The Wildlife in India is a mix of species of different types of organisms.

Apart from a handful of the major farm animals such as cows, buffaloes, goats, poultry and sheep, India has an amazingly wide variety of animals native to the country. It is home to tigers, lions,Leopards, pythons, wolves, foxes, bears,crocodiles, rhinoceroses, camels, wild dogs, monkeys, snakes, antelope species, deer species, varieties of bison and not to mention the mighty Asian elephant. The region's rich and diverse wildlife is preserved in 89 national parks, 18 Bio reserves and 400+ wildlife sanctuaries across the country.India has some of the most biodiverse regions of the world and hosts three of the world’s 34 biodiversity hotspots – or treasure-houses – that is the [2] Western Ghats, the Eastern Himalayas and Indo- Burma. Since India is home to a number of rare and threatened animal species, wildlife management in the country is essential to preserve these [3] species. According to one study, India along with 17 mega diverse countries is home to about 60-70% [4] of the world's biodiversity. India, lying within the Indomalaya ecozone, is home to about 7.6% of all mammalian, 12.6% of avian, [5] 6.2% of reptilian, and 6.0% of flowering plant species. Many ecoregions, such as the shola forests, also [6][7] exhibit extremely high rates of endemism; overall, 33% of Indian plant species are endemic. India's forest cover ranges from the tropical rainforest of the Andaman Islands, Western Ghats, and Northeast India to the coniferous forest of the Himalaya. Between these extremes lie the sal-dominated moist deciduous forest of eastern India; teak-dominated dry deciduous forest of central and southern India; and [8] thebabul-dominated thorn forest of the central Deccan and western Gangetic plain. Important Indian trees include the medicinal neem, widely used in rural Indian herbal remedies. The pipal fig tree, shown on the seals of Mohenjo-daro, shaded the Gautama Buddha as he sought enlightenment. Many Indian species are descendants of taxa originating in Gondwana, to which India originally belonged. Peninsular India's subsequent movement towards, and collision with, the Laurasian landmass set off a mass exchange of species. However, volcanism and climatic change 20 million years ago [9] caused theextinction of many endemic Indian forms. Soon thereafter, mammals entered India from Asia [8] through two zoogeographical passes on either side of the emerging Himalaya. As a result, among Indian species, only 12.6% of mammals and 4.5% of birds are endemic, contrasting with 45.8% of reptiles [5] and 55.8% of amphibians. Notable endemics are the Nilgiri leaf monkey and the brown and carmine Beddome's toad of the Western Ghats. India contains 172, or 2.9%, of IUCN-designated [10] threatened species. These include the Asiatic lion, the Bengal tiger, and the Indian white-rumped vulture, which suffered a near-extinction from ingesting the carrion of diclofenac-treated cattle. In recent decades, human encroachment has posed a threat to India's wildlife; in response, the system of national parks and protected areas, first established in 1935, was substantially expanded. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial habitat; further federal protections were promulgated in the 1980s. Along with over 500 wildlife sanctuaries, India now hosts 15 biosphere reserves, four of which are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves; 25 wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention. The varied and rich wildlife of India has had a profound impact on the region's popular culture. The common name for wilderness in India is Jungle, which was adopted into the English language. The word has been also made famous in The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling. India's wildlife has been the subject of numerous other tales and fables such as the Panchatantra and the Jataka tales.

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including the Asian Elephant. a national ban on tiger hunting was imposed. The need for conservation of wildlife in India is often questioned because of the apparently incorrect priority in the face of direct poverty of the people. thegolden langur typifies the precarious survival of much of India's megafauna. 2010 Tiger census revealed that there are 1700 tigers left in India. Various pressures in the later part of the 20th century led to the progressive decline of wilderness resulting in the disturbance of viable tiger habitats. started in 1972. common Domestic Asian Water buffalo. and in 1972 .India is home to several well-known large mammals. lakes. Nilgai. such as the Indian Wolf. yet an Indian tiger census conducted in 2008 revealed the existence of only [13] 1. serious concern was voiced about the threat to several species of wildlife and the shrinkage of wilderness in India. rivers. Some members of the dog family. Asiatic Lion. is a major effort to conserve [12] the tiger and its habitats. Gaur. often being associated with deities. In 1970. "The state shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country" and Article 51-A states that "it shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests. However. and several species of deer and antelope. However. The passing of the Forest Rights Act by the Indian government in 2008 has been the final nail in the coffin and has pushed the Indian tiger to the verge of extinction. At the turn of the 20th century. Bengal Tiger. Bengal Fox and Golden Jackal. It is also home to the Striped Hyena. Leopard. is the most endangered top Indian carnivore.000. and several national parks and wildlife sanctuaries cater to these needs. Langurs and Mongoose species. Some other well-known large Indian mammals are: ungulates such as the rare Wild Asian Water buffalo. Macaques. Sloth Bear and Indian Rhinoceros. also known as the whistling hunter. Article 48 of the Constitution of India specifies that. the dhole. often engrained culturally and religiously. and the Himalayan Wolf is now a critically [citation needed] endangered species endemic toIndia. one estimate of the tigerpopulation in India placed the figure at 40.411 tigers.Project Tiger. and the Dhole or Wild Dogs are also widely distributed. Conservation [edit] One of the world's rarest monkeys. and wildlife and to have compassion [11] for living creatures. At the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources(IUCN) General Assembly meeting in Delhi in 1969." Large and charismatic mammals are important for wildlife tourism in India.

These species include mammals [15] such as the Indian/Asiatic Cheetah.761 km². Agasthyamalai 3. along buffer zones that are open to some economic uses. Project Tiger has become one of the most successful conservation ventures in modern history. The Bioreserves in India are: 1. and Sumatran Rhinoceros. Nanda Devi 11.the Wildlife Protection Act came into force. Dibru Saikhowa 4. and their ways of life. Wild Zebu. but also to the human communities who inhabit these regions. Kangchenjunga 9. Achanakmar-Amarkantak 2. there are 39 Project Tiger wildlife reserves in India covering an area more than of 37. Biosphere reserves [edit] The Indian government has established eighteen Biosphere Reserves of India which protect larger areas of natural habitat and often include one or more National Parks and/or preserves. It strives to maintain a viable tiger population in their natural environment. The framework was then set up to formulate a project for tiger conservation with an ecological approach. Many species have not been seen since their description. started in 1992 and works for elephant protection in India. The Nilgiris 12. Today. Some species of birds have gone extinct in recent times. known earlier from a single specimen collected by Allan Octavian Hume from near Rampur in [16][17] Himachal Pradesh. Nokrek . though less known. was rediscovered after 139 years in Thailand. Acrocephalus orinus. While some of these large mammal species are confirmed extinct. Manas 10. Launched on April 1. there have been many smaller animal and plant species whose status is harder to determine. [14] Most The exploitation of land and forest resources by humans along with hunting and trapping for food and sport has led to the extinction of many species in India in recent times. Great Nicobar 6. Dihang Dibang 5. Protection is granted not only to the flora and fauna of the protected region. including the Pink-headed Duck (Rhodonessa caryophyllacea) and the Himalayan Quail(Ophrysia superciliosa). Gulf of Mannar 7. The project aims at tiger conservation in specially constituted 'tiger reserves' which are representative of various bio-geographical regions falling within India. 1973. Javan Rhinoceros. A species of warbler. Project Elephant. of India's rhinos today survive in the Kaziranga National Park. Kachchh 8.

National Wildlife Action Plan has been adopted in 1983 for wildlife conservation. Many sanctuaries and National Parks have been established for the protection of dwindling wildlife. Nokrek National Park 5. seshachalam hills 18. It involves both protection and scientific management of wild species and their environment. It is proposed to be increased to 4. Cold desert 17. The main causes of extinction of wild lives are poaching. Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve 6. 1. Panna Eight of the eighteen biosphere reserves are a part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves. Simlipal 15. ivory. Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve 2. It can be viewed from several angles such as. Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Parks: Wildlife Sanctuaries are places where the killing and capturing of any animal is prohibited except under order of the authorities concerned. Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve 4. protected area network comprises 398 sanctuaries and 69 national parks covering four per cent of the total geographic area of the country.13. scientific values for research and values for snivel. National parks are set up for preserving flora. Simlipal National Park 7. So we ourselves have created the need for conservation of wildlife. ruthlessly. fauna. landscapes and historic objects of an area. Hence. but the greatest danger to wildlife results from the activities of man. economic value. based [23] on the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) list. Some species have become extinct due to natural causes. Pachmarhi 14. skin. beauty. At present. Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve 8.6 per cent (1% . enumerable animals and birds are hunted for meat.. horns etc. Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve Wildlife conservation encompasses all human activities and efforts directed to preserve wild animals from extinction. Sundarbans 16. Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve 3.

birds adrepriles. 5.National Parks and 3. panther. golden plover. sloth bear. flamingoes. List of some well known Wildlife Sancturies and National Parks in India SI. 4. ospreys. duck. A list of some well known wildlife sancturies and national parks of is given in the table. deer. pelican. golden angur etc. wild buffalo. leopard. gaur. 2. elephant. 3. Chilika Lake Chilika. gaur. elephant. tiger. Sanctuary National Park 1.6% sanctuaries) by setting up more sanctuaries and parks. Kolameru Bird Sanctuary Tadepallegudum — Andhra Pradesh A breeding place for pelican and other visiting marine birds. sandiper. cranes. eagle. Kaziranga Wildlife Sanctuary Place/ State Area Wildlife . Manas Kamrup Assam Wildlife Sanctuary and Tiger Reserve 540 Tiger. tiger. Orissa 100 Waterfowl.) (Sq. etc. stork. bear. wild dog. sambhar. Name of No. stone curlews. bison. leopard. rhinoceros. .Kms Conserved SibasaaAssam 430 Rhinocerus. Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary Jalpaiguri West Bengal 65 Rhinoceros.

leopards. gaur. 8. chital. Palamau National Park Dattongunj West Bengal 345 Tiger. Mundanthurai Tirunelveli Sanctuary Tamilnadu 520 Elephants. gaurs. Indian darters. grey hornbill. Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary Bharatpur Rajasthan 29 Cormorants.egret 9. leopard. elephant.ack Nilgirilangur. leopards. whiteibis. blue bull wild boar 11. deer. pythopri. sambhar. Point Calimer Wildlife Sanctuary Thanjavur Tamirnadu 0. chitals. panther. black nilgirillangur. vvildboars. tiger. chowsingha. duck. Spoonbils. nilgar. Vendant Hangal Bird Sanctuary Madras Tamilnadu 0. egret. open billed stork. sloth bear. grey hornbill. birds adrepriles. sambhar. pelicans black buck. Kerala 777 -Elephant. Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary Periyar. geese.6. gaurs.30 Flamingoes. chinkara. 7. deer. Siberian cranes. egrets.30 Panther. 10. sambhar. black duck. . chitals.

hyena and both bear. sloth bear. procupine. Corbett National Park Nainital. blue bull. Nilgai.P. 17. Hyena. tiger. leopard. pea fows etc. pecker barbet. sambhar. gaur. . U. 13. Orissa 2750 tiger. chitals. 525 Tiger. bison. sambhar. 14 Guindy National Park Madras Tamil nadu — Albinos or black duck. Similipal National park Similipal. elephant. tiger. panther. panther. 16 Tanoba National Park Chandrapur 166 Tiger. 15 Kanha National Park Banjar Valley Madhya Pradesh 940 Tiger. Hazaribagh National Park Hazaribagh. chital. gaur etc. sambhar. barking deer. elephant. panther. blue deer. black duck etc. hyaena. sloth bear. sambhar. peafowl. deer. talking myma. Bihar 184 Wild board. chital. Indian antelope. chinkara. barking deer.12.

The 'Project Elephant' is an outcome of the success story of the 'Project Tiger'. the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean are responsible for total marine resources.crocodile. covering over 28. 017 sq.57 lakh tonnes in 1991-92. 1972 is implemented throughout India except J & K for wild life conservation and protection of endangered species. Fisheries: Fisheries in India are comprised either inland or marine.000 in wild and nearly 3. 1973 to save tigers. Presently there are 45.000 miles and to these subsidiary water channels comprise 70. It covers in principles the entire elephant population of the country. But this production is far from adequate. A tiger cell has been set up to collect data.000 in captivity.12 million lives in . Hence Project Tiger has set an example for environmental conservation. coastline and about 2. Along with tigers. bull swamp bulbul. fauna or the biodiversity as a whole is able to be conserved. Hunting is strictly prohibited and eco-development programmes have been initiated to increase tiger population. Various steps have been initiated to protect tigers. lakes and reservoirs are the main sources for the inland fisheries. However. canals. Project Tiger: 'Project Tiger'. to about 18 per cent. wood The Wild Life (Protection) Act. J & K has its own Wildlife Protection Act. ponds. which has shared a special bond with men since time immemorial.000 to 24. is now facing an uncertain future. Hence "Project Elephant" has been formulated in 1992 by the Ministry of Environment and Forests to protect the elephants in India. a centrally sponsored scheme.52 lakh tones in 1950-51 to 41. The Bay of Bengal.500 km. The rivers and their tributaries. Indian fish production has a steady increase from 7. India holds the largest number of Asian elephants with 20. kms. It is one of the world's most successful projects for conservation of tigers. the flora. Project Elephant: The Asian elephant. eleven elephant reserves have been identified us priority areas for special attention and financial assistance under this project.334 of tigers surviving in 18 tiger reserves in 13 States. At present.000 miles. was launched in April 1. python etc. It is only 9 per cent of the total supply of fish in Asia whereas Japan alone contributes to the extent of 43 per cent and China coming next. The rivers extend over about 17. We have the vast fishery resources of 6.

Much emphasis has been given on inland and brackish water fisheries and improving the harvesting from seas by stimulating the growth of country boats.2. training of personnel and R & D efforts. Increase in foreign exchange earning.7 lakhs. So the resources are vast.75 million persons. urban and agricultural wastes into the river water and the consequent deterioration in quality and overfishing are the important ones. During the fifth plan. The three major areas of inland fisheries. both traditional and new. The degradation of fish habitat. reservoir fisheries and aquaculture have positive potential for expansion. The numbers of fishermen engaged in direct fishing are 4. augmenting food supply and raising international value by adding proteins to the food are the important contributions of fisheries. Hence during the sixth plan. A properly planned. the Govt. bringing about 101 thousand hectares of water area under intensive fish culture and there is a target of increasing in fish yield from 50 kgs per hectare in 197 1 to 3000 kgs per hectare by the erid of this century. much attention was given in all the sectors. catering to the domestic market and giving gainful employment for over 1. could aim at achieving a four to five folds increase in production from the present level of a million tones in the coming decade. The emphasis has been shifted from heavy infrastructure and industry to more comprehensive programmes. Development of Fisheries: Fisheries play an important role in the economy of the country. Inland Fisheries: Inland fisheries is an important rural economic activity.408 villages draw their livelihood. aimed at providing basic services to the fishing community and achieving better income distribution within these. In terms of projects design. to income distribution and employment. There are 147 FFDAs functioning in 17 States. development programme encompassed under a national fisheries policy. development of local resources and institutions. Hence the Government of India has embarked on various programmes for mechanization and modernization of the fishing industry. of India sponsored Fish Farmers Development Agencies (FFDA) to popularize fish farming in tanks and ponds. But a lot of constraints have been observed during last two' decades that bring stagnation and a steady decline in fisheries. the excessive flow of industrial. . Projections of domestic demand of fish form 12. the fisheries programme is given special attention to family based business. generating employment. but we cannot be able to exploit it properly.5 million tonnes to 20 million tones by the turn of the century have been made. reverie fisheries. Hence drastic steps are to be taken to rectify the situation. mechanized boats and deep sea trawlers. considering the imperative task of improving the socio-economic conditions of nearly two million fisher folks.

Adoption of this approach by banks to give institutional finance. which was later upgraded to Freshwater . Brackish Water Aquaculture: Utilization of country's vast brakish water resource for fish and prawn culture is the main objective of this scheme. The programme of mechanization of fishing crafts. At a price of Rs. If proper developmental programmes based on latest technologies are adopted sincerely. This will help in bringing about an exponential growth in fish production and generate income and employment.100 a kgs. Cochin. Of Exclusive Economic Zone for deep sea fishing. can produce two million tones of prawns. evaluating and supporting the schemes which are commercially viable making way for sustained development of the fishery resources in the rural areas. kms. at the production rate of two tone's a hectare. bank officials can render valuable service by understanding. providing subsidy up to 33 per cent of the cost of vessels to fishermen.e. planning and executive levels. a unit of ICAR had its beginnings in the Central Inland Fisheries Research Substation. permitting use of foreign fishing vessels and joint ventures. this would yield Rs. Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture (CIFA): Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture (CIFA). the Centre and State Governments have accepted that fisheries can play an important role in rural development and generating employment in the hinterland. constructing 23 minor fishing harbors and 96 fish landing centers apart from four major fishing harbors i. It is necessary to select a few thrust areas such as reproduction and fish genetics to develop hybrids which have desired traits for reproduction. Cuttack in 1949. fishery scientists. Fisheries development in rural areas needs simple technique. Vishkhapatnam and Roychowk for landing and breathing and developing proper facilities for preservation are the major steps taken to intensify the marine fish production. Madras. disease control and higher food conversion ratio. India has vast potential of marine fishing resources comparing 20 lakh sq. low investment and quick return. technicians and banks. This places greater responsibilities of fishery institutes. 20. Role of Fisheries in Rural Development: At policy. putting an end to the migration of the rural people to urban areas. In this change.000 crores and can employ four million persons.Marine Fisheries: High priority is being given continuously to the development of marine fisheries. can help in reversing the current trend in which the Government controls the major production resources and the fishermen and entrepreneurs contribute to exploitation and marketing only. Aquaculture in about one million hectares of brakish water. it can bring about a quantum jump in fish production.

Carp breeding and hatchery management. physiology. 166 nursery ponds and 253 experimental ponds.Aquaculture Research and Training Centre (FARTC) in 1976. genetics. 6. Available technologies: CIFA can provide consultancies to the entrepreneurs in the following areas: 1. NABARD have funded this institution in several programmes and schemes in development of aquaculture. From Bhubaneswar.e. 4. It is considered as a Regional Lead Centre on Carp Farming under the FAO/UNDP Network of Aquaculture Centers in Asia (NACA). shifted to Kausalyaganga near Bhubaneswar in 1980 and was given a status of an independent institute in the seventh plan on 1 April. Facilities: The Institute has its headquarters at Kausalyaganga. more specially in fish nutrition. Freshwater prawn breeding and culture. The Department of Biotechnology (DBT). Department of Nonconventional Energy Sources (DNES). (2) To conduct specialized training and extension programmes in freshwater aquaculture to enable economic utilisation of the cultured and cultivable fresh water aquatic resources in the country. conference room. World Bank/ NARP (Phase-Ill) NORAD. . aquarium. pathology. 1987. 12 kms. 2. Production Division: The Division has been endeavoring to maximize the production rates of fish and shell fish. Catfish breeding and culture. feed mill. i. hatcheries. 5. 3. Objectives: The new Institute has the following objectives: (1) To conduct research. auditorium and a fish farm with about 50^ponds including 5 reservoirs. pond environment monitoring and aquaculture engineering. 51 rearing ponds. Freshwater pearl culture. wet laboratory. library. Intensive carp culture. with a building complex comparing 40 laboratories. is located an sprawling 147 hac. prawns and fresh water pearl cultures. Fish feed formulation and production. carps. catfishes. 15 stocking ponds.

India is home to about 60-70% of the world's biodiversity.8% of reptiles and 55. the system of national parks and protected areas. such as the shola forests. mammals entered India from Asia through two zoogeographical passes on either side of the emerging Himalaya.6% of mammals and 4. and the babul-dominated thorn forest of the central Deccan and western Gangetic plain.2% of reptilian. 12. the Laurasian landmass set off a mass exchange of species. Soon thereafter. is home to about 7. contrasting with 45. among Indian species. Along with over 500 wildlife sanctuaries. 6.7. 33% of Indian plant species are endemic. Notable endemics are the Nilgiri leaf monkey and the brown and carmine Beddome's toad of the Western Ghats. overall. In recent decades.6% of avian. shaded the Gautama Buddha as he sought enlightenment. Between these extremes lie the sal-dominated moist deciduous forest of eastern India. and collision with. Western Ghats.8% of amphibians.6% of all mammalian. Important Indian trees include the medicinal neem. first established in 1935.0% of flowering plant species. India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial habitat. Fish diseases diagnosis and control. widely used in rural Indian herbal remedies. and Northeast India to the coniferous forest of the Himalaya. shown on the seals of Mohenjo-daro. also exhibit extremely high rates of endemism. Indian wildlife:The wildlife of India is a mix of species of diverse origins. Peninsular India's subsequent movement towards. India's forest cover ranges from the tropical rainforest of the Andaman Islands. India's wildlife has been the subject of numerous other tales and fables such as the Panchatantra and the Jataka tales. Since India is home to a number of rare and threatened animal species. wildlife management in the country is essential to preserve these species. India. teakdominated dry deciduous forest of central and southern India. India contains 172. These include the Asiatic lion. . As a result. was substantially expanded.9%. and 6. four of which are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves. lying within the Indomalaya ecozone. Common name for wilderness in India is Jungle which was adopted by the British colonialists to the English language.5% of birds are endemic. in response. 25 wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention. human encroachment has posed a threat to India's wildlife. The word has been also made famous in The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling. However. According to one study. or 2. only 12. The region's rich and diverse wildlife is preserved in numerous national parks and wildlife sanctuaries across the country. Many Indian species are descendants of taxa originating in Gondwana. In 1972. Many ecoregions. of IUCNdesignated threatened species. and the Indian whiterumped vulture. The varied and rich wildlife of India has had a profound impact on the region's popular culture. the Bengal tiger. further federal protections were promulgated in the 1980s. The pipal fig tree. which suffered a near-extinction from ingesting the carrion of diclofenac-treated cattle. India now hosts 14 biosphere reserves. to which India originally belonged. volcanism and climatic changes 20 million years ago caused the extinction of many endemic Indian forms.

all are equally important to maintain the vital ecological processes as nutrient and water cycling. the 28 Tiger Reserves are governed by Project Tiger. usually due to some flagship faunal species. . Some of the important wildlife sanctuaries in India are:• Bandhavgarh National Park in Madhya Pradesh • Corbett National Park in Uttar Pradesh • Gir National Park & Sanctuary in Gujarat • Kanha National Park in Madhya Pradesh • Kaziranga National Park in Assam • Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary in Kerala • Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary in Rajasthan • Sunderbans National Park in West Bengal • Dachigam National Park in Jammu & Kashmir • Manas Tiger Reserve in Assam National Parks of India:India's first national park (an IUCN category II protected area) was established in 1935 as Hailey National Park.The gradual emergence of the human beings as the most dominant species among all other species of animals and the attempt of the human beings to set themselves apart from other species is the main underlying cause of the contemporary environmental disaster. that contains floral and faunal species. . Wildlife Conservation in India occupies a total area of about 3. The Kaziranga Sanctuary in Assam is a major example of good effort to save the endangered Rhinoceros. In India there are 571 sanctuaries and reserve parks that are protected by the Indian Government. India has over 500 animal sanctuaries. Various Projects:Gir National Park in Gujarat is the only existent habitation for the nearly extinct Asiatic Lions in India. mainly meant for the protection of the extinct species of animals and birds. insects and birds. eg. Keoladeo National Park before attained National Park status. Some wildlife sanctuaries are specifically named Bird Sanctuary. Periyar in Kerala is doing a great job to preserve the wild Elephants and Dachigam National Park is progressing rapidly to save Kashmiri Stag. Nature Camps. Among these. Wildlife sanctuaries of national importance to conservation. to encourage wildlife awareness among the common people. are named National Wildlife Sanctuary. Besides preserving the natural heritage. The Indian Government has started nature projects like. Carnivores and Herbivores. km.29 million sq. Many National Parks were initially Wildlife Sanctuaries. Project Tiger. now known as Jim Corbett National Park. The Wildlife Conservation in India has become the most popular holiday destinations because of its diverseness. reptiles. Similarly. these projects also promote eco-tourism. The main reason behind a threat to the wildlife and the ecosystem is the constantly growing deforestation. etc. and are of special significance in the conservation of the tiger. like national chambal (gharial) Wildlife Sanctuary for conserving the Gharial (1978). poaching and negligence towards animals and nature. Predators. referred to as Wildlife Sanctuaries (IUCN Category IV Protected Area). Jungle Lodges. By 1970. India only had five national parks. mammals.

there are 96 national parks. to serve as sites for long term scientific research as well as education all over t he world. A total of 166 national parks have been authorized. Biosphere Reserves:The term ‘Biosphere Reserve' should denote an area: • Which is. All national park lands encompass a combined 38.In 1972.Tamil Nadu • Dudhwa National Park-Uttar Pradesh • Intanki National Park-Nagaland • Guindy National Park-Tamil Nadu • Govind Pashu Vihar-Uttarakhand • Kaziranga National Park-Assam • Khangchendzonga National Park-Sikkim • Kishtwar National Park-Jammu and Kashmir • Van Vihar National Park-Madhya Pradesh • Kanha National Park-Madhya Pradesh • Mollem National Park-Goa • Mount Harriet National Park-Andaman and Nicobar . Velavadar-Gujarat • Buxa Tiger Reserve-West Bengal • Fossil National Park-Madhya Pradesh • Great Himalayan National Park-Himachal Pradesh • Indira Gandhi National Park (Annamalai National Park).18 km².16% of India's total surface area.029. Plans are underway to establish the remaining scheduled parks. List of National Parks:- • Dibru-Saikhowa National Park-Assam • Desert National Park-Rajasthan • Dachigam National Park-Jammu and Kashmir • Corbett National Park-Uttarakhand • Chandoli National Park-Maharashtra • Campbell Bay National Park-Andaman and Nicobar • Anshi National Park-Karnataka • Balphakram National Park-Meghalaya • Bandhavgarh National Park-Madhya Pradesh • Bandipur National Park-Karnataka • Bannerghatta National Park-Karnataka • Vansda National Park-Gujarat • Betla National Park-Jharkhand • Bhitarkanika National Park-Orissa • Blackbuck National Park. As of April 2007. India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard the habitats of conservation reliant species. Further federal legislation strengthening protections for wildlife was introduced in the 1980s. 1. set aside for the conservation of the resources of the biosphere and for the improvement of the relationship between man and the environment. • Which is.

which are complementary and mutually reinforcing: • A conservation function . 766 Non-governmental organizations and 81 international organizations and about 10. IUCN's mission is to influence. The IUCN brings together 83 states. nominated by National Governments and remain under sovereign jurisdiction of the states where they are located.. 1979).Madhya Pradesh & Chhattishgarh • Agasthyamalai. Biosphere Reserve Objectives:Each Biosphere Reserve is intended to fulfill three basic functions.Arunachal Pradesh • Dibru-Saikhowa. UNESCO. Switzerland. 2005. encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve the integrity and diversity of nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable.Tamil Nadu • Khangchenjunga – Sikkim • Manas. IUCN.000 experts and scientists from countries around the world. They are internationally recognized. ecosystems. Biosphere Reserves serve in some ways as 'living laboratories' for testing out and demonstrating integrated management of land.Founded in 1948. Kerala. . 108 government agencies.Assam • Great Nicobar.The programme of Biosphere Reserve was initiated under the 'Man & Biosphere' (MAB) programme by UNESCO in 1971.Kerala • Dehang-Debang.Assam • Nanda Devi-Uttaranchal • Nilgiri -Tamil Nadu. Biosphere Reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems promoting solutions to reconcile the conservation of biodiversity with its sustainable use. species and genetic variation.to contribute to the conservation of landscapes. water and biodiversity (CES.Andaman and Nicobar • Gulf of Mannar . List of Biosphere Reserves • Achanakmar-Amarkanta. and Karnataka • Nokrek-Meghalaya • Pachmarhi -Madhya Pradesh • Simlipal-Orissa • Sunderbans-West Bengal IUCN The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation.. its headquarters is located in the Lake Geneva area in Gland.

monitoring. 1973. In 1970.• A development function .to provide support for research. and often include one or more National Parks and/or preserves. national and global issues of conservation and development (UNESCO. there are 27 . and their ways of life. and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures. Project Tiger which was launched on April 1. 2005). education and information exchange related to local. which protect larger areas of natural habitat (than a National Park or Animal Sanctuary). lakes. Project Tiger started in 1972 is a major effort to conserve the tiger and its habitats. It strives to maintain a viable tiger population in their natural environment. (categories roughly corresponding to IUCN Category V Protected areas). The framework was then set up to formulate a project for tiger conservation with an ecological approach. The project aims at tiger conservation in specially constituted 'tiger reserves' which are representative of various bio-geographical regions falling within India.to foster economic and human development which is socio-culturally and ecologically sustainable. rivers. However Article 48 of the Constitution of India specifies that "the state shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country" and Article 51-A states that "it shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests. serious concern was voiced about the threat to several species of wildlife and the shrinkage of wilderness in the India. along buffer zones that are open to some economic uses." Large and charismatic mammals are important for wildlife tourism in India and several national parks and wildlife sanctuaries cater to these needs. based on the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme list. Protection is granted not only to the flora and fauna of the protected region. a national ban on tiger hunting was imposed and in 1972 the Wildlife Protection Act came into force. • Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve • Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve • Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve • Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Conservation of wildlife in India:The need for conservation of wildlife in India is often questioned because of the apparently incorrect priority in the face of dire poverty of the people. Four of the fifteen biosphere reserves are a part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves.000. The Indian government has established 15 Biosphere Reserves of India. one estimate of the tiger population in India placed the figure at 40. At the turn of the 20th century. Various pressures in the later part of the 20th century led to the progressive decline of wilderness resulting in the disturbance of viable tiger habitats. yet an Indian tiger census conducted in 1972 revealed the existence of only 1827 tigers. has become one of the most successful conservation ventures in modern history. but also to the human communities who inhabit these regions. At the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) General Assembly meeting in Delhi in 1969. • A logistic function . Today.

Among other reforms. birds and plants and for matters connected therewith or ancillary or incidental thereto. It extends to the whole of India. Most of India's rhinos today survive in the Kaziranga National Park. which is close to the southern forests of Dehradun. The Act provides for the protection of Wild animals. though less known. . India. The Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education also runs the Forest Research Institute and the Indian Institute of Forest Management Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 :In 1972 by the Government of India. Prior to 1972. India only had five designated national parks. Trained personnel from WII have contributed in studying and protecting wildlife in India. It has six schedules which give varying degrees of protection. The institute is based in Dehradun.Project Elephant. except the State of Jammu and Kashmir which has its own wildlife act. the Act established schedules of protected plant and animal species. with absolute protection being provided under Schedule I and part II of schedule II with the highest penalties prescribed for offences under these schedules and Species listed in the Sch. The wildlife institute of India (WII) is a government institution run by the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education which trains wildlife managers and wildlife researchers.Project Tiger wildlife reserves in India covering an area of 37. It is located in Chandrabani. with the enforcement authorities having the power to compound offences (as in they impose fines on the offenders). hunting or otherwise harvesting these species was largely outlawed.761 km². started in 1992 and works for elephant protection in India. WII has also popularized wildlife studies and careers. IV are also protected but the penalties are much lower.

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