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Faculty of Health & Human Sciences
Thank you to members of the Faculty Learning, Teaching and Assessment Group (FLTAG) who kindly reviewed this edition and to all staff and Schools who contributed to former editions of the Faculty Referencing Guidelines.
Every effort has been made to ensure the information within this document is correct; however, if you notice any inaccuracies or have any questions or queries regarding the guidelines please do not hesitate to contact me.
Sue Murray Deputy Associate Dean (Learning and Teaching) Faculty of Health and Human Sciences August 2009
The Faculty Guide to Referencing and Bibliographical Citation: Contents
Introduction Plagiarism and Academic Integrity Referencing 1 1 2
Section 1: Use of References in Text (Citations of References)
1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 Citing sources in the text: examples Correctly citing a reference in the text Correctly citing a direct quotation Example of plagiarism Citation of one author Citation of two authors Citation of three or more authors Citation of two or more publications Citing two or more publications from the same author(s) in the same year Citing two or more authors with the same surname in the same year Citing authors with compound surnames Citation from an edited book Citations from a religious text Direct quotations Citations from individual work/pages on the World Wide Web Citations from Government or other organisation publications Citations from organisations or institutions as authors Citations from dissertations and theses Citations from conference material Citations from company literature Citations from unpublished work and personal communication Citations from films, videos and broadcasts Citations from newspaper articles Citations from CD-ROMs Citations from electronic mail Citations from StudyNet Citations from lecture notes Citations from legal materials Citations from dictionaries Citations from pamphlets/advice sheets Secondary references 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12
Section 2: Reference and Bibliography List 2.19 2.7 2.2 2.2.4 2.21 Presentation of the reference/bibliography list Referencing a book One author Two authors Three.7 220.127.116.11 2.1.1 2.5 2.3 2.1 2.1.15 2.6 2.12 2.20 2.6 2.2 2.1.18 2.3 2.9 2.1. four or five authors Six or more authors Referencing an edited book Referencing two or more publications from the same author(s) in the same year Referencing two or more authors with the same surname and same initial in the same year Referencing an individual author and one by the same individual with another co author Referencing a journal Referencing two or more publications from one author in different years Referencing an author with a compound surname Direct quotations Referencing individual work/pages on the World Wide Web Referencing discussion groups/e-mail lists Referencing personal e-mails Referencing StudyNet Referencing Government publications Referencing organisations or institutions as authors Referencing religious texts Referencing dissertations and theses Referencing conference material Referencing company literature Referencing unpublished work and personal communication Referencing films.13 2.4 2.10 2.14 2.1 2.16 2.8 2.1.5 2.0 2.8 2.1. videos and broadcasts Referencing newspaper articles Referencing CD-ROMs Referencing legal materials Referencing dictionaries Referencing pamphlets/advice sheets Referencing secondary references 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 19 20 20 20 21 21 21 22 22 23 23 23 24 Section 3: Endnote Web Guide References .1.2 2.11 2.
depth and appropriateness of your reading relevant to your assessment. of another person’s work as their own or use of another person’s work without acknowledgement’ (University of Hertfordshire. except where you give due acknowledgement to others. There are severe penalties for plagiarism. 114). p. 2008. there are many versions of the Harvard referencing system and this guide has been developed using the American Psychological Association [APA] guidelines (American Psychological Association.The Faculty Guide to Referencing and Bibliographical Citation Introduction This handbook provides information on writing and citing references. 1 Faculty HHS Referencing Guidelines 09-10 . Failure to acknowledge the work of others results in the loss of academic integrity and can result in a student being found guilty of academic misconduct. or diagrams in your work should be devised and produced by you. Plagiarism and Academic Integrity Plagiarism is a form of academic dishonesty and has no place in academic writing. Key aspects are summarised below: All written work (prose or text) must be written by you in your own words followed by acknowledgement of the source material (referenced). Referencing all sources of information within written work is an important part of academic integrity as it tells the reader where you have found your information. The University regulations define plagiarism as ‘the representation by an individual. thus conveying your understanding of the information. whether intentionally or otherwise. This must be recognised by using quotation marks. how up to date it is. and the extent. The only exception to not using your own words would be when using an exact quotation from another authors work. It is important that you adopt this system for assignments. referencing material consistently and accurately in the format required by all Programmes1 within the Faculty. tables. 2001) and the British Standard Recommendations for References to Published Materials (British Standards Institution [BSI] 2002). It also helps the reader to differentiate between your personal thoughts and experiences and those of others. Any figures.
Where this is the case. note: the Bibliography is placed after the reference list. The first section demonstrates how to present your references within the main body of your work. EndNote Web enables you to cite references in your coursework in the correct format and will automatically draw up a reference list/bibliography for you. 1 Note – in special cases where students are undertaking modules administered by or associated with other Faculties or Schools. the module assessment guide will indicate this. provide a list of references that were referred to in your text. Referencing requires you to do two things: cite sources in your written text and. The third section is a guide to using EndNote Web. there may be a requirement to adopt an alternative system. Note. e.Academic staff marking your work will always watch for academic integrity and evidence of plagiarism and collusion. 2 Faculty HHS Referencing Guidelines 09-10 . your case will be reported to the Faculty Academic Conduct Officer (FACO). Referencing In your writing. If this is detected. if you have consulted other relevant material but NOT referred to it in the text. which follows the same rules for listing the references. The reader needs to be able to verify the truth of what is being stated. The second section shows how the reference list (and separate bibliography if used) should be presented at the end of your work. Oxford System for English Case Law as required by the School of Law. this must be listed in a separate Bibliography.g. If you get used to using EndNote Web for referencing it will save you a lot of time and will ensure you are referencing correctly. at the end of your work. any reader should be able to follow an audit trail to the source of the information. These guidelines are divided into three sections. It also enables you to store and manage your references appropriately.
When caring for Mrs X the size of her bedroom and amount of additional furniture in the room was the most difficult aspect of selecting her equipment. It is important to address equipment provision in an holistic way. however this section contains an example of. clinical. Please take time to read these examples carefully. but it is important that the practitioner has a clear understanding of how the equipment works and why it is suggested for that level of risk. A wide variety of systems are available for both bed and chair allowing for 24 hour provision of equipment. if the members of staff marking your work are querying your academic integrity.Section 1: Citations in the Text 1. a direct quotation and plagiarism.1.1 Citing sources in the Text Examples of correct use of references can be found throughout this document. psychological and environmental issues should be considered (Fletcher.1. 2005). Most manufacturers suggest which level of risk their equipment is suitable for. Information about the patient’s lifestyle and the environment in which they are to be cared for is as important as the determination of their level of risk. Any patient who is provided equipment for the bed and spends part of the day sat out (whether in a chair or wheelchair) should also have the relevant seating provided as in the sitting position the body weight is supported on a far smaller surface area and is therefore at greater risk. The nurses caring 3 Faculty HHS Referencing Guidelines 09-10 Or 1.2 Correctly citing a direct quotation in the text (see also page 7) Fletcher (2005) states that “Information about the patient’s lifestyle and the environment in which they are to be cared for is as important as the determination of their level of risk” (p. Tip: Remember to put the full stop after the bracketed reference (see above). please see your personal tutor. Remember. Examples of how this text may be used within an assignment The original text: (not from a published source but will be referred to as Fletcher. Information about the patient’s lifestyle and the environment in which they are to be cared for is as important as the determination of their level of risk.1 Correctly citing a reference in the text Fletcher (2005) suggests that there are a variety of factors to consider when selecting equipment. 1. A wide variety of systems are available for both bed and chair allowing for 24 hour provision of equipment. that you have copied work either from a published source or another student they WILL investigate and if evidence confirms academic dishonesty you will be referred to the Faculty Academic Conduct Officer. i. amongst which are the patient’s lifestyle and care environment. Example of Plagiarism Mrs X required specialist pressure ulcer prevention equipment.3 . referencing material in the text. but it is important that the practitioner has a clear understanding of how the equipment works and why it is suggested for that level of risk. Selection of equipment to prevent pressure ulcers is a complex task. if you still are unsure of the difference. 1. Most manufacturers suggest which level of risk their equipment is suitable for. 2005) Selection of equipment to prevent pressure ulcers is a complex task.1.e.2).
Example (First citation): Long. which can exacerbate anxiety. the author’s name and the year of the publication of the document cited are given as follows: Examples: A study used citation analysis to determine which core journals were used by physiotherapists (Bohannon.2 Citation of sources in text: one author Whenever reference is made to one author. include only the surname of the first author followed by ‘et al. Peters and Brown (1995) report that there are a number of factors which may influence health promoting behaviours and these include the individual’s perception. you should join multiple author citations by the word ‘and’. 1999). you should join the names by an ampersand ‘&’. 1997). Mexican-style soft cheese (James. 1988). in subsequent citations of the same reference.11 on page 7) that this is a direct quotation. 1. The assessment of a wound requires the nurse to have an underlying knowledge of the factors that may affect the healing process (Bale & Jones. Examples: Bale and Jones (1997) report that the assessment of a wound requires the nurse to have an underlying knowledge of the factors that may affect the healing process. 1. 1. Jones. If you fail to acknowledge the source and/or fail to show by using appropriate presentation (see section 1. namely pasteurised milk (Fleming. Thornes (1991) maintains that the starvation of patients can lead to physiological consequences. 1985) and a Swiss regional-type soft cheese (Billie. Tip: When citing references in running text. an unacceptable academic misconduct offence. whereas in the reference list or in bracketed citations. In this example you can see that sentences (as highlighted) have been copied directly from the original text and more importantly no reference is made to the original source.4 Citation of work by multiple authors For citations of three. 4 Faculty HHS Referencing Guidelines 09-10 . cite all the authors the first time the reference occurs.for Mrs X had only limited experience of equipment selection and therefore requested help from the Tissue Viability Nurse. cognitive ability and demographic characteristics. you are guilty of plagiarism. 1985). Three of the outbreaks involved dairy products.3 Citation of two authors Always cite both names every time the reference occurs in the text.’ and the year. four or five authors.
Pacey and Jones (2005) In the text you would cite them as such: The role of the multi-disciplinary team has become increasingly important within the modern health service (Rand... 1994). Example: Martin. Marple.. shorten to Martin et al. Exception: If two references with the same years shorten to the same form (e. (1994)… and Martin. cite only the surname of the first author followed by ‘et al. Mangle et al. Mangle. et al. et al.e. mistakes can be made when considering very small numbers.. Butler and Jamieson. provide the initials and surnames of the first six authors.’ Example: (First citation): Damage to the frontal cortex caused significant behavioural changes in patient RM (Myers. and Martin. (1995) suggest that health promoting behaviours are the most significant factors.’ plus a comma before stating the year.g. Butler and Penn. Examples: As Baker and Ridley (1997) demonstrated. (1994)… For citations of six or more authors. Communication between members of the multi-disciplinary team is essential (Rand. Tip: When citing the reference at the end of the sentence. Mead.’ (see page 13). 1995). Marple. Martin. (Subsequent citation of same reference) RM performed at chance levels on short term memory tasks (Myers et al. Butler. 1994. and shorten any remaining authors to ‘et al.(Subsequent citation of same reference) Long et al. Jamieson. cite the surnames of the first authors and of as many subsequent authors as necessary to distinguish the two references. Jamieson. 5 Faculty HHS Referencing Guidelines 09-10 . Pacey and Mangle (2005) Rand.’ and the year for the first and subsequent citations. Marple. 2005). Ade. ‘et al. Example: If you had entries for the following references: Rand. Ade. 1994. In the reference list. Tip: Include a full stop after ‘al’ as it is an abbreviation. 1997). remember to put a full stop after the ‘al. If two references with six or more authors shorten to the same form. Mead et al. Baker & Marshall. It is important to recognise the limitations of working with very small numbers (Baker & Ridley. Marple. cite the surnames of the first authors and as many of the subsequent authors as necessary to distinguish the two references. i. 2005). 1995).
1998). von Toller or ter Riet. although the first part of the surname may be presented in lower case it is an integral part of the surname and would be included in the reference in the text. they are distinguished by lower case letters (a. The presence of others may sometimes inhibit individual performance (F.8 Citing authors with compound surnames Some authors have compound surnames e. following the year within brackets. they are distinguished by the author’s forename initial. 1996). 6 Faculty HHS Referencing Guidelines 09-10 . the first article/book cited is a and so on.). The page or chapter numbers are included in the citation. Zola.7 Citing two or more authors with the same surname in the same year If two or more authors have the same surname. 1.5 Citation of two or more publications If two or more documents support your statement. In order to record blood and temperature measurements. Example: Damage to the perirhinal cortex can cause impairments on delayed non-matching to sample tasks (Brown et al. Edwards. the editors are acknowledged within the reference list.e. health professionals must have a clear understanding of physiological principles (Edwards. 1.. Include the first author’s initial in all text citations. 1997b). Example: Edwards (1997a. They are ordered by their appearance in the text. Gaffan & Buckley. 1995. the citations are listed in alphabetical order by the first author’s surname and are separated with semicolons. Edwards (1997) states that conformity to group norms brings psychological rewards through the acceptance by and support of other members. Example: In a systematic review of diagnostic and screening tests ter Riet (2001) simplified two main issues. 1997b) states that health professionals must have a clear understanding of physiological principles in order to accurately record both blood pressure and temperature measurements. b. 1. i. 2001. even if the year of publication differs.9 Citation from an edited book Only the author of the chapter is cited within the text.g. 1997a. 1.1. c etc. Examples: I.6 Citing two or more publications from the same author(s) in the same year If two or more documents have the same author and year.
’. 1996. pp.2008. p. Example: Redman (1976) found the following: A major purpose of stating objectives specifically is to help the learner understand them and become self-directive.752). Example: It is arguable that light is one of the most critical sources of energy.10 Citation from a religious text Most religious texts do not have a date as this can not be agreed upon. Examples: Balaskas (1990) states “many women underestimate the sheer hard work. particularly when dealing with sensitive aspects of subjects’ behaviour” (Clarke. where full disclosure would inevitably lead to biased responses some degree of covert data collection is feasible. 13). Earliest history refers to the sun (light) and in the first book of the Bible it says ‘let there be light’ (Genesis 1:3) 1. 1976.’. dedication and patience involved in caring for a baby” (p.Examples: Ruston and Wells (1999. without double quotation marks. Isolation is essential to prevent the spread of disease (Jones. Single page numbers are denoted by ‘p. double spaced. publication date and the page number of the quote should be included. 1. this should be placed in double quotation marks and the author’s name. this must be included within square brackets. If you add anything to the direct quotation in order to improve the reader’s understanding. the range of pages should be acknowledged using ‘pp. multiple pages by ‘pp.45) describe the use of a change management team to introduce leg ulcer management guidelines.. If the direct quotation extends over more than one page. “Many such defects [congenital] are not serious and may go unnoticed for a lifetime” (Tortora & Derrickson.. Self-direction is also served by 7 Faculty HHS Referencing Guidelines 09-10 . If the direct quotation exceeds more than 40 words the quotation should form a separate indented paragraph. p.’.11 Direct quotations If a direct quotation is used from another author’s work. “. The three dots in the above example indicate the beginning of the sentence in the original has been omitted from the quotation. chap. 434-435). 2). therefore a citation within the text would reference the author of that chapter/book without giving a date.
It is not acceptable for your work to consist of a large number of direct quotations. 1984). as information is often not reviewed and may lack academic validity. Example of Bills: All members of a workforce are entitled to be become a Trade Union member (UK Parliament. 1. 1972). 1980). Example: The Board. Tip: All types of direct quotations should be used SPARSELY. Tip: Care must be taken when accessing information available on the World Wide Web (WWW) through the Internet. These include Acts of Parliament. Command Papers. Statutory Instruments. 1980). rather than the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) needs to be cited. 1990). Example of Committee Reports: Proposals for the restructuring of senior personnel within the NHS were published in 1980 (UK Ministry of Health and Scottish Home and Health Department. Example of Statutory Instruments: An accurate record of accidents and dangerous occurrences should be maintained in the workplace (UK Statutory Instrument. 1. 8 Faculty HHS Referencing Guidelines 09-10 .12 Citations from individual work/pages on the World Wide Web To cite material from the web the author or organisation. 1999). Example Acts of Parliament: Community care is now high on the agenda in the NHS (UK Department of Health. the name of the department who issues the publication and the date should be cited. in responding to the Government’s strategy relating to the resistance of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents continues to encourage all education providers to ensure that infection control and the related issue of antibiotic use remain important themes through education programmes (ENB.13 Citations from Government or other Organisation publications There is a range of Government publications that you may wish to cite in your work. as in demonstrating catheter care and indicating what the learner should be able to do and when (p 90).having the teacher explain the goals and provide a model of the correct behaviour. Example of Command Papers: An employer has a duty to ensure that the health and safety of the workforce is maintained at all times (UK Committee for Health and Safety at Work. Bills and Committee Reports. they should only be used to accentuate significant points. In citing such material the country of origin.
2003). assess risks and take remedial action as is required (UK Medical Devices Agency.15 Citations from dissertations and theses Material cited from theses and dissertations is treated in the same way as books. unpublished conference paper). advanced planning (Pendleton. 1985).14 Citations from organisations or institutions as authors (corporate authorship) Where the publication is not the work of individuals. the name of the organisation/institution should be used with the year of publication. Example of Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency Bulletins (formerly the Medical Devices Agency): Trusts should identify medical electrical systems. Example 1: Greenwood and Butcher (1997) describe how lasting change was achieved in a busy surgical environment utilising the skills of existing nurse specialists. Whenever unpublished conference material is cited reference should be made to the author’s surname and the phrase unpublished conference paper/poster. journals and documents. Example: A study was undertaken to explore patients’ self-monitoring of postoperative pain (Fordham. 1.17 Citations from company literature References to company literature should be avoided where possible. 1. If no date is available ‘n. However where necessary the company name should be stated followed by the year of publication. Example 2: Curriculum development requires systematic. 1994) 1.’ should be used.1999.d. 2002).16 Citations from conference material Material cited from published conference proceedings is treated in the same way as books or journals. 1. Example: Every community nurse should have training in child protection policies and procedures (Health Visitors’ Association.Example of a Health Service Circular: The single assessment process will lead to a more efficient assessment process and more effective care services for older people (UK Department of Health HSC. 9 Faculty HHS Referencing Guidelines 09-10 .
August 1. personal interviews and telephone conversations. Examples: The impact of undiagnosed post-natal depression can often have adverse effects on all family members (British Broadcasting Corporation. since they cannot be followed-up easily by anyone reading the piece of work.20 Citations from newspaper articles To cite material from a newspaper article where the author’s name is evident.M. Smith. memos. the author’s name and year of the publication are given in the text. videos and broadcasts are normally produced by a group of individuals. 1990) 1. May 4. Journal publication is seen as a significant element in maintaining a research culture (Prestwich. Personal communications and unpublished material is not included in the reference list so are cited within the text only. videos and broadcasts (podcasts) Most films. Breast feeding is recommended for at least the first four months of life. 2005). offering bespoke products tailored to meet individual patient’s needs (Karomed.2003). 1999). to enable the best possible start.Example: This company producing pressure relieving equipment is becoming increasingly aware of the diversity of their market.19 Citations from films.T. 1995). 1. as it protects against respiratory diseases and gastro-enteritis (Royal College of Midwives. Example 2: I have found that a skills laboratory provides a secure environment for the teaching of clinical skills (J.18 Citations from unpublished work and personal communication Personal communication may be letters.. 10 Faculty HHS Referencing Guidelines 09-10 . personal communication. Example 1: . Example 1: Patient involvement in care is a concept which must be addressed by all members of the multidisciplinary team (I. Humphries. some electronic communications. References to unpublished material or personal communication should be kept to a minimum. The initials and surname of the communicator should be given along with an exact a date as possible.). the name of the newspaper and year of publication is given in the text. To cite material from a newspaper where no author is indicated. n..d. unpublished work. 1. When citing this type of material the transmitting organisation with the date of production/transmission should be used.
personal communication. Example: Fletcher (2000) suggests a range of mechanisms by which the presence of necrotic tissue may delay wound healing.23 Citations from StudyNet Where possible these should be avoided. thus enabling the reader to identify the reference within the reference list. Court decisions should be cited by giving the name of the case in italics and the year of the decision. If two or more years are given.22 Citations from electronic mail Material from e-mail correspondence should be cited as ‘personal communication’ (see section 1. the date either as stated on the information (for example some lecturers will put a reference at the bottom of the document saying their name and the date or date updated) . which are works in their own right and not bibliographic databases.18) and should not appear in the reference list. However if it is necessary they should be cited giving the author(s) of the work where it is known. Materials such as court cases. cite those years as well. 1999).Example 2: The first full-time paramedic science degree course in the country was launched with a visit from MP Baroness Helene Hayman (Welwyn and Hatfield Times.24 Citation from your own lecture notes Citations from the notes you make from an oral presentation and/or lecture should not be used.25 Citation from legal materials References from legal materials should be treated like references with no authors. May 29. Example 2: Statute Individuals that pose a risk to themselves or others may be sectioned (Mental Health Systems Act. Example 1: Court case Leonard v. 11 Faculty HHS Referencing Guidelines 09-10 . Example: You might like to consider making reference to relevant government policy in this assignment (P.1988). Smith (1985) set a precedent for the rights of individuals. statutes. 1. CD-ROM) describes his theory of the beginning of the universe. and legislation should be cited by the first few words of the reference and the year. 1. Example: Hawking (1994. 1.21 Citations from CD-ROM This refers to CD-ROMs. 1. Brown. The author/editor should be given followed by the year and type of medium in brackets. 1999) 1.
it should be cited as follows in the text: Examples: Winter (1962. 1990) demonstrated that in pigs superficial acute wounds that were kept moist healed more rapidly. Where access to the primary source is available the original material should be consulted.26 Citation from dictionaries Within the text. However.17. In pigs. 1. cited in Thomas.Example 3: Resolutions The bill which was initially passed by the House of Representatives was then resolved by the senate (Senate Resolution 106. use the guidance in section 1. 1. 1962. superficial acute wounds that are kept moist heal more rapidly (Winter.28 Secondary references The use of secondary references is not encouraged. the title of the dictionary (or chapter if appropriate) should be given followed by year of publication. if there is no date.27 Citation from pamphlets/advice sheets If there is a date of publication.14 above. where a secondary reference is unavoidable. 1. cited in Thomas. 1990) 12 Faculty HHS Referencing Guidelines 09-10 . 1998). follow the guidance in section 1.
J.. they are separated by a comma and are followed by a full stop e.1. et al.’ within the bracket as it is an abbreviation and also do not forget to put a full stop after the bracket. L. (1985). London: MacMillan. P. H. Edition (in brackets and abbreviated to ‘ed. (2nd ed.). followed by the Bibliography list (if used) BEFORE appendices (if there are any)...). only the first word begins with a capital letter). S.g. Z.g. Principles of drug action. (1997).g.0 Presentation of a Reference/Bibliography List References are listed at the end of the text. & Jones. Important things to note are: Lists should have a hanging indent. Physiology for beginners. Martin. 2. Entries are arranged in alphabetical order of originator. Wound care nursing. M.2 Book with two authors: example Remember to use an ampersand (&) between the two names rather than ‘and’.B. London: Baker. C. A patient centred approach. Mitchell. Do not forget to put a full stop after ‘ed. 2. 2. (2nd ed. A.g. Assessment: A structured approach. K. London: Baillière Tindall..3 Book with three.1.’) followed by a full stop (only included when it is a second or subsequent edition) E. V.1. Range. Year (in brackets) followed by a full stop e. (4th ed. Chronological order is used if there is more than one reference by the same author. Bale.1 Referencing a book The basic order of elements in normal references should be: Author's surname and initials.. (1981). four or five authors: example Short. A.Section 2.’ Croft. W. R. Smith. Peters. L. Author.e.). V. London: Royal College of Nursing. D. (N. 2.. Title (in italics and lower/sentence case. (1975). Place of publication followed by a colon: Production (publisher or equivalent) followed by a full stop. & Beaufort. followed by a full stop e. London: Mosby. S.1 Books with one author: examples Hayward. and shorten any remaining authors to ‘et al. i. (1999).. L. Right.4 Book with six or more authors provide the initials and surnames of the first six authors. 2. V. N. A. A prescription against pain. B. Social attribution: A primer in obvious psychology.1. 13 Faculty HHS Referencing Guidelines 09-10 . Burton. J. (2000).
however the references are presented in the alphabetical order of the lower case letters. The author(s) and title of the chapter are presented and followed by a full stop.1. Oxford: Oxford University Press.5 Referencing an edited book An edited book is one where each chapter is written by different authors. External beam therapy. Examples: Hoskin. T. 63-75). 14 Faculty HHS Referencing Guidelines 09-10 . then the reference with the co-author. The title of the chapter needs to be given alongside the book in which it is published. (2005). Department of Health. (pp. When referencing a single chapter this should be done using the author of the chapter.1. Then the word ‘In’ followed by the editor(s) and title of the book.7 Referencing two or more authors with the same surname and same initial in the same year The basic order of elements is the same as each of the examples given above. The page numbers of the chapter must be included followed by the place of publication and the publisher. Walsh.1. 315-337). In M. & P. & Lawes.6 Referencing two or more publications from the same author(s) in the same year The basic order of elements is the same as the examples given above. & Coyle. 2. (1989a). (1987b). The management of leg ulcers in the community: A multi-disciplinary experience in primary care. (1987a). however the references are presented in the alphabetical order of the lower case letters. C. A. & Argyle. (pp. & Jones P. I. M. Thatcher (Ed. Glasgow: Abersham. M. Littlejohn (Eds. M. If referencing the whole book the basic order of elements is the same as the examples given above. (1989b). New York: Academic Press. (1999). P. Staring you in the face.. Humphris.J. Radiotherapy in practice: brachytherapy.8 Referencing an individual author and one by the same individual with another co author List the individual author first. Hoskin. (2006). Examples: Walsh. P.2. In D. & Jones P. Processes explained. Implementing clinical guidelines: A practical guide. Example 2: Botham.). Abingdon: Radcliffe Medical Press. Examples: Department of Health. If it had teeth: Fifteen years of research into non-verbal communication. M.. Oxford: Oxford University Press.). Caring for people. Radiotherapy in practice. 2. Example 1: Ruston. Working for patients. London: HMSO. 2. London: McKnight. J. (1972). London: HMSO.1. The way forward.
53-62. Trend in Microbiology. The effects of locus of control on causal attributions. P. Year (in brackets) followed by a full stop e. four or five authors: Cowley. A. Journal of Physiology. Volume number (in italics – this is separated from the title by a comma) Issues number (where relevant in brackets) followed by a comma.. C. 7(16). Buckley. There may be occasions where an article has been accepted for publication and is available via the electronic journal but has not yet been allocated a volume. Page numbers of the article (note that the page numbers are not preceded by ‘pp’ as they are for book chapters) followed by a full stop. Young.g. Exercise fatigue in sport students. each word begins with a capital letter) and followed by a comma e. Spiers. Hippocampus. Title of article (in lower/sentence case) e. M. (2005).2 Referencing a journal When a reference originates from a journal the basic order of elements should be: Author's surname and initials (separated by a comma and followed by a full stop) e. o If the issue number is included there is no punctuation between volume number and issue number (N. V. Even though the journal article is accessible online. Example with two authors: Ridley. Journal of Clinical Nursing.e. Title of the journal (in italics and title case. H. K. 86-92. you still must reference the article as a journal article even though you have accessed it on line.2. it has been peer reviewed and ‘published’.. 15 Faculty HHS Referencing Guidelines 09-10 .B. Pegman.. 21(3). and shorten any remaining authors to ‘et al. The Veterinary Quarterly. S. A. issue or page number. H. Tip: when referring to electronic journal publications. et al.. Example with three. & Baker. L. 5(1). A. You do not reference it as a Web reference therefore you do not need to state ‘retrieved on’ and do not need to provide the URL. F. S. Bergen. (2006).. Big decisions based on small numbers: Lessons from BSE. (1999). remember that the volume number should be in italics but the issue number should not).. Gaffan. Malnutrition in hospital patients: Where does it come from? British Journal of Nursing. use the term ‘in press’. A. 954-974. i.. In place of the missing information. (1998). (1996). & Green. Specialization in the medial temporal lobe for processing of objects and scenes. R. M. S.g. (2007).’ Example of a journal with six or more authors Lee. Identifying a framework for research: The example of health needs assessment. 782-797.. & Kavanagh. Brown. In press.J. Scahill.g. Examples with one author: Edwards. J. A. L. 15(6). D. Martin.g. When referencing a journal article with six or more authors provide the initials and surnames of the first six authors.
g.g. The date of publication is the date the pages were last updated. 2. Nursing Standard. Where the date is not obvious click on View and page source to check when last modified. If no publication date is given write ‘n. Year) separated by commas e. 2007’ Place of publication (if appropriate) Publisher (if appropriate) or URL address followed by a full stop. 7(7 suppl). Journal of Wound Care. Moffatt. 1188.d. (letter). S6-S9. the basic order is the same as each of the examples given for books and journals.3 Referencing direct quotations If using a direct quotation in a text.1 Referencing two or more publications from one author in different years The basic order of elements is the same. A copy of all potentially temporary sources should be kept in case it is needed to substantiate information provided.2 Referencing an author with a compound surname The basic order of the elements is unchanged. Title of source (in italics) followed by a full stop. However. Example: ter Riet. Example: Moffatt. 323(7322). Edition (if appropriate) followed by a full stop. 52. Moffatt. This is necessary to allow for any subsequent changes which may be made to the page or if the page is no longer available. 93(16). Only mention an edition if the document clearly states that the pages have been rewritten rather than just updated. When the reference originates from the World Wide Web the basic order of elements is as follows: Author’s/editor’s surname. the first part of the surname is presented in lower case and the second part with usual capitalisation.g.2. M.2. (1997). initial (separated by a comma and followed by a full stop). Two issues were simplified. & Bachmann. L. Nursing Times. C. The principles of assessment prior to compression therapy. 2. Year (in brackets) followed by a full stop e. (1998). Day.’ for no date.. Tissue Viability Society. C. 16 Faculty HHS Referencing Guidelines 09-10 . Systematic reviews of evaluations of diagnostic and screening tests.2. 82-83. ‘Retrieved August 17. (1994). Know how. 2. Four-layer bandaging. G. references are placed in chronological order. Kessels. The effects of locus of control on causal attributions. State date of retrieval (Month. Auditing a leg ulcer service. C. Title of article (in lower/sentence case) e. (2001). British Medical Journal. 8(48). G. when quoting from a book the page number is omitted in the reference list because it has been included in the text at the point of citation. A. (1999).4 Referencing individual work/pages on the World Wide Web Please note that most web pages are updated on a regular basis. The accessed date is when the document was viewed/down loaded.
1999. Some. J. from http://www.med. How necrosis delays healing. S. These details together with the author will appear in the message header. D. Aspects of Skin and Wound Care Nursing. (2001).htm. J. Cruickshank (Eds. Educational Issues. (2001. (2001. June 8). Example: Fletcher.quaybooks. Statutory Instruments.jiscmail. for this reason a local copy should be kept by the recipient who is giving the citation and a note added to this effect. Acts of Parliament. Infection Control: Latest Government Strategy. Examples: Sandall. archived at http://www. & Young. the module name and code in brackets with the semester and year.5 Referencing discussion groups/e-mail lists These discussion lists generate e-mail messages which are sent directly to the subscriber.Examples: English National Board.med. from StudyNet (Problem Wounds 3NMH 0025). Retrieved June. Semester A 2004/2005. J. 2.uk/32infect. this should then be followed by StudyNet. 2007. 2. 2002.com/ebooks.ENB.7 Referencing StudyNet Where reference is made to work from StudyNet the author date and title of the document are referenced as for a book. M.8 Referencing Government Publications When including Government publications in a reference list/bibliography.org. archive the messages sent. (1999).uk/lists/midwiferyresearch. J. Retrieved August 21. May 24). but not all.6 Referencing personal e-mails If reference is made to a personal e-mail it is cited in the text only and is not included in the reference list.sci.nursing. Message posted to UK. from http://www.22. References to these messages should be treated in a similar way to journal references using the list name in place of the journal title (but not in italics) and subject line of the message in place of the article title. Clarke. A practical approach to dressing wounds in difficult positions In. 2. Bradbury & J. Fletcher. archived at news:uksc.html. Message posted to Free web-based virtual midwifery library. Ashurst. (2001). 2. Substance misuse resource.nursing.P.ac. 17 Faculty HHS Referencing Guidelines 09-10 . See section 1. Midwifery-research. Retrieved June 28. 17.). Command Papers. London: Mark Allen. Bills and Committee Reports should be cited as follows: Act of Parliament The basic order of elements should be: Country of origin.
18 Faculty HHS Referencing Guidelines 09-10 . Title of the Statutory Instrument (in italics and title case). (1990). Department of Health. Place of publication: Publisher. London: HMSO. 5081). Example: United Kingdom.I. Committee chairman (in brackets): Command paper number (in brackets). A Command Paper: The basic order of elements should be: Country of origin. Statutory Instrument. Year (in brackets). Year (in brackets). Example: United Kingdom. Statutory Instrument. (1980). Originating committee. Originating body. No. London: HMSO.Originating department. Report 1970-1972. A Bill: The basic order of elements should be: Country of origin. Place of publication: Publisher. Statutory Instrument number (in brackets). Year (in brackets). Example: United Kingdom. Title of Act (in italics and title case). London: HMSO. Year (in brackets). National Health Service and Community Care Act. Committee for Health and Safety at Work. (S. (Chairman Lord Robens): (Cmd. Health and Safety: The Notification of Accidents and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations. Command paper title (in italics and title case).5034) . (1972). Place of publication: Publisher. A Statutory Instrument: The basic order of elements should be: Country of origin. Title of Bill (in italics and title case) Place of publication: Publisher.
Place of publication: Name of publisher. Title of bulletin (in lower/sentence case). Example: United Kingdom. Reference number of bulletin (in brackets). Circular Series Number (in brackets) Example: Department of Health. Example: Medical Devices Agency. London: HMSO. Parliament. Example: Health Visitors’ Association. Protecting the child .9 Referencing organisations or institutions as authors (corporate authorship) Where the publication relates to organisations/institutions as authors the basic order of elements is: Organisation/institution. A Health Service or Local Authority Circular: The basic order of elements should be: Originating body.Example: United Kingdom. if given)(in brackets). All medical electrical equipment. Place of publication: Publisher. (Chairman B. (HSC 2002/001). Title of the published work (in lower/sentence case and italics). Title of Committee Report (in italics and title case). Trade Union Bill. 19 Faculty HHS Referencing Guidelines 09-10 .an HVA guide to practice and procedures. Committee chairman (in brackets). 2. The Single Assessment Process for Older People. A Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency Bulletin (Formerly the Medical Devices Agency): The basic order of elements should be: Agency name in full (in title case). (MDA/2003/015). Title of circular (in title case). (1984). (1994). Year (and month. Report of the Committee on Senior Nursing Structure. Salmon). Ministry of Health and Scottish Home and Health Department. London: HVA. Originating body. A Committee Report: The basic order of elements should be: Country of origin. Year (in brackets). London: HMSO. (1980).
as far as possible. Number of Chapter/Book.11 Referencing dissertations and theses These are treated like books. 2. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. M. Verse. Conference title (in italics and title case) Pages (pp. University of London. Isaiah 55. The basic order of the elements should be: Author (if known). (1993). Deconditioning and reconditioning following elective surgery. London. Where this is not known no author is presented (do not write anonymous or unknown unless it is specifically stated in the text that that is the correct way to acknowledge the author).). E. Arnold. Author of Chapter/Book.. Proceedings of .10 Referencing Religious Texts If an editor/guide/translator is known then this should be given as the author.). (Trans. (1990).2. (1985). 2. Texts with a designated author: Nooruddin. The Holy Qur’an. Or Eds. (Guide). Title of conference material (in lower/sentence case).12 Referencing conference material Whenever published conference material is cited in the reference list/bibliography the following basic order of elements should be used: Author surname and initials. Title (in italics). Year (in brackets). New York: Dover Publications Inc.).. King James version. In Editor(s) (Ed. Example: Fordham. Korea: New Foundation International Inc. alongside the level of thesis and the name and place of the educational institution. 6-7. Examples: Text without a designated author: Holy Bible. Translation/Version. Bhagavadgita. but as they are unpublished this needs to be stated. Place of publication Publisher If no author or editor is given on the title page the name of the conference is cited first in italics 20 Faculty HHS Referencing Guidelines 09-10 . Place of Publication: Publisher. A.
Conference title (in italics and title case).) should be stated. videos and broadcasts are normally produced by a group of individuals. Lancaster. 2.13 Referencing company literature Most company literature has a title or is tied into a particular product campaign. March). Poster session presented at The 6th Annual Public Health Forum.). Promoting teenage health in primary care.Example: Greenwood. (1999). C. D.15 Referencing films. videos and broadcasts (podcasts) Most films. D.d. Bringing the issue of documentation to the ward staff. M.d. Z. Whenever printed but unpublished conference material (for example a poster) is cited in the reference list/bibliography the following basic order of elements should be used: Author surname and initials. Year and month (in brackets).). Company Literature. Example: Smith. P. Leaper.The phrase ‘company literature’ should appear at the end of the citation. Moffatt (Eds. (1998. Example: Walker. Unpublished manuscript. Dealey. Where a date is given. Hofman & C. When citing this type of material the transmitting organisation with the date production should be used. Place of conference. & Butcher. Title of conference material (in lower/sentence case). Cambridge: University Press.J. As the campaign may change it is suggested that a copy of the material is held by the student. 2. this should be included. Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Advances in Wound Management. 2.if known. Example: Karomed. In D. Year (in brackets) . Karomed. Type of material. (pp. where there is no apparent date (n.14 Referencing unpublished work If citations are from unpublished work the following basic order of elements should be used: Author surname and initials. M. (1997). The company will appear as both the author and publisher. Franks.134-136). A diary of a practice nurse. As much detail as possible should be given to allow the material to be identified in future. (n. 21 Faculty HHS Referencing Guidelines 09-10 . Title of unpublished work (in italics and sentence case) Include the phrase ‘Unpublished manuscript’. Support Services – Bespoke Products.
Title of newspaper (in italics and title case). Title of production (in italics and title case). videos and broadcasts. 2. Place of production: Name of production company Examples: British Broadcasting Corporation. [Video].2. Welwyn and Hatfield Times. the following basic order of elements should be used: Name of director/producer/production team. p. Example: Baroness praises paramedic course. Helping A Mother To Breastfeed: No Finer Investment. May 26). (2003). Year (in brackets). Title of newspaper (in italics and title case). Title of the material (in lower/sentence case) 22 Faculty HHS Referencing Guidelines 09-10 . The Guardian.7. If citations are from a newspaper where no author is indicated. Year and date (in brackets). [Motion Picture] or [details of the programme’s transmission]. the following basic order of elements is used: Title of the material or article (in lower/sentence case).17 Referencing CD-ROMs The following order of basic elements should be used: Author/Editor. (1990). (1995). Aaron Sorkin. P. Panorama: Baby Blues. Title of article (in lower/sentence case). (1999. Page number. In square brackets include as is appropriate the phrase [Video]. p. (1999. Year and date (in brackets). The West Wing [Television series] New York: New York Broadcasting Company Royal College of Midwives.If citations are from films. [Television broadcast] London: British Broadcasting Corporation. Year in brackets. Page number Example: Prestwich. 2. the following basic order of elements should be used: Author’s name and initials. (Writer).16 Referencing newspaper articles If citations are from a newspaper article where the author’s name is evident. Researchers keep their heads in history. May 18). London: Healthcare Productions.
1953). A Brief History of Time. in the reference list.g. 23 Faculty HHS Referencing Guidelines 09-10 . (abbreviations for sources are acceptable e. S. London: Crunch Media.S. Section number and source of the statute. Western District of New York. When there is no date.9. 354 F. F.Y. 9401 (1988). U. The following order of basic elements should be used for statutes and other legislation A title or name of the legislation. Source and Page of the ‘reporter’ (books which record court decisions) (abbreviations for sources are acceptable e. N. Place of publication: Publisher. W. 1953) Example: Leonard v. United States Code. The following order of basic elements should be used for cases The title or name of the case (usually one party versus another). 2.S. books without authors should list the • Title (in italics). (abbreviations for jurisdictions are acceptable e.[CD-ROM].) Jurisdictions of the court writing the decision plus the date of the decision in brackets. Federal Reporter. whereas the APA 5 system locates all references. 42 U.g.13. 189 (W. including reference to legal materials. Example: Mental Health Systems Act. N. [CD-ROM]. Example: Hawking. 2. • Author of Chapter/Book (if appropriate) • Translation/Version/Edition • Place of Publication: • Publisher.20 Referencing pamphlets/advice sheets If there is a date of publication. 2. Smith. use the list suggested in section 2.19 Referencing dictionaries When listing the reference at the end.) Year in brackets (this is the publication date which may be different from the year in the name of the act). (1994). Volume.D. use the guidance in section 2.D.W.18 Referencing legal materials Legal periodicals cite references differently to the APA 5th referencing system.Y.g. Legal periodicals cite th references in footnotes.C.C.
2. (1990).21 Referencing secondary references Only the source of work accessed should be included in the reference list. London: The Pharmaceutical Press. Drugs and their actions. Thomas. 1990). S. 24 Faculty HHS Referencing Guidelines 09-10 . However only the secondary source should appear in the reference list. cited in Thomas. Example: The citation in the text is Winter (1962.
If the database requires a password. Click the “Copy to Favourites” button. EndNote Web will automatically create a bibliography based on the references you are citing. 3. It helps you to reference material efficiently and consistently and enables you to create your bibliography correctly.com” screen once you are logged in to your account. U of Hertfordshire). is to use an “online search”.g. When you are ready to search your chosen database.g. you will be able to collect references from the databases you have selected. 2. Select “Import Filters” from the left hand menu 2. ISI Web of Science and library catalogues (e. Select one or more Import Files in the “All Import Filters” list. As you cite your references. How to create an EndNote Web Account Connect to www.myendnoteweb. 25 Faculty HHS Referencing Guidelines 09-10 . PsycINFO)) To select the databases you need to import from: 1. 3. you need to install the plugin available from the “Download Installers” link at the bottom of the “myendnoteweb. Saving references in EndNote Web In order to cite references and create a bibliography. Select one or more Connection Files in the “All Connection Files” list. You can add references to your account in a number of different ways. Click the “Copy to Favourites” button. The easiest of which. Select “Connection Files” from the left hand menu. In order to use the EndNote Web toolbar in Word. Log onto your chosen database through the direct web site. To make online searching easier. you need to collect and store your references in your EndNote Web account. When you then go to “Online Search”. use the Import option below.com and click the “Sign Up for an account” link. it is sensible to create a list of favourite databases: 1. Add References using Online Search Only free databases are available for searching via the Online Search feature such as PubMed.Section 3: End Note Web Guide: What is EndNote Web? EndNote Web is a reference management system. Add References using Import (use this method when importing references from Scopus or if a database requires a password (e. To install the Toolbar for Word to enable “Cite While You Write™” You can cite references as you are typing your coursework using the EndNote Web toolbar within Word.
. Perform a search in the database. th 1. Select “View all of my references” from the left menu. and Zoological Record. If you need to insert a specific page number. select “Import. 5. 1. Check the boxes next to the references you want to put in the folder. select “Edit Citation” from the EndNote Web toolbar. To select this bibliographic style in your EndNote Web: 1. go to the EndNote Web toolbar. Select the reference and click “Insert” Search for the reference you want to cite. From the EndNote Web “Collect References” section on the left menu. Select the “Save to My EndNote Web” button on the right hand column. 2. These include: Web of Science. go to the EndNote Web Help link and select the "Import Formats" link under "Managing References"). Click the “OK” button. Medline. 2. To add references to a folder: 1. Open a document in Word and start writing your coursework assignment. Select “New Reference” from the left hand menu.1. 3. Entering reference information manually 1. 2. 3. Select the type of file (i. Place the cursor where you want to insert the citation and select “Find Citations” from the tool bar and search for the reference from your EndNote Web folder. 4..” 3. Select the relevant cited reference and add the page number. Find the references you want and save them to a file on your hard drive. Select “Output styles” from the left hand menu in EndNote Web. 2. journal article). Select “APA 5th” from the list of bibliographic styles and select “copy to favourites”. select the import filter that corresponds to the database you used to obtain the citation records). Select the reference type from the drop down menu (i. “Browse” your files to locate the downloaded file containing the references. Select the records you want to keep. 3. 3. Enter the reference information and click “Save. BIOSIS. (For databasespecific instructions about saving records. From the “Move to …” drop down menu at the top of the window.e. You can access these databases at www. select that option from the left menu. 5. To create a new folder.e. th 4.isiknowledge. 26 Faculty HHS Referencing Guidelines 09-10 . and log in to your EndNote Web account. select the folder name. Add References using Direct Export You can import references directly into your EndNote Web account from databases on that are part of “Web of Knowledge”.” Managing and organising your references You can organise your references into folders. Click the “Import” button. Using your references in your coursework Reference lists and bibliographies must be written in the APA 5th style. Check that the “Style” in the toolbar is APA 5 2. 2.com. When you need to cite references in the text. You will note that the reference is inserted using the APA 5 style and a reference list is automatically created in the style.
com/support/recorded-training/endnoteweb/ Alternatively. http://scientific.thomson.com/training/tutorials/endnoteweb/ 27 Faculty HHS Referencing Guidelines 09-10 .If you require further help using EndNote Web you can watch a training guide via the following web site. there are a number of tutorials available from the “EndNote Web” site: http://endnoteweb.
BS 1629. British Standards Institution. London: British Standards Institution. (2001).References American Psychological Association. (2002). Washington: American Psychological Association. Publication manual of the American psychological association (5th ed. British standard recommendations for references to published material . 28 Faculty HHS Referencing Guidelines 09-10 .).
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