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Towards 0.7 THz Silicon-Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar Technology (0.

7 THz SiGe HBT)


100 Gb/s Wireless Communication

mmWave & THz Radar Applications

mmWave &THz Imaging and Sensing

A European Integrated Project supported through the Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development.

Towards 0.7 THz 0.5 - Silicon-Germanium Heterojunction Towards TeraHertz Silicon/Germanium Bipolar Technology - (0.7 THz SiGe HBT) Heterojunction Bipolar technology (SiGe HBT)


To develop SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors operating at maximum oscillation frequencies of up to 700 GHz at room temperature. DOTSEVEN is a very ambitious 3.5 year R&D project targeting the development of silicon germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) technologies with cut-off frequencies (fmax) up to 700 GHz. Special attention will be paid to clearly demonstrate the manufacturability and integration with CMOS as well as the capabilities and benefits of 0.7 THz SiGe HBT technology by benchmark circuits and system applications in the 0.1 to 1 THz range. The main objective of the DOTSEVEN consortium is therefore to reinforce and further strengthen Europe’s leading edge position in SiGe HBT technology and modeling as well as SiGe enabled mm-wave applications so as to stay significantly ahead of non-European competition. A highly qualified and success-proven consortium has been set-up to achieve these goals.

From 0.5 to 0.7THz
The successful EC IP DOTFIVE [DOT5] has established new benchmarks for SiGe HBT performance with record fT / fmax values of 300 GHz and 500GHz respectively [Hein10]. However, from the insights obtained during DOTFIVE, it has become clear that already around 400 GHz the conventional DPSA SEG (double-polysilicon-selfaligned selective epitaxially grown) emitter/base architecture of the SiGe HBT has to be replaced by more innovative concepts. One possible solution offering much higher speed potential was demonstrated by IHP with the “selective-epitaxially raised base contact” approach [Hein10]. It became also clear that further progress beyond 500 GHz will only be possible by smaller steps involving innovative research on doping and dopant activation methods, on balanced vertical and lateral scaling, and on new device architectures with lowest parasitic elements. Constraints imposed by the simultaneous integration into a CMOS process flow make the task even more challenging. In order to reach the very ambitious 700 GHz goal, it will be mandatory to introduce innovative process modules (WP1), and to understand the fundamental physical limitations and the impacts on device reliability (WP2). Progress in device performance makes only sense if it can be beneficially and successfully deployed in circuits and applications (WP4). For this to happen the development of better characterization methods and improved compact models is mandatory (WP3).

Roadmap and applications
THz technology is an emerging field which has demonstrated a wide ranging potential. Extensive research during the last years has identified many attractive application areas, and paved the technological paths towards broadly usable THz systems. THz technology is currently in a pivotal phase and will soon be in a position to radically expand our analytical capabilities via its intrinsic benefits. One of the most pressing challenges of THz applications is the development of cost effective, compact & efficient THz signal sources and receivers for everyday applications. In this context, DOTSEVEN is planned to continue the push for fully integrated cost efficient electronic THz solutions. The deployment of the associated high-performance circuits and systems in commercial other non-military markets is driven mainly by cost, form-factor and energy-efficiency.

High-speed Communication 
roadband ADCs •B with 50-100GS/s and >25GHz signal bandwidth at 5-6 bit resolution  00 Gb/s wireless •1 data transmission • Satellites

Radar Applications 
120 GHz industrial •> sensors and automation  utomotive radars •A (affordable vehicle and road safety for everyone)

mmWave, THz Imaging and Sensing 
ecure Mass •S transportation (security screening, mmWave person scanning)  eath care and •H biology • Medical equipment • Patient monitoring  issue and genetic •T screening

Benefits of 0.7 THz SiGe 
pens the door to new THz applications •O  nables circuits operating up to 240 GHz •E fundamental frequency mproved energy efficiency (PAE) •I at lower operating frequencies (f_op)  igher integration capability •H  ow cost due to moderate litho •L requirements  ntennas in Package •A Antenna Size 1/3 when • ( fop=80GHz > 240 GHz)  More than Moore“, •„ „Beyond (and ahead) of CMOS“

Illustration of mm-Wave and THz applications


SiGe HBT 1 (PDK1) SiGe HBT 2 SiGe HBT 3 Demonstrators (run 2)


fmax / td = 500 GHz / 2.0 ps fmax / td = 400 GHz / 2.5 ps

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fmax / td = 600 GHz / 1.7 ps fmax / td = 700 GHz / 1.4 ps Fundamental Operating Frequency of MMIC: 240 GHz 240 GHz Radar Demonstrator Communication Demonstrator: Towards 100 Gbps THz Imaging demonstrator (>300 GHz)


eliability •R - Yield (e.g. leakage currents, very thin SiGe base layers) - Excessive selfheating (performance degradation / electromigration) - Extremely high emitter / collector current density (electromigration) - Degradation effects under mixed-mode stress - ESD protection  ompatibility with CMOS processing •C at the 130/90 nm mode

DOTSEVEN performance targets

Technical Project Overview
WP5 Training & Dissemination WP1  SiGe HBT process technology platform Task 1.1: Advanced HBT architecture Task 1.2: fT enhancement Task 1.3: CMOS integration Task 1.4: Circuit fabrication WP3 Device characterization and compact modelling Task 3.1: Device characterization and test structures Task 3.2: Compact model development Task 3.3: Compact model parameter extraction Task 3.4: Predictive & statistical compact modelling Task 3.5:  SiGe HBT reliability characterization & modelling Task 5.1: Project Identity Set Task 5.2: Training activities: Tutorials WP4 M  illimeter-wave circuit applications and demonstrators Task 4.1: Benchmark circuit for model verification Task 4.2:  Circuit building blocks for millimetre-wave systems Task 4.3: Application evaluation / demonstrators WP6 Management Task6.1:  Administrative, financial & contractual coordination Task 6.2: Technical Management Task 6.3: Overall Quality & risk control Task 6.4: Intra-consortium communication Strategy

WP2 TCAD & physics-based predictive modelling Task 2.1: Electrical device simulation tools Task 2.2: Combined thermal/device simulation Task 2.3: Device reliability analysis

The consortium has a balanced partnership including: Industry: Infineon Technologies AG, Dice Danube Integrated Circuit Engineering GmbH & Co KG, Alma Consulting Group Small/medium enterprises (SME): XMOD Technologies, SiversIMA Aktiebolag, Trebax AB Academic & Institutional: Universita Degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Université Bordeaux I, Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Universitaet Linz, Technische Universiteit Delft, Innovations for High Performance Microelectronics.

In order to reach these ambitious objectives the consortium consists of 14 partners from industry and academia in 6 European countries:

Supported by the European Commission through the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) for Research and Technology development with up to 8.6M€, out of a total budget of 12.28M€. The DOTSEVEN project addresses the area “More than Moore“, Beyond (and ahead) of CMOS The project has started on October 1st, 2012 and will end on March 31st, 2016.

Literature: M. Schroter, G. Wedel, B. Heinemann, C. Jungemann, J. Krause, P. Chevalier, A. Chantre, “Physical and electrical performance limits of high-speed SiGeC HBTs - Part I: Vertical scaling” and «Part II: Lateral scaling”, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., Vol. 58, No. 11, pp. 3687-3706, 2011. [DOT5] EU project targets 0.5-THz SiGe bipolar transistor», EE Times Europe print edition covering March 17 – April 6, 2008. see also DOTFIVE website: [Hein10] B. Heinemann et al., «SiGe HBT technology with fT/fmax of 300GHz/500GHz and 2.0 ps CML gate delay», Proc. IEDM, pp. 688-691, 2010.

Project Coordinator: Infineon Technologies AG - Dr. Rudolf Lachner, (+49) 89 234 49952 Technical Project Manager: TU Dresden – Prof. Michael Schröter, (+49) 35 14 63 37 687 Management Support: ALMA Consulting Group – Ms Julie Chupin,, ALMA Consulting Group – Ms Patricia Kudelka,