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SOLAR ENERGY

1.INTRODUCTION Solar energy is radiant energy produced by the sun. Like other stars, the sun is an enormous ball of gases. The hydrogen atoms in the sun's core combine to form helium and generate energy in a process called nuclear fusion.In this process the sun's high pressure and the temperature break the hydrogen atoms and at the same time their central cores combine. -At a speed of 186000 miles per second, the same speed of the light. The Sun produces four hundred trillion of watts every second. The Sun is the most abundant source of energy in the world. 2. THEORICAL BASE 2.1. HOW IT WORKS? Solar panels: photovoltaic cells are produced with semiconductor. When the sun's rays affect cells, the fusion of semiconductor metal it along with its driver helps produce energy. This trend will continue as the cell is illuminated. 2.2 TYPES Thermal plant: The thermal solar power consists of warming a fluid taking advantage of the energy of the Sun, which would allow producing steam and, later electric power. This is obtained by means of the captators or solar collectors. Thermal solar power of low temperature: It is the used one in the roofs of the housings and commercial buildings, to warm water directly with the solar radiation, and to use it for heating or warm sanitary water.

Thermal solar of high temperature: This type of energy appears in the shape of big head offices. The warm oil it goes to a heat interchanger where it spends his calories to the water, this one waters down evaporates, forming steam of warm water, which moves a steam turbine that generates electricity Photovoltaic solar power: The photovoltaic solar power consists of the direct transformation of the solar radiation of electric power. This is obtained taking advantage of the properties of the material semiconductors by means of the photovoltaic cells Not connected to the power grid: there is not had access to the electrical net and turns out to be more economic install a photovoltaic system than stretch a line between the net and the point of consumption. Is composed by: 1. Modules or panels: They are formed by several photovoltaic cells connected between if so that they produce an electrical current of an intensity and voltage determined. 2. Regulator of load: The regulator of load controls the load of the battery preventing them from producing to him overloads or excessive unloads that diminish his useful life. With this configuration the consumption takes place in direct current 3.-Batteries: They accumulate the produced energy in order that it is available during the night and in the cloudy days. 4.-Inversor of direct current (DC) or alternate current (AC) He adapts the current generated by the panels. Connected to the power grid: They can find two cases: photovoltaic head offices and photovoltaic systems in buildings or industries, connected to the electrical net. Is composed by: 1.-Generador Photovoltaic: The photovoltaic generator is the element entrusted to transform the solar radiation into electric power.

2.-Invertor: It is the element that transforms the electric power 3.-Counters: quantify the energy that is generated and injects to the net for his invoicing, and quantify the small consumption. Thermal solar power: composed by heliostats, reflect and concentrate sunlight on a boiler located in a tower. The boiler is heated in a specific that allows the evaporation of water present in the numerous pipes that are located around the boiler. It is used to drive a turbine connected to the generator. By rotating the turbine produces electricity, which travels from the generator to the transformer, which raises the voltage to transport this energy. 3. ADVANTAGES
Solar energy is renewable. Solar cells don't release anything into the air. Solar panels are very safe. Solar cells make no noise while connected. There are a lot of solar panel systems available. Not necessary to connect to the power grid. Solar technology is constantly improving. Dont pollute.

4. DISADVANTAGES Its the most expensive energy Can only be used to generate electricity during daylight hours The weather can affect the productivity of solar cells They are made of very toxic materials 5. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

Climate: the generation of electricity directly from the sunlight doesnt require any kind of combustion. Geology: in the manufacturing of photovoltaic Surface water: there isnt change of aquifers or surface water or consumption or by waste pollution. Flora and fauna: The visual impact modify the landscape. Affects on birds. Noise: the photovoltaic system is silent. Social media: photovoltaic system of average size 6.COST Started with high value After cheaper Greenpeace new value 2011 under Nuclear Energy Use like home energy Lots of people will use