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1) What would be expected if the amount of interstitial fluid surrounding the capillary beds of the lungs were to increase

significantly? A) The amount of carbon dioxide entering the lungs from the blood would increase. B) The amount of oxygen entering the circulation from the lungs would increase. C) The amount of oxygen entering the circulation from the lungs would decrease. D) The pressure would cause the capillary beds to burst. E) Both C and D would be expected. 2) Which is a correct statement concerning the insect circulatory system? A) The circulating fluid bathes tissues directly. B) Blood is always contained in a system of tubes called tracheae. C) Blood transports oxygen and nutrients to all the tissues. D) There is no heart, or pump. E) There is no blood, or circulating fluid. 3) Organisms in which a circulating body fluid is distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the body's cells are likely to have A) an open circulatory system. B) a closed circulatory system. C) a gastrovascular cavity. D) branched tracheae. E) hemolymph. 4) Which of the following blood components would interfere with the functioning of an open circulatory system but not a closed one? A) electrolytes B) water C) red blood cells D) amino acids E) antibodies 5) In which animal does blood flow from the pulmocutaneous circulation to the heart before circulating through the rest of the body? A) annelid B) mollusc C) fish D) frog E) insect 6) Three-chambered hearts generally consist of which of the following numbers of atria and ventricles? A) one atrium; one ventricle B) two atria; one ventricle C) three atria; no ventricles D) no atria; three ventricles E) one atrium; two ventricles 7) Which of the following are the only vertebrates in which blood flows directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without first returning to the heart? A) amphibians B) birds C) fishes D) mammals E) reptiles

8) To adjust blood pressure independently in the capillaries of the gas-exchange surface and in the capillaries of the general body circulation, an organism would need a(n) A) open circulatory system. B) hemocoel. C) lymphatic system. D) two-chambered heart. E) four-chambered heart.

9) A human red blood cell in an artery of the left arm is on its way to deliver oxygen to a cell in the thumb. From this point in the artery, how many capillary beds must this red blood cell pass through before it returns to the left ventricle of the heart? A) one B) two C) three D) four E) five 10) Through how many capillary beds must a human red blood cell travel if it takes the shortest possible route from the right ventricle to the right atrium? A) one B) two C) three D) four E) five Refer to the diagram of the human heart in Figure 42.1 to answer the following questions.

Figure 42.1 11) Chambers or vessels that carry oxygenated blood include which of the following? A) 1 and 11 only B) 1 and 4 only C) 4, 5 and 6 only D) 1, 2, and 4

E) 1, 5, and 6 12) Blood is carried directly to the lungs from which of the following? A) 2 B) 3 C) 4 D) 5 E) 6 13) What is the correct sequence of blood flow, beginning at the pulmonary artery? A) 2-4-5-systemic circulation-10-11-1 B) 3-5-6-systemic circulation-2-1-4 C) 4-5-6-3-systemic circulation-2-4 D) 4-systemic circulation-2-11-6-3-5 E) 5-6-3-2-1-4 14) Which sequence of blood flow can be observed in either a reptile or a mammal? A) left ventricle aorta lungs systemic circulation B) right ventricle pulmonary vein pulmocutaneous circulation C) pulmonary vein left atrium ventricle pulmonary circuit D) vena cava right atrium ventricle pulmonary circuit E) right atrium pulmonary artery left atrium ventricle 15) In order for an insect to grow as large as an elephant, what changes or modifications would need to be made in the circulatory systems of insects? A) The circulating body fluid would need to be contained in closed vessels. B) The heart would need to have multiple chambers. C) The heart would need to have multiple ostia. D) Only A and B are correct. E) A, B, and C are correct. 16) A patient has a blood pressure of 120/75, a pulse rate of 40 beats/min, a stroke volume of 70 mL/beat, and a respiratory rate of 25 breaths/min. This person's cardiac output per minute will be A) 500 mL. B) 1,000 mL. C) 1,750 mL. D) 2,800 mL. E) 4,800 mL. 17) Damage to the sinoatrial node in humans A) is a major contributor to heart attacks. B) would block conductance between the bundle branches and the Purkinje fibers. C) would have a negative effect on peripheral resistance. D) would disrupt the rate and timing of cardia muscle contractions. E) would have an effect on blood pressure monitors in the aorta. 18) If the atrioventricular node could be surgically removed from the heart without disrupting signal transmission to the Purkinje fibers, what would be the effect? A) No apparent effect on heart activity would be observed. B) The heart rate would be decreased. C) Only the ventricles would contract. D) Only the atria would contract. E) Atria and ventricles would contract at about the same time.

19) A nonfunctional sinoatrial node would A) have no adverse effects on heart contraction. B) cause the heart to stop beating in an autorhythmic fashion. C) result in a block in ventricular contractions. D) cause no effects because hormones will take over regulation of the heart beat. E) have no significant effect on stroke volume. 20) Why is the velocity of blood flow the lowest in capillaries? A) The capillary walls are not thin enough to allow oxygen to exchange with the cells. B) Capillaries are far from the heart, and blood flow slows as distance from the heart increases. C) The diastolic blood pressure is too low to deliver blood to the capillaries at a high flow rate. D) The systemic capillaries are supplied by the left ventricle, which has a lower cardiac output than the right ventricle. E) The total surface area of the capillaries is larger than the total surface area of the arterioles. 21) Average blood pressure is lowest in which structure(s)? A) the aorta B) arteries C) arterioles D) capillaries E) venae cavae

22) Which of the following is correct for a blood pressure reading of 130/80? I. The systolic pressure is 130. II. The diastolic pressure is 80. III. The blood pressure during heart contraction is 80. A) I only B) III only C) I and II only D) II and III only E) I, II, and III 23) What can be expected to happen to the blood pressure of a healthy individual during inhalation? A) The systolic pressure would rise and the diastolic pressure would decrease. B) The extra pressure exerted by the inflating lungs will increase blood pressure. C) There will be a transient decrease in blood pressure. D) Blood pressure will initially increase and then immediately decrease. E) Nothing will happen in healthy individuals. 24) What is the reason that fluid is forced out of systemic capillaries at the arteriole end? A) The osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid is greater than that of the blood. B) The hydrostatic pressure of the blood is less than that of the interstitial fluid. C) The hydrostatic pressure of the blood is greater than the osmotic pressure of the blood. D) The osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid is greater than the hydrostatic pressure of the blood. E) The osmotic pressure of the blood is greater than the hydrostatic pressure of the interstitial fluid. 25) If, during protein starvation, the osmotic pressure on the venous side of capillary beds drops below the hydrostatic pressure, then A) hemoglobin will not release oxygen. B) fluids will tend to accumulate in tissues. C) the pH of the interstitial fluids will increase.

D) most carbon dioxide will be bound to hemoglobin and carried away from tissues. E) plasma proteins will escape through the endothelium of the capillaries. 26) If a person were suffering from edema, which of the following conditions would help to reduce the accumulation of interstitial fluid? A) decrease of plasma protein production by the liver B) constriction of the smooth layer of the arteriole C) removal of an obstruction in the lymphatic system D) decrease of the systolic blood pressure E) enlargement of clefts between capillary endothelial cells 27) What would be the long-term effect if the lymphatic vessels associated with a capillary bed were to become blocked? A) More fluid would enter the venous capillaries. B) Blood pressure in the capillary bed would increase. C) Fluid would accumulate in interstitial areas. D) Fewer proteins would leak into the interstitial fluid from the blood. E) Nothing would happen. 28) Human plasma proteins include which of the following? I. fibrinogen II. hemoglobin III. immunoglobulin A) I only B) II only C) I and III only D) II and III only E) I, II, and III

29) Which of the following is not a function of plasma proteins in humans? A) maintenance of blood osmotic pressure B) transport of water-insoluble lipids C) blood clotting D) immune responses E) oxygen transport 30) Cyanide acts as a mitochondrial poison by blocking the final step in the electron transport chain. What will happen to human red blood cells if they are placed in an isotonic solution containing cyanide? A) The cell shape will be maintained, but the mitochondria will be poisoned. B) The cells will lyse as the cyanide concentration increases inside the cell. C) As a protective mechanism, the cells will switch to anaerobic metabolism. D) The cells will not be able to carry oxygen. E) The cells will probably be unaffected. The following phrases refer to the five terms below. Each term can be used as an answer once, more than once, or not at all. A. low-density lipoproteins B. immunoglobulins C. erythropoietin

D. epinephrine E. platelets 31) speeds up heart rate

32) part of the cellular elements of the blood 33) stimulates the production of red blood cells

c e

34) involved in the early stages of blood clotting

35) The meshwork that forms the fabric of a blood clot consists mostly of which protein? A) fibrinogen B) fibrin C) thrombin D) prothrombin E) collagen 36) Which of the following is not a normal event in the process of blood clotting? A) production of erythropoietin B) conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin C) activation of prothrombin to thrombin D) adhesion of platelets E) clotting factor release by clumped platelets Match the following phrases to the conditions. Each condition may be used once, more than once, or not at all. A. B. C. D. E. atherosclerosis arteriosclerosis hypertension heart murmur cardiovascular thrombus

37) high blood pressure

c d a?

38) defect in one or more of the valves of the heart

39) plaque formation by infiltration of lipids into arterial smooth muscles

40) Which of the following features do all gas exchange systems have in common? A) The exchange surfaces are moist. B) They are enclosed within ribs. C) They are maintained at a constant temperature. D) They are exposed to air. E) They are found only in animals. 41) Why is gas exchange more difficult for aquatic animals with gills than for terrestrial animals with lungs? A) Water is denser than air. B) Water contains much less O2 than air per unit volume. C) Gills have less surface area than lungs. D) Only A and B are correct.

E) A, B, and C are correct. 42) Which of the following is an example of countercurrent exchange? A) the flow of water across the gills of a fish and that of blood within those gills B) the flow of blood in the dorsal vessel of an insect and that of air within its tracheae C) the flow of air within the primary bronchi of a human and that of blood within the pulmonary veins D) the flow of water across the skin of a frog and that of blood within the ventricle of its heart E) the flow of fluid out of the arterial end of a capillary and that of fluid back into the venous end of the same capillary 43) Countercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to maximize A) endocytosis. B) blood pressure. C) diffusion. D) active transport. E) osmosis. 44) Which one of the following statements about gills operating in water is false? A) Water can support the delicate gill features. B) Most fish actively pump water over their gills. C) Keeping membranes moist is no problem. D) Water carries more oxygen than air, and therefore gills need to be more efficient than lungs. E) Gills have evolved many times in aquatic animals. 45) Tracheal systems for gas exchange are found in which organism? A) crustacean B) earthworm C) insect D) jellyfish E) vertebrate 46) Where do air-breathing insects carry out gas exchange? A) in specialized external gills B) in specialized internal gills C) in the alveoli of their lungs D) across the membranes of cells E) across the thin cuticular exoskeleton 47) An oil-water mixture is used as a spray against mosquitoes. How might this spray also affect gas exchange in other insects? A) The oil might coat their lungs. B) The oil might block the openings into the tracheal system. C) The oil might interfere with gas exchange across the capillaries. D) Only A and B are correct. E) A, B, and C are correct. 48) All of the following respiratory surfaces are associated with capillary beds except the A) gills of fishes. B) alveoli of lungs. C) tracheae of insects. D) skin of earthworms. E) skin of frogs. 49) If a molecule of CO2 released into the blood in your left toe travels out of your nose, it must pass through all of

the following structures except the A) right atrium. B) pulmonary vein. C) alveolus. D) trachea. E) right ventricle. 50) Air rushes into the lungs of humans during inhalation because A) the rib muscles and diaphragm contract, increasing the lung volume. B) pressure in the alveoli increases. C) gas flows from a region of lower pressure to a region of higher pressure. D) pulmonary muscles contract and pull on the outer surface of the lungs. E) a positive respiratory pressure is created when the diaphragm relaxes.