# Lecture 8 and 9: Two-dimensional elastic problems

Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
Lecturer: Johan Clausen
Department of Civil Engineering
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
2
Today
 There will be many similarities between this lecture and the lecture
concerning 2D heat conduction.
 The main difference is that there will be two degrees of freedom (dof) at each
node. These are the horizontal and the vertical displacements. The main
variable is therefore a vector, u(x,y) compared with the scalar of
temperature analysis, T(x,y).
(force/length) or a single force.
 The analogy of the heat fluxes q
x
and q
y
[W/m
2
= J/(m
2
s)] are the stresses o
x
,
o
y
and o
xy
[Pa = N/m
2
].
 The analogy of the heat conductivities k
xx
and k
yy
[J/(°Cms)] are the elasticity
modulus E [Pa] and the Poisson ratio, v [-]
 We will focus on elements with quadratic shape functions, N, instead of the
linear shape functions from the 2D heat conduction lecture.
 We will assume small displacements and linear elasticity. This means that our
calculations are linear.
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
3
Two-dimensional elasticity
Plane stress, t is small
Plane strain, t is large
 All real bodies are three-dimensional
 If the loads, supports and material characteristics are independent of the z-coordinate,
the domain can be approximated with a 2D domain with the thickness t(x,y)
z
z x
y
x
y
x
y
t
t
q
q
q
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
4
Discretization into two-dimensional finite elements
 The body is discretized with a number of finite elements.
 They can be triangular or quadrilateral
 Straight or curved element sides
x
y
q q
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
5
Today’s elements
- Eight nodes
- etype = 14 in the course program
Element side (edge)
Element node at the corner (vertex)
Element interior
(mid-) side node
 The isoparametric eight-noded element
(IsoQ8)
- Eight nodes
- etype = 16 in the course program
 The six-noded triangular element
(LST, Linear STrain)
- six nodes
- etype = 15 in the course program
 The elements of this lecture all have quadratic shape functions.
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
6
The element from the 2D heat transfer lecture
 The elements from the lecture on 2D heat conduction have all got structural counterparts,
which are included in the course program. They all have linear shape functions
 The isoparametric four-noded
element (IsoQ4)
- Four nodes
- etype = 8 in the course program
 The three-noded triangular element
(CST, Constant STrain)
- three nodes
- etype = 4 in the course program
 The Melosh element
- Four nodes
- etype = 2 in the course program
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
7
The Patch Test
 The main exercise of today is the patch test.
You will program its main parts and use it to
verify that the elements work properly.
 A patch test should include at least one
internal node.
 The patch test should be as less constrained
as possible, i.e. the body should be statically
determinate.
 Notice that this calls for two more boundary
conditions on the main variable compared to
the heat conduction problem.
 The geometry is the same as in the heat
conduction problem.
q
u
y
u
x
F
1
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
8
Basic steps of the finite-element method (FEM)
1.Establish strong formulation
 Partial differential equation
2.Establish weak formulation
 Multiply with arbitrary field and integrate over element
3.Discretize over space
 Mesh generation
4.Select shape and weight functions
 Galerkin method
5.Compute element stiffness matrix
 Local and global system
6.Assemble global system stiffness matrix
7.Apply nodal boundary conditions
 Temperature/flux/forces/forced displacement
8.Solve global system of equations
 Solve for nodal values of the primary variables (displacements/temperature)
9.Compute temperature/stresses/strains etc. within the element (if needed)
 Using nodal values and shape functions
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
9
Step 1: Establish strong formulation for 2D linear elasticity (OP pp. 235-258)
n
t
x
y
Stress vector
Boundary normal
Boundary traction vector
Strains are given by
[Pa]
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
=
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )
x
y
xy
σ
σ
σ
σ
1
¦ ¹
= =
´ `
¹ )
x
y
n
n
n n
+ ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹
= =
´ ` ´ `
+
¹ ) ¹ )
x x x xy y
y xy x y y
t σ n σ n
t σ n σ n
t
0
0
2
x
x
x y
y
y
xy
y
x
u
x
x
ε
u u
ε
u
y y
ε
u
u
y x
y x
¦ ¹
( c
c
¦ ¦
(
c
c
¦ ¦
( ¦ ¹
¦ c ¦ ¦ ¹
c ( ¦ ¦
= = = = V
´ ` ´ ` ´ `
(
c c
¹ ) ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
(
¹ )
¦ ¦
c c c (
c
+ ¦ ¦
(
c c
c c
¸ ¸
¹ )
ε u

Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
10
n
t
x
y
The constitutive relation in matrix notation is:
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
= =
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )
x
y
xy
σ
σ
σ
σ Dε
¦ ¹
c
¦ ¦
c
¦ ¦
¦ c ¦
=
´ `
c
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
c
c
+ ¦ ¦
c c
¹ )
x
y
y
x
u
x
u
y
u
u
y x
ε
where D is the constitutive matrix in plane strain (ε
z
= 0)
1
2
1 0
1 0
(1 )(1 2 )
0 0 (1 2 )
÷ (
(
= ÷
(
+ ÷
( ÷
¸ ¸
ν ν
E
ν ν
ν ν
ν
D
or in plane stress (σ
z
= 0)
2
1
2
1 0
1 0
1
0 0 (1 )
(
(
=
(
÷
( ÷
¸ ¸
ν
E
ν
ν
ν
D
Note: out-of-plane stress given by
Note: out-of-plane strain given by
( ) = +
z x y
σ ν σ σ
( )
1
÷
= +
÷
z x y
ν
ε ε ε
ν
E is the modulus of elasticity
(Young’s modulus) [Pa]
ν is Poisson’s ratio [-]
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
11
n
t
x
y
The equilibrium condition leads to: The sum of all surface tractions and body
forces must vanish (equal zero):
A L
t dA t dL + =
} }
b t 0

The first equation is
Gauss’ divergence theorem, (OP p. 73)
x x
A L
b t dA t t dL + =
} }
0

( )
xy
x
x x x xy y
L L A
σ
σ
t t dL σ n σ n t dL t dA
x y
c | | c
= + = +
|
c c
\ .
} } }  
0 0
xy xy
x x
x x
A
σ σ
σ σ
b t dA b
x y x y
c c | | c c
+ + = · + + =
|
c c c c
\ .
}
0
y xy
y
σ σ
b
y x
c c
+ + =
c c
Analogously for the y-direction equations
b is internal
[N/m
3
]
x x x xy y
t σ n σ n = +
Re-insertion into the first equation leads to
L
A
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
12
n
t
x
y
To be able to write the equilibrium equations in matrix notation, we define the
following matrices:
T
0
, ,
0
x
x
y
y
xy
σ
b
x y
σ
b
σ
y x
c c (
¦ ¹
(
¦ ¹ c c
¦ ¦
(
= = =
´ ` ´ `
c c (
¹ ) ¦ ¦
( ¹ )
c c
¸ ¸
σ b

V
We can then write the strong form of the equilibrium
equations as
T
0
0
0
xy
x
x
y xy
y
σ
σ
b
x y
σ σ
b
y x
c ¹ c
+ + =
¦
c c
¦
· + =
`
c c
¦
+ + =
¦
c c
)
σ b

V
L
A
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
13
n
t
x
y
The strong form in the x-direction,
is multiplied by an arbitrary weight function v
x
(x,y) and
integrated over the domain:
The x-component of the traction vector, t, was given by t
x
= σ
x
n
x
+ σ
xy
n
y
.
This makes it possible to write the above equation as
0
xy
x
σ
σ
x x y
b
c
c
c c
+ + =
L
A
Step 2: Establish weak formulation for 2D linear elasticity (OP pp. 292-258)
0
xy
x
x x x x
A A A
σ
σ
v t dA v t dA v b t dA
x y
c
c
+ + =
c c
} } }
The Green-Gauss
theorem
(OP p. 74)
0
x x
x x x x x xy y xy
L A L A
x x
A
v v
v σ n t dL σ t dA v σ n t dL σ t dA
x y
v b t dA
c c
÷ + ÷
c c
+ =
} } } }
}
 
0
x x
x x x xy x x
L A A
v v
v t t dL σ σ t dA v b t dA
x y
c c | |
÷ + + =
|
c c
\ .
} } } 
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
14
n
t
x
y
Analogous manipulations are carried out for the strong form in the
y-direction, , and hereby the equations for both
directions are given:
Addition of the two equations is still equal to zero:
0
y xy
σ σ
y y x
b
c c
c c
+ + =
L
A
0
0
x x
x x x xy x x
L A A
y y
y y y xy y y
L A A
v v
v t t dL σ σ t dA v b t dA
x y
v v
v t t dL σ σ t dA v b t dA
y x
c c | |
÷ + + =
|
c c
\ .
c c | |
÷ + + =
|
c c
\ .
} } }
} } }

( ) ( )
0
x x y y x x y y
L A
y y
x x
x xy y xy
A
v t v t t dL v b v b t dA
v v
v v
σ σ σ σ t dA
x y y x
+ + +
c c | | c c
÷ + + + =
|
c c c c
\ .
} }
}

Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
15
n
t
x
y
With the following vectors:
the equation
L
A
, , ,
and
x
x
x x y
y
y y
xy
y
x
x
y
v
x
σ
b v v
σ
b v
y
σ
v
v
y x
t
t
¦ ¹
c
¦ ¦
c
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
¦ c ¦ ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹
¦ ¦
= = = =
´ ` ´ ` ´ ` ´ `
c
¹ ) ¹ ) ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¹ )
¦ ¦
c
c
+ ¦ ¦
c c
¹ )
¦ ¹
=
´ `
¹ )
b v v σ
t
V

( ) ( )
0
x x y y x x y y
L A
y y
x x
x xy y xy
A
v t v t t dL v b v b t dA
v v
v v
σ σ σ σ t dA
x y y x
+ + +
c c | | c c
÷ + + + =
|
c c c c
\ .
} }
}

can be written as the weak form of the equilibrium equations for
a 2D solid in matrix notation:
T T T
( )
A L A
t dA t dL t dA = +
} } }
v σ v t v b V

Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
16
n
t
x
y
The weak form of the equilibrium equations is often caled the
principle of virtual displacements or also, in Danish,
“arbejdsligningen”.
The boundary intetral can be split into two terms to reflect
the two different types of bounddary conditions:
A
T T T
( )
A L A
t dA t dL t dA = +
} } }
v σ v t v b V

:
f
L = t t
:
u
L = u u
Prescribed quantities
Virtual displacements
T T T
f u
L L L
t dL t dL t dL = +
} } }
v t v t t v
  
Prescribed traction
Prescribed displacement
(e.g. a support)
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
17
Basic steps of the finite-element method (FEM)
1.Establish strong formulation
 Partial differential equation
2.Establish weak formulation
 Multiply with arbitrary field and integrate over element
3.Discretize over space
 Mesh generation
4.Select shape and weight functions
 Galerkin method
5.Compute element stiffness matrix
 Local and global system
6.Assemble global system stiffness matrix
7.Apply nodal boundary conditions
 Temperature/flux/forces/forced displacement
8.Solve global system of equations
 Solve for nodal values of the primary variables (displacements/temperature)
9.Compute temperature/stresses/strains etc. within the element (if needed)
 Using nodal values and shape functions
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
18
 The body is discretized with a number of finite elements.
x
y
Step 3: Discretize over space
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
19
As with heat conduction, we choose the Galerkin method.
This means that the main variables u(x,y) (the
displacements) and the weight functions v(x,y) are
interpolated using the same interpolation functions.
In matrix form:
Step 4: Select shape and weight functions
1 2 8
1 2 8
1 2 8
1 2 8
( , ) ( , ) ( , )
( , )
( , ) ( , ) ( , )
x x x x
y y y y
u N x y u N x y u N x y u
x y
u N x y u N x y u N x y u
¦ ¹ + + + ¦ ¹
¦ ¦
= =
´ ` ´ `
+ + +
¦ ¦
¹ ) ¹ )
u

1
1
2
1 2 8 2
1 2 8
8
8
0 0 0
0 0 0
x
y
x
x
y
y
x
y
u
u
u
u N N N
u
u N N N
u
u
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹ ( ¦ ¦
=
´ ` ´ `
(
¸ ¸ ¹ ) ¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¹ )

( , ) and ( , ) x y x y · = = u Na v NV
1
x
u
2
x
u
3
x
u
4
x
u
5
x
u
6
x
u
7
x
u
8
x
u
1
y
u
2
y
u
3
y
u
4
y
u
5
y
u
6
y
u
7
y
u
8
y
u
1 1
( , ) x y
5 5
( , ) x y
2 2
( , ) x y
6 6
( , ) x y
3 3
( , ) x y
7 7
( , ) x y
4 4
( , ) x y
8 8
( , ) x y
Examples:
1 1 1 1 2 2 1 7 7
( , ) 1, ( , ) 0, ( , ) 0, etc... N x y N x y N x y = = =
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
20
With Hooke’s law the weak form may now be written as:
Noticing that V and a are constants (nodal values of the arbitrary field and the nodal
displacements), we can rearrange:
T T T T
T T T T
( )
( )
f u
f u
A L L A
A L L A
t dA t dL t dL t dA
t dA t dL t dL t dA
= + + ·
= + + ·
} } } }
} } } }
v σ v t v t v b
v D u v t v t v b
V
V V

 
 
 
T T T T
( ) ) ) )
f u
A L L A
t dA t dL t dL t dA = + +
} } } }
NV D Na NV t NV t NV b V V ( ( (
 
 
T T T T T
0
f u
A L L A
t dA t dL t dL t dA
| |
÷ ÷ ÷ = |
|
\ .
} } } }
V N D N a N t N t N b V V
 
 
Because V is arbitrary the parenthesis term must vanish (equal zero)
T T T T
T T T T
f u
f u
A L L A
A L L A
t dA t dL t dL t dA
t dA t dL t dL t dA
÷ ÷ ÷ = ·
= + +
} } } }
} } } }
N D N a N t N t N b 0
B DB a N t N t N b
V V
 
 
 
With = B N V

= σ Dε
= ε u V

= v NV
= u Na
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
21
In order to be able to write the equations in a compact form the following terms are
introduced:
The stiffness matrix
T
T T
T
f u
A
b
L L
l
A
t dA
t dL t dL
t dA
=
= +
=
}
} }
}
K B DB
f N t N t
f N b
 
or ,
b l b l
= + = = + Ka f f Ka f f f f
1
x
u
2
x
u
3
x
u
4
x
u
5
x
u
6
x
u
7
x
u
8
x
u
1
y
u
2
y
u
3
y
u
4
y
u
5
y
u
6
y
u
7
y
u
8
y
u
1 1
( , ) x y
5 5
( , ) x y
2 2
( , ) x y
6 6
( , ) x y
3 3
( , ) x y
7 7
( , ) x y
4 4
( , ) x y
8 8
( , ) x y
1 1
1 1
2 2
2 2
16 16 16 1 16 1
8 8
8 8
, ,
x x
y y
x x
y y
x x
y y
u f
u f
u f
u f
u f
u f
× × ×
¦ ¹ ¦ ¹
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
= =
´ ` ´ `
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¹ ) ¹ )
K a f
 
Boundary terms
The equations can now be written as
element:
8 1 2
8 1 2
8 8 1 1 2 2
1 2 8
2 16
1 2 8
3 16
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
N N N
x x x
N N N
y y y
N N N N N N
y x y x y x
N N N
N N N
×
c c c
c c c
c c c
c c c
×
c c c c c c
c c c c c c
(
=
(
¸ ¸
(
(
= (
(
(
¸ ¸
N
B

Degrees of
freedom, dof
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
22
The definition of the strain was:
0
0
2
x
x
x y
y
y
xy
y
x
u
x
x
ε
u u
ε
u
y y
ε
u
u
y x
y x
¦ ¹
( c
c
¦ ¦
(
c
c
¦ ¦
( ¦ ¹
¦ c ¦ ¦ ¹
c ( ¦ ¦
= = = =
´ ` ´ ` ´ `
(
c c
¹ ) ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
(
¹ )
¦ ¦
c c c (
c
+ ¦ ¦
(
c c
c c
¸ ¸
¹ )
ε u V

( , ) ( , ) ( )
( , )
x y x y
x y
= = = =
= =
ε u Na N a Ba
σ Dε DBa
V V V
  
1
x
u
2
x
u
3
x
u
4
x
u
5
x
u
6
x
u
7
x
u
8
x
u
1
y
u
2
y
u
3
y
u
4
y
u
5
y
u
6
y
u
7
y
u
8
y
u
1 1
( , ) x y
5 5
( , ) x y
2 2
( , ) x y
6 6
( , ) x y
3 3
( , ) x y
7 7
( , ) x y
4 4
( , ) x y
8 8
( , ) x y
With the finite element formulation we have
u(x,y) = N(x,y) a. This gives us the strain and
stress within the element as:
8 1 2
8 1 2
8 8 1 1 2 2
1 2 8
2 16
1 2 8
3 16
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
N N N
x x x
N N N
y y y
N N N N N N
y x y x y x
N N N
N N N
×
c c c
c c c
c c c
c c c
×
c c c c c c
c c c c c c
(
=
(
¸ ¸
(
(
= (
(
(
¸ ¸
N
B

= B N V

x
y
xy
σ
σ
σ
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
=
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )
σ
1
1
8
8
x
y
x
y
u
u
u
u
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
=
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¹ )
a 
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
23
2 2
8 5
1 5 2
2 2
5 6
2 6 2
2 2
6 7
3 7 2
2 2
7 8
4 8 2
( )( ) ( )( )
4 2 2
( )( ) ( )( )
4 2 2
( )( ) ( )( )
4 2 2
( )( ) ( )( )
4 2 2
N N a x b y a x b y
N N
ab a b
N N a x b y a x b y
N N
ab ab
N N a x b y a x b y
N N
ab a b
N N a x b y a x b y
N N
ab ab
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ =
+ + ÷ + ÷
= ÷ =
+ + + ÷ +
= ÷ =
+ ÷ + ÷ ÷
= ÷ =
Select shape and weight functions
Examples of horizontal displacement of nodes 7 and 3
a
b
a
b
(-a,-b) (a,-b)
(a,b)
(-a,b)
8
1 5 2
6
3
7
4
y
x
y
y
x
x
N
1
N
5
1
1
7
x
u
3
x
u
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
24
8 5 5 6
1 2
6 7 7 8
3 4
2 2 2 2
5 6 2 2
2 2 2 2
7 8 2 2
( )( ) ( )( )
4 2 4 2
( )( ) ( )( )
4 2 4 2
( )( ) ( )( )
2 2
( )( ) ( )( )
2 2
N N N N a x b y a x b y
N N
ab ab
N N N N a x b y a x b y
N N
ab ab
a x b y a x b y
N N
a b ab
a x b y a x b y
N N
a b ab
+ + ÷ ÷ + ÷
= ÷ = ÷
+ + + + ÷ +
= ÷ = ÷
÷ ÷ + ÷
= =
÷ + ÷ ÷
= =
Notice that there is no overlap or holes
between neighbouring elements:
a
b
a
b
(-a,-b) (a,-b)
(a,b)
(-a,b)
8
1 5 2
6
3
7
4
y
x
2 2 2 2 2
3 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
4 2 2 2
( )( ) 1 ( )( ) ( )( )
( , )
4 2 2 2 2
( ( ))( ) 1 ( )( ) ( ( ))( )
( , )
4 2 2 2 2
a a b y a a b y a a b y by y
N a y
ab ab a b b
a a b y a a b y a a b y by y
N a y
ab a b ab b
| | + + + ÷ ÷ + ÷
= ÷ + =
|
\ .
| | ÷ ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ = ÷ + =
|
\ .
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
25
Example: Calculation of the ”Quadratic Melosh” stiffness
matrix using Maple
a
b
a
b
(-a,-b) (a,-b)
(a,b)
(-a,b)
8
1 5 2
6
3
7
4
y
x
y
y
x
x
N
1
N
5
1
1
1. Input shape functions.
2. Calculate the strain interpolation matrix, B.
3. Define the constitutive matrix, D.
4. Carry out the matrix multiplication.
5. Integrate each element of the matrix product to obtain K.
6. Program K into the file KQuadMeloshLinElas.m
Assumptions: D and t are constant.
Element width: 2a, height 2b.
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
26
a
b
a
b
8
1 5 2
6
3
7
4
y
x
Can only contain values at nodes. So distributed loads
must be converted into nodal loads:
q
y
q
x
q
θ
T T
f u
b
L L
t dL t dL = +
} }
f N t N t
 
Prescribed term
Can only contain
nodal values
Reactions
2
= Pa], between nodes 1 and 2:
T
( , )
a
b
a
x b t dx
÷
= ÷
}
f N q
T
T
( , )
1 1 1 1 2 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
6 6 6 6 3 3
a
x
b
y
a
x y x y x y
q
x b t dx
q
q q q q q q at
÷
¦ ¹
= ÷
´ `
¹ )
(
=
(
¸ ¸
}
f N
sin
cos
x
y
q θ
q θ
=
=
q
q
Remember: if the load direction is opposite the coordinate axes, it has a negative sign
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
27
Can only contain values at nodes. So distributed loads
must be converted into nodal loads:
T
l
A
t dA =
}
f N b
Exercise: Calculate the element load vector for a constant
internal load. It is recommended that you use mathematical
software, e.g. Maple where your starting point can be a
3
N
m
x
y
b
b
¦ ¹
(
=
´ `
(
¸ ¸
¹ )
b
Remember: if the load direction is opposite the coordinate axes, it has a negative sign
a
b
a
b
8
1 5 2
6
3
7
4
y
x
b
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
28
Step 6: Assembling
a
b
a
b
(-a,-b) (a,-b)
(a,b)
(-a,b)
8
1 5 2
6
3
7
4
y
x
y
y
x
x
N
1
N
5
1
1
1. Determine the local stiffness matrix.
2. Determine the global number of dof corresponding to the
local dof for the element.
3. Add the components of the local stiffness matrix to the
rows and columns of the global stiffness matrix
corresponding to the global dof numbers.
4. Repeat 1-3 until all contributions from all elements have
The assembling procedure is exactly the same
as in all the other lectures:
In the course MatLab code this is done in
Assemblering.m :
K(gDof,gDof) = K(gDof,gDof) + Ke;
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
29
The global matrices are assembled exactly as in
the other lectures.
1 2 3 4 5
8
7
10 9
6
11 12 13
1
x
f
1
y
f
6
y
f
9
y
f
10
y
f
11
y
f
12
y
f
13
y
f
7
y
f
2
y
f
3
y
f
4
y
f
5
y
f
8
y
f
2
x
f
3
x
f
4
x
f
5
x
f
8
x
f
13
x
f
12
x
f
11
x
f
7
x
f
10
x
f
9
x
f
6
x
f
The figures show a system of two
elements with some applied loads and the
1
q
2
q
3
q
4
q
b
11
1 2 4
11
1 1 1 2 2
1 1
2 2 2
12 6
1 1 1
2 2 2 2
12 6 6
x x
y y
f a bt b a tq
f a bt b a tq a tq
= ÷ +
= ÷ + +
b
b
2a
1
2a
2
Example:
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
30
Exercise: Program and plot the results of a 2D patch test for the ”Quadratic
Melosh” element
t = 0.2 m, E = 1.3 MPa, ν = 0.3
Steps
1. Program the geometry
x
9
, f
x
14
, f
x
17
, f
x
5
, f
x
8
,
f
x
13
, f
x
16
and f
x
21
.
3. Make the appropriate programming in
Topology.m, Coordinates.m and
BoundaryConditions.m
4. Run the program by hitting F5 in main.m
5. Plot the results by executing the line
”visualize2D”
x
y
17
x
f
1000Pa q = ÷
14
x
f
9
x
f
Hint: Don’t rely on the plot of the deformed structure. It is scaled. You can
display the displacement vector by typing “u” in the command window.
Compare with the analytical solution in plane stress:
( , )
( , )
x
y
q
u x y x
E
q
u x y ν y
E
=
= ÷
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
31
Why not use the ”Quadratic Melosh” element always?
 The Melosh element must be rectangular and positioned
along the coordinate axes.
 It is therefore not very good at approximating boundaries
not aligned with the coordinate axes.
 Conclusion: The Melosh element is not very flexible.
The isoparametric eight node element (Iso8)
 A quadralilateral element which can be distorted from the
rectangular shape and rotated arbitrarily in the plane.
 The element sides can be curved.
 Makes use of several important concepts in finite element
theory, such as
 Isoparametric coordinates.
 Parent and global domain.
 The Jacobian matrix and the Jacobian.
 Numerical integration by Gauss quadrature.
 The Isoparametric forms the basis for nearly all elements in
pratical use
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
32
Parent and global domain
 In the parent domation the element is always a square
element with the side length 2 with midside nodes.
 The isoparametric coordinates ξ and η have their origin
at the element centroid. This means that the nodes
have the coordinates (ξ, η): 1: (-1,-1), 2: (1,-1), 3: (1,1),
4: (-1,1), 5: (0,-1), 6: (1,0), 7: (0,1) and 8: (-1,0).
 In the global domain the nodes have the coordinates:
1: (x
1
,y
1
), 2: (x
2
,y
2
), etc...
 The question is ”how do we connect these two sets of
coordinates?”
x
y
1
1 1
1
1
8
4
7
3
6
2
5
ξ
η
ξ
η
1
2
η = ÷
1 η = ÷
1
2
η =
1 η =
1 ξ =
1
2
ξ =
1 ξ = ÷
1
2
ξ = ÷
Parent
domain
Global
domain
Why use the isoparametric formulation?
 The overall difficulty is to carry out the stiffness matrix
integration over the element area, A.
 The isoparametric formulation is a ”trick” that
fascilitates this integration.
T
( , ) ( , )
A
x y x y t dA =
}
K B DB
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
33
x
y
1
1 1
1
1
8
4
7
3
6
2
5
ξ
η
ξ
η
1
2
η = ÷
1 η = ÷
1
2
η =
1 η =
1 ξ =
1
2
ξ =
1 ξ = ÷
1
2
ξ = ÷
Parent
domain
Global
domain
The Isoparametric coordinate transformation
 The idea is that we use the shape functions to
interpolate the coordinates between the nodes.
node node
1 1
( , ) and ( , )
i n i n
i i i i
i i
x N ξ η x y N ξ η y
= =
= =
= =
¿ ¿
node
8 (for the Iso8-element) n =
 The Isoparametric eight note element (Iso8) has the
shape functions:
2
8 5
1 5
2
6 7
3 6
2
5 6
2 7
2
7 8
4 8
(1 )(1 ) (1 )(1 )
4 2 2
(1 )(1 ) (1 )(1 )
2 2
(1 )(1 ) (1 )(1 )
2 2
(1 )(1 ) (1 )(1 )
2 2
N N ξ η ξ η
N N
N N ξ η ξ η
N N
ab
N N ξ η ξ η
N N
ab
N N ξ η ξ η
N N
ab
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ =
+ + + + ÷
= ÷ =
+ + ÷ ÷ +
= ÷ =
+ ÷ + ÷ ÷
= ÷ =
Notice that these are the shape functions of the ”quadratic
Melosh” element with a = b = 1.
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
34
x
y
1
1 1
1
1
8
4
7
3
6
2
5
ξ
η
ξ
η
1
2
η = ÷
1 η = ÷
1
2
η =
1 η =
1 ξ =
1
2
ξ =
1 ξ = ÷
1
2
ξ = ÷
Parent
domain
Global
domain
Displacement and stress interpolation
 As usual the displacements within the element are
interpolated from the nodal values
( , ) x y = u Na
1
1
16 1
8
x
y
y
u
u
u
×
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
=
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¹ )
a

 The stresses are still given by:
( , ) ( , )
x
y
xy
σ
x y σ x y
σ
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
= =
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )
σ DB a
with
8 1 2
8 1 2
8 8 1 1 2 2
3 16
0 0 0
0 0 0
N N N
x x x
N N N
y y y
N N N N N N
y x y x y x
c c c
c c c
c c c
c c c
×
c c c c c c
c c c c c c
(
(
= (
(
(
¸ ¸
B

 Problem: We have to finde the derivatives of the shape
functions with respect to the global (x,y) coordinates, but
the shape functions are expressed in the isoparametric
(ξ,η) coordinates. To overcone this problem we will
define B as a product of three matrices:
1
exp ,exp N
÷
= B HJ D
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
35
x
y
1
1 1
1
1
8
4
7
3
6
2
5
ξ
η
ξ
η
1
2
η = ÷
1 η = ÷
1
2
η =
1 η =
1 ξ =
1
2
ξ =
1 ξ = ÷
1
2
ξ = ÷
Parent
domain
Global
domain
 The first matrix, H, relates strains and displacement
derivatives:
1 0 0 0
0 0 0 1
0 1 1 0
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
H
1
exp ,exp N
÷
= B HJ D
1 0 0 0
0 0 0 1
2 0 1 1 0
x x
x x
x
y
y y
xy
y y
u u
x x
u u
ε
y y
ε
u u
ε
x x
u u
y y
c c ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
c c
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
c c
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¦ ¹
(
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
c c
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
(
= = =
´ ` ´ ` ´ `
(
c c
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
(
¸ ¸
¹ )
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
c c
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
c c
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ c c
¹ ) ¹ )
ε H
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
36
x
y
1
1 1
1
1
8
4
7
3
6
2
5
ξ
η
ξ
η
1
2
η = ÷
1 η = ÷
1
2
η =
1 η =
1 ξ =
1
2
ξ =
1 ξ = ÷
1
2
ξ = ÷
Parent
domain
Global
domain
 The second matrix, J
exp
-1
, is an expanded form of the
inverse jacobian matrix, J
-1
:
1
exp ,exp N
÷
= B HJ D
1
2 2 2 2
1
2 2 2 2
x
x
x x
y y
y
y
u
u
ξ
x
u u
y η
u u
x ξ
u
u
y
η
÷
× ×
÷
× ×
c ¦ ¹
c ¦ ¹
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
c
c
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
c c ¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
( ¦ ¦
c c
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
(
=
´ ` ´ `
c c
(
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¸ ¸
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
c c
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
c
c
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ c
c ¹ )
¹ )
J 0
0 J
1
1 2 2 2 2
exp
1
2 2 2 2
÷
÷ × ×
÷
× ×
(
(
=
(
¸ ¸
J 0
J
0 J
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
37
x
y
1
1 1
1
1
8
4
7
3
6
2
5
ξ
η
ξ
η
1
2
η = ÷
1 η = ÷
1
2
η =
1 η =
1 ξ =
1
2
ξ =
1 ξ = ÷
1
2
ξ = ÷
Parent
domain
Global
domain
 The third matrix, D
N,exp
, is an expanded form of the
matrix, D
N
:
1
exp ,exp N
÷
= B HJ D
1
8 1
1
2
8 1
2
8 1
8
8 1
8
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
x
x
y
x
x
y
y
x
y
y
u
N N
u
ξ
ξ ξ
u
u
N N
u
η
η η
u
u
N N
ξ ξ ξ
u
u N N
u
η η
η
c ¦ ¹ c c (
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
(
c
c c ¦ ¦
¦ ¦
(
¦ ¦
c ¦ ¦ c c (
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
(
c
c c ¦ ¦
¦ ¦
(
=
´ ` ´ `
c
c c (
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
(
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
c c c
(
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
c c c (
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
(
¹ )
¦ ¦
c c
c
¸ ¸
¹ )

,11 ,12 ,18
,21 ,22 ,28
,exp
,11 ,12 ,18
,21 ,22 ,28
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
N N N
N N N
N
N N N
N N N
D D D
D D D
D D D
D D D
(
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
D

Nodal
displacement
vector, a
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
,exp
,
x
x
N
y
y
u
ξ
u
η
u
ξ
u
η
c ¦ ¹
¦ ¦
c
¦ ¦
c ¦ ¦
¦ ¦
c
¦ ¦
=
´ `
c
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
c
¦ ¦
c
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
c
¹ )
D a
38
x
y
1
1 1
1
1
8
4
7
3
6
2
5
ξ
η
ξ
η
1
2
η = ÷
1 η = ÷
1
2
η =
1 η =
1 ξ =
1
2
ξ =
1 ξ = ÷
1
2
ξ = ÷
Parent
domain
Global
domain
 The matrix, D
N
contains the derivatives of the shape
functions with respect to the isoparametric coordinates:
8 1 2
8 1 2
N
N N N
ξ ξ ξ
N N N
η η η
c c c (
(
c c c
(
=
c c c (
(
c c c
¸ ¸
D

 If we wanted the displacement derivatives in (ξ,η) co-
ordinates we were done now. But we need them in the
(x,y) system in order to determine the stresses. The
transformation of derivatives from the (ξ,η) system into
the (x,y) system is carried out by the inverse of the so-
called ”Jacobian Matrix”, J
-1
.
,11 ,12 ,18
,21 ,22 ,28
,exp
,11 ,12 ,18
,21 ,22 ,28
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
N N N
N N N
N
N N N
N N N
D D D
D D D
D D D
D D D
(
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
D

Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
39
x
y
1
1 1
1
1
8
4
7
3
6
2
5
ξ
η
ξ
η
1
2
η = ÷
1 η = ÷
1
2
η =
1 η =
1 ξ =
1
2
ξ =
1 ξ = ÷
1
2
ξ = ÷
Parent
domain
Global
domain
The Jacobian matrix
 The matrix J is called ”the Jacobian matrix” and it relates
the displacement derivatives int the two coordinate
systems
and
y
y x
x
x y
x y
u
u u
u
ξ ξ
x x
u u
u u
y
η y
η
c ¦ ¹ c c ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ c ¦ ¹
¦ ¦
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¦ ¦
c c
c c ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
= =
´ ` ´ ` ´ ` ´ `
c c
c c
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ c
c c
¹ ) c
¹ ) ¹ )
¹ )
J J
 The elements of J can be found by differentiating the
displacement with respect to (ξ,η) by invoking the chain rule
x x x
x x x
u u u x y
ξ x ξ y ξ
u u u x y
η x η y η
c c c c c
= +
c c c c c
c c c c c
= +
c c c c c
This gives us the elements of J
node node
node node
1 1
1 1
[ ]
i n i n
i i
i i
i i
N
i n i n
i i
i i
i i
N N x y
x y
ξ ξ ξ ξ
x y
N N
x y
η η
η η
= =
= =
= =
= =
( c c c c (
(
(
c c c c
(
(
= = =
( c c ( c c
(
(
c c
c c ¸ ¸
¸ ¸
¿ ¿
¿ ¿
J D x y
node
node
1
1
( , )
( , )
i n
i i
i
i n
i i
i
x N ξ η x
y N ξ η y
=
=
=
=
=
=
¿
¿
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
40
x
y
1
1 1
1
1
8
4
7
3
6
2
5
ξ
η
ξ
η
1
2
η = ÷
1 η = ÷
1
2
η =
1 η =
1 ξ =
1
2
ξ =
1 ξ = ÷
1
2
ξ = ÷
Parent
domain
Global
domain
The Jacobian
 The inverse of J, which was needed in the expression for
B, B(x,y) = H J
exp
-1
D
N,exp
, can now be found by
22 12 1
21 11
1
det
J J
J J
÷
÷ (
=
(
÷
¸ ¸
J
J
where the determinant of J, which is often called ”the Jacobian”,
is given by
11 22 21 12
det J J J J = ÷ J
det dx dy dξ dη = J
 The Jacobian can be regarded as a scale factor that
relates infinitesimal areas in the parent domain and the
global domain, see (OP, pp. 376 – 380):
dA = dξ dη
dA = dx dy

dη dy
dx
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
41
x
y
1
1 1
1
1
8
4
7
3
6
2
5
ξ
η
ξ
η
1
2
η = ÷
1 η = ÷
1
2
η =
1 η =
1 ξ =
1
2
ξ =
1 ξ = ÷
1
2
ξ = ÷
Parent
domain
Global
domain
Stiffness matrix for the Iso8 element
 The definition of the stiffness matrix was
T T
( , ) ( , ) ( , ) ( , )
A A
x y t x y dA x y t x y dxdy = =
} }}
K B DB B DB
 The integral is non-linear and can, in general, not be
solved analytically. Therefore we must use numerical
integration.
 As a remark it should be mentioned that the load
distribution along the element sides is the same as for the
”Quadratic Melosh” element, as long as the sides are
straight and have midside nodes. If this is not the case,
the nodal loads must also be found by numerical
integration.
 With the Jacobian matrix and its determinant we now have
the tools to calculate the stiffnes smatrix of an isoparametric
1 1
1 T 1
exp ,exp exp ,exp
1 1
( ) det( )
N N
t dξ dη
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
=
} }
K HJ D DHJ D J
1
exp ,exp N
÷
= B HJ D
det dxdy dξ dη = J
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
42
f(x)
Numerical integration
 Our concern is to find the folowing integral numerically
( )
b
a
x
x
I f x dx =
}
 One way of doing this is to divide the domain into n equal
intervals of width W, and sum up the contribution from n
rectangular areas with the height given by the function value
in the centre of the intervals:
1 1 1
( ) ( )
n n n
i i i
i i i
I I f x W W f x
= = =
~ = =
¿ ¿ ¿
f(x)
f(x)
W W W W
I
2
I
1
I
3
I
4
f(x
1
)
f(x
2
)
f(x
3
)
f(x
4
)
x
a
x
b
x
a
x
b
x
a
x
b
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
4
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
4
f(x
1
)
f(x
2
)
f(x
3
)
f(x
4
)
I
x
x
x
W
1
W
2
W
3
W
4
 A second method is analogous to the above but with varying
interval widths W
i
:
1 1
( )
n n
i i i
i i
I I f x W
= =
~ =
¿ ¿
 Both methods will converge towards the exact integral when
the number of intervals, n, increases.
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
43
φ(ξ)
 The numerical integration of the stiffness matrices in a
large finite element model is a time consuming task.
 Therefore we wish to use as few integration intervals as
possible, while still maintaining a decent accuracy.
-1 1
I
ξ
 The position of the evaluation points, x
i
, and the size of the
widths (also called weitht factors) can be optimized with
respect to the function that is integrated. For integrals of
polynomials in the interval [-1 ; 1] this is known as the so-
called Gauss quadrature. Notice that this is the interval we
are interested in with isoparametric elements as the
isoparametric coordinates are -1 ≤ ξ, η ≤ 1. With Gauss
quadrature we can evaluate integrals as
1
1 1
1
( ) ( )
n n
i i i
i i
I φ ξ dξ I φ ξ W
= =
÷
= ~ =
¿ ¿
}
with the following positons and weights:
φ(ξ)
φ(ξ
3
) φ(ξ
1
)
φ(ξ
2
) φ(ξ
4
)
ξ
2
ξ
1
ξ
3
ξ
4 -1 1
I
2
I
1
I
3
I
4
W
1
W
2
W
3
W
4
ξ
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
44
φ(ξ)
Gauss points and weights
-1 1
I
ξ
 A polynomium of degree 2n – 1 is integrated exact with a
φ(ξ)
φ(ξ
3
) φ(ξ
1
)
φ(ξ
2
) φ(ξ
4
)
ξ
2
ξ
1
ξ
3
ξ
4 -1 1
I
2
I
1
I
3
I
4
W
1
W
2
W
3
W
4
ξ
Order n Location of point ξ
i
Weight factor W
i
1 0 2
2 1
3
4
1
3
±
0.6 ±
5
9
8
9
0
3 2 1.2
7
3 2 1.2
7
+
±
÷
±
1 1
2
6 1.2
1 1
2
6 1.2
÷
+
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
45
ξ
 For the calculation of the stiffness matrix we need the
Gauss quadrature in two dimensions. This is obtained as
follows:
φ(ξ)
φ(ξ
3
) φ(ξ
1
)
φ(ξ
2
) φ(ξ
4
)
ξ
2
ξ
1
ξ
3
ξ
4 -1 1
I
2
I
1
I
3
I
4
W
1
W
2
W
3
W
4
1
3
η
÷
=
1
3
η =
1
3
ξ
÷
=
1
3
ξ =
1 1
1
1
ξ
η
1 1 1
1
1 1 1
1 1
1 1
( , ) ( , )
( , )
( , )
i n
i i
i
j n i n
j i j i
j i
j n i n
i j i j
i j
I φ ξ η dξ dη φ ξ η W dη
W φ ξ η W
WW φ ξ η
=
=
÷ ÷ ÷
= =
= =
= =
= =
| |
= ~
|
\ .
| |
~
|
\ .
=
¿
} } }
¿ ¿
¿¿
 Example: Numerical integration of φ(ξ,η) with Gauss order
n = 2, which gives 2·2 = 4 points:
1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
( , ) ( , ) ( , ) ( , )
( , ) 1 1 ( , ) 1 1 ( , ) 1 1 ( , ) 1 1
I φ ξ η WW φ ξ η W W φ ξ η WW φ ξ η W W
φ φ φ φ
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= + + +
= · · + · · + · · + · ·
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
46
Exercise: Calculate and program the stiffness matrix of the stuctural
isoparametric eight node element, Iso8
Steps (some may already be implemented):
1. Open the file K_IsoQ8_LinElas.m.
2. Set up a loop over the Gauss points.
3. Initiate the stiffness matrix as zeros.
4. Perform steps 5 to 12 inside a loop over the Gauss points.
5. Calculate and set up the D
N
-matrix.
6. Calculate the Jacobian matrix.
7. Calculate the determinant of the Jacobian matrix
8. Calculate the inverse Jacobian matrix
9. Calculate the expanded D
N
-matrix. D
N,exp
.
10. Calculate the expanded inverse Jacobian matrix, J
exp
-1
.
11. Calculate the strain distribution matrix, B.
12. Calculate the integral at the current Gauss point and add it to the current value of the stiffness matrix, Ke.
13. A test value with the parameters (x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, x
4
, x
5
, x
6
, x
7
, x
8
) = (0, 2, 1.9, -0.1, 0.7, 1.8, 1.1, 0), (y
1
, y
2
, y
3
, y
4
,
y
5
, y
6
, y
7
, y
8
) = (0, 0.3, 3.4, 3, 0, 1.9, 3.2, 3), t = 1.3, E = 43, ν = 0.3 and n = 2 (Gauss order) in plane stress
can be seen on the next slide.
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
47
= K
 Does it change the value of K, if you change the number of Gauss points?
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
48
Exercise: Program and plot the results of a 2D patch test for the isoparametric
eight node element
t = 0.2 m, E = 1.3 MPa, ν = 0.3
Steps
1. Program the geometry
x
9
, f
x
14
, f
x
17
, f
x
5
, f
x
8
,
f
x
13
, f
x
16
and f
x
21
.
3. Make the appropriate programming in
Topology.m, Coordinates.m and
BoundaryConditions.m.
4. Run the program by hitting F5 in main.m.
5. Plot the results by executing the line
”visualize2D”.
x
y
17
x
f
1000Pa q = ÷
14
x
f
9
x
f
Hint: Don’t rely on the plot of the deformed structure. It is scaled. You can
display the displacement vector by typing “u” in the command window.
Compare with the analytical solution in plane stress:
( , )
( , )
x
y
q
u x y x
E
q
u x y ν y
E
=
= ÷
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
49
Why use triangular elements?
 Different elements have different accuracy for different
problems.
 This means that the convergence rate to the exact solution
is different for different elements.
 Triangular elements can be rotated arbitrarily.
 It is relatively simple to make computer code that meshes
an arbitrary area with triangles
Next: The linear strain triangle (LST)
 A triangular element with six nodes and quadratic shape
functions.
 The sides are straight and have midside nodes.
 Gauss quadrature for triangles will be employed.
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
50
Preliminary: Natural coordinates (Area coordinates)
 Again our main problem is the integration over the element
area necessary to obtain the stiffness matrix.
 For general triangular elements it has proven useful to
derive the stiffness matrix using the so-called ”natural
coordinates”, also referred to as ”area coordinates”.
2
3 3
ξ =
3
1 ξ =
1
3 3
ξ =
3
0 ξ =
2
1 ξ =
2
2 3
ξ =
1
2 3
ξ =
2
0 ξ =
1
1 ξ =
2
1 3
ξ =
1
1 3
ξ =
1
0 ξ =
x 1: (x
1
,y
1
)
2: (x
2
,y
2
)
3: (x
3
,y
3
)
y
Side 3
Side 1
Side 2
4
5
6
A
1
A
2
A
3
P
4
2
5
3
6
1
T
( , ) ( , )
A
x y x y t dA =
}
K B DB
 Point P defines three areas. These define the natural
coordinates of the point:
3 1 2
1 2 3
, ,
A A A
ξ ξ ξ
A A A
= = =
 The folowing constraint applies:
1 2 3 1 2 3
1 A A A A ξ ξ ξ = + + ¬ + + =
 Examples:
Element centroid:
Node 1:
Node 3:
Node 5:
1 1 1
1 2 3 3 3 3
1 2 3
1 2 3
1 1
1 2 3 2 2
( , , ) ( , , )
( , , ) (1,0,0)
( , , ) (0,0,1)
( , , ) (0, , )
ξ ξ ξ
ξ ξ ξ
ξ ξ ξ
ξ ξ ξ
=
=
=
=
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
51
 The relation between natural and cartesian coordinates is
2
3 3
ξ =
3
1 ξ =
1
3 3
ξ =
3
0 ξ =
2
1 ξ =
2
2 3
ξ =
1
2 3
ξ =
2
0 ξ =
1
1 ξ =
2
1 3
ξ =
1
1 3
ξ =
1
0 ξ =
x 1: (x
1
,y
1
)
2: (x
2
,y
2
)
3: (x
3
,y
3
)
y
Side 3
Side 1
Side 2
4
5
6
A
1
A
2
A
3
P
4
2
5
3
6
1
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
x x ξ x ξ x ξ
y y ξ y ξ y ξ
= + +
= + +
 In matrix notation:
1 1
1
2 2
3 3
1 1
and
ξ ξ
x ξ ξ x
y ξ ξ y
÷
¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
= =
´ ` ´ ` ´ ` ´ `
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¹ ) ¹ ) ¹ ) ¹ )
A A
 With the coordinate transformation matrix A:
2 3 3 2 23 32
1
1 2 3 3 1 1 3 31 13
1 2 3 1 2 2 1 12 21
1 1 1
1
and
2
x y x y y x
x x x x y x y y x
A
y y y x y x y y x
÷
÷ ( (
( (
= = ÷
( (
( ( ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
A A
Here x
jk
= x
j
– x
k
and y
jk
= y
j
– y
k
 The element area can be found by:
21 31 13 12
2 det A x y x y = = ÷ A
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
52
2
3 3
ξ =
3
1 ξ =
1
3 3
ξ =
3
0 ξ =
2
1 ξ =
2
2 3
ξ =
1
2 3
ξ =
2
0 ξ =
1
1 ξ =
2
1 3
ξ =
1
1 3
ξ =
1
0 ξ =
x 1: (x
1
,y
1
)
2: (x
2
,y
2
)
3: (x
3
,y
3
)
y
Side 3
Side 1
Side 2
4
5
6
A
1
A
2
A
3
P
4
2
5
3
6
1
 A function N
i
(e.g. a shape function) is expressed in
natural coordinates, N
i

1
, ξ
2
, ξ
3
). The chain rule then
gives us:
3 1 2
1 2 3
3 1 2
1 2 3
i i i i
i i i i
ξ N N ξ N ξ N
x ξ x ξ x ξ x
ξ N N ξ N ξ N
y ξ y ξ y ξ y
c c c c c c c
= + +
c c c c c c c
c c c c c c c
= + +
c c c c c c c
 With the coordinate transformation:
1 2 3 3 2 23 32
2 3 1 1 3 31 13
3 1 2 2 1 12 21
1
1
2
ξ x y x y y x
ξ x y x y y x x
A
ξ x y x y y x y
÷ ¦ ¹ ( ¦ ¹
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
(
= ÷
´ ` ´ `
(
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
( ÷
¹ ) ¸ ¸ ¹ )
x
jk
= x
j
– x
k
y
jk
= y
j
– y
k
we get:
23 31 3 1 2 12
32 13 3 1 2 21
, ,
2 2 2
, ,
2 2 2
y y ξ ξ ξ y
x A x A x A
x x ξ ξ ξ x
y A y A y A
c c c
= = =
c c c
c c c
= = =
c c c
Differentiation in natural coordinates
A
-1
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
53
2
3 3
ξ =
3
1 ξ =
1
3 3
ξ =
3
0 ξ =
2
1 ξ =
2
2 3
ξ =
1
2 3
ξ =
2
0 ξ =
1
1 ξ =
2
1 3
ξ =
1
1 3
ξ =
1
0 ξ =
x 1: (x
1
,y
1
)
2: (x
2
,y
2
)
3: (x
3
,y
3
)
y
Side 3
Side 1
Side 2
4
5
6
A
1
A
2
A
3
P
4
2
5
3
6
1
 The shape functionsfor the LST-element in natural co-
ordinates are given by (Cook, p. 265):
1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3
4 1 2 5 2 3 6 3 1
(2 1), (2 1), (2 1)
4 , 4 , 4
N ξ ξ N ξ ξ N ξ ξ
N ξ ξ N ξ ξ N ξ ξ
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷
= = =
 The displacement in the element interior is then given by:
1
1
1 2 3 1 6
1 2 3
1 2 3 1 6 6
6
( , , ) 0 0
( , , )
( , , ) 0 0
x
y
x
y
x
y
u
u
u ξ ξ ξ N N
ξ ξ ξ
u ξ ξ ξ N N
u
u
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹ (
¦ ¦
= = =
´ ` ´ `
(
¸ ¸ ¹ ) ¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¹ )
u Na

T
A
t dA =
}
K B DB
Shape functions for the LST-element
 The stiffness matrix is, as always, given by:
0
, 0
x
y
y x
c
c
c
c
c c
c c
(
(
= =
(
(
¸ ¸
B N V V
  with
The constitutive matrix, D, is given
on slide 10.
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
54
2
3 3
ξ =
3
1 ξ =
1
3 3
ξ =
3
0 ξ =
2
1 ξ =
2
2 3
ξ =
1
2 3
ξ =
2
0 ξ =
1
1 ξ =
2
1 3
ξ =
1
1 3
ξ =
1
0 ξ =
x 1: (x
1
,y
1
)
2: (x
2
,y
2
)
3: (x
3
,y
3
)
y
Side 3
Side 1
Side 2
4
5
6
A
1
A
2
A
3
P
4
2
5
3
6
1
 Example: A Maple look on the product B
T
DB for the LST-
element.
 We choose to carry out the integration with Gauss
T
A
t dA =
}
K B DB
( )
1 2 3 1 2 3
1 1
1
( , , ) det ( , , )
2
n n
i i i i i i
i i i i
i i
A
I φdA φ J W φ ξ ξ ξ ξ ξ ξ W
= =
= ~ =
¿ ¿
}
J
T
e.g.: t B DB
i
φ
i
J
 For the LST-element we have a constant Jacobian
(Cook, p. 267):
( )
1 2 3
1
det ( , , ) 2
2
i i i
i
J ξ ξ ξ A = = J
 Notice that there is only one counter in triangular Gauss
quadratrure (i), as opposed to the two counters in the
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
55
2
3 3
ξ =
3
1 ξ =
1
3 3
ξ =
3
0 ξ =
2
1 ξ =
2
2 3
ξ =
1
2 3
ξ =
2
0 ξ =
1
1 ξ =
2
1 3
ξ =
1
1 3
ξ =
1
0 ξ =
4
2
5
3
6
1
Gauss points for triangles
Order n Degree of
precision
Location of
point
Weight factor
W
i
1 1 1
3 2
4 3
( )
1 1 1
3 3 3
, ,
( )
( )
( )
2 1 1
3 6 6
1 2 1
6 3 6
1 1 2
6 6 3
, ,
, ,
, ,
1
3
1
3
1
3
( )
( )
( )
( )
1 1 1
3 3 3
3 1 1
5 5 5
3 1 1
5 5 5
3 1 1
5 5 5
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
27
48
25
48
25
48
25
48
÷
( )
1 2 3
, ,
i i i
ξ ξ ξ
 Notice that there is only one counter in triangular Gauss
quadratrure (i), as opposed to the two counters in the
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
56
2
3 3
ξ =
3
1 ξ =
1
3 3
ξ =
3
0 ξ =
2
1 ξ =
2
2 3
ξ =
1
2 3
ξ =
2
0 ξ =
1
1 ξ =
2
1 3
ξ =
1
1 3
ξ =
1
0 ξ =
4
2
5
3
6
1
Gauss points for triangles
Order n Degree of
precision
Location of
point
Weight factor
W
i
1 1 1
3 2
4 3
( )
1 1 1
3 3 3
, ,
( )
( )
( )
2 1 1
3 6 6
1 2 1
6 3 6
1 1 2
6 6 3
, ,
, ,
, ,
1
3
1
3
1
3
( )
( )
( )
( )
1 1 1
3 3 3
3 1 1
5 5 5
3 1 1
5 5 5
3 1 1
5 5 5
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
27
48
25
48
25
48
25
48
÷
( )
1 2 3
, ,
i i i
ξ ξ ξ
 Notice that there is only one counter in triangular Gauss
quadratrure (i), as opposed to the two counters in the
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
57
2
3 3
ξ =
3
1 ξ =
1
3 3
ξ =
3
0 ξ =
2
1 ξ =
2
2 3
ξ =
1
2 3
ξ =
2
0 ξ =
1
1 ξ =
2
1 3
ξ =
1
1 3
ξ =
1
0 ξ =
4
2
5
3
6
1
Gauss points for triangles
Order n Degree of
precision
Location of
point
Weight factor
W
i
1 1 1
3 2
4 3
( )
1 1 1
3 3 3
, ,
( )
( )
( )
2 1 1
3 6 6
1 2 1
6 3 6
1 1 2
6 6 3
, ,
, ,
, ,
1
3
1
3
1
3
( )
( )
( )
( )
1 1 1
3 3 3
3 1 1
5 5 5
3 1 1
5 5 5
3 1 1
5 5 5
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
27
48
25
48
25
48
25
48
÷
( )
1 2 3
, ,
i i i
ξ ξ ξ
 Notice that there is only one counter in triangular Gauss
quadratrure (i), as opposed to the two counters in the
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
58
Exercise: Calculate and program the stiffness matrix of the stuctural six node
triangular element (the LST-element)
Steps (some may already be implemented):
1. Open the file K_LST_LinElas.m.
2. Calculate the element area, A.
3. Initiate the stiffness matrix as zeros.
4. Set up a loop over the Gauss points.
5. Perform steps 5 to 12 inside a loop over the Gauss points.
6. Calculate the strain distribution matrix, B.
7. Think about why the element is called the linear strain element (LST).
8. Calculate the integral at the current Gauss point and add it to the current value of the stiffness matrix, Ke.
9. A test value with the parameters (x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, x
4
, x
5
, x
6
) = (0, 2, -0.5, 1, 0.75, -0.25), (y
1
, y
2
, y
3
, y
4
, y
5
, y
6
) = (0,
1, 0.5, 0.5, 0.75, 0.25), t = 1.2, E = 32, ν = 0.2 and n = 3 (Gauss order) in plane stress can be seen on the
next slide.
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
59
= K
 Does it change the value of K, if you change the number of Gauss points?
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
60
Exercise: Program and plot the results of a 2D patch test for the six node
triangular element with midside nodes (the LST-element)
t = 0.2 m, E = 1.3 MPa, ν = 0.3
Steps
1. Program the geometry
x
9
, f
x
14
, f
x
17
, f
x
5
, f
x
8
,
f
x
13
, f
x
16
and f
x
21
.
3. Make the appropriate programming in
Topology.m, Coordinates.m and
BoundaryConditions.m.
4. Run the program by hitting F5 in main.m.
5. Plot the results by executing the line
”visualize2D”.
x
y
21
x
f
1000Pa q = ÷
16
x
f
11
x
f
Hint: Don’t rely on the plot of the deformed structure. It is scaled. You can
display the displacement vector by typing “u” in the command window.
Compare with the analytical solution in plane stress:
( , )
( , )
x
y
q
u x y x
E
q
u x y ν y
E
=
= ÷
Lecture 8 – 9: 2D elastic problems
Linear Finite-Element Analysis - II
61
Exercise: Get familiar with the program and examine how many degrees of freedom it
takes to model the bending of a tapered beam using different elements
1. Set atype = 2 in main.m
2. Set etype to any of 2, 4, 8, 14, 15 or 16.
3. Try to run the program. Visualize by executing the line ”Visualize2D”.
4. The number of elements can be controlled by changing the variable nelem_y in Coordinates.m.
5. The vertical displacement of the right-most upper node can be seen by typing
”u(2*KeyParam.RightNodes(1))” in the command window.
6. Compare this displacement for different types of elements and different values of nelem_y.
7. Does it change the result if you change the order of Gauss integration?
8. Try to take a look at how the coordinates and the topology are calculated. This might give you inspiration for
your own program in the semester project.
1.5 m
h(0) = 1.0 m
h(x) = 0.4m
-1
x
2
– 0.93x + 1 m
y
q
h(1.5 m) = 0.5 m
n
dof
u
tip