Course Syllabus Title: EDLP 380: Policy Considerations for Teacher Recruitment and Retention Credits: 3 Credits Instructor

: Patrick Halladay Meeting dates and times: 20 July- 31 July, M-F, 4:00-8:30 pm Location: UVM campus (Classroom TBD)

Course Description: Teaching may be simultaneously the easiest and most difficult job. Easiest in that we have all been in classrooms as students for more than a dozen years and we have all taught someone something at some point. Everyone has an idea of what the job looks like. Difficult in that science of teaching is always behind the veil. This dichotomy is essential in understanding why people choose whether or not to teach and, once in the classroom, whether or not they stay. That everyone knows the ―grammar of school‖ may drive some to teach while simultaneously repelling others. Embracing the science of teaching may destroy the illusions of some drawn to the classroom, while drawing others to teaching who were initially leery. How come teaching is the largest profession in the US? What draws candidates to teaching? Who is drawn to teaching? Is there a role for policy in changing the makeup of the profession? Once students choose teaching, what can states, districts, school buildings, and universities do to keep them there? This course will address these questions, attempting to understand the assumptions of candidates, administrators, and policymakers about why people choose to teach and why some stay and others leave. This course will examine policy interventions from the largest scale to those unique to individual buildings to try understand what has worked and why in drawing vibrant teachers to the classroom and keeping them there. Goals: The College of Education and Social Services provides leadership in addressing the educational and human service needs of Vermont and the nation. We do so by preparing outstanding professionals in education, social work, and human services, engaging in scholarship of high quality, and providing exemplary professional service. The ultimate purpose of these activities is to create a more humane and just society, free from oppression, that fosters respect for ethnic and cultural diversity, and maximizes human potential and the quality of life for all individuals, families and communities. Toward that end, this course attempts to examine what is necessary to attract and retain the highest caliber teachers for students of all backgrounds. A close examination what policy has and has not done in meeting this end is a vital starting point in any discussion attempting to remake schools in the image of what we hope they can be.

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Learning Outcomes: • To better understand what policy initiatives have been undertaken to recruit and retain teachers. • To understand what assumptions about teaching and teachers are built into these policy initiatives. • To consider the associated strengths and limitations of policy initiatives depending on their hierarchical origin. • To create a definition of what it means to be a professional • To closely study a policy document, examining its aims and effects.

General Course Information

Course Policies/Expectations: The success of this class depends heavily on your thoughtful contributions to class discussions. We have a short time together, so much must be accomplished in each class. Please read and think critically and carefully about the readings scheduled for each class session and to come to class prepared to share your thoughts, raise questions, and listen carefully to others as they do the same. Each night I will write the class a note describing what we have in mind for the following day, including discussion questions and particular issues you might want to attend to in the readings. We are a diverse lot. Throughout the course, we will focus on developing discourse patterns that both connect to students’ individual interests and backgrounds while also working on the ideas presented in the readings. We will need to work attentively on norms for the class discussions. Listening carefully, treating ideas with respect and interest, raising and responding to questions, sharing the floor -- all these will matter in constructing an environment where satisfying and challenging intellectual work can take place. One part of exploring an idea or an argument is to attend closely to it to understand its logic, intention, meaning. Listening generously, assuming that ideas and claims are made for good reasons, is crucial to thinking well. Another part is to be skeptical, to consider what is missing or logically flawed. Using both – generosity and skepticism – contributes to careful unpacking of ideas and to good thinking. Please remember that our diversity provides challenges and opportunities for the class. We are all entering with different assumptions and it is our duty to both consider our assumptions and to allow for how others’ professional and personal experiences color their understanding. It is essential that every member of the class contribute to the development of these norms and to our discussions. What one learns in a seminar depends on the quality of discussions; the quality of those discussions depends on all of us. Our tentative plan is to begin each class with a large group meeting. Our work at that time will vary – we might talk as a full group, we might split into smaller groups, work alone, or in pairs.

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Attendance Expectations: As part of this seminar, we must recognize that we all are working professionals with complex personal lives. On occasion the need may arise for a seminar participant to miss a class session. So…..one absence, don’t worry, but do tell me if it is coming. I will be planning this class carefully, and that includes assumptions about who will be there. I need to know in order to plan our meetings well. Then collect the assignments and readings from your colleagues. Should you miss two sessions (two, four hour blocks) you course grade will be down graded by one level (e.g. B to C). If there is some reason why you are less then well prepared for a class session, you should let me know. This will save you and me any embarrassment associated with calling on you to contribute to class discussions. Life gets in the way on occasion. Just let me know when it does. Attendance is mandatory. Late attendance and late work. We all run late on occasion and forgiveness is expected. If you are late to class or cannot attend class, it is your responsibility to collect handouts, notes, new deadlines, etc. from your classmates. Please work out a relationship with one or two members of the class such that you can collect information about your missed session.

Contributions in Class: Class Participation Assignment 1: Assignment 2: Assignment 3:

(20% Final Grade) (20% Final Grade) (30% of Final Grade) (30% of Final Grade)

Academic Honesty & Professionalism: Throughout the course, we will engage in activities and dialog designed to fulfill the mission and competencies associated with the M.Ed./CAS Program in Educational Leadership, and the College of Education and Social Services at the University of Vermont. The mission statements of both the College and Program underscore the need to promote equity, excellence, and empowerment among individuals and the communities with which we are engaged. These concepts are associated with an ethic of caring. As class participants and leaders, we need to explore our own values and capacity for caring. We should engage in professional behavior that demonstrates collegiality and collaboration. And, we should reflect continually on our capacity to lead.

Accommodations: Accommodations and the assignment of letter grades will follow the University of Vermont’s grading system1. Please report all grading errors in writing. Simple arithmetic errors should be noted in several sentences and be accompanied with the original work product. If you feel as though your grade on a work product does not warrant the criticism it receives, please describe your arguments in less than

1 See http://giraffe.uvm.edu/~rgweb/gpa_calc.html for more information about the University of Vermont’s Grading System.

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one page. If you require special accommodations please inform the instruction at the beginning of the seminar.

Electronic Submissions/Internet Use: All written course work—so excluding posters—can be submitted either in hard copy or electronically, which ever is most convenient for you. Electronic submissions should be in Word and use the following format for the document title: classname.yourlastname.assignment.doc. So if I submitted Assignment 2 it would read: edlp380.halladay.assign2.doc. Yes, this sounds picky, but it is only intended to minimize confusion.

Student Evaluation/Assessment Grading: Grades earned for major course products and participation will be calculated into your final grade using the following grading structure: 98-100 = 94-97 = 91-93 = 88-90 = 84-97 = 81-83 = Etc…… A+ A AB+ B B-

Description of Class Assignments: Assignment #1 Personal Statement on your motivation for teaching Most of us in the class have been in front of a classroom at some point in our lives and are now, at least considering, moving to a leadership role in education that likely demands leaving the classroom. Recount your own personal decision to enter teaching. What drew you to teaching? Was it a direct or circuitous path? What is your interest in leadership? Do you regret having to leave the classroom, liberated, ambivalent? Assignment #2 Movie Review—Definition of Professional Watch a movie about a profession other than teaching (some examples might include The Paper Chase, The Company, The Doctor, Glen Gary Glenross) and a movie about teaching (there are many: Stand and Deliver, Teacher, Mr. Holland’s Opus, Freedom Writers, Half Nelson, Dangerous Minds). Compare and contrast the depictions of the two professions—what counts as knowledge in the professions, what preparation is necessary for entry into the professions, what is the relationship between the professional and the client.

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Assignment #3 Policy Brief—Group Poster Presentation Take a policy that we have examined over the course of the class, or an issue of specific interest to your group—it could be a building/district initiative, for example. Then, (A) have each individual write a memorandum to a policymaker (e.g., superintendent, local/state/federal legislator) on the strengths, limitations, and possible unintended consequences of the policy document, and (B) as a group present a poster on the policy highlighting its origin, the problem it intended to assuage and how, its enactment, and its effectiveness in meeting its original goal.

Instructional Sequence: Part 1 Is teaching a profession?

I—Introduction to recruitment, retention, policy, and professionalism—20 July A. Introductions B. A typology of professions C. The challenges D. Movie--The First Year Required Readings Kristof, N. D. (2006, 30 April). Opening classroom doors. New York Times, p. 15. Recommended readings

II—Professions and Semi-professions—21 July 2008 Required Readings Sykes, G. (1991). In defense of teacher professionalism as a policy choice. Educational Policy, 5(2), 137-149. Buchmann, M. (1986). Role over person: Morality and authenticity in teaching. Teachers College Record, 87(4), 529-543. Johnson, S. M. (2005). The prospects for teaching as a profession. In L. V. Hedges & B. Schneider (Eds.), The social organization of schooling (pp. 72-90). New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Recommended Readings Noddings, N. (1990). Feminist critiques in the professions. Review of Research in Education, 16, 393424. Noddings, N. (2003). Caring: A feminine approach to ethics and moral education. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Angus, D. L., & Mirel, J. (2000). Professionalism and the public good: A brief history of teacher certification. Retrieved 17 November, 2004, from http://www.edexcellence.net/institute/publication/publication.cfm?id=12 Wilensky, H. L. (1964). The professionalization of everyone? The American Journal of Sociology, 70(2), 137-158. Etzoini, A. (1969). The semi-professions and their organization. New York: Free Press. Warren, D. (1989). American teachers: Histories of a profession at work. New York: MacMillan.

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Abbott, A. (1988). The system of professions: An essay on the division of expert labor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Simpson, R. L., & Simpson, I. H. (1969). Women and bureaucracy in the semi-professions. In A. Etzoini (Ed.), The semi-professions and their organization (pp. 196-265). New York: Free Press.

III—The Professionalization of Everyone—22 July 2008 Required Readings Metzger, W. P. (1987). A spectre is haunting American scholars: The spectre of "professionism". Educational Researcher, 16(6), 10-19. Sykes, G. (1987). Reckoning with the spectre. Educational Researcher, 16(6), 19-21. Bestor, A. E. (1953). On the education and certification of teachers. School and Society, 78, 81-87. Recommended Readings Lortie, D. C. (1975). Schoolteacher. Chicago: University Chicago Press. Darling-Hammond, L., & Sykes, G. (1999). Teaching as the learning profession: Handbook of Policy and Practice. San Francisco: Josey-Bass. Part 2 Policy questions and questions on policy

IV—What is a policy?—23 July 2008 Guest Speaker—Vermont State Department of Education Required Readings Green, T. F. (1994). Policy questions: A conceptual study. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 2(7) National Commission on Excellence in Education. (1983). A nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Education. Cohen, D.K., Moffitt, S.L., & Goldin, S. (2007). Policy and practice: The dilemma. American Journal of Education. 113(4), 515-548. Recommended Readings Bennett, W. J., Fair, W., Finn, C. E., Jr., Flake, F., Hirsch, E. D., Jr., Marshall, W., et al. (1998). A nation still at risk. Policy Review, 90, 23-29. Youngs, P., & Bell, C. (2008). When policy instruments combine to promote coherence: An analysis of Connecticut's policies related to teacher quality. (in preparation). Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium. (1992). Model standards for beginning teacher licensing and development: A resource for state dialogue. Washington, DC: Author and Council of Chief State School Officers. Part 3 Recruitment

V—A national plan?—24 July 2008 Required Readings

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Darling-Hammond, L., & Sykes, G. (2003). Wanted: A national teacher supply policy for education: The right way to meet the "Highly Qualified Teacher" challenge. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 11(33). Recommended Readings Guarino, C. M., Santibanez, L., & Daley, G. A. (2006). Teacher recruitment and retention: A review of the recent empirical literature. Reveiw of Educational Research, 76(2), 173-208. Holmes Group. (1986). Tomorrow's teachers: A report of the Holmes Group. East Lansing, MI. National Commission on Teaching and America's Future. (2003). No dream denied: A pledge to America's children. Washington, DC: National Commission on Teaching and America's Future. National Commission on Teaching and America's Future. (1996). What matters most: Teaching & America's future. New York: National Commission on Teaching & America's Future. VI—Alternate Routes—27 July 2008 Guest Speaker—Director TAP Required Reading Klagholz, L. (2001b). State policy and effective alternative teacher certification. The Education Digest, 67(1), 33-36. Goodnough, A. (2000b, 2 July). Wanted: Bored professionals who have teaching in mind. New York Times, pp. 19, 22. Finn, C. E., Jr., & Madigan, K. (2001). Removing the barriers for teacher candidates. Educational Leadership, 58(8), 29-31, 36.

Recommended Reading Goodnough, A. (2004). Ms. Moffett's first year: Becoming a teacher in America. New York: Public Affairs. Goodnough, A. (2000a, 1 August). Teacher trainees who left other careers speak of a higher calling. New York Times, p. B1. Klagholz, L. (2001a). Alternative certification and the employment of minority teachers. Basic Education, 46, 11-15. Johnson, S. M., Birkeland, S. E., Peske, H. G., & Munger, M. S. (2005). A difficult balance: Incentives and quality control in alternative certification programs. Cambridge, MA: The Project on the Next Generation of Teachers, Harvard Graduate School of Education.

VII—Teacher Quality—28 July 2008 Required Readings Ballou, D., & Podgursky, M. (1995). Recruiting smarter teachers. The Journal of Human Resources, 30, 326-338. Recommended Readings No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (2001) U.S. Congress, Title II. Darling-Hammond, L., & Bransford, J. (2005). Preparing teachers for a changing world: What teachers should be learn and be able to do. San Francisco: Josey-Bass.

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Part 4

Retention

VIII—Certification and induction—29 July 2008 Guest Speaker—Local Human Resources Director Required Readings Ingersoll, R. M. (2001). Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: An organizational analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 499-534. Berliner, D. C. (2002). Educational research: The hardest science of all. Educational Researcher, 31(8), 18-20. Feiman-Nemser, S. (2001) From preparation to practice: Designing a continuum to strengthen and sustain teaching. Teachers College Record, 103(6), 1013-55. Recommended Readings Ingersoll, R. M. (2003). Who controls teachers’ work?: Power and accountability in America’s schools. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Ballou, D., & Podgursky, M. (2000). Reforming teacher preparation and licensing: What is the evidence? Teachers College Record. IX—Why to they leave?—30 July 2008 Required Readings Johnson, S. M., Berg, J. H., & Donaldson, M. L. (2005). Who stays in teaching and why: A review of the literature on teacher retention. Cambridge, MA: The Project on the Next Generation of Teachers, Harvard Graduate School of Education. (Introduction Only) Achinstein, B., & Ogawa, R. (2006). (In)Fidelity: What the resistance of new teachers reveals about professional principles and prescriptive educational policies. Harvard Educational Review, 76(1), 30-63. Recommended Readings Achinstein, B., Ogawa, R. T., & Speiglman, A. (2004). Are we creating seperate and unequal tracks of teachers? The effects of state policy, local conditions, and teacher characteristics on new teacher socialization. American Educational Research Journal, 41(3), 557-603. X—To Be Determined—31 July 2008

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