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LINE PROTECTION Objectives of relay protection Protects apparatus in power system Protects person & equipment in the surrounding

ng of the powersystem Separates faulty parts from the rest of the power system to facilitate the operation of the healthy part of the system. FAULT STATISTICS (generally) Single phase to ground 80% Two phase to ground 10% Phase to phase 5% Three phase fault 5% The probability of line fault caused by lightening are 2-3 faults /100 km and year. FAULT TYPES Transient faults Are common on transmission lines ,approximately 80-85% Lightning are the most common reason Can also be caused by bird , trees ,swinging lines etc.. Will disappear after short dead interval. Persistant fault. Can be caused broken conductor fallen down. Can be by tree falling on line Must be repaired before normal service MAIN REQUIREMENTS ON LINE PROTECTION Speed Sensitivity Selectivity Dependability Security MEASURING PRINCIPLES Over current protection Differential protection Phase comparison Distance protection OVER CURRENT PROTECTION Are normally used in radial networks with system voltage below 70KV where relatively long operating time is acceptable. On transmission line directional or non directional relays are used as back up protection The reach of overcurrent relay is function of source impedance & fault impedance which varies considerably making it difficult to get fast & selective tripping. PILOT WIRE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION Pilot wire can be in soil or on towers
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The resistance in the wire will limit the use on longer lines .the use is mostly restricted to distance upto 10 km PHASE COMPARISION phase comparision relay compare the angle difference between the two currents at both ends of the line. The measured time for zero crossing is transmitted to the other end DISTANCE PROTECTION Power lines have impedance of value 0.3-o.4 ohm/km & normal angles of 60-85 degrees in 50 Hz system Measurement base on impedance is immune to source impedance & other problems ,permits fast and selective tripping. Z=V/I Switched scheme This type of schemes consists of start relay to select the measuring loop to the single measuring relay & range of same measuring unit is extended to Z2 &Z3 after time delay by switching. Non switch scheme This type of scheme has a measuring element for each measuring loop & for each zone Types of characteristics A) self polarized Mho:-self polarized mho charct.is circle & passes through origine.it is less prone to power swing, & inherently directional. B) cross polarized mho:-this charact. is also suitable for short length lines as it provides enhanced resistive coverage. C) offset mho:-the offset mho relay encloses origin & provides some coverage for faults in reverse direction this type of reverse offset is used to for Z3 to give back protection to busbar. D) Reactance :- it is represented by line parallel to resistive axis.It is ideally suitable for short length line. It is non directional hence required to use with directional characteristic. E) Lenticular :-its shape is like lens it provide required coverage of impedance & restricted coverage of resistance.this type of charact. is suitable for long & heavily loaded line. F) Quadrilateral :-its shape is quadrilateral & it is directional both reactive & resistive reaches are independently adjustable.it is ideally suitable for short length line. Basic setting philosophy Zone 1: 80% of protected line Zone 2: 100% of protected line+ 50% of adjacent shortest line Zone 3: 100% of protected line+100% of adjacent longest line Zone4 reverse: 10% of zone 3 forward to cover bus etc.. Check should be made for reach to transformer adjacent to protected line section Switch on to fault
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When energizing a power line into a forgotten earthing no measuring voltage available & if it is at opp end then it will trip in Z2 time in such situation protection may not operate & in other case operation will be delayed. A special SOTF function is provided so as relay to operate in Z1 time Different principles can be used ,from one phase current to unidirectional impedance measuring Power swing blocking A power swing can be started by sudden load change due to fault in the network During power swing 3phase symmetrical V & I variation occurs. It is either recoverable or non recoverable Normally tripping is prevented if it enter upto Z2 & remain there for max 2 sec Tripping is allowed if it enters Z1 locus. Vt fuse failure As Z=V/I hence if VT fuse blows Z will be zero and distance relay may trip A special function VT fuse failure prevent tripping in such condition Carrier intertrip As Z1 covers 80% of line , various carrier tripping schemes are used to protect remaining portion of line in almost Z1 time . Some type of schemes are as under Permissive underreach transfer trip(PUR) generally this scheme is utilized in our network. Permissive overreach transfer trip(POR) generally utilized for short length line upto 10 kms. Blocking

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