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4, Representation In Modern Fiction (1984), pp. 689-700 Published by: Duke University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1772256 Accessed: 20/11/2009 08:56
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there is only a very relative distance: that which separates the naturalized model where the reader confuses the stereotyped forms with reality as he sees it. it is." and to scenes described as "natural.STEREOTYPES AND REPRESENTATION IN FICTION* RUTH AMOSSY French. Poetics Today. the stereotype would act as a screen and therefore as an obstacle. Its preconstructed forms provide representation with foundations. it is just as obvious that the literary text relies heavily on accredited models. and describe reality. that all vision is conditioned by preexisting schemas. without any doubt. however. largely illusory in art.that is to say. Between the calm comfort of realistic illusion. flagrantly contradicts public opinion. in this sense it would be the opposite and the negation of representation. they guarantee its possibility and legibility at the same time. but global cultural * Translated by Therese Heidingsfeld. The Russian Formalists' concept of "automatization" was designed to account for this process wherein convention stiffens and congeals. as we know." In every attempt to seize hold of a reality which is by definition diversified and complex. Tel Aviv As a cultural model through which we perceive. to the "living character. important to go beyond the original notion of automatization. and the irritation caused by the stereotype. which opposes the stereotype to the accurate reproduction of reality . from the prefabricated mold which he denounces as excessive codification and mere distortion of reality. If it is true. The stereotype does indeed testify to the omnipresence of models which are not simply changeable literary conventions. The persistent dichotomy between the "real" and the "conventional" is nevertheless. 5:4 (1984) 689-700 . This point of view. Vol. the stereotype is necessarily linked with representation. interpret. To really understand the stereotype in its constitutive relations with representation in fiction." to the "faithful depiction of feelings. as Gombrich (1960) has shown for the plastic arts.
" as it is at the level of a character from a novel. the design assembles the same chain of 1. The old miserly Jew. 1980-1981. It displays itself in the margin of excess where forms become fixed and hardened. however.all effort at precise. let us make one thing clear. as well as of cultural mediations. Its dimensions are malleable to the nth degree. in the elaboration of representation in fiction. We are dealing with the capacity of a certain cultural model to repeat itself while being frozen. formal. the stereotype stands at the junction of text and reading.690 RUTH AMOSSY forms1 in direct contact with the beliefs (Grivel 1978. In a simple form. a prefabricated structure of any kind whatsoever. such as "an old miserly Jew. as it does on the formal level. it is as readily discerned at the level of a brief syntagm. to the extent to which it is based on the activation of determined cultural models. meanwhile defining its own nature and functions within that field. a landmark to be catalogued once and for all. in a well-known study of James Bond. This shows at the same time the variability and the great relativity of the phenomenon. Not only are its contents changeable. for example whenever "amour" rhymes with "toujours. It goes without saying that this conception of the stereotype places it from the start beyond or short of . The stereotype is not a familiar image. From this perspective the stereotype can be defined as a recurrent pattern. similar elements maintain a stable relationship from one case to another. the stereotype represents a hyperbolic figure of that model. It is necessarily reliant on an aesthetics of reception. of a certain general phenomenon. but the units and even the relationships which constitute them are essentially variable. the fair young maiden.these are all simply particular concrete forms. A stereotype actually occurs wherever a cultural model allows itself to become recurrent and frozen. and accidental ones at that. It appears as readily on the thematic level. Thus Umberto Eco. such as Isaac of York in Ivanhoe. and unified description. It thus underlines the centrality of the reading activity. it exacerbates and distorts the general rule." Finally it shows itself as a global structure underlying the actantial distribution of the narrative or the linking of the series of events. the opposition between valiant Anglo-Saxons and evil communists . The aim of the present study is to examine the manner in which the stereotype clarifies from its particular vantage the field of representation. Through exaggeration. such as the development of the "woman-flower" idea. I Right from the outset. noted that in "Fleming's novel. . More than just a cultural model. 1981) of a certain society. Moreover. As certain contemporary semioticians of culture have shown. in a particularly rigorous and suggestive way.
Cliches and stereotypes are thus both inscribed. it is the status of the repetition itself which. . Confrontation with the cliche. it welcomes all formulations and variants and puts up with totally dissimilar stylistic registers. It is still." This description tries to expand the scope of the stereotype as discussed in "Problematiques du cliche" (Herschberg-Pierrot 1980) as a cliche. How do we explain that the same model occurs repeatedly in texts where all the terms can be different? Why is the repetition striking when nothing is reiterated either on the literal level or in the fictional composition? Not only does the stereotype not correspond to any formal. Consequently it is the mechanism of this evidence which ought to be unveiled. Actually. the same combination is stubbornly imposed: Fleming's novel appears stereotyped at the level of its skeleton. We perceive here the fundamental enigma of the stereotype. The trite expression "as miserly as a Jew.STEREOTYPES AND REPRESENTATION 691 events and the same secondary characters" (Eco 1966:90). which goes beyond discursive unity and imposes itself in the most diverse forms. Free and multiform. perceived as a stereotype in the vivid evidence of reading. in the global field of stereotypicality. but it even bases itself on a paradoxical phenomenon of recurrence. underlines the singularity of the stereotype taken in the broadest sense of the term. and indeed need not be verbalized. which embrace. The fixed associations which they constitute can remain implicit in the language. or even for the roman a these. the fixed figures of style. its deep structure. This is not at all the case with the stereotype. among other ready-made expressions. it can emerge at the exact place where the narrative eludes the trap of literal and narrative repetition and endeavor to erase any visible trace of verbal cliche. as suggested by a recent title by Shlomith Rimmon-Kenan (1980). frozen unity (Riffaterre 1971). and details. decors. in which the rigid. dichotomous distribution of "good guys" and "bad guys" advertises the stereotypicality even of fiction that exploits the most fertile resources of the imagination. each in its own way.2 The representation of the Jew as an old miser appears as a cultural model in the most disparate novelistic plots. This is also the case with a certain type of serialized novel. is paradoxical. and as such tolerates neither substitution nor transformation. precise definition. Therefore it is introduced into the texts as an anonymous quotation (AmossyRosen 1982). by the way. Throughout the proliferation of details and the exuberant technical invention. Anne Herschberg-Pierrot sees in cliches "a rhetorical sub-category of stereotypes. or as "integration of one or more obligatory predicate definitions within a theme" (p. however. is a discursive. Repetition. according to the fundamental definition by Genette." which is a lexically full figure felt to be banal.' But stereotypes are not reducible to a collection of phraseological units. a mental construction obtained by the elimination of the specific qualities of each occurrence and the 2. constitutes an abstraction. Delineated at various levels of the text. 336). understood as a particular form of 'preconstruction.
Like repetition. his "bony and emaciated" hands which remind us of the crooked fingers of caricatures .these testify to an insatiable cupidity. A Jew surrounded by his millions will always be one of the finest spectacles which humanity can give.a little old man. A "nose like an obelisk" completes the picture of the old Jew." the "face full of deep hollows. callous skin. Following excerpts are from Marriage.Also note that "wrinkled. It is thus indissociable from the difference which pervades it. the stereotype is a construction of the mind. The "eyes bright" as those of Magus's always greedy dogs. The text is actually refashioned according to the imperatives of a familiar model. a menacing pointed chin. Here is the portrait of Elie Magus. Following. All those elements which reinforce the implicit central motif of avarice are selected and taken into account. . It is imposed by a reading activity which divides and reassembles texts in such a way that they flow together into fixed molds." they integrate without difficulty into a unity which gravitates around the notion of avarice. Here we see the reading strategy which alone permits the imposition of the stereotype. erases all trace of diversity. The analysis of a particular example permits us to illustrate this process of elimination and preservation. it depends on a mental operation which gives preference to identity and. exterior to the narrative and recorded in a more or less distinct fashion by the reader's cultural 3." or the "toothless mouth" remain. Such details as the "bald head. unless otherwise indicated. the beard "that had a trick of twitching its long white bristles" and the "menacing pointed chin" reinforce the isotopism of the active. and reconstruction leading the text towards a preconceived model. in which it participates. a face full of deep hollows. renewed twice in a score of years. eyes bright as the eyes of his dogs in the yard.692 RUTH AMOSSY preservation of only those present in similar occurrences. callous skin" should be read as "wrinkled.there he stood in his gallery smiling at the beauty called into being by genius. The "bony and emaciated hands" (les mains osseuses et decharnees) have been omitted in this translation by Ellen Marriage. cold skin" (la peau rugeuse et froide). a wrinkled. in Cousin Pons: And Magus himself was a living picture among the motionless figures on the wall . dressed in a shabby overcoat. not only of old age but also of a bizarre "economy. and a very dirty pair of trousers. with a bald head. a beard that had a trick of twitching its long white bristles. that is to say aggressive. consequently. Thus we find the poverty and dirtiness of the suit: to the "shabby overcoat" is added the waistcoat "renewed twice in a score of years" and the "very dirty" pair of trousers.3 and a nose like an obelisk . The traditional image of the Jew emerges from Balzac's description through a double operation: deconstruction. a silk waistcoat. a toothless mouth. Similarly. elision and rearticulation. however. to which they indicate need and are the sign. To the extent. cupidity.
All nuances which are not immediately relevant are rubbed out. All variants are reduced and reintegrated willy-nilly into the initial isotopism. for instance. these remnants are hardly a problem. though the context easily permits us to see a miser's hands. The picture of avarice accommodates the mention of both a distinguished piece of clothing and the maximal wear and tear on it. however.but not obelisk-like. the construction of the model obeys to a greater extent the reader's automatisms than the more or less complex networks of writing. Everything that perversely disturbs this harmony of fixed traits reunited in a stable pattern is relegated to the level of "remnants. This conception of reading approaches what Stierle (1979) calls "quasi-pragmatic reading. The stereotype is potentially lodged in the mind of the reader before being actualized in the text by an act of centralization and reduction. Nothing imposes a "toothless mouth" on the avaricious Jew." . prunes. unless the connotations of length and Orientality which belong to the obelisk permit us to falsely recognize a Jewish nose. The "silk waistcoat" is singled out as a superfluous detail. bent. By definition. in the case of the stereotype. the very uselessness of which guarantees the authenticity of the picture. but it is impossible to know at which one or ones it will terminate. The portrait of the avaricious Jew is otherwise corroborated by clothing which confirms his place in the merchant class (and not. as well." an old man's hands. Any decoding implies without doubt a reading construction which undoes and reassembles the text. it confers on them the stature of details destined to particularize. to individualize a familiar figure. but it easily fits an old man and. This is also the case with "bony and emaciated hands. Take the "nose like an obelisk": according to the dictionary. The reading necessitates initial patterns. on a game of affinities and differences instigated by the narrative itself. Reading projects in a false quest what it pretends to seek. the stereotype therefore limits the reading activity to the recognition of a repetitious structure. Whenever reading does not purely and simply skip them. either by discerning in them a pure effect of reality or by making all the resorts of realistic motivation work for them." For the reader forming the stereotype. Reading picks out all the constituents of the description which correspond to the preexisting pattern.4 We could therefore say that it is the reader and not Elie Magus who carries . there are noses which are aquiline. Reading thus recuperates the maximum number of variants and differences while working to reduce them to the Same and the Known. in the working class).the 4. It neutralizes the remnants without difficulty. someone who in his anxiety to economize neglects his clothes and also his body. it trims.or who is . eagle-beaked . It is based.STEREOTYPES AND REPRESENTATION 693 memory. In doing this. and erases. curved.
. For in a sense. to the commonplace or doxic statement. as Barthes (1970:23) says. The advantage of stereotypic reduction is well-known. This passage. what distance actually separates the description of Elie Magus in Cousin Pons that we have just decoded from the following text: Dressed in worn and filthy clothes. which brings it back into the same old rut. for it alone savesthe text from repetition (those who fail to reread are obliged to read the same story everywhere). Flaubert. conceived in terms of the stereotyped reading of Balzac's text. The proliferation of meanings deriving from diverse and complex connections in the novel is replaced by stable relationships which constitute a model invested with Meaning. or Alexander Dumas could be seen as cast in the same mold. The opposite of rereading. as has been amply demonstrated.multipliesit in its varietyand its plurality." In principal. the stereotypic reduction or the modulation of differences is a question of reading or. any stereotype can be summarized as a generalization or general truth taken from public opinion.. and professors). This is only indirectly expressed in the ironic commentary inserted by the narrator: "A Jew surrounded by his millions will always be one of the finest spectacles which humanity can give. an old Jew with an aquiline nose and crooked fingerscontemplatedhis richeswith eyes that shone with greed. and whatever disseminates itself insidiously in the deceptive form of the obvious. is derived from a diffuse global Knowledge: that of the doxa or public opinion.rereadingis here suggestedat the outset." It could be reformulated in terms of a general affirmation stipulating that "all Jews are avaricious and eager for gain. which "multiplies" the text "in its variety and its plurality. Balzac's text. an operation contrary to the commercial and ideological habits of . and which is tolerated only in certain marginalcategoriesof readers (children. is (need I say it?) of my own invention. as well as the caricatural reduction presented above. the stereotype fixes in a stable and suggestive image whatever is thought and said there. which would have us "throw away" the story once it has been consumed ("devoured"). offers a stereotyped image of the Jew which corresponds to a commonplace idea." it comfortably restrains the polysemy. Eugene Sue.so that we can then move on to anotherstory. After all. A protagonist of Balzac.694 RUTH AMOSSY stereotype. of rereading: our society. old people. buy another book. whatever manages to state itself explicitly. as conformist representation. Stereotyped reading Reading. Evidently arising from beliefs which circulate in a certain society. Meaning which. Here one finds the relation of the stereotype. This is because the cultural model underlying it bases itself on a commonplace idea which is clearly formulable or formulated. We know only too well that any text can become the object of stereotyped reading.
II We can ask ourselves in this context what a rereading of Balzac's text would involve. thanks to its own potentialities. Is another dissection possible or. no doubt. and reinforce a unique global Signified. Let us imagine for a moment our old Jew blessed with a pair of big blue eyes. a complex textual expansion can offer an adequate and organized grasp of the essential. which questions acutely the status of the "left-overs. Such is the case of Balzac's text. the brevity of description and the extreme poverty of detail permit an immediate recognition of the basic model. Elie Magus showing a face which exudes honesty. The reading activity which articulates a pattern through. the effect of reality. in the tradition of the novel we more frequently find that details multiply and diversify in order to fill out the plot. be recuperated through various procedures such as individualization. a reading construction which surpasses. indeed. The example is. but it also risks being a Procrustean bed. To look closely at this question is to ask ourselves about the "left-overs. Their resistance to recuperation is the best measure of the text's own resistance. or simply ignores the preconceived model of the Jew? In other words. As for those elements which evade the law of repetition. So it is necessary for them to be brought under the same umbrella. then. Such resistance to attempts at integration and reduction shows that the "recalcitrant" elements violate the three golden rules of stereotyping: the poverty of its constituents. rereading is a process of seeing whether the stereotype is produced by the decoding or by the text. In the revised and corrected portrait of the old Jew which I have outlined. Redundancy maintains the simplicity of the prefabricated pattern by reducing all the forms of diversity to the Same.or recognized ." those elements not "pigeonholed" by the reader when he initially formed . somewhat artificial. This is on condition that they be neither completely heterogeneous nor visibly contradictory. We have nothing more to learn. Rereading. et cetera. complicates." . Any flagrant deviation upsets the initial pattern in producing unexpected connections which confuse or cover up the fixed relationships of the basic model. better still. so to speak. dressed as a farmer with clogs.the stereotype. even necessary? Does writing in the novel provoke. and homogeneity. redundancy. or. they can.STEREOTYPES AND REPRESENTATION 695 allows us to stay on this familiar terrain. implies the resuppression or recuperation of all elements not immediately relevant to the basic model. we must simply recognize the Same in novelty and difference: the eternal Jew under the particular features of Elie Magus. as we have seen. realistic motivation. where everything has the reassuring form of deja-vu. and in spite of.
or Life and Death." "bony and emaciated hands." at which he smiles. Balzac's writing brings forth a series of textual connections allowing a totally different decoding. the portrait of Elie Magus produces a network of differences even when not juxtaposed with that of the fanatical collector. Even when it authorizes a reading centered on the prefabricated pattern." "face full of deep hollows. Resisting stereotypic reduction. as millionaires who live in poverty and who "are capable of treading the miry ways that lead to the police-court if so they may gain possession of a cup. must produce. like life." "wrinkled." Desire is indissociable from physical decrepitude. that of the Parisian "monomaniac": Paris of all the cities of the world holds most of such men as Magus. Therefore it is a rule-governed interaction of text and . as the entire novel endeavors to show. The London "eccentric" always finds that worship." "toothless mouth. We can also observe that a supplementary axis of decoding is furnished by the contrast offered between the "living picture" of Elie Magus surrounded by his treasures and the "motionless figures" such as the "beauty called into being by genius": the process of opposition and inversion establishes a complex relationship between reality and Art. a combination which no longer corresponds to the models he started out with. Therein lies one of the essential characteristics of the collector. it equally calls for a deciphering that takes into account the unstable and complex networks of the text. More and more." The reader who is called upon to unite the traditional image of the Jew with that of the collector. Balzac then proceeds to describe the "Parisian tribe" as collectors. Magus's indulgence in lewd voyeurism explains "eyes bright as the eyes of his dogs. with the help of sundry elements in the text. Balzac's text surpasses the familiar model which it used as inspiration. suggests a libidinal connection which in a way evokes a well-known "painting": that of Susanna and the three Elders.696 RUTH AMOSSY The rest of the portrait of Elie Magus does indeed muddle the stereotype in putting the character into a heterogeneous general category. For it cannot be integrally reduced to the stereotype of the greedy Jew. a picture." "a beard that had a trick of twitching its long white bristles. as is underlined by all the indications of decay and need: "bald head." An unusual libidinal investment is thus diverted to the exclusive profit of the work of art. or some such rare unpublished piece as Elie Magus once picked up one memorable day in Germany. callous skin." the "menacing pointed chin. and more particularly with that of the Parisian monomaniac. starting with its hero Pons. brings weariness and satiety in the end. The confrontation of the "little old man" with the "beauty called into being by genius. strange beings with a strange religion in their heart of hearts. the Parisian monomaniac lives cheerfully in concubinage with his crotchet to the last.
STEREOTYPES AND REPRESENTATION 697 reader which confers on the stereotype its scope and its limits. Eugene Sue's textual strategies pretend to combat the stereotypicality which. it is useful to consult Wolfgang Iser's (1978) study.5 Behind an image which is only too familiar. the making of a fortune for the gentile hero . he pretended to be senile. With this perspective in mind. Wherever cultural mediations remain diffuse and underlie the representation 5. For the modalities of text/reader interaction in relation to the "repertoire. which vehemently attacks all the anti-semitic stereotypes: Samuel was then eighty-two years old. thin. than it does to Elie Magus. This is to say that the text must shift the decoding from the start into an autonomous activity of connections to which no fixed model lends its support. The covetous usurer becomes honest and generous. the narrative which undertakes to shatter prejudices continues in the same old rut of reductive cultural patterns. the reader who is open to the promptings of the narrative uncovers new connections and meanings. it nonetheless is content to disagree with it. and despite his advanced age a forest of grey and frizzy hair covered his head. When frozen models are only inverted. who demystifies the accredited representations of the Jew. it can happen that he uncovers recurrent and frozen patterns in a description or a scene which apparently tries to circumvent them. constitutes their essential support. His countenance was filled with intelligence. the financial gifts of his race and the art of the hoarder persist. the stereotype must not recompose itself in an accredited image. This is how. 6. stereotypicality still triumphs. but they are made to serve a worthy end. where he only rarely appeared anyhow. Sue's description ostensibly leans on another prefabricated pattern namely that of the wise and virtuous old man who plays the role of assistant to the hero. Inversely. Moreover. Paradoxically. as Rodin had said to Father d'Aigrigny. for example. although in the neighborhood. far more of the stereotype adheres to Samuel. but even dissolved or pulverized? For the text to really discard it. finesse and sagacity and his large high forehead proclaimed honesty and strength of mind (Translated by Therese Heidingsfeld). In this manner. nervous and the involuntary petulance of his movements proved that the years had not diminished his energy nor his activity. as exemplified in the portrait of the old Jew. Susan Suleiman (1980:129) sees in the redundancy of the actantial function and the qualities attributed to a character the very image of stereotypicality. we can ask ourselves where the stereotype begins and ends in literary representation." the alreadyknown and familiar models. Born of the familiar model.6 A very strong redundancy ensures Samuel's possession of the Knowledge and Power necessary to act as wellmeaning Father. he was small. . however.Samuel discharges an ancestral debt. From what point does it find itself not only reworked. Samuel. The serialized novel here manifestly refuses to fit into a preconceived mold.
III be to thus guided by the promptings of the text. yellow as a ferret's. However. Can you grasp a clear notion of that sallow. it can never find absolute guarantees. sleek." From the start we can ask where the difference lies. the stereotype is left to the discretion of the reader much more often than is generally believed. . In other words. His hair was iron-gray. the reader's previous knowledge.namely. but also from Talleyrand and Rembrandt's alchemists and old men. with the gilt rubbed off. Margins of incertitude necessarily exist. especially since the type also emerges through a reading activity of building up a pattern or a model which can be summarized in some aphorism or doxic statement. He had the thin lips that you see in Rembrandt's or Metsu's portraits of alchemists and shrunken old men. a usurer of Jewish ancestry. In the multiplication of unforeseen and heterogeneous comparisons. and with scarce an eyelash to them. his features might have been cast in bronze. It was like silver-gilt. Here there is a problem of reception with which translations and adaptations are continually confronted. and carefully combed. peered out from under the sheltering peak of a shabby old cap. to appears Reading which it lends a more or less sustained attention. It is precisely this We process of abstraction which confers general value on the type. Gobseck is depicted in terms of known models.698 RUTH AMOSSY without in any way forcing it into a ready-made mold. but because the recognition of any stereotype is largely dependent on a relative factor . we can compare the portrait of Gobseck. A pair of little eyes. and a nose so sharp at the tip that it put you in mind of a gimlet. Talleyrand himself was not more impassive than this moneylender. From this point of view. such as the Miser. He derives from the ferret and the gimlet. We can wonder how anyone coming from a far-away country where Judaism and anti-semitism are totally unknown would read the portrait of Elie Magus. Actually it is only the attitude of the reader towards the Knowledge which a frozen cultural model makes use of that differentiates the stereotype from what we usually call a type. the text and the reader must activate the same cultural models. not because of eventual weaknesses of the interpreter. with the description of Elie Magus: The man in question was a usurer. one cannot properly speak of a stereotype. the Jew. any fixed pattern is dissipated in favor of a complex image. And we all know that the "eternal type" gathers the commendation and praise of the very people who despise the unworthy stereotype in the name of the "living character. wan face of his? I wish the Academie would give me leave to dub such faces the lunar type. as if they feared the light. a reading construction which must be incessantly particularized and readjusted. Moreover. et cetera.
and long grey hair and beard. however. doxa. We are living in a period in which the stereotype has attracted bad publicity. presupposes the mechanical reiteration of a somewhat suspect Knowledge which in any case is not subject to critical examination or scientific verification. It derives from the fact that the relation of the type to Knowledge is considered a relationship with Truth and not an undue subordination to prejudice. keen and regular. a tall thin old man. would have been considered as handsome. but its evaluation as well. perhaps. to say the least. deriving from a contestable. who. His features. One final word: it is not only the recognition of the stereotype which is. in which there was much. there can be no invention ex nihilo. during those dark ages. if not actually contested. actually. and with many a bow of deep humility. and the dominant ideology. and complexity becomes the most outrageous schematization. mean and unamiable. it requires unveiling and can in this regard repeat itself without deterioration. an absolute doxic armature derived from a supposedly objective insight into History. The notion of the stereotype. the presentation of an absolute and eternal truth. left to the reader. on the contrary. with an aquiline nose and piercing black eyes. had they not been the marks of a physiognomy peculiar to a race which. and persecuted by the greedy and rapacious nobility. had lost by the habit of stooping much of his actual height. It points out a very relative truth. and who. world view. his high and wrinkled forehead. In its essence preexisting all formulation. For us the stereotype is the point at which repetition becomes routinization. but the gap between production and illustration is made relative by the fact that. It consolidates and disseminates Meaning. owing to that very hatred and persecution. Undoubtedly. described throughout the narrative as miserly. The portrait of Isaac of York will be considered a type or stereotype of a Jew depending on the degree of the reader's adhesion to the Knowledge invested therein. Thus Walter Scott takes care. The notion of a type thus implies not only a general truth. to surround his portrait with an entire pseudo-scientific machinery. The type presents itself as the dramatization of Knowledge. approached the lower end of the board. in the case of truth. The text is certainly asked to contribute to the creation of the pattern. and advancing with fear and hesitation. It goes without saying that the text may exploit these shifting frontiers at will. all of this is true if we stick . had adopted a national character. It is this relationship to Knowledge as Science and consequently as an area of truth which gives to the servile Jew. was alike detested by the credulous and prejudiced vulgar. the mark of the type and not the contours of the stereotype: Introduced with little ceremony. within the framework of the historical novel.STEREOTYPES AND REPRESENTATION 699 can thus see that the divergence lies elsewhere. but also the reader's adhesion to the particular truth dramatized in the text.
1978. Iser. Marriage. in a reworking of models and problematization of commonplace visions of the world. We are not concerned here with proposing a defense and illustration of the stereotype.151-160. 1981 "Savoir social et savoir litteraire. E. 1966. however." Poetics Today 1:3. Karlheinz. "Les universaux de texte. the constitutive interaction of text and reader. Rimmon-Kenan. Roland. 1980." Podtique 30. Art and Illusion (Princeton: Princeton UP). trans." Degres. 1972. 1980. 1979. Gombrich. 1971. Stierle. Anne. 1974. Shlomith." Litterature 44. Wolfgang. 1960. It does indeed participate in the elaboration of the text as network. 119142. 1980-1981 "Esquisse d'une theorie des systemes doxiques. "The Paradoxical Status of Repetition. 1978. Eco. "Reception et Fiction. REFERENCES Amossy. . H. The stereotype. 1980. Herschberg-Pierrot. Figures III (Paris: Seuil). Ellen. It sets. Essais de stylistique structurale (Paris: Flammarion). 1980." Littdrature 30. The Act of Reading A Theory of Aesthetic Response (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins UP). "Constraints of Realeme Insertability in Narrative." Poetique 43. Michael. Umberto. trans. Riffaterre. Barthes." Poetics Today 1:4. 334-345. but rather with recommending a functional approach to it." Poetics Today 1:4." Communications 8. Les discours du cliche (Paris: SEDES-CDU).. Charles. What is important to examine are the functions attributable to the stereotype by virtue of its essential characteristics. Grivel. d-d23. Even-Zohar. is necessarily reductive. 77-93. 25-50. Itamar. as a recurrent and frozen pattern which can be summarized in a doxic statement culled from public opinion. Gerard. Genette. which alone would restore its genuine dimensions and impact. S/Z . or at least models. 72-86. Ruth and Elisheva Rosen.700 RUTH AMOSSY to the level of basic definitions. The Works of Honore de Balzac (New York: The University Society of Publishers). "Redundancy and the 'Readable' Text. Let us avoid imprisoning the stereotype within the recurrent and frozen pattern of its own public image. Susan. Suleiman. "Problematiques du Cliche. 1982. "James Bond: une combinatoire narrative.65-74. The value of the stereotype depends on the role it plays in the strategies of text and reading: it cannot be fixed once and for all. This does not. mean that it is always involved in reductive enterprises or that it is only used for purposes of schematization. Richard Miller (New York: Hill and Wang).
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