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:Andrographis paniculata Nees

: Acanthaceae
Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae), the Kalmegh of Ayurveda is an
erect annual herb extremely bitter in taste. The plant is also known „Mahatiktaka‟,
literally „king of bitters‟. It is also known as „Bhunimba‟, since the plant, though
much smaller in size, shows similar appearance and has bitter taste as that of Neem
(Azadirachta indica). It is one of the most important medicinal plant species on
which considerable amount of research has been conducted and its pharmaceutical
potential has been well established.
The global flu epidemic of 1918 was one of the most devastating infectious
outbreaks in world history - more virulent even than the Black Death in the 14th
century - killing 50 million people worldwide. No country escaped its onslaught
but in India, an amazing herb, Andrographis paniculata, was credited with stopping
the spread of the deadly virus.
Andrographis paniculata was used in traditional Asian medicine to treat fever,
laryngitis, pneumonia, respiratory infections, tonsillitis, diarrhea, ulcers, herpes,
tuberculosis and a long list of other medical conditions. Scientific studies show that
Andrographis paniculata contains pain killers, fever reducers and components that
prevent and break up blood clots as well as reduce blood sugar levels. So, its
historical use can be supported by scientific fact.
Although scientists in the West have recently been uncovering the
remarkable medicinal properties of andrographis, it has in fact been used in
Ayurvedic medicine for hundreds of years.
Scientists today, however, are focusing on the herb's application in treating the
'killer' diseases that blight modern life, such as heart disease, cancer and even
Various researches have confirmed that Andrographis, properly administered,
has a surprisingly broad range of pharmacological effects.
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·||-|··|· »·|-|·| , |-|··|||·|-·|
,-||·| -·| ||-||-|)
It is a small herb and it is as bitter as „Nimba‟.

+-|, )
+-| ||·|| +-|

– Acanthaceae

|·|·( )
·|-|-||· |-|·|· ·|÷ ·|||· |·|
·||| .|+|·| |-|·| · r ·||+·|||· |·|
+·|· | |-|·| · ~|·||·| |·|

Arab Quasabhuva
Bengali Kalmegh
English Kirayat, Creat
Gujarati Kiryatu, Leelun- Kirayalum

Hara-Chiretta, Kalmegh, Kirayat, Kalpnath
Kannada Nelaberu
Malayalam Kiriyathu, Nelavepu
Marathi Olen-kiraita
Oriya Bhuimiba
Persian Naine - havandi
Sanskrit Kalamegha, Bhunimba, Mahatiktaka
Tamil Nila-vembu
Telugu Nela-vembu

·|·||·| -||·|||-|·( ):
1. ··||-|··|· +|-|··|·| |-|··||·| ·||·||-|··|+
+|·||| |-|··|·|·||·|· ·||·|·|·||·|·||+·
Upanimba, kunimba, nissara & bhuminimbaka are the synonymns of Kalamegha.
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2. ·||||-+ Its fruit looks like yava and has tikta rasa.

3. ·|r |||-+ King of bitters.

4. ·|·|-|+· Capable of curing fever

The family Acanthaceae (or Acanthus family) is a taxon of dicotyledonous
flowering plants containing almost 250 genera and about 2500 species. Most are
tropical herbs, shrubs, or twining vines; some are spiny. The representatives of the
family can be found in nearly every habitat. Andrographis paniculata and A. alata
out of nineteen species available in India are medicinal.


Simple, opposite, decussate leaves with entire (or sometimes toothed or
lobed) margins
Flowers Perfect, zygomorphic to nearly actinomorphic.
Inflorescence Spike, raceme, or cyme.

Typically there is a colorful bract subtending each flower; in some
species the bract is large and showy.
Calyx Usually 4-5 lobed
Corolla Tubular, 2-lipped or 5-lobed.
Stamens Either 2 or 4 arranged in pairs and inserted on the corolla.
Ovary Superior, 2-carpellate, with axile placentation.
Fruit Two-celled capsule, dehiscing somewhat explosively.
Seeds Attached to a small, hooked stalk (a modified funiculus called a
jaculator) that
ejects them from the capsule. Seeds are non-endospermous with
large embryos.

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It is an annual herb, erect, 50cm to 1m in height.

It can be found in a variety of habitats i.e. Plains, hill slopes, waste lands, farms,
dry or wet lands, sea shore and even road sides.

The herb is available in Java, Malaysia, Indonesia, West Indies, Hongkong,
Penang, Thailand, Celebs, Brunei, Jamaica, Bahamas, Srilanka etc.

It is widely distributed throughout plains of India from Uttar Pradesh to Assam,
Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. It is cultivated in gardens from Lucknow
to Assam, especially in Bengal.

Kingdom Plantae
Division Angiosperms
Class Dicotyledonae
Subclass Gamopetalae
Series Bicarpellatae

Tribe Justicieae
Family Acanthaceae
Genus Andrographis
Species Paniculata
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The climatic requirement of the plant is hot and humid conditions with ample
sunshine. With the onset of monsoon plant grows luxuriantly and starts flowering
with the moderation in temperature during September. Flowering and fruiting
continues up to December until temperature drops drastically in Northern Plains. In
Southern regions corresponding climatic situations prevail from middle of October
to February end or March first week.

It can be cultivated on wide range of soils from loam to lateritic soils with
moderate fertility. It can be cultivated on shady wastelands also.

Its propagation is through shattered seeds in nature. Vegetative propagation is
also possible in certain special cases through layering as each node is capable of
producing enough roots. Seeds are small (test wt.1.2-1.5 g) and remain dormant for
five to six months. Liberal use of organic manure in nursery is advised for raising
healthy seedlings. Seeds should be covered by very thin layer of soil and compost
mixture. Beds should be covered properly by mulch and irrigated regularly with
water fountain till seedlings merge (6-7days). Immediately after germination,
mulch is removed to avoid elongation of the seedlings. After ten – fifteen days
regular flood irrigation can be given till it becomes ready for planting.

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In a well prepared and laid out beds, transplanting of seedlings is done at a row
and plant spacing of 45 to 60 cm and 30 to 45cm, respectively. Beds are to be
irrigated immediately after planting.

Andrographis paniculata can be grown on poor to moderate fertile soil but a
provision of 80kg nitrogen and 40kg P
will increase the herb yield. Nitrogen
application may be splitted in two doses which can be applied at an interval of 30
to 45 days. In addition, 3-6 tonnes of well rotten farm yard manure are required for
raising nursery.

To being with one or two weedings /hoeings are essential to get the crop
established. After establishment, crop grows well during monsoon and does not
face any competition from weed.

Maximum herb biomass can be obtained in 90-100 days beyond which leaves
start shedding. If crop is raised as annual crop and planted during the month of
May /June, it should be harvested by the end of the September when flowering is
initiated. Crop remains dormant during winter. At the time of flower initiation,
active principle andrographolide is high in leaves. Since the whole plant contains
active principles, entire harvested material is dried in shade and powdered.
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The whole plant is collected towards the end of the rainy seasons till the onset
of cold weather and dried in the shade.

A well maintained crop grown during monsoon season yields 3.5 to 4 tons of
dried herbs.

The plant is almost free from insects /pests of significance.

Andrographis panicualta is an erect branched annual 0.3 – 0.9m high

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Sharply quadrangular, after narrowly winged in the upper part.

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About 1.5 or 2 feet height, erect, stiff, thickened at the lower nodes,
quadrangular with the angles slightly winged, smooth with very numerous long
divaricate branches

Opposite, 5 – 7.5 by 12 – 2.5cm, lanceolate, acute, tapering at both ends but
especially at the base into the petiole, entire, glabrous slightly undulate, pale
beneath, main nerves 4 – 6 pairs with lateral veins prominent, slender; petioles
0.6mm long.

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Small, solitary, distant, in lax spreading axillary and terminal racemes or
panicles, the whole forming a large pyramidal paniculate inflorescence;
Bracts -2.5mm long lanceolate, smooth; Bracteoles similar or 0; pedicels 0.8 –
4mm long, glandular – pubescent.

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Small divided almost to the base line into 5 equal linear subulate segments
covered with stalked glandular hairs. Sepals five, linear lanceolate, pubescent.

Narrowly tubular, Rose-coloured, 1cm long hairy outside. 2 lipped rather more
than half way down; tube 5mm long, slightly enlarged below the limb; upper lip
4mm long,oblong,2-toothed at the apex; lower lip equal in length, deeply 3 –
lobed, the lobes 2.5mm long, linear-oblong, sub obtuse.

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2 inserted in the throat of the corolla and about equaling the lips, filaments
flattened, tapering, ciliated above adherent by their apices, where is a large
defluxed tuft of hairs just beneath the anthers.

2- celled, sub basifixed.

Flattened, hairy in the upper part; anthers beared at the base.

Small much laterally compressed, with a small annular disk round the base
smooth 2- celled with a few ovules in each cell, style about as long as the stamens,
stigma slightly bifid. Glabrous; style slightly pubescent. Capsules 20 by 3mm,
linear – oblong, acute at both ends.

¾ - 1 inch long, oblong linear, acute , compressed, smooth, 2-celled, pericarp
thin dry, dehiscing, loculicidally into 2 valves deeply grooved on the back, which
separate each carrying away half the dissepiments.

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Numerous, subquodrate, osseous rugosely pitted, glabrous, slightly compressed
on stout erect funicles which are prolonged at the top into a straight tongue shaped,
acute process ( retinaculum), testa, thick hairy, embryo curved, cotyledonous,
ovate, thick, no endosperm. Yellowish brown in colour.


··| ||-
·|| -|·|, --|
||·| ·|||
||·||+ +·

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· |·|+·| ++|·|·|r ·

·|··|||-|+ +·|
·|||-|·|··||-| · |·|-|, ·|+· |·|+, |·|·|·||·+, · |-|, +|·|·-|.
·-|r |·|··||-| ·-·||·|+, ·||·|r ·.
||| ·|· ·|-|-|, +|·|·-|
||·|+·| ·|··-|, ||·|·|·|·.|||·|-·|+
·||·||+·| +··|||··+

1) +|-|·|·|·| ·||-|··|| ·|||+|·++-|·|·||
·|||-· -|·|--||·|· ++|·|·|||-||·|-|·
· |·|-|· ·|· -|| -|·|· +|·|·-|· |·|·|·||·+·
·|+- |·| |+·| +· ·|· ||·|| .|·|··||
,-·|·|| ||-||-|)

Kalamegha is also known by the names of Bhunimba, yavakaarakapala. It has
tikta rasa(bitter in taste), laghu guna, ruksha and ushna veeraya, it alleviates kapha
and pitta.
It has deepana property (appetizer), it is swedana produces sweat, destroys krimi, it
is useful in treating the disorders of yakruth (liver), for treating kushta, jwara also
it is very effective.

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2) ·||-|··|| |||-||·|-| :||·|·||+|·+·
·|·· ·|||· ·|··|+·| -|·| --|·|·||·|r ·
++ |·|·| ·|· +· +÷ ·||+ +|·|·|·||
·||·|·|||·|· · |r ·|-| ·|r :|| |·||
·||·| +|·| | .|· · ·||·| ||·|| ~·|| ·|·||
,|-|·|÷ ·-||+·)

According to nigandu rathnaakara bhunimba increases vata , it has the property
of vrana ropana( wound healing action). It has sara guna (laxative), sheeta, it is
pathya (can be consumed by all), ruksha. It alleviates thirst; it is very effective in
curing the following diseases:
Kapa and pitta disorders.
Sannipatha jwaram

3) ·||-|··|· ·|||-|| --|| ··| ||-| -|·|· ·|··
|||-|· ++|·|·||·|+··|r |·|r | r · |
·||·|+|·||·||· |r ·||·||+·|·+·||-|

According to Kaiyadeva nigandu bhunimba is sheetala in veerya, ruksha, has tikta
rasa (bitter taste), it is laghu(light), sara(laxative), it increases vata, and it cures the
following diseases
Kapa and pitta disorders
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Rakta vikaras

4) ·||-|··|| |||-|| --|· ++|·|·|·|·|·|r |
According to raajavallabam Bhunimba increases vata, it has ruksha guna(dry
nature) and it is very helpful in curing kapha and pitta disorders and jwaram.

5) |+·||· ·||·+| --|· ·|||-||·|-+| -|·|·
·||·|·|||·|··||·|++|·|·||·|· |r -||
,·||| .|+|·| |-|·|÷ )
According to Bhaava prakaasha nigandu kalamegha is ruksha, shita in veerya, has
tikta rasa and laghu guna and it cure the following disorders:

Sannipatha jwaram
Kapha, pitta and raktha disorders
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The therapeutic value of Kalamegha is due to its mechanism of action which is
perhaps by enzyme induction. The plant extract exhibits the following
pharmacological effects:

Abortifacient - Can abort pregnancy, although ayurvedic tradition allows it to
be taken for short duration during pregnancy, women should avoid its use during
pregnancy as a precaution. In almost every other respect Andrographis has an
extremely low toxicity.

Acrid - Hot: in this case, slightly rubifacient to the skin.

Analgesic -Pain killer.

Anti-inflammatory- Reduces swelling and cuts down exudation from

Antibacterial- Fights bacterial activity, although Andrographis appears to have
weak direct antibacterial action, it has remarkably beneficial effect in reducing
diarrhea and symptoms arising from bacterial infections.

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Antiperiodic -Counteracts periodic/intermittent diseases, such as malaria.

Antipyretic -Fever reducer - both in humans and animals, caused by multiple
infections or by toxins.

Antithrombotic- Blood clot preventative.

Antiviral - Inhibits viral activity.

Cancerolytic- Fights, even kills, cancerous cells.

Cardioprotective- Protects heart muscles.

Choleretic -Alters the properties and flow of bile.

Depurative- Cleans and purifies the system, particularly the blood.

Digestive- Promotes digestion.

Expectorant- Promotes mucus discharge from the respiratory system.

Hepatoprotective-Protects the liver and gall bladder.

Hypoglycemic -Blood sugar reducer.

Immune Enhancer- Increases white cell phagocytosis, inhibits HIV-1
replication, and improves CD4+ and T lymphocyte counts.
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Laxative- Aids bowel elimination.

Sedative- A relaxing herb, though not with the same effect as the accepted
herbal sedatives: valerian root, hops, skullcap, etc.

Thrombolytic - Blood clot buster.

Vermicidal- Kills intestinal worms.

~|·||·|+ .|·||·| &
~|·||·|+ .|·||·|·
· |·| .|·||·| ++·|||+ ||+|·|
··|||-|+ .|·||·|
·|||-|·|··||-| ~|·-|·||-n,·|+· ||;,hepatomegally) , ||·|-·|(constipation), +|·|·|·|.
·-|r ·|··||-| ·- ||+|·, ·||·|(swelling).
||| |·|·|·|
||·|+·| Its churna is mixed with ·|·|| | | and consumed in Malaria.
It is used in ·|||·|·, used in ·|+| ·|·|(liver disorders)
·||·||+·| Used in ·|·|·|·· |·|-·| (weakness due to fever).

1) Kalamegha is an ingredient of medicine commonly used as a bitter tonic and
febrifuge. Plant is astringent, anodyne, tonic and alexipharmic used in dysentery,
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cholera, diabetes, consumption, influenza, bronchitis, swellings, itches, piles and

2) Decoction used for sluggishness of liver, in jaundice and as a blood purifier.
Leaves and roots used as febrifuge, cholagogue, stomachic and anthelmintic. Many
Indian formulations reputed to have liver protecting properties contain Kalamegha
as one of the main ingredients.

3) The whole plant has anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and alexipharmic
properties and is useful in dysentery, diarrhea, cholera, fever, diabetes,
consumption, influenza, coryza, cough, sore throat, tonsillitis, ostiodynia,
bronchitis, itches, artheralgia, mensural and post partum haematometra, scrofula,
hypertension, piles and gynorrhoea.

4) Decoction of the plant is blood purifier, used for cure of torpid liver, jaundice,
dermatological diseases, dyspepsia, febrifuge and anthelmintic.

5) Tincture of the root is tonic, stimulant and aperient.

6) The plant is antityphoid against Salmonella typhii and antifungal against
Helminthosporium sativum. Shoot extract in saline and ether showed antibiotic
properties against Micrococcous phyogenes var.aureus. Diluted sulphuric acid or
acetate buffer ether extract is effective against E. coli.

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1) In West Bengal, a preparation called “Alui” is prepared by mixing powdered
cumin (Cuminum cyminum) and large cardamom (Amomum subulatum) in the
juice of this plant and administered for the treatment of malaria.

2) Decoction or infusion of the leaves is also used to treat indigestion due to
sluggish liver, dyspepsia, etc.

3) Green leaves of andrographis with the leaves of Aristolochia indica and fresh
inner root-bark of country Saraparilla, made in to an electuary,is used by Hakims
of India as a tonic and alterative in syphilitic cachexia and foul syphilitic ulcers.

4) Expressed juice of the leaves alone or together with cardamom, cloves and
cinnamon, “made into little globules, which are prescribed”, 1 as a domestic
remedy in griping irregular stools, loss of appetite, flatulence and diarrhoea of
Gastric discomfort, vomiting and loss of appetite may be caused
by the large oral doses of the drug. Infection of the crude drug extract
may lead to anaphylactic shock.
· |·| ++·-| & |·|·|r ·
·||| ·-
·|-| ·|·|·|
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Andrographis paniculata has been standardized to contain 10% of
Andrographolide. The content of the active constituent of the herb is determined
either by gravimetric method or by high performance liquid chromatography

The derivatives of Andrographaloide are the three bitter principles
Deoxyandrographolide, Dandrographolide and Neoandrpgrapholide
have been isolated from the whole plant and leaves. These have been
identified as diterpenes . A new diterpene glucoside also has been

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Apigenin-4‟7-dimethyl ether
Mono-0-methyl wightin
5-hydroxy 7,8,2,3 –tetra methoxy flavone
Sesquiterpenoid-paniculides ABC
13 –labbadien 16,15 olidel
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14-deoxyandrographolide-19- -D-glucoside;
Andrographolide-19- -D-glucoside;
2‟,5-dihydroxy-7, 8-methoxyflavone,
5-hydroxy-7, 8-dimethoxyflavone
A new constitutent procumbide was also isolated; from the ethyl acetate
soluble fraction of the methanol extract.
Six new diterpenoids of entlabdane type, and four new diterpene dimers,
bis- andrigraogikudes AB&D were isolated along with 6 known
A novel monoterpene and a new glycoside have also been isolated.

1) The naphthanic derivative andrographolide and its water soluble derivative 14-
deoxy-11, 12-dehydroandrographolide are the subject of several pharmacological
and clinical studies.

2) A good deal of activities have been reported from the extracts as well as the
constituents isolated from these plants which include antiulcer activity in apigenin
7,4‟O-dimethylether; administration of single dose of leaf extract 0.5mg/kg (and
1g/kg PO) and andrographolide (A;5mg/kg and 10mg/kg PO)to adult male albino
rats both at higher and lower dose characteristically inhibit microsomal
anilinehydroxylase, N-demethylase and O-demethylase after varying times (4-12
hrs) of treatment.
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3) Dry leaf powder at the dose level 20mg powder /day for 60 days resulted in
cessation of spermatogenesis.

4) Andropraholides has been identified as major antihepatotoxic principle.

5) Clinical studies carried out indicate that this may be a beneficial drug in
preventing and treating arterial thrombotic diseases.

6) Significant anti-diarrhoeal activity has been observed against E.coli.

7) Andrographolide exhibited a strong choleratic action.

8) Flavone extract from the root prevent the formation of thrombi and development
of myocardial infarction.

9) Andrographolide showed significant anticholestatic effect.

10) Etoh extract and androgapholide induced significant stimulation of antibody
and delayed type hypersensitivity response to sheep red blood cells in mice.

11) Alcoholic extract and diterpenes-andrographolide and neoandrographolide
showed significant antihepatotxic action in P. bergerghei K173-in-duced hepatic
damage in M. natalensis.

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Kalamegha is often substituted for or mixed with the genuine
„Chirata‟ [Swertia chiretta (Roxb.ex Fleming) Karst] but can be
distinguished from the latter easily by the green colour of its stem,
numerous erect, slender, opposite branches and its lanceolate green
leaves in fresh form.
And in dried state Kalamegha consists of stems with the roots attached and
also provided with leaves and flowers. The flowers are however, sometimes
absent, and but few roots may be found. The stems are a foot or more in length,
obtusely quadrangular, straight, knotty, branched, longitudinally furrowed and free
from hairs. They have a lightish brown colour, and a persistent bitter taste; but no
marked odour.

The roots are tapering, unbranched and furnished with numerous small rootlets;
these have a grey colour externally and are whitish within. The taste of the root is
similar to but bitterer than the stem.

Kalmegh is also adulterated with Andrographics echioides Nees.
Found in topical Indian and in dry districts of Maharastra, Rajasthan, and
Tamil Nadu.
However, Both Swertia chiretta and Andrographics echioides are
devoid of andrographolide, the major bioactive constituent of Kalmegh.

The whole herb is collected for medicinal preparations.

Panchanga – Churuna
Dose- 0.5 - 1.25grm b.i.d
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Dose- 2 - 4 mil t.i.d
Dose- 20 - 40 ml t.i.d.

Dried leaves- (with 20 grs. of black pepper).
Dose- about 10 grains.

Succus- Concentrated expressed juice of the fresh leaves and stalks, 1 in 4 of the
drug. Dose: 1 to 60 minims.

Compound infusion- (1 in 20) containing orange peel and coriander, each 1 to 4 of
the drug.
Dose: 1 to 2 ounces.

Compound tincture- (3 in 20) containing myrrh and aloes, each 1 to 6 of the
drug; Dose: 1 to 4 drachms.

Compound pill or tablet- Containing cumin, aniseed, cloves and greater
cardamoms, all in equal parts, mixed in the juice of Kalamegha .
Dose: 2 to 5 grains.

Kalmegh Resin
Dose: ½ to 2 grains.

|·.|·.- ™..·. – :

1) ·||-|··|||· || (C.S. CI 15).

2) ·||-|··|||· +·||·| (Gada nigraha).

3) +|-|·|·|··|
4) +|-|·|·| |·-|·||.
5) ·||-|··||·||·|

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1) Important new research has confirmed a host of pharmacological benefits for
this herb, including potent anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-viral effects.
In addition, scientists have discovered that Andrographis paniculata helps boost the
immune system, protects against cancer, prevents blood clots and maintains
efficient digestive functioning.

2) Andrographis helps our body fight infection and can reduce the length of a cold.
Although scientists in the West have recently been uncovering the remarkable
medicinal properties of andrographis, it has in fact been used in Ayurvedic
medicine for hundreds of years.

3) To date, the herb is best known in Western society as a popular over-the-counter
alternative remedy for the common cold. Several double-blind clinical trials have
shown that andrographis can reduce the severity of symptoms.

4) According to studies in China, andrographis is effective in preventing the
formation of blood clots and preventing the re-clogging of arteries after
angioplasty - a technique used to treat blocked arteries by inserting a balloon into
the blood vessels which is then inflated to widen the artery.

6) Further research shows that the herb activates fibrinolysis, a natural process in
the body in which blood clots are dissolved. It also relaxes the smooth muscle in
the walls of blood vessels and has a blood pressure-lowering effect.

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7) The herb's anti-viral activity has been demonstrated in HIV and AIDS.
Andrographis prevents the virus from infecting healthy T-cells and inhibits the
spread of infection, while other studies show that the herb is able to fight HIV in
cells even after they have been infected.

8) Scientists have found that andrographis hinders HIV from taking over a 'control
enzyme' in certain T-cells that triggers the multiplication of the virus. This action is
the same as AZT, a commonly used AIDS drug with a number of debilitating side-
effects, including a low blood count.

9) Andrographis extracts are showing promise in relieving diarrhoea associated
with E.coli bacterial infections.
Andrographis extracts are cytotoxic (cell-killing) against cancer cells.
Positive results have been seen in relation to stomach, skin, prostate and breast
cancer cells in test-tube studies. In fact, recent laboratory tests in New York have
demonstrated that andrographis may inhibit the growth of human breast cancer
cells just as well as the drug tamoxifen .
Andrographis is a potent stimulator of immune response through two
mechanisms: (1) Antigen-specific response, that is, where antibodies are made to
counteract an invading microorganism.
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(2) Nonspecific immune response, where the body's macrophage cells scavenge
and destroy intruders. These mechanisms make Andrographis effective against a
variety of infectious and cancer-causing agents.

Andrographis paniculata treatment prevents BHC induced increase in the
activities of enzymes y-Glutamyl transpeptidase, glutathione-S- transferase and
lipid peroxidation . The activities of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide
dismutase, catalase , glutathione peroxidase and the levels of glutathione were
decreased following BHC effect. Administration of AP showed protective effects
in the activity ofsuperoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase,
glutathione reductase as well the level ofglut athione. The activity of lipid
peroxidase was also decreased. The result indicates antioxidant
andhepatoprotective action of A. paniculata.

Alcoholic extract of the leaves of Andrographis paniculata was obtained by
cold maceration. A dose of 300 mg/kg (1/6 of LD50) of the extract was selected to
study hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage.
The extract was found to be effective in preventing liver damage which was
evident by morphological, biochemical and functional parameters.
Paracetamol induced decrease in volume and content of bile was prevented
significantly by andrographolide pretreatment. It was found to be more potent than
silymarin, a clinically used hepatoprotective agent.

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A phase I dose-escalating clinical trial of andrographolide from Andrographis
paniculata was conducted in 13 HIV positive patients and five HIV uninfected,
healthy volunteers. The objectives were primarily to assess safety and tolerability
and secondarily to assess effects on plasma virion HIV-1 RNA levels andCD4 (+)
lymphocyte levels. No subjects used antiretroviral medications during the trial.
Those with liver or renal abnormalities were excluded. The planned regimen was
5-mg/kg bodyweight for 3 weeks, escalating to 10-mg/kg bodyweight for 3 weeks
and to 20-mg/kg bodyweight for a final 3 weeks. The trial was interrupted at 6
weeks due to adverse events including an anaphylactic reaction in one patient. All
adverse events had resolved by the end of observation. A significant rise in the
mean CD4 (+) lymphocyte level of HIV subjects occurred after administration of
10 mg/kg andrographolide (from a baseline of 405cells/mm (3) to 501 cells/mm
(3); p = 0.002). There were no statistically significant changes in mean plasma
HIV-1 RNA levels throughout the trial. Andrographolide may inhibit HIV-induced
cell cycle dysregulation, leading to a rise in CD4 (+) lymphocyte levels in HIV-1
infected individuals.

Andrographis was given to 1,611 people with bacterial dysentery and 955
people with diarrhea. The results showed an overall effectiveness of 91.3 per cent.

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