboliform Globose

Hemisphere
Dentate

Functional Divisions
Vestibulocerebellum
Flocculonodular lobe
Vestibular and reticular nuclei Body equilibrium and eye movements

Spinocerebellum
Anterior lobe
Spinal cord Axial and limb movements: walking, swimming

Cerebrocerebellum
Posterior lobe
Cerebral cortex Planning and initiation of movements Regulate discrete limb movements

Somatotopic Map
Anterior lobe
Body inverted

Posterior lobe
Right-side up Dual representation across midline Trunk @ midline Extremities – lateral

Microscopic Structure
Cerebellar Cortex
3 layers
Outer molecular
Basket cells Stellate cells

Middle Purkinje cell layer
Purkinje cells Projection neurons.

Innermost granule cell layer
Granule cells Golgi cells

Cerebellar Cortex Neuronal Types

Purkinje cell
Large dendritic tree 1 axon
Deep cerebellar nuclei Lateral vestibular nucleus

Cerebellar Cortex Neuronal Types

Basket cell – next to Purkinje cells.
Synapses: dendrites, soma, axons of Purkinje

Stellate
Synapses: dendrites of Purkinje

Cerebellar Cortex Neuronal Types

Granule cell
Axons ascend to molecular layer
Bifurcate [T] Form parallel fiber system Contacts dendrites of
Purkinje, Golgi, Stellate and Basket cells

Cerebellar Cortex Neuronal Types

Golgi (Type II) Cell
Axon forms part of the glomerulus
Axonal arborization

Cerebellar Glomerulus
Mossy Fiber
Incoming cerebellar input

Dendrites of granule cells Axons of Golgi cells Dendrites of Golgi cells

Cerebellar Input
3 major inputs
Spinal cord Vestibular system Cortex

Over half the neurons in the brain are in the cerebellum
So they’re also smaller than cortical neurons

Spinal Input
Spinocerebellar tract
Dorsal and ventral

Position & condition of muscles, tendons, and joints

Vestibular Input
Vestibular nerve Vestibular nuclei Body equilibrium

Cortical Input
Cortex to
Pons Inferior Olive

Then to Cerebellum Planning & initiation of movement

Climbing Fiber System
Olivocerebellar tract Synapse on dendrites of Purkinje cells and intrinsic cells (Golgi, basket, stellate) Climbs dendrites of 1 Purkinje cell Powerful excitatory effect on *one* Purkinje cell Less powerful on intrinsic neurons

Mossy Fiber System
Branch out into terminal ‘rosettes’
Center of each glomerulus Contacts 20 different granule cells Diffuse and complex

Climbing vs Mossy Input

Climbing vs Mossy Fiber Input

Intrinsic Cerebellar Circuitry
Output: deep cerebellar nuclei Combination of
Excitatory mossy & climbing fiber input
Collateral projections

Inhibitory input from Purkinje cells

Deep Cerebellar Nuclei Output
Major output
Vestibular & reticular nuclei
Nucleus fastigius

Red nucleus & inferior olive
Interposed nuclei

Thalamus
Dentate Interposed nuclei

Hypothalamus
all

Dentate Nucleus
Inputs
Lateral cerebellar Purkinje cells Climbing fibers Mossy fibers

Outputs
Ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus

Interposed Nuclei
Emboliform & Globose Inputs
Paravermal Purkinje cells Climbing fibers Mossy Fibers

Outputs
Red nucleus Ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus Inferior olive

Fastigial Nucleus
Inputs
Vermal Purkinje cells Climbing fibers Mossy fibers

Outputs
Vestibular nuclei Reticular nuclei

Output by Peduncle
Superior
Thalamus Red nucleus Inferior Olive

Inferior
Vestibular nuclei Reticular nuclei

Cerebellar Functions
Motor functions
Control and integration of motor activity Motor learning & memory Signs
Asthenia – gets tired easily Ataxia – trouble walking Atonia – poor muscle tone/coordination Problems in speed, range, force, or timing of movement

Motor signs (cont).
Asynergia – lack of coordination Dysarthria – slow, slurred speech Adiadochokinesis – delay in initiating each movement of a sequence Dysmetria – delay in termination of movement
Hypermetria – overshooting target Hypometria – undershooting target

Gait ataxia - staggering gait Unsteady standing Nystagmus

Cerebellar vs Basal Ganglia Motor Functions

Cerebellar Non-motor Functions
Visceral
Cardiovascular, endocrine, altered respiration, intestinal motility, bladder tone

Affective
Reduced aggressiveness, mood changes

Through connections to reticular formation

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