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264 Orthopaedics


416. The lesion in Klumpke’s paralysis is at (AP 88)
a. Cervical plexus
b. Lower brachial
c. Upper brachial
d. Sacral plexus

417. Nerve which responds best to repair is (NIMS 96)

a. Median
b. Ulnar
c. Sciatic
d. Radial

418. Following an incised wound in the front of wrist, the subject is

unable to oppose the tips of the little finger and the thumb. The
nerve (s) involved is/are (UPSC 2000)
a. Ulnar nerve
b. Median nerve
c. Median and ulnar nerve
d. Radial and ulnar nerves

419. Injury of median nerve at wrist is best detected by (AI

a. Action of abductor pollicis brevis
b. Action of flexor pollicis brevis
c. Loss of sensation of radial half of palm
d. Loss of sensation of tip of ring finger

420. In ulnar nerve lesions, which of the following is seen

a. Flexion at metacarpophalangeal joints and extension at interphalan-
geal joints of hand
b. Extension at metacarpophalangeal joints and flexion at interphalan-
geal joints of hand
c. Flexion at metacarpophalangeal joints and interphalangeal joints of
d. Extension at metacarpophalangeal joints and interphalangeal joints

Nerves 265
421. Following indicate better prognosis in nerve injury except
a. Neuropraxia
b. Younger age
c. Pure motor N Injury
d. Proximal Nerve injury

422. Radial nerve injury of this type recovers with conservative

management (KAR 94)
a. Neurotemesis
b. Crush injury
c. Neuropraxia
d. Chemical injury

423. Nerve abscess is seen in the ... nerve (KERALA 87)

a. Median
b. Ulnar
c. Lateral fibular
d. Sciatic

424. A man giving a history of having been assaulted shows signs of

having anterior dislocation of the shoulder. He complains of
paresthesia over the lateral aspect of his forearm and difficulty
in flexing his elbow and wrist. The nerve involved is (AIIMS 99)
a. Ulnar
b. Axillary
c. Musculocutaneous
d. Median

425. Meralgia paraesthetica is an entrapment neuropathy of the

(AIIMS 86)
a. Musculocutaneous nerve
b. Ilio inguinal nerve
c. External cutaneous nerve
d. Lateral popliteal nerve

426. A 25- year old lady sustained a lacerated wound on the back
of right thigh by the horn of a bull. The wound was sutured. Two
months later she developed foot drop and an ulcer on the
dorsum of the foot. The most likely diagnosis is
(UPSC 97)
a. Chronic ischaemia to limbs due to popliteal artery injury
b. Partial injury to sciatic nerve
c. Complete division of sciatic nerve
d. Injury to hamstring muscles
266 Orthopaedics
427. Extension of the Metacarpophalangeal joint is lost in injury to
(AIIMS 2000)
a. Radial nerve
b. Ulnar nerve
c. Median nerve
d. Posterior interosseous nerve

428. In shaft of humerus fracture, Nerve injured commonly

(MAHE 99)
a. Median
b. Ulnar
c. Musculo cutaneous
d. Radial

429. The “Card Test” tests the function of (UPSC 95)

a. Median nerve
b. Ulnar nerve
c. Axillary nerve
d. Radial nerve

430. Pointing index is due to (KERALA 94)

a. Ulnar nerve injury
b. Radial nerve injury
c. Median nerve injury
d. Injury to flexor digitorum profundus

431. After complete division of a nerve, retrograde degeneration

occur as high as ... node of ranvier (AIIMS 86)
a. 1st
b. 2nd
c. 3rd
d. 4th
e. 5th

432. Feature of Radial N. injury at spiral groove (TN 99)

a. Thumb, finger, wrist drop
b. No Wrist drop
c. Wrist drop + Extensors of Forearm paralysis
d. Sensory loss over deltoid

433. Peripheral nerves can withstand Ischemia up to

a. 30 minutes
b. 1 hour
c. 2 hours
d. 4 hours
Nerves 267
434. Radial nerve injury above elbow lead to (AI 93,AFMC
a. Ape thumb
b. Trigger finger
c. Wrist drop
d. Claw hand

435. Most commonly injured nerve in anterior dislocation shoulder

is (AI 96)
a. Nerve of Bell
b. Axillary nerve
c. Radial nerve
d. Median nerve

436. Axillary nerve injury at its origin leads to paralysis of

(PGI 93)
a. Deltoid
b. Latissmus dorsi and deltoid
c. Deltoid and Teres Minor
d. Deltoid &Teres Major

437. In causalgia, the nerves most commonly affected are (AIIMS

a. Radial and ulnar
b. Median and sciatic
c. Radial and peroneal
d. Ilioinguinal and sural

438. The term neuropraxia means (MAHE2001)

a. Complete division of nerves
b. Functional disruption
c. Division of nerve fibers with intact nerve sheath
d. Anatomical disruption of nerve sheath

439. Which nerve is commonly injured in Fracture shaft of Humerus

(PGI 93)
a. Axillary nerve
b. Median nerve
c. Ulnar nerve
d. Radial nerve

440. Froment’s sign is used to detect (TN 99,KAR 2002)

a. Ulnar N
b. Median N
c. Radial N
d. Axillary N
268 Orthopaedics
441. Dislocation of which one of the following carpal bones can
present as median nerve palsy (UPSC 95)
a. Scaphoid
b. Hamate
c. Lunate
d. Trapezium

442. The following is true of brachial plexus (KERALA 89)

a. Cervical rib involves lateral cord
b. Musculocutaneous nerve arises from medial cord
c. Radial nerve arises from posterior cord
d. Post fixed plexus is formed by C4, 5, 6, 7, 8, T1

443. In Seddon’s classification complete division of nerve is (PGI 93)

a. Neuropraxia
b. Axontemesis
c. Neurotemesis
d. None of the above

444. Winging of Scapula is due to paralysis of (AI 93,AFMC

a. Latissmus dorsi
b. Pectoralis major
c. Pectoralis minor
d. Serratus anterior

445. Total claw hand is caused by injury to(AI 93)

a. Radial nerve
b. Ulnar and Radial nerve
c. Ulnar and median nerve
d. Radial and median nerve

446. Tinnels sign indicates (KERALA 91)

a. Atrophy of nerves
b. Neuroma
c. Injury to nerves
d. Regeneration of nerves

447. Meralgia parasthetica is because of entrapment of (MP

a. Posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh
b. Intermediate cutaneous nerve of thigh
c. Medial cutaneous nerve of thigh
d. Lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh
Nerves 269
448. In fibular fracture the nerve damaged is (SGPGI 2003)
a. Common peroneal nerve
b. Anterior tibial nerve
c. Sural nerve
d. Posterior tibial nerve
270 Orthopaedics


416. (B) Lower Brachial
Reference: Bailey and Love 24th Edition Page 416
♦ Erb-Duchenne palsy
o Upper Brachial Cord
o C5-C6 roots and upper trunk
♦ Klumpke’s paralysis
o Lesion of lower roots

417. (D) Radial Nerve

Reference: Maheswari 3rd Edition Page 61
The following factors dictate recovery following a nerve repair
♦ Age
o Better prognosis in younger age groups
♦ Tension at the suture line
o Better prognosis with low tension
♦ Time since injury
o After 18 months only sensory functions can be expected
♦ Location of injury
o Better prognosis with distal injuries
♦ Type of Nerve
o A primary motor nerve like radial nerve has a better prognosis
than a mixed nerve
♦ Condition of the nerve ends
o The more the crushing and infection, the poorer the prognosis
♦ Associated conditions
o Infection, ischaemia etc indicate poor prognosis

418. (B) Median Nerve

Reference : Gray 38th Edition Page 1272
♦ To oppose the tips of little finger and thumb, we need the action of
opponens pollicis which is supplied by the Median Nerve
♦ Also median nerve is injured in wounds in the front (anterior
aspect) of wrist

Muscle Group and Number (No.) of muscle in each Muscles Supplied Muscles Muscles supplied by
group by Median Nerve Supplied by Radial Nerve
Ulnar Nerve

Group No Group No Group No Name No. Name No. Name No

Forear 20 Flexors 8 Superficial 5 1. Pronator 4 Flexor 1

M Flexors Teres Carpi
Muscle 2. Flexor Ulnaris
s Carpi
3. Palmaris
4. Flexor

Deep 3 1. Lateral 2+ 1. Medial 1/2

Flexors Half of 1/2 Half of
Flexor Flexor
Digitorum Digitorum
Profundus Profundus
2. Flexor
3. Pronator

(All by

Extensor 12 Superficial 7 1. Brachoradialis 7
Extensors 2. Extensor Carpi
Radials Longus
3. Extensor Carpi
Radialis Brevis
(Deep Branch)
4. Extensor

Digitorum (Posteri
of Interosseous
5. Extensor Digit
6. Extensor Carpi
Ulnaris (Post Int
7. Anconeus

Deep 5 1. Abductor Pollicis 5

Extensors Longus (Post Int N.)
2. Extensor
Brevis (Post Int.N)
3. Extensor
Longus (Post Int.N)
4. Entensor
Indicis (Post Int.N)
5. Supinator
(Deep Branch)
Hand 20 Thenar 4 Thenar 3 1. Abductor 3
Muscles Region Muscles Pollicis
2. Flexor
3. Opponens

1 Adductor 1

Hypothema 4 Hypothenar 3 1. Abducto 3

r Region Muscles r Digiti
2. Flexor
(All by
1 Palmaris 1

Hallow of 12 Palmar 4 All 4

hand Interosseou muscles

s supplied
by the

Dorsal 4 All 4
Interosseous muscles
s supplied
by the

Lumbricals 4 Lateral two 2 Medial 2

lumbricals two

Total 40 40 40 111/2 16 1/2 12

Nerves 275
419. (A) Action of Abductor pollicis Brevis
Reference: Maheswari 3rd Edition Page 54
♦ Pen Test is used for testing the action of this muscle

420. (B) Extension at metacarpophalangeal joints and flexion at

interphalangeal joints
Reference: Gray 38th Edition Page 1273
♦ This leads to Claw hand formation as the action of the lumbricals
(holding the pen) is lost and the finger joints are acted upon by
forces from other muscles which are not paralysed
♦ Lumbricals flex the Metacarpophalangeal joints and extend the
interphalangeal joints enabling the person to hold the pen
♦ In case of lesions of lumbricals, the Metacarpophalangeal joints
go into extension due to the action of the extensor muscles and
the interphalangeal joints are flexed by Flexor Digitorum
Superficialis and Flexor Digitorum Profundus
Ulnar Nerve
The Ulnar Nerve arises from the medial cord (C8, T1) but, it often
receives fibres from the ventral ramus of C7. It runs distally through
the axilla medial to the axillary artery and between it and the vein,
continuing distally medial to the brachial artery as far as midarm;
here it pierces the medial intermuscular septum, inclining medially
as it descends anterior to the medial head of the triceps to the
interval between the medial epicondyle and the olecranon, with the
superior ulnar collateral artery. At the elbow it is in a groove on the
dorsum of the epicondyle. It enters the forearm between the two
heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris superficial to the posterior and
oblique parts of the ulnar collateral ligament. It descends the medial
side of the forearm on the flexor digitorum profundus, covered
proximally by the flexor carpi ulnaris; its lower half, covered by skin
and fasciae, is lateral to this muscle. In the upper third of the forearm,
it is distant from the ulnar artery but distal to this is close to its
medial side. About 5 cm proximal to the wrist it gives off a dorsal
branch which continues distally into the hand, anterior to the flexor
retinaculum on the lateral side of the pisiform bone and posterom-
edial to the ulnar artery. It passes behind the superficial part of the
retinaculum with the artery and divides into superficial and deep
terminal branches. Its relation to the brachial artery and medial
epicondyle makes it easy to map out in its proximal course; a line
from the medial epicondyle to the lateral edge of pisiform represents
its distal course.
Branches of Ulnar Nerve are: articular, muscular, palmar cutaneous,
dorsal, superficial terminal and deep terminal.
♦ Articular Branches
o These branches to the elbow joint issue from the nerve
between the medial epicondyle and olecranon. Others are
described below.
276 Orthopaedics
♦ Muscular Branches
o Usually two, these begin near the elbow; one supplies the
flexor carpi ulnaris, the other the medial half of the flexor
digitorum profundus.
♦ Palmar Cutaneous Branch
o This arises about midforearm, descends on the ulnar artery,
which it supplies, and perforates the deep fascia to end in the
palmar skin, after communicating with the palmar branch of
the median nerve. It sometimes supplies the palmaris brevis.
♦ Dorsal Branch
o This arises about 5 cm proximal to the wrist, passes distally
and backwards, deep to the flexor carpi ulnaris, perforates
the deep fascia, descends along the medial side of the back
of the wrist and hand and then divides into two, or often three,
dorsal digital nerves. One supplies the medial side of the
little finger, the second adjacent sides of the little and ring,
while the third, when present, supplies adjoining sides of the
ring and middle finger but may be replaced, wholly or partially,
by a branch of the radial nerve, always communicating with it
on the dorsum of the hand. In the little finger the dorsal digital
nerves extend only to the base of the distal phalanx and in the
ring finger to the base of the middle phalanx; most distal parts
of these digits are supplied by dorsal branches of the proper
digital branches of the ulnar and, on the lateral side of the ring
finger, median nerves.
♦ Superficial Terminal Branch
o This supplies the palmaris brevis and the medial palmar skin,
dividing into two palmar digital nerves, which can be palpated
against the hook of the hamate bone; one of these supplies
the medial side of the little finger, the other (a common palmar
digital nerve) sends a twig to the median nerve and divides
into two proper digital nerves for the adjoining sides of little
and ring fingers. The proper digital branches are distributed
like those of the median nerve.
♦ Deep Terminal Branch
o With the deep branch of the ulnar artery, this passes between
the abductor digiti minimi and flexor digiti minimi and then
perforates the opponens digiti minimi to follow the deep
palmar arch dorsal to the flexor tendons. At its origin it supplies
the three short muscles of the little finger. As it crosses the
hand, it supplies the interossei and the third and fourth
lumbricals; it ends by supplying the adductor pollicis, the first
palmar interosseous and usually the flexor pollicis brevis. It
sends articular filaments to the wrist joint.
o The medial part of the flexor digitorum profundus is supplied
by the ulnar nerve, as are the third and fourth lumbricals which
Nerves 277
are connected with the tendons of this part of the muscle.
Similarly, the lateral part of the flexor digitorum profundus and
the first and second lumbricals are supplied by the median
nerve. The third lumbrical is often supplied by both nerves.
The deep terminal branch is said to give branches to some
intercarpal carpometacarpal and intermetacarpal joints,
though, as with the median nerve, precise details are
uncertain. Vasomotor branches, arising in the forearm and
hand, supply the ulnar and palmar arteries.
Lesions of the Ulnar Nerve
Ulnar nerve lesions occur at four sites,
1. Behind the medial epicondyle,
2. In the cubital tunnel,
3. At the wrist and
4. In the hand.
At the Elbow
The ulnar nerve is in a vulnerable position as it lies between the
median epicondyle and the olecranon: it lies on bone covered only
by a thin layer of skin.
It is easily damaged if the ulnar groove is shallow and the nerve
may become more prominent than the medial epicondyle or the
olecranon when the elbow is fully flexed.
Sometimes the nerve may override the medial epicondyle in full
flexion. Loss of the ulnar groove may be associated with arthritis of
the elbow joint, often due to an old fracture, in which case there may
be incomplete extension of the elbow with a wide carrying angle.
The nerve is easily palpable and is often thickened.
There is usually weakness of flexor digitorum profundus to the ring
and little fingers, and if these muscles are involved the lesion must
be at the elbow.
Sensation Impaired in
Palmar Aspect
Medial palmar skin,
Medial side of the little finger,
Adjoining sides of little and ring fingers
Medial side of the little finger,
Adjacent sides of the little and ring,
Adjoining sides of the ring and middle finger
Cubital Tunnel Syndrome
This is an entrapment neuropathy of the ulnar nerve in the tunnel
formed by the tendinous arch connecting the two heads of flexor
carpi ulnaris at their humeral and ulnar attachments. The clinical
features are precisely the same as a lesion in the ulnar groove and
278 Orthopaedics
again, involvement of flexor digitorum profundus to the ring and
little fingers is variable.
Lesions at these two sites cannot be reliably distinguished
neurophysiologically, but in the cubital tunnel syndrome the elbow
joint is usually normal: elbow movements are full with a normal
carrying angle; the ulnar nerve feels normal in the ulnar groove; it
does not sublux; nor does it become superficial on elbow flexion.
At the Wrist
The ulnar nerve may be compressed in Guyon’s canal by a ganglion.
All the small hand muscles innervated by the ulnar nerve are
Preservation of flexor digitorum profundus to the ring and little fingers
The dorsal cutaneous branch and the palmar branch of the ulnar
nerve are both spared since the lesion is distal to their origin from
the main trunk of the ulnar nerve in midforearm.
In the Hand
The deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve may be compressed
against the pisiform and hamate bones when the hand is used as
a mallet, or if a vibrating tool or motorcycle handlebar is held in
such a way that the hypothenar eminence is off the edge of the
handle. The sensory branches are always spared and involvement
of the hypothenar muscles is variable depending on the level at
which branches to these muscles arise.

421. (D) Proximal Nerve Injury

Reference: Maheswari 3rd Edition Page 61
See Question 417

422. (C) Neuropraxia

Reference: Maheswari 3rd Edition Page 51
Type of Injury Pathology Degeneration Neuroma Prognosis
Neurapraxia Physiological Nil Nil Recovery
interruption; complete
anatomically within 6
normal weeks
Axonotmesis Axons Proximally + Neuroma Recovery
broken and Distally in +/-
nerve intact continuity Motor
march +
Neurotmesis Axons as Proximally + End or Recovery
well as nerve Distally Sie Poor
broken Neuroma
Nerves 279
423. (B) Ulnar Nerve
Reference: Harrison 16th Edition Page 969 (Not in previous editions)
♦ Patients with various forms of leprous, but particularly those with
BT form, amy develop abscesses of nerves (most commonly the
ulnar) with an adjacent cellulitic appearance of the skin.
♦ In such conditions, the affected nerve is swollen ad exquisily
tender. Although glucocorticoids may reduce signs of inflamma-
tion, rapid surgical decompression is necessary to prevent
irreversible sequelae

424. (C) Musculocutaneous

Reference: Gray 38th Edition Page 1269
♦ Musculocutaneous Nerve comes from the lateral cord opposite
the lower border of the pectoralis minor and is derived from the
fifth to the seventh cervical ventral rami. It pierces the coracobrac-
hialis and descends laterally between the biceps and brachialis
to the lateral side of the arm; just below the elbow it pierces the
deep fascia lateral to the tendon of biceps, continuing as the
lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm. A line drawn from the
lateral side of the third part of the axillary artery across the
coracobrachialis and biceps to the lateral side of the biceps tendon
is a surface projection for the nerve, but this is varied by its point
of entry into the coracobrachialis.
o It supplies the coracobrachialis, both heads of biceps and
most of the brachialis. The branch to the coracobrachialis
leaves the musculocutaneous before it enters the muscle; its
fibres are from the seventh cervical ramus and may branch
directly from the lateral cord.
o Branches to the biceps and brachialis leave after the
musculocutaneous pierces the coracobrachialis; the branch
to the brachialis supplies the elbow joint.
o The nerve also supplies a small branch to the humerus,
entering with the nutrient artery.
♦ Lesions of the Musculocutaneous Nerve : An isolated lesion of
the musculocutaneous nerve is rare, but may occur in injuries to
the upper arm and shoulder including fracture of the humerus,
and it may also be found in patients with neuralgic amyotrophy.
There is marked weakness of elbow flexion because of paralysis
of the biceps brachii and much of brachialis. There is sensory
impairment on the extensor aspect of the forearm in the distribution
of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm. The pain and
paraesthesiae may be aggravated by elbow extension.
♦ If you are wondering as to how wrist flexion is being affected in
this case, you should know that the musculocutaneous nerve
has frequent variations. It may run behind the coracobrachialis
or adhere for some distance to the median nerve and pass behind
280 Orthopaedics
the biceps. Some fibres of the median nerve may run in the
musculocutaneous nerve, leaving it to join their proper trunk;
less frequently the reverse occurs, the median nerve sending a
branch to the musculocutaneous. Occasionally it supplies the
pronator teres and may replace radial branches to the dorsal
surface of the thumb.
♦ Lateral Cutaneous Nerve of the Forearm passes deep to the
cephalic vein, descending along the radial border of the forearm
to the wrist, supplying the skin of the forearm’s anterolateral
surface and connecting by branches around its radial border with
the posterior cutaneous nerve of the forearm and the terminal
branch of the radial nerve. Its trunk gives rise to a slender recurrent
branch which extends along the cephalic vein as far as the middle
third of the upper arm, distributing filaments to the skin over the
distal third of the anterolateral surface of the upper arm close to
the vein. Although observed in the nineteenth century, this recurrent
branch has more recently been omitted from most descriptions
of the nerve supply of the upper limb. At the wrist joint the lateral
cutaneous nerve of the forearm is anterior to the radial artery and
some filaments, piercing the deep fascia and accompanying this
to the dorsum of the carpus. The nerve then passes to the base
of the thenar eminence, ending in cutaneous rami. It connects
with the terminal branch of the radial nerve and the palmar
cutaneous branch of the median nerve.

425. (C) External Cutaneous Nerve

Reference: Gray 38th Edition Page 1280
♦ Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve comes from the dorsal
branches of the second and third lumbar ventral rami, and
emerges from the lateral border of psoas major, crossing the
iliacus obliquely towards the anterior superior iliac spine. It
supplies the parietal peritoneum in the iliac fossa. The right nerve
passes posterolateral to the caecum, separated from it by the
fascia iliaca and peritoneum; the left passes behind the lower
part of the descending colon. Both pass behind or through the
inguinal ligament, variably medial to the anterior superior iliac
spine (commonly about 1 cm) and anterior to or through the
sartorius into the thigh, dividing into anterior and posterior
branches. The anterior branch becomes superficial about 10 cm
distal to the anterior superior iliac spine, supplying the skin of the
anterior and lateral thigh as far as the knee. It connects terminally
with the cutaneous branches of the anterior division of the femoral
nerve and the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve, forming
the patellar plexus. The posterior branch pierces the fascia lata
higher than the anterior, dividing to supply the skin on the lateral
surface from the greater trochanter to about midthigh. It may also
supply the gluteal skin.
Nerves 281
♦ Lesions of the Lateral Cutaneous Nerve of the Thigh : This nerve
is seldom involved in its retroperitoneal course through the pelvis.
It leaves the pelvis just medial to the anterior superior iliac spine
and either passes through or deep to the inguinal ligament,
where it may become compressed. There is an area of impaired
sensation, often with pain and paraesthesiae on the
anterolateral aspect of the thigh (meralgia paraesthetica). The
area involved is immensely variable, but is usually confined to
the distal cutaneous distribution of the anterior branch of the
lateral cutaneous nerve. This area does not extend across the
midline anteriorly, it does not extend below the knee and it
does not extend behind the hamstring tendons laterally.
Exceptionally the posterior branch of the lateral cutaneous nerve
of the thigh may be affected separately; this supplies a thin strip
from the greater trochanter of the femur down about two-thirds of
the way to the knee. This branch leaves the main trunk of the
nerve, usually distal to the inguinal ligament, and it then turns
laterally to pierce the tensor fasciae latae muscle where it may
become entrapped.

Cheiralgia paresthetica, a
mononeuropathy of the
superficial branch of the
radial nerve, is an uncomm
-on problem, usually resulti -
ng from local trauma to the
wrist. It is also called as
Handcuff Neuropathy and the
patient may complain of pain
around the thumb while tight
handcuffs were in place.
The pain decreased with
handcuff removal, but there
is residual paresthesia or
decreased sensation over
the radial side of the thumb
metacarpal (or a more
extensive distribution). The
same injury may also be
produced by pulling on a
ligature around the wrist, or
wearing a tight watch-
282 Orthopaedics
426. (A) Chronic ischemia to limbs due to popliteal artery injury
Reference: Bailey and Love 24th Edition Page 590
♦ There can be more than one answer to this question.
♦ In any nerve injury or muscle injury sustained as a result of
trauma, the paralysis is immediate. Few nerve injuries may
manifest two months after injury
♦ Thus we are choosing the vascular cause for the present lesion

427. (A) Radial Nerve (D) Posterior Interosseous Nerve

Reference: Gray 38th Edition Page 1274
Also see Question 418
♦ Please note that the finger extensors are affected whether the
lesion is in Radial Nerve or in Posterior Interosseous Nerve
Radial Nerve
BDChaurasia describe the branches of Radial Nerve only under
the following headings
A Before Spiral Groove
♦ Long head of Triceps
♦ Medial Head of Triceps
B.In Spiral Groove
♦ Long Head of Triceps
♦ Lateral Head of Triceps
♦ Medial Head of Triceps
♦ Anconeus
C. After Spiral Groove
♦ Brachialis
♦ Brachioradialis
♦ Extensor Carpi Radialis
Gray describes the muscular branches as below
These supply the triceps, anconeus, brachioradialis, extensor carpi
radialis longus and brachialis in medial, posterior and lateral
♦ Medial muscular branches
· Arise from the radial nerve on the medial side of the arm.
· They supply the
o Medial head of Triceps -the branch to the medial being a long,
slender filament which, lying close to the ulnar nerve as far as
the distal third of the arm, is often termed the ulnar collateral
o Long heads of the triceps,
♦ A large posterior muscular branch
· Arises from the nerve as it lies in the humeral groove.
· It divides to supply the
o Medial and
o Lateral heads of the triceps and the
Nerves 283
o Anconeus, that for the latter being a long nerve which desc-
ends in the medial head of the triceps and partially supplies
it; it is accompanied by the middle collateral branch of the
arteria profunda brachii and passes behind the elbow joint to
end in the anconeus.
♦ Lateral muscular branches
· Arise in front of the lateral intermuscular septum;
· Supply the
o Lateral part of the brachialis,
o Brachioradialis and
o Extensor carpi radialis longus.
Lesions of Radial Nerve
♦ At Axilla
o Loss of Elbow Extension
o Loss of Sensation in the lateral and posterior Part of Arm
o Loss of Wrist Extension - Wrist Drop
o Loss of Thumb Extension - Thumb drop
o Loss of Finger Extension - Finger drop
o Loss of Sensation in the first dorsal web space
♦ At the lower end of Spiral Groove
o Loss of Wrist Extension - Wrist Drop
o Loss of Thumb Extension - Thumb drop
o Loss of Finger Extension - Finger drop
o Loss of Sensation in the first dorsal web space
♦ After Spiral Groove Before Piercing the Supinator and before the
origin of sensory branch
o Diminished Wrist Extension - Wrist Deviates radially when
o Loss of Thumb Extension - Thumb drop
o Loss of Finger Extension - Finger drop
o Loss of Sensation in the first dorsal web space
♦ After Piercing the Supinator (Posterior Interosseus Nerve)
o Loss of Thumb Extension - Thumb drop
o Loss of Finger Extension - Finger drop
♦ Superficial Branch
It lies superficially and relatively unprotected overlying the lateral
aspect of the radius, where it is easily compressed by tight bracelets,
watch straps and handcuffs, Called as Cheralgia Paraesthetica
(compare with Meralgia Paraesthetica)
o Loss of Sensation in the first dorsal web space
o If the lesion is proximal in this nerve, sensation may be impaired
over a variable area of skin over the lateral side of the dorsum of
the hand.
284 Orthopaedics
428. (D) Radial Nerve
Reference: Gray 38th Edition Page 1274
Please note that Radial Nerve in Spiral Groove is associated with
lot of ‘S’. The nerve is involved in lesions of
♦ Fracture Shaft of Humerus fractures
♦ Saturday night palsy
♦ Syringe (Injection) palsy
♦ Surgical Positions like Tredenlenberg
♦ ‘S’ march (Esmarch) Tourniquet palsy

429. (B) Ulnar Nerve

Reference: Maheswari 3rd Edition Page 55
Tests for Ulnar Nerve Include
♦ Card Test is done to test the palmar interossei (adductors). In
this test the examiner inserts a card between the two extended
fingers and the patient is asked to hold it as tightly as possible
while examiner tries to pull the card out
♦ Egawa Test is for dorsal interossei (abductor) of the middle finger.
With the hand kept flat on a table with palmar surface down, the
patient is asked to move his middle finger sideways
♦ Book Test is a test for ulnar nerve palsy which specifically tests
the action of adductor pollicis. The patient is asked to hold a
piece of paper between the thumb and a flat palm and the paper
is pulled away. Normal individual will be able to hold the paper
with little or no difficulty. However, In ulnar nerve palsy the patient
will flex the thumb to try to maintain a hold on the paper and this is
called as Froment’s sign.

430. (C) Median Nerve injury

Reference: Maheswari 3rd Edition Page 54
♦ In case of a Median Nerve lesion, the nerve supply to the lateral
half of FDP (Flexor Digitorum Profundus) is lost and that means
there loss of flexion of the Distal Interphalangeal (DIP) Joint of
the Index Finger (and to a certain extent) the Middle Finger
♦ Now when you ask the patient to clasp his hand, (Ochner’s
Clasping Test) there is flexion in all other joints of the hand except
the Distal Interphalangeal Joint and the Index Finger “points”
instead of being flexed à this is called as Pointing Index Sign
♦ As the patient is unable to flex the Distal Interphalangeal Joint à
the Index and (to a certain extent) the middle finger are extended
and this gives rise to the Benediction Attitude, the attitude the
priest (clergyman) keeps his hand when blessing
Lesions of the Median Nerve
Median nerve lesions occur at two sites,
1. In the forearm (Pronator Syndrome) and
2. At the wrist. (Carpal Tunnel Syndrome)
Nerves 285
Pronator Syndrome
This is an uncommon entrapment neuropathy of the median nerve
The nerve may be involved at any of these sites.
1. As it passes alongside the fibrous band connecting the biceps
tendon to the forearm fascia,
2. As it passes down between the two heads of pronator teres
3. As it passes through a fibrous arch formed by flexor digitorum
Symptoms and Signs
There is weakness of all the muscles innervated by the median
nerve, including abductor pollicis brevis and the long finger flexors.
There is also sensory impairment on the palm of the hand(spared
in the carpal tunnel syndrome because the palmar cutaneous
branch of the median nerve arises above the carpal tunnel and lies
superficial to it.)
Anterior interosseous nerve palsy
The anterior interosseous nerve usually arises from the median
nerve proximal to the site of compression in the pronator syndrome;
it may be affected with the median nerve or by itself.
1. Due to external pressure (a form of Saturday night palsy),
2. Sometimes by tight grip in association with pronation without
obvious cause.
3. May be a manifestation of neuralgic amyotrophy and tends to
resolve spontaneously over several months.
An anterior interosseous nerve palsy causes weakness of pinch
grip due to involvement of flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum
profundus to the index finger.
Please note that
Innervation of flexor digitorum profundus to the middle finger is
rather variable, (also by Ulnar Nerve) therefore this muscle may or
may not be weak.
The branches to these three muscles (FDP,FPL,PQ)may arise
separately from the median nerve, so that isolated weakness of the
terminal phalanx to the thumb or index finger may occur. The
pronator quadratus is also involved but is not clinically significant.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
This is the most common entrapment mononeuropathy caused by
the compression of the median nerve as it passes through the
fibro-osseous tunnel beneath the flexor retinaculum.
The carpal tunnel may be narrowed by
286 Orthopaedics
1. Arthritic changes in the wrist joint, particularly rheumatoid arthritis;
2. Soft tissue thickening as may occur in myxoedema and acrome-
3. Edema and obesity including pregnancy.
Normally the nerve slides smoothly in and out of the carpal tunnel
with flexion and extension of the wrist; when the nerve is compres-
sed there is an additional damage to the nerve with flexion and
The dominant hand is usually affected first, probably because this
hand is used more frequently and more vigorously.
There is wasting and weakness of abductor pollicis brevis
Impairment of sensation in the
1. Thumb,
2. Index Finger,
3. Middle Finger and
4. Median side of the Ring finger,
(the palmar branch of the median nerve is spared since it does
not pass through the carpal tunnel.)

431. (A) 1st

Reference: Maheswari 3rd Edition Page 50
♦ The part of the neuron distal to the point of injury undergoes
secondary or Wallerian degeneration
♦ The proximal part undergoes primary or retrograde degeneration
for a single node

432. (A) Thumb, Finger, Wrist Drop

Reference: Gray 38th Edition Page 12 74
Also see Question 418, 427, 428

433. 3 hours
Reference: Apley 8th Edition Page 256
Here we can go for Choice C as the answer

434. (C) Wrist Drop

Reference: Gray 38th Edition Page 1274
Also see Question 418, 427, 432

435. (B) Axillary Nerve

Reference: Maheswari 3rd Edition Page 76
♦ The commonest causes of axillary nerve lesions are trauma and
neuralgic amyotrophy. There is wasting and weakness of deltoid,
which is usually clinically evident, and a patch of sensory loss on
Nerves 287
the outer aspect of the arm. This can be differentiated from a C5
root lesion by finding normal function in the distribution of the
suprascapular nerve.

436. (C) Deltoid and Teres Minor

Reference: Gray 38th Edition Page 1269
♦ Axillary (Circumflex Humeral) Nerve arises from the posterior cord,
its fibres being derived from the fifth and sixth cervical ventral
rami. It is at first lateral to the radial nerve, posterior to the axillary
artery and anterior to the subscapularis, at whose lower border it
curves back inferior to the humeroscapular articular capsule and,
with the posterior circumflex humeral vessels, traverses a
quadrangular space bounded above by the subscapularis
(anterior) and teres minor (posterior), below by the teres major,
medially by the long head of triceps and laterally by the humeral
surgical neck. The nerve finally divides into anterior and posterior
branches. The anterior branch, with the posterior circumflex
humeral vessels, curves round the humeral neck, deep to the
deltoid, to its anterior border, supplying it and giving a few small
cutaneous branches which pierce the muscle to ramify in the
skin over its lower part. The posterior branch supplies the teres
minor and the posterior part of the deltoid; on the branch to the
teres minor an enlargement or pseudoganglion usually exists.
The posterior branch pierces the deep fascia low on the posterior
border of the deltoid, continuing as the upper lateral cutaneous
nerve of the arm and supplying the skin over the lower part of the
deltoid and the upper part of the long head of triceps. The axillary
trunk supplies a branch to the shoulder joint below the

437. (B) Median and Sciatic

Reference: Apley 8th Edition Page 227 and Bailey and Love 24th
Edition Page 590 and Harrison 15th Edition Paeg 2499 (not in 16th
♦ A certain percentage of patients with peripheral nerve injury
develop a severe burning pain (causalgia) in the region innervated
by the nerve. The pain typically begins after a delay of hours to
days or even weeks. The pain is accompanied by swelling of the
extremity, periarticular osteoporosis, and arthritic changes in the
distal joints. A similar syndrome called reflex sympathetic
dystrophy can be produced without obvious nerve damage by a
variety of injuries, including fractures of bone, soft tissue trauma,
myocardial infarction, and stroke. Although the pathophysiology
of this condition is poorly understood, the pain can be relieved
within minutes by blocking the sympathetic nervous system. This
implies that sympathetic activity activates nociceptors even if they
288 Orthopaedics
are not obviously damaged. These results also suggest that the
sympathetic nervous system can, under some circumstances,
play an active role in inflammation
♦ Causalgia may complicate partial lesions of Sciatic Nerve (as
per Bailey and Love)
♦ Incomplete lesions of the median nerve between the axilla and
wrist may result in causalgia (a particularly severe type of burning
pain) as per Harrison 15th Edition Page 2499
♦ Causalgia is “a syndrome of sustained burning pain after a
traumatic nerve injury combined with vasomotor and sudomotor
dysfunction and later trophic changes”
♦ Causalgias are divided into two forms:
o Causalgia major involves peripheral nerve injury with electrical
“crosstalk” (ephapse) that causes severe hyperactivity of
sympathetic system (hyperpathia, vasoconstriction, and
movement disorder). The major form is severe, usually
caused by injury with high velocity sharp objects (e.g.,
butcher’s knife), vibratory component major trauma (e.g.,
bullet), or high-voltage nerve lesions (electrocution).
o Causalgia minor involves the same principle as causalgia
major, but milder injury, e.g., injury to the dorsum of hand or
foot, nerve root contusion, patient falling from a height on
gluteal region resulting in “guillotine” effect, bruising of nerve
root caught at the narrowed intervertebral foramen.
♦ The difference between the two categories is a matter of degree
and severity. To classify causalgia as an independent illness is
artificial, and causalgia is nothing but a sever form of RSD. In this
severe form of RSD, the course of the disease is quite accelerated
from stage 1 through 4 in a matter of weeks or months. S. Weir
Mitchell in 1872 first reported rapid development of atrophic
changes in the skin, nails, and soft tissues of the extremity in a
matter of days to weeks.
♦ Whereas in RSD of disuse the extremity is cold, in ephaptic
dystrophy the thermography reveals in the distal portion of the
extremely cold extremity that there is an isolated hot spot that
points to the area of scar formation and ephaptic peripheral nerve
dysfunction. In this area the vasoconstrictive capability of the
sympathetic nerve is paralyzed, and there is a topical hot spot.
This hot spot can be appreciated only by thermography.
♦ This type of RSD is quite painful and very difficult to treat. It
demands multidisciplinary therapy as well as early diagnosis.
The ephaptic form is characterized by increased heat emission
at the area of ephaptic lesion (electric short). As the condition
becomes chronic, the distal portion of the extremity involved and
the contralateral extremity becomes cold, but the ephaptic spot
stays hyperalgesic and warm.
Nerves 289
438. (B) Functional Disruption
Reference: Maheswari 3rd Edition Page 51
Also See Question 422
Type of Injury Pathology Degeneration Neuroma Prognosis
Neurapraxia Physiological Nil Nil Recovery
interruption; complete
anatomically within 6
normal weeks
439. (D) Radial Nerve
Reference: Gray 38th Edition Page 1274
Also see Question 418, 427, 428, 432, 434

440. (A) Ulnar Nerve

Reference: Maheswari 3rd Edition Page 56
Also See Question 429

441. (C) Lunate

Reference: Bailey and Love 24th Edition Page 532
Also See Question 326

442. (C) Radial Nerve arises from the posterior Cord

Reference: Gray 38th Edition Page 1268 and Das Concise Textbook
of Surgery 3rd Edition page 177
♦ The brachial plexus is a union of the lower four cervical ventral
rami and the greater part of the first thoracic ventral ramus; the
fourth ramus usually gives a branch to the fifth and the first thoracic
frequently receives one from the second.
♦ Cervical Rib involves the lower trunk (Das)
♦ Musculocutaneous nerve arises from the Lateral Cord
♦ Contributions to the plexus by C4 and T2 vary; when the branch
from C4 is large, that from T2 is frequently absent and the
branch from T1 is reduced, forming a prefixed type of plexus. If
the branch from C4 is small or absent, the contribution of C5 is
reduced but that of T1 is larger and one from T2 is always present;
this arrangement constitutes a postfixed type of plexus.

443. (C) Neurotemesis

Reference: Maheswari 3rd Edition Page 51
Also See Question 422 and 438
♦ The other classification (apart from Seddon) used is Sunderland’s
Classification of nerve injuries

444. (D) Serratus Anterior

Reference: Gray 38th Edition Page 1268
♦ When serratus anterior is paralysed, the medial border of the
scapula, and especially its lower angle, stand out prominently.
290 Orthopaedics
The patient cannot raise the arm fully or push effectively; attempts
to do so produce further projection, known as ‘winging’ of the
scapula. It is best demonstrated by asking the patient to push
against resistance with the arm extended at the elbow and flexed
to 90° at the shoulder.
♦ The long thoracic nerve is the most common nerve to be affected
by neuralgic amyotrophy.

445. (C) Ulnar and Median Nerve

Reference: Maheswari 3rd Edition Page 51
Types and Causes of ClawHand
♦ True Claw Hand or Total Claw Hand
o Both Median and Ulnar nerves are affected due to causes like
o Syringomyelia
o Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
o Peripheral Neuritis etc
♦ Ulnar Claw Hand (also called Claw like Hand)
o Only Ulnar nerve is affected

446. (D) Regeneration of the Nerves

Reference: Maheswari 3rd Edition Page 57
♦ Tinel’s test is a sign of nerve recovery. In this test, if the site of the
nerve injury is tapped then there is tingling along the course of
the nerve.
♦ This test can also be used in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel
syndrome. In this instance tapping over the carpal tunnel causes
tingling in the thumb and radial two and a half fingers.

447. (D) Lateral Cutaneous Nerve of Thigh

Reference: Gray 38th Edition Page 1280
Also See Question 425

448. (A) Common Peroneal Nerve

Reference: Maheswari 3rd Edition Page 37
Nerve damaged Trauma Effects
Axillary Nerve Dislocation of the shoulder Deltoid Paralysis
Radial Nerve Fracture shaft of the humerus Wrist Drop
Median Nerve Supracondylar fracture of Pointing Index
Ulnar Nerve Fracture medial epicondyle Claw Hand
Sciatic Nerve Posterior dislocation of the Foot Drop due to
hip weakness of
dorsiflexors of the foot
Common Knee Dislocation and Foot Drop
Peroneal Nerve Fracture of neck of fibula
Nerves 291
Few Tables
♦ Incidence of Peripheral Nerve Injuries
♦ Radial Nerve is commonly injured
♦ Ulnar Nerve 30 percent
♦ Median Nerve 15 percent
♦ Peroneal Nerve
♦ Lumbosacral Plexus 3 percent
♦ Tibial Nerve
Typical deformities
♦ Wrist drop, Finger drop and thumb drop – Radial Nerve injury
♦ Claw Hand – Ulnar Nerve injury
♦ Foot Drop – lateral popliteal nerve injury
♦ Ape Thumb – Median Nerve Injury
♦ Winging of Scapula – Long Thoracic Nerve of Bell Injury
♦ Pointing Index or Oschner;s Clasp test – Median Nerve Injury
(along with Benediction test and Pen test)
♦ Policeman tip – Brachial Plexus Injury
Simple Screening Tests
♦ Ulnar Nerve Injury – loss of pain at the tip of the little finger
♦ Median Nerve Injury – loss of pain at the tip of index finger
♦ Radial Nerve Injury – Inability to extend the thumb (hitch hiker’s

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