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**variable-speed induction generator
**

T. Ahmed, K. Nishida and M. Nakaoka

Abstract: The paper describes a simple control structure for a vector-controlled stand-alone induc-

tion generator (IG) used to operate under variable speeds. Deadbeat current control is developed for

a voltage source PWM converter and the three-phase variable speed squirrel-cage IG to regulate

DC-link and generator voltages with newly designed phase-locked-loop circuit. The required

reactive power for the variable-speed IG is supplied by means of the PWM converter and a capaci-

tor bank to build up the voltage of the IG without the need for a battery and to reduce the rating

of the PWM converter with the need for only three sensors. This proposed scheme can be used

efﬁciently for variable speed wind or hydro energy conversion systems. The measurements of

the IG system at various speeds and loads are given and show that this proposed system is

capable of good AC and DC voltages regulation.

1 Introduction

The general consciousness of ﬁnite and limited sources

of energy on earth and international disputes over the

environment, global safety and the quality of life have

created an opportunity for new, more efﬁcient, less polluting

wind and hydropower plants with advanced technologies

of control, robustness and modularity. The induction

generator(IG), with its lower maintenance demands and

simpliﬁed controls, appears to be a good solution for such

applications[1]. For its simplicity, robustness and small

size per generated kilowatt, the IG is favoured for small

hydro-and wind-power plants. It has a great economic

appeal. Standing alone, its maximum power does not go

much beyond 15 kW [2–4]. So, we need to think in terms

of a spectrum of power supplies from small (few watts)

to large (close to 100 kW or more). However, the major

drawbacks of the induction generators are reactive-power

consumption and poor voltage regulation under varying

load or speed, but the development of static power conver-

ters has facilitated the control of the output voltage of the IG

[5–9]. The regulated output voltage of the IG can be

directly connected to only AC load such as an electric

heater, which is nonsensitive to the variable frequency of

the IG. Recently, alternative means of using this stand-alone

system, whose frequency intrinsically varies over a modest

range, has been investigated in addition to the energy

storage opportunities created by storing energy in the

form of hydrogen. This can be produced through advanced

techniques involving the electrolysis of water. So, it is

necessary to think in many DC power applications of the

stand-alone IG with low cost and simpliﬁed controls.

An induction-machine-based stand-alone power-

generation scheme with a diode bridge rectiﬁer and a

PWM converter that uses the rotor ﬁeld orientation has

been proposed to control the output voltage of the diode--

bridge rectiﬁer[7]. The major drawbacks of this previously

proposed system are that there are serious voltage and

current harmonics problems, because the output voltage is

rectiﬁed by means of a diode-bridge rectiﬁer to charge a

battery and the rotor ﬁeld orientation is presented to regulate

the output voltage without ﬁltering the generated current

harmonics. Moreover, the magnetisation curve of the IG

has not been included in the proposed control system for

improving the accuracy in calculating the rotor ﬂux pos-

ition. This is due to the fact that stable grid voltages are

not available. Only the simulated performance results of a

4 kW, 42 V induction generator system at various speeds

and loads are presented. Based on the instantaneous reactive

power theory, the use of a capacitor bank and an inverter

simultaneously, without any mechanical speed sensor in

the induction machine rotor, has been proposed [8].

However, the proposed system is applied only for AC

load (resistive load) and there are seven voltage and

current sensors that have been used to achieve the wanted

result of the proposed strategy, but they also produce poor

AC voltage regulation especially with low speed.

In this paper, aspects are investigated related to voltage

regulation, with sensorless vector control strategies, for

a forced-commutated voltage-source PWM converter con-

nected to a stand-alone IG in wind, mini/micro-hydro

energy application. A deadbeat current control structure

for a PWM converter connected to a stand-alone IG,

working with variable speed and different types of loads

(three-phase load and DC load), is proposed. The reactive

power needed for the stand-alone IG is supplied by a

ﬁxed capacitor, while the PWM converter controls the reac-

tive power needed to regulate the IG output voltage at

variable speed. Hence, the capacitor bank reduces the

rating of the PWM converter, starts the IG operation and

ﬁlters the high-frequency harmonic currents or ripples.

Furthermore, there is no need for a battery, which acts as

a voltage source for the PWM converter to build up the

IG stator voltage, or for a mechanical speed sensor or

even for a voltage sensor, to achieve the stand-alone IG

voltage and DC-busbar voltage regulation as well. On the

other hand, the PWM converter of the proposed system

does not control the frequency of the IG, but works with

# The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2007

doi:10.1049/iet-epa:20050535

Paper ﬁrst received 5th January and in revised form 19th October 2006

T. Ahmed and M. Nakaoka are with the Power Electronics Laboratory,

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Yamaguchi University,

Ube City, Yamaguchi, Japan

K. Nishida is with the Ube National College of Technology, Ube City,

Yamaguchi, Japan

E-mail: tarek@pe-news1.eee.yamaguchi-u.ac.jp

IET Electr. Power Appl., 2007, 1, (2), pp. 239–247 239

the phase information of a novel designed phase-locked-

loop (PLL) circuit with a potential transformer to detect

zero-cross point of IG terminal voltage, and three sensors

are only needed to detect the DC-busbar voltage and the

two-phase input currents of the PWM converter. A 2.2

kW laboratory prototype has been built to conﬁrm the feasi-

bility of the proposed control method and the experimental

results prove that high system reliability and low system

cost are achieved.

2 Sensorless vector controlled IG with PWM

converter and capacitor bank

The schematic diagram of the proposed IG system is shown

in Fig.1 This proposed IG system consists on a conventional

three-phase squirrel cage induction machine, driven by a

prime mover (PM). The stator of the induction machine is

connected to an AC load, to a capacitor bank and to a

current-controlled converter with a switchable DC load.

The DC load may be employed in applications such as

cogeneration, battery charging, heating or an association

of these options. The system shown in Fig.1 employs a

DC load for heating purposes. In which case, the DC load

comprises a resistor R

0

switched by S

w

. The AC load can

be further used in other applications, like pumping water

to reservoirs in irrigation systems. In that case, the

AC load comprises a resistor R

l

in series with an inductor

L

l

. The capacitor bank (C ¼ 90 mF) and the converter

provide the reactive current needed to excite the induction

machine. The capacitor bank acts as an uncontrolled

frequency-dependent reactive-current source that provides

the bulk excitation to minimise the controlled current of

the converter and its size.

The proposed control strategy is based on a particular

reference frame, which is useful to decouple and control

the active- and reactive-current components of the IG

system. This reference frame is the one that is in quadrature

with respect to the stator voltage of the IG. Using the Park

transformation with a scaling factor

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2=3

p

, the direct and

quadrature voltage components of the stator line voltage

v

s

of the IG are v

ds

¼ 0, v

qs

¼ jv

s

j in this reference frame.

Referring to Fig.1, the PLL circuit is used to determine

the electrical angle and the zero-cross detector is connected

across the IG line voltage v

bc

, which, in turns, feeds the PLL

circuit and aligns the stator voltage vector of the IG on

the rotating q-axis with the required electrical angle for

Park transformation. The Hall-effect-type current-sensor

devices measure the currents i

ai

and i

bi

, originating from

the AC-input side of the PWM converter. Then i

qc

and

i

dc

, the current components in the d-q frame, are obtained

directly from i

ai

and i

bi

with the Park transformation.

Moreover, the real part i

Ã

qc

of reference current i

Ã

c

results

from the DC voltage controller, while the imaginary part

i

Ã

dc

of reference current i

Ã

c

is for AC voltage loop control

of reactive power.

The fastest current controller called the deadbeat current

controller is used for the PWM converter for the purpose of

reactive-power compensation with the capacitor bank. On

the basis of controlling the reactive and active current

components of the reference current vector i

Ã

c

of the PWM

converter, the voltage of IG and voltage of the DC load

can be constant, even working under a variable load and

speed. Moreover, in the proposed system, the voltage

sensor for the IG output voltage is not needed.

2.1 Steady-state equivalent circuit of IG system

with deadbeat current controller

Areduced steady-state model of the squirrel-cage IGsystemis

proposed inorder todimension the capacitor bank anddevelop

the control strategy. This simpliﬁed model is obtained

by neglecting the squirrel-cage induction-machine leakage

inductances and the squirrel-cage-induction-machine stator

resistances from the complete IG model by assuming a unity

turns ratio between the stator and rotor of the squirrel-

cage induction machine [5–7]. The steady-state-induction-

machine voltage equations can be obtained by

v

ds

¼ Àvl

qs

ð1Þ

v

qs

¼ vl

ds

ð2Þ

0 ¼ r

r

i

dr

À ðv Àv

r

Þl

qr

ð3Þ

0 ¼ r

r

i

qr

þ ðv Àv

r

Þl

dr

ð4Þ

The IG model using a reference frame in quadrature with

respect to the stator voltage can be obtained by substituting

v

ds

¼ 0 into (1), yielding the q-axis ﬂux linkage l

qs

¼ 0,

while i

dr

is equal to zero by substituting l

qr

¼ l

qs

¼ 0 into

(3). Moreover, the quadrature stator voltage v

qs

depends on

the stator reactive current i

ds

by substituting the d-axis ﬂux

linkage l

ds

(l

ds

ﬃ L

m

i

ds

) into (2) as stated in the following

equation

v

qs

¼ vl

ds

¼ vL

m

i

ds

ð5Þ

where vðv ¼ v

r

À i

qs

=ðt

r

i

ds

ÞÞ is the synchronous d-q frame

angular speed, v

r

is the electrical-rotor speed and

t

r

ðt

r

¼ L

m

=r

r

Þ is the rotor time constant. The subscripts s

and r denote stator and rotor quantities, respectively; i

qs

, i

ds

,

v

qs

and v

ds

are the d-q axis induction machine stator currents

and voltages; i

qr

, i

dr

, v

qr

and v

dr

are the d-q axis induction

machine rotor currents and voltages; r

s

and r

r

are the stator

and rotor resistances, respectively.

The equivalent-circuit parameters of the induction

machine are obtained by experimental measurements on

a laboratory 2.2 kW, 220 V, 8.0 A, 60 Hz, 4-pole

squirrel-cage induction machine using stator resistance,

blocked rotor and synchronous-speed tests. The parameters

of the studied induction machine can be obtained as

L

ls

¼ L

lr

¼ 3:57 mH, r

s

¼ r

r

¼ 0:9 V. All these parameters

are assumed to be constant and independent of magnetic

saturation, except the magnetising inductance L

m

. The

relationship between the magnetising inductance

L

m

(magnetising reactance/120p) and the measured magne-

tising current i

m

ð

ﬃﬃﬃ

3

p

i

m

¼

p

ði

qs

þ i

qr

Þ

2

þ ði

ds

þ i

dr

Þ

2

Þ is

obtained experimentally from the synchronous-speed test

and is depicted in Fig. 2. The value of the magnetising

inductance L

m

depends on the degree of the magnetic

Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of sensorless control of IG with PWM

converter equipped with deadbeat controller

IET Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 1, No. 2, March 2007 240

saturation and it is a nonlinear function of magnetising

phase current i

m

, which can be represented by the following

equation

L

m

¼

1

120p

À0:1175i

5

m

þ 1:918i

4

m

À 11:074i

3

m

þ25:387i

2

m

À 19:662i

þ

m

53:365

_

_

_

_

_

_

0 , i

m

6:0A

ð6Þ

As the stator of the IG is connected to an isolated load, the

magnetising inductance L

m

and the stator magnetising

current i

m

cannot be considered constant. In fact, substitut-

ing i

m

ﬃ i

ds

=

ﬃﬃﬃ

3

p

in the nonlinear equation (6) reﬂects how

much the IG voltage, deﬁned by (5), could be changed

with isolated loads and without reactive-current control.

The electrical angular frequency v of the IG and i

ds

will

change under any AC or DC load power variations, there-

fore the output voltage of the IG (the quadrature stator

voltage v

qs

) will change, even when the prime mover

speed is kept constant. So, there is a need for controlling

i

ds

to have a constant IG voltage. Moreover, i

ds

must

be limited to avoid the induction machine saturation. The

reason is to reduce the iron losses and improve the efﬁ-

ciency of the IG system especially at low speed.

As stated in this Section, the use of a reference frame in

quadrature with respect to the stator voltage is useful to

develop a simpliﬁed steady-state equivalent circuit of the

squirrel-cage IG system. The steady-state equivalent

circuit of the simpliﬁed IG system can be deduced as

depicted in Fig.3, where the converter, three-phase load

and the capacitor are represented by current vectors (i

c

¼

i

qc

þ ji

dc

), (i

l

¼ i

ql

þ ji

dl

), and (i

ca

¼ jv Cv

qs

), respectively.

Choosing the rotating q-axis as the angle of the voltage

vector v

s

of the IG simpliﬁes the control strategy and pro-

vides a decoupled current control between the reactive-

and active-current components as shown in Fig.4. Hence,

the stator reactive current i

ds

of the IG is deﬁned as the

sum of the uncontrolled capacitor bank current, the three-

phase load reactive current i

dl

and the converter reactive

current i

dc

, while the stator active current i

qs

of the IG is

obtained as the sum of the three-phase load active current

i

ql

to the converter active current i

qc

:

2.2 Design of capacitor bank

From Fig.3, the stator reactive current of the IG, needed to

generate the rated voltage under the no-load and the rated

speed conditions, is given by

i

ds

¼ vCv

qs

ð7Þ

By substituting the stator voltage v

qs

of (7) to (5), the

capacitance of the capacitor bank is deﬁned as follows:

C ¼

1

v

2

L

m

ð8Þ

From (8) and (6), the minimum capacitance C

min

required

for building up the stand-alone IG voltage at the

rated speed n ¼ 1800 rev/min, is estimated with

L

m

¼ L

unsm

¼ 53.365/(120p) H where L

unsm

is the unsatu-

rated magnetising inductance. Hence, the minimum exci-

tation capacitance for the IG under the no-load and the

rated speed conditions is C

min

ﬃ 50 m F.

2.3 Current control of IG and PWM converter

From Fig.3, the stator reactive current i

ds

of the IG, deﬁned

as the sum of the uncontrolled capacitor bank current, the

three-phase load reactive current i

dl

and the converter

reactive current i

dc

, is given by

i

ds

¼ vC v

qs

þ i

dl

þ i

dc

ð9Þ

For three-phase resistive load, i

dl

¼ 0, while the stator

active current i

qs

of the IG, obtained by adding the three-

phase load active current i

ql

to the converter active current

i

qc

, is written as follows:

i

qs

¼ i

ql

þ i

qc

ð10Þ

Fig. 3 Equivalent circuit of simpliﬁed IG system in stator-

voltage vector reference frame neglecting the induction machine

leakage inductances and stator resistances

Fig. 4 Current and voltage vectors of IG system in stator-voltage

vector reference frame

Fig. 2 Magnetising curve of 2.2 kW induction machine,

reactance against current

IET Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 1, No. 2, March 2007 241

therefore the AC voltage regulation of the IG system can be

implemented by a control loop that drives the converter

reactive current i

dc

, while the DC busbar voltage regulation

of the IG scheme can also be implemented by a control loop

that drives the converter active current i

qc

. Fig. 5 shows

the block diagram of the proposed deadbeat current control-

ler divided into three subsystems. Subsystem A is used to

estimate the reference current vector, subsystem B is to esti-

mate the stator voltage and subsystem C is used to estimate

the output voltage of the PWM converter at a sampling

point (k þ 1). In subsystem A, there are two PI regulators:

the AC stator voltage regulator and the DC link voltage reg-

ulator. The input of the DC link voltage regulator is the

difference between the DC link voltage reference and

the measured value, while its output has been deﬁned as

the active current reference i

Ã

qc

of the PWM converter.

Also, the input of the AC stator voltage regulator is the

difference between the stator voltage reference and the

estimated stator voltage. Its output has been deﬁned as

the stator reactive-current reference i

Ã

dc

. This reference

must be limited to avoid the induction machine saturation.

The reason is to reduce the iron losses and improve

the efﬁciency of the IG system, especially at low speed.

The PI parameters for DC voltage regulation are set

at K

P

( proportional gain) ¼ 0.15 A/V and K

I

(integral

gain) ¼ 6.0 A/(Vs), respectively. By setting damping

factor j ¼

ﬃﬃﬃ

2

p

=2 and natural frequency v

ni

¼ 40 rad s

21

,

the parameters of the PI controller of the AC voltage regu-

lation are k

Pi

¼ 0.2 AV

21

and k

ii

¼ 6.2 A(Vs)

21

, respect-

ively. The reference current space vector of the PWM

converter is then deﬁned by

i

Ã

c

¼ i

Ã

qc

þ j i

Ã

dc

ð11Þ

In Fig.5, the stator voltage v

s

[v

s

¼ v

qs

þ jv

ds

, where

v

ds

¼ 0] of the IG can be estimated by using only an

integrator, because v

s

is equal to a disturbance in the

current control system of the PWM converter. Hence, the

stator-voltage space vector v

s

of the IG is calculated using

the following equation

v

s

ðzÞ ¼ K

I

z

z À 1

fi

c

ðzÞ À i

c

ðzÞg ð12Þ

where K

I

is the integrating gain which is set at 1.25 V/A.

2.4 Deadbeat current control for voltage source

converter

Fig. 6 represents the power circuit of the three-phase

voltage-source converter using IGBT power modules. The

voltage balance across the AC side interface ﬁlters in the

a-b-c stationary frame is

v

a

v

b

v

c

_

_

_

_

¼ R

c

þ L

c

d

dt

_ _

i

ai

i

bi

i

ci

_

_

_

_

þ

v

ai

v

bi

v

ci

_

_

_

_

ð13Þ

Using the transformation matrix

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2=3

p

[1 e

þj2p/3

e

2j2p/3

],

(13) is transformed into the stationary a-b reference frame

v ¼ 0,

v

ab

s

¼ R

c

þ

d

dt

L

c

_ _

i

ab

c

þ v

ab

c

ð14Þ

where R

c

and L

c

are the resistance and inductance of the AC

side ﬁlter of the PWM converter, v

s

ab

is the output voltage

vector of the IG, i

c

ab

is the current vector of the PWM

converter and v

c

ab

is the output voltage vector of the PWMcon-

verter. During sampling period T

s

, v

s

ab

and v

c

ab

in (14) are

assumed to be constant. In this case, (14) can be discretised

Fig. 5 Proposed deadbeat control scheme for AC and DC voltage regulation of IG with PWM converter

IET Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 1, No. 2, March 2007 242

and arranged as follows[9]

v

ab

c

ðkÞ ¼ v

ab

s

ðkÞ À

R

c

q

e

fi

ab

c

ðk þ 1Þ À p

e

i

ab

c

ðkÞg ð15Þ

where p

e

¼ e

ÀðR

c

T

s

Þ=L

c

; q

e

¼ 1 À p

e

.

In the next sampling period (k þ 1), the output voltage of

the PWM converter v

Ã

c

(k þ 1) is calculated in the d-q syn-

chronous rotating frame as follows

v

Ã

c

ðk þ 1Þ ¼ v

s

ðkÞ À

R

c

q

e

fe

ju

0

i

Ã

c

ðkÞ À p

e

i

c

ðk þ 1Þg ð16Þ

where v

s

ðkÞ is the estimated stator voltage v

s

using (12),

u

0

¼ vT

s

and v is the angular frequency of the IG, i

Ã

c

(k) is

the instantaneous space vector of the converter reference

current at sampling point k, which can be tracked with

one sampling delay e

ju

0

i

Ã

c

ðkÞ is the control target of the

reference current expressed by one dimensional settling

time response and represented by

i

Ã

c

ðk þ 1Þ ¼ i

Ã

c

e

ju

0

ð17Þ

The control variable of one sampling period ahead of

current space vector i

c

ðk þ 1Þ of the PWM converter is

needed with a high-accuracy estimation to cancel the calcu-

lation time delay in the DSP. As given in Fig.5, the predic-

tion of i

c

ðk þ 1Þ can be made easily by using the following

equation in the d-q synchronous rotating frame [9]:

i

c

ðk þ 1Þ ¼ p

e

i

c

ðkÞ þ

q

e

R

c

fv

s

ðkÞ À v

c

ðkÞg

_ _

e

Àju

0

ð18Þ

2.5 Experimental set-up of IG and PWM converter

Fig. 7 shows a photograph of the whole experimental set-up,

while the implementation system for the AC and DC

voltage regulation of the stand-alone IG and the PWM

converter is carried out in Fig. 8. All calculations are

accomplished digitally, based on the deadbeat current

control algorithm for controlling the AC-side currents of

the PWM converter by determining the AC-side space

voltage vector of the PWM converter. The control circuit

consists of A/D converters, DSP, PLL circuit, PWM

board and zero crossing detector circuit. Among these,

three A/D converters (AD7572A) are used to convert

analogue signals to digital ones. A/D converters are used

to sample the PWM converter AC-side currents i

ai

and i

bi

and the voltage V

dc

across the DC busbar capacitor of the

PWM converter. AD7572A is a complete analogue to

digital converter that offers high-speed performance of a

conversion time of 3 ms combined with low CMOS power

levels. The 16-bit ﬁxed decimal point 40-MIPS DSP,

TMS320C542, which has separate program and data

spaces, allow simultaneous access to program instructions

Fig. 6 Power circuit of three-phase voltage-source converter using IGBT modules

Fig. 7 Photograph of whole experimental set-up

IET Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 1, No. 2, March 2007 243

and data, and provide the high degree of parallelism. A ﬁxed

point DSP is chosen over ﬂoating point DSP, to reduce the

overall IG system cost.

The line voltage signal of IG output voltage is detected

through the potential transformer (PT) to detect its zero

crossing point. Then, the zero-crossing signal is sent to

interruption terminal of DSP (Int-0) and the phase compara-

tor as the reference in the PLL circuit. However, this

zero-crossing signal is used for determining the direction

of q-axis on a-b stationary co-ordinate frame in synchroni-

sation with the IG line voltage.

In Fig.9, the newly designed PLL circuit consists of a

phase comparator, loop ﬁlter, voltage-controlled oscillator

(VCO) and synchronous counters. Fig. 10 shows the

measured step responses of the PLL circuit with a DC

load stepped from 330 W to 770 W, while the three-phase

load is constant at 250 W. Figure 10 indicates that the

overshoot of loop ﬁlter output of Channel (4), which is

proportional to the output frequency f of the stand-alone

IG, is effectively reduced and the damping performance is

sufﬁciently good. Moreover, the ripple components of the

frequency are observed in Channel (4). These ripple com-

ponents can be reduced by setting both time constants

of loop ﬁlter (R

1

C

1

) and (R

3

C

3

) at higher values. During

the experimental works, increasing these time constants

brings poor responsiveness of the IG system operation.

3 Voltage regulation with DC load

Several tests have been carried out to study the perform-

ances in both transient and steady-state conditions for DC

load only. Fig. 11a shows the measured instantaneous

waveforms of the AC side current of the PWM converter,

IG current, IG line voltage and DC busbar voltage of the

PWM converter in the case of a DC load power stepped

from 410 W to 890 W, while the three-phase load power

is 250 W and the prime mover speed is 1760 rev/min.

The observed frequency has been changed from 57.5 to

54.8 Hz with the step change of the DC load power.

Voltage regulation can be achieved for the output voltage

of the IG and DC busbar voltage of the PWM converter.

The IG terminal voltage and DC busbar voltage can be

kept almost constant at 140 V and 240 V, respectively.

Fig. 11b shows the transient responses of the active and

reactive current components of the PWM converter. The

current control accuracy is extremely high although there

are observed ripple components in the reactive current

response during the transient period. These ripple com-

ponents do not affect the IG system stability. However,

these ripple components are generated because of ripple

components that occurred in the loop ﬁlter output as

illustrated in Fig.10.

For very low speed, 1350 rev/min, and the same DC load

power step change of Fig.11, Fig.12 shows the overall oper-

ational waveforms of the IG and the PWM converter

equipped with deadbeat current controller. From all these

measurements, the IG system can work at low speed, 74%

of the rated speed and high speed, 96% of the rated speed

as well. Hence, the proposed control system has provided

good voltage regulation for speeds less than 0.9 per unit,

where the IG could show good advantages in wind or hydro-

power applications.

4 Voltage regulation with AC load disturbance

For three-phase resistive load as a heater which is not sen-

sitive to the changes in the frequency of the IG, the PWM

converter with the ﬁxed excitation capacitor works to

control the reactive power and needs a very small amount

of active power to keep the DC-link voltage of the PWM

converter constant. Fig. 13 indicates the measured wave-

forms of AC load current, AC-side current of converter,

IG current and IG line-to-line voltage in the case of a

Fig. 8 DSP-based experimental set-up for proposed IG and

PWM converter

Fig. 9 Phase-locked-loop circuit with newly designed loop ﬁlter

Fig. 10 Measured transient response of proposed PLL circuit

(1) MSBof upper 8 bit counter: 5V/div; (2) current of IGstator: 10A/div;

(3)loop ﬁlter input (#13): 2V/div; (4) loop ﬁlter output(#9): 0.5V/div

IET Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 1, No. 2, March 2007 244

three-phase load power stepped from 16% to 50% of

2.2 kW rated power of IG, while the prime mover speed

is kept constant at 1543 rev/min. In this case, the reactive

component of the PWM converter is controlled to cancel

the voltage drop caused by step increasing of the active

current, while the output frequency has been changed

slightly from 49.8 Hz to 49.1 Hz.

5 IG terminal voltage estimation by deadbeat

controller

Fig. 14 shows the transient responses of the d-q axis com-

ponents of the stator-voltage space vector v

s

, under the

same condition of DC load step change from 16% to 50%

of 2.2 kW rated power of the IG. The proposed designed

integrator, as described in (12), gives considerably high

estimation accuracy, while also eliminating the variation

in the measured voltage.

6 IG voltage regulation with speed variation

In the steady state, several measurements have been carried

out to study the operating performance of the IG system

with the PWM converter and the capacitor bank at variable

speed and DC load power change. Fig. 15 shows the IG

frequency, reactive current of the IG, reactive current of

the PWM converter and reactive current of the capacitor

bank against the rotor speed with DC load changes from

12% to 50% of the 2.2 kW full-load conditions within a

per-unit speed range from 0.7 to 1.0. AC voltage regulation

can be achieved to wide-speed-variation-range by the PI

controller which passes the function of adjusting converter

reactive current appropriately. The IG frequency is not con-

stant and changes with DC load variations. The per-phase

reactive current of the capacitor bank depends on the

output frequency of the IG. Hence, any voltage drop due

to the active current has to be compensated by the PWM

converter reactive current. At half of the full load and

lower per-unit speeds than 0.8, the reactive current supplied

from the capacitor bank with C ¼ 90 m F is not enough for

the IG to reach the reference voltage, then an additional

reactive current is required from the PWM converter

(i

dc

. 0). On the other hand, at higher per-unit speeds

than 0.8, the capacitor supplies more reactive current than

that needed to reach the reference voltage, then the conver-

ter has to supply inductive current (i

dc

, 0). As a conse-

quence, for the operating speed range, a smaller converter

size can be used. For example, if the per-unit speed range

is between 0.7 and 0.95, the maximal reactive current of

the converter will be only 10% of the IG rated current.

Approximately, the rating of the converter with a capacitor

bank becomes half of its rating without the capacitor bank.

-256 0 256 512 768 1024 1280 1536

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6 Rated Current = 8*sqrt(3) A

Sampling Point

T

Load Step

i

q

c

-256

0

256 512 768 1024 1280

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

0

0.1

Sampling Point

Load Step

T

i

d

c

1536

a

b

Fig. 11 Measured operating waveforms of IG system at n ¼ 1760 rev/min

a In transistent state (1) Converter AC-side current-5A/div; (2) IG current -5A/div; (3) IG voltage -250V/div; (4) DC link voltage -250V/div

b d-q axis currents of PWM converter (T represents the voltage source period)

IET Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 1, No. 2, March 2007 245

7 Conclusions

In this paper, a deadbeat current controller has been pro-

posed for the stand-alone IG working with variable speed

and supplying a DC load and/or three-phase load with

-256 0 256 512 768 1024 1280 1536

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Sampling Point

T

Load Step

Rated Current = 8*sqrt(3) A

i

q

c

0

256 512 768 1024 1280 1536 1792

-0.1

0

0.1

0.2

Sampling Point

T

Load Step

i

d

c

a

b

Fig. 12 Measured operating waveforms of IG system at n ¼ 1350 rev/min

a In transistent state (1) Converter AC-side current-5A/div; (2) IG current -5A/div; (3) IG voltage -250V/div; (4) DC link voltage -250V/div

b d-q axis currents of PWM converter (T represents the voltage source period)

-128 0 128 256 384 512 640 768

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

100

Estimated q-axis Component

Measured q-axis Component

Estimated d-axis Component

Measured d-axis Component

[%]

Sampling

Point

Step Load

Change

T

s

Rated Voltage

Fig. 14 IG terminal voltage estimation by deadbeat controller

time (sec.); 25m sec/div

Fig. 13 Measured waveforms of IG and PWM converter under

three-phase load power stepped from 16% to 50% of full-load

power, frequency variation from 49.8 Hz to 49.1 Hz and speed

1543rev/min

(1) AC load current -5A/div; (2) Converter current -5A/div; (3) IG

current – 5 A/div; (4) IG voltage -250V/div

IET Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 1, No. 2, March 2007 246

voltage regulation. The signiﬁcant features of this controller

are using a newly designed PLL circuit and three sensors,

one for detecting DC busbar voltage and two for measuring

the two phase input currents of the PWM converter. The

implementation of the controller neither needs a mechanical

position nor a speed-sensing system. The signiﬁcant effects

of the capacitor bank on the IG system, such as supplying

reactive power and starting the stand-alone IG without the

need for a battery are demonstrated. Hence, high system

reliability and low system cost are achieved.

A 2.2 kw laboratory prototype for the IG system has been

implemented to validate the proposed method. All measured

operating characteristics of the IG system and control prove

that the proposed control system is able to regulate the

generated voltage for a DC load and three-phase AC load.

Moreover, several measurements in steady-state and transi-

ent conﬁrm that the control system for the stand-alone IG

can operate within a wide speed and load range and a sig-

niﬁcantly high voltage regulation performance. The main

advantage of the AC-load control over the DC one is that

the former avoids the ﬂow of active-power current

through the PWM converter. Consequently, the PWM con-

verter rated power can be decreased. The size of the PWM

converter can be drastically reduced, as well as the system

cost, by disconnecting the DC load from the DC-link side

of the PWM converter and connecting it through a diode

rectiﬁer for DC application.

8 References

1 Ahmed, T., Noro, O., Hiraki, E., and Nakaoka, M.: ‘Terminal voltage

regulation characteristics by static VAR compensator for a

three-phase self-excited induction generator’, IEEE Transa. Ind.

Appli., 2004, 40, (4), pp. 978–988

2 Suarez, E., and Bortolotto, G.: ‘Voltage-Frequency Control of A

Self-Excited Induction generator’, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers.,

1999, 14, (3), pp. 394–401

3 Muljadi, E., and Lipo, T.A.: ‘Series compensated PWM inverter with

battery supply applied to an isolated induction generator’, IEEE

Trans. Ind. Appl., 1994, 30, pp. 1073–1082

4 Marra, E.G., and Pomilio, J.A.: ‘Self-excited induction generator

controlled by a VS-PWM bidirectional converter for rural

applications’, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., 1999, 35, pp. 877–883

5 Ojo, O., and Davidson, I.: ‘PWM-VSI inverter assisted stand-alone dual

stator winding induction generator’. Conf. Rec. IEEE-IAS Annu.

Meeting, October 1999, pp. 1573–1580

6 Seyoum, D., Rahman, F., and Grantham, C.: ‘Terminal voltage control

of a wind turbine driven isolated induction generator using stator

orientated ﬁeld control’. IEEE APEC Conf. Rec., Miami Beach,

2003, vol. 2, pp. 846–852

7 Naidu, M., and Walters, J.: ‘A 4-kW 42-V induction-machine-based

automotive power generation system with a diode bridge rectiﬁer and

a PWM inverter’, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., 2003, 39, (5), pp. 1287–1293

8 Leidhold, R., Garcia, G., and Valla, M.I.: ‘Induction generator

controller based on the instantaneous reactive power theory’, IEEE

Trans. Energy Convers., 2002, 17, (3), pp. 368–373

9 Ahmed, T., Nishida, K., and Nakaoka, M.: ‘A novel induction generator

system for small-scale AC and DC power applications’. Proc. 36th

Annual Power Electron. Specialists Conf., IEEE- PESC 05, 12–16

June 2005, vol. 1, pp. 250–256

0.7 0.8 0.9 1

0

0.5

1

Frequency

Fixed Capacitor Current

IG Reactive Current

Converter Reactive Current

rpm/1800

Rated Value

12% Load

50% Load

Fig. 15 Steady-state operating performance of IG system and

hybrid excitation system (PWM converter and capacitor bank)

with speed variation

12% load is for three-phase resistive load, 260W, and 50% load is

260W three-phase resistive load and 800W DC Load

IET Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 1, No. 2, March 2007 247

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UsefulNot usefulThe paper describes a simple control structure for a vector-controlled stand-alone induction
generator (IG) used to operate under variable speeds.

The paper describes a simple control structure for a vector-controlled stand-alone induction

generator (IG) used to operate under variable speeds.

generator (IG) used to operate under variable speeds.

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