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Table of Contents

Importance of Motivation2 Motivation.2 Motivation as a process2 Primary Motives3 Secondary Motives3 General Motives4 Complexity of motivation in companies 4 Application of theories of motivation..6 Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of needs Need6 Application of theory in Pakistan Tobacco company (PTC).7 Herzbergs two-factor theory/motivation-hygiene theory.....8 Application of theory in Pakistan Tobacco Company (PTC)8

Importance of Motivation Managements basic job is the effective utilization of human resources for achievements of organizational objectives. The personnel management is concerned with organizing human resources in such a way to get maximum output to the enterprise and to develop the talent of people at work to the fullest satisfaction. Motivation implies that one person, in organization context a manager, includes another, say an employee, to engage in action by ensuring that a channel to satisfy those needs and aspirations becomes available to the person. In addition to this, the strong needs in a direction that is satisfying to the latent needs in employees and harness them in a manner that would be functional for the organization. Motivation Motivation is the word derived from the word motive which means needs, desires, wants or drives within the individuals. It is the process of stimulating people to actions to accomplish the goals. It can be considered a driving force; a psychological one that compels or reinforces an action toward a desired goal For example, hunger is a motivation that elicits a desire to eat. MOTIVATIMake Optional Tune To Individuals Vision Attributing Trust In

O - Organizational N - Needs Make optional tune to individuals vision attributing trust in organizational needs. Motivation as a process Motivation is a process that starts with a physical and psychological deficiency and develops a need that activates human effort to drive for the goal achievement. It consists of three interacting and interdependent elements i.e.

NEED DRIVE GOAL


NEED Human needs arise due to a physiological imbalance e.g. need for education, health, wealth, status, fame, food, hunger & thirst, sleep, sex, affection & affiliation DRIVE Drive determines the track or direction to materialize the needs. Right drive may result to achieve the desired goals GOAL An end of motivation cycle, goal achievement restore motivation & vice versa. Primary Motives Are the motives which are unlearned and Physiological based, these are mandatory for human survive and tend to arise repetitively after regular or irregular intervals like hunger, thirst, sleep, avoidance of pain and maternal concern

Secondary Motives The secondary motives are related with learning concept, we can say that secondary motives are learned motives. A motive must be learned in order to be included in secondary classification. Important secondary motives are security & status. Other secondary motives has also significant importance. Need For Power Influencing people to change their attitude & behavior Defeating & dominating people Gaining control over people and resources

Need For Achievement Doing better than competitors Achieving challenging goals Overcoming business complexities

Need For Affiliation Being liked by many people and having cordial relations Role accepted by others Marinating a good social interaction horizontally & vertically

General Motives A separate classification for general motives is not always given. Yet such a category is necessary because there are a number of motives lie between the gray area of primary and secondary classifications. To be included in the general motives, a motive must be unlearned but not physiological based. While the primary needs seek to reduce tension or stimulation, these general needs induce a person to increase the amount of stimulation. General motives include: Curiosity Manipulation Activity

Complexity of motivation in companies The motivation is a complex process because of three Reasons. 1: Expression of similar motive through different behavior 2: Expression of different motives through similar behavior. 3: Conversion of motives In current scenario of management the motivation is complex and because of following problems. Managers often fail to understand the motives of employees. They unintentionally sometimes intentionally block their motives and dont let them to achieve their goals Treating employees like children Employees are adults with lives. They largely manage families, investments, day-to-day living, and everything that a life entails. it seems silly to fail to recognize this at work. Many organizations act as if they need to tell adult employees what to do how to do. and every time make their employees feel that they dont know anything so the employees who are with need of appreciation are de motivated. Make rules for the many because of the behavior of a few. Organizations need policies and rules to create a legal, ethical, effective workplace. They need a policy to solve every problem. Yet, so many organizations in now days make policies to prohibit or address the behavior of a few employees. The concept of policy makers of many organizations is that it is not necessary to burden all employees with a policy or a procedure when you can individually address the behavior of the few deadbeat employees and employees feel inequity? Focusing on mistakes and errors no matter how trivial they are in comparison with successes. This is especially a problem at weekly meetings and during periodic performance evaluations. Managers do not provide balanced feedback, If an employee by chance makes some mistakes, they forget how the employ worked efficiently and effectively in the past they focus on these particular mistakes and forget how employees contribution make the companies projects successful, so by making unfair performance

evaluation the managers block the motives of employees who want a promotion through good performance. Application of policies unfairly and inequitably. In most of the organization most of the managers fail to apply policies fairly. Inequities are visible to employees, and this make employees de motivated. When inconsistent, unreliable actions are taken and perceived capricious decisions are made by a manager, employees lose faith and confidence. And their motivation at work disappears. Stomp on employee initiative and ideas. All employee ideas have merit. For employee motivation at work, every idea deserves consideration and feedback. Today the managers encourage employees to take initiative and generate innovative ideas but they dont accept and implement their initiative and new ideas, because of fear of losing their position and take over by employees by doing so they suppress the curiosity and manipulation. Telling employees that theyre empowered but then review and retain veto power over the smallest decisions. Employees know that the organizational hierarchy or chain of command is the all-powerful ruler. In the most of organizations specially in developing countries managers destroy motivation at work by telling again and again the truth and dealing with what is so in your organization, they always make employees realized that you have no authority, you are not allowed to do such and such things. While doing this they dont realize that they are de motivating the employees who have need for power and authority. meetings, coaching sessions, and performance reviews in which the manager does the majority of the talking.
Holding

Now a days only a rare employee will find a work environment in which he or she is talked at motivating. But, it happens frequently. Even in organizations that encourage employee involvement, managers are not always skilled at discussing performance with employees. The manager may be afraid that if he stops talking, the employee will make demands he cant fulfill. Measuring aspects of work for employee review that the employee cant control. In some organizations employee motivation at work is destroyed by focusing on performance areas that the employee does not control. Setting unattainable goals and penalize employees for not meeting them. Corporations in especially in developing countries, have the practice of determining goals for a division or department from the top of the chain of command. This works when the goal setters are in constant communication with the doers. Their feedback should help frame the goals. But, too often, the goals are set with little communication and feedback, and the people in the field are distressed from the get-go with goals that they believe are unattainable. Employees need to participate in setting goals and thus accept responsibility for achieving them. This is what makes organizations work.

Application of theories of motivation 3: Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of needs Need or Deficient theory of Motivation. The crux of Maslows theory is that human needs are arranged in hierarchy composed of five categories. The lowest level needs are physiological and the highest levels are the self actualization needs.

1: physiological needs: includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other body needs. 2: Safety needs: includes Security and protection from physical or emotional harm. 3: social needs: Affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship. 4: esteem needs: internal factors such as self respect, autonomy, and achievement, and external factors such as status, recognition, and attention. Self actualization: drive to becoming what we are capable of becoming includes growth, achieving our potential and self fulfillment. Maslow starts with the formation that man is a wanting animal with a hierarchy of needs of which some are lower ins scale and some are in a higher scale or system of values. As the lower needs are satisfied, higher needs emerge. Higher needs cannot be satisfied unless lower needs are fulfilled. A satisfied need is 6

not a motivating and therefore the next need becomes dominant. This resembles the standard economic theory of diminishing returns.

Application of theory in Pakistan Tobacco company (PTC) Motivation is the core of management. Motivation is an effective instrument in the hands of the management in inspiring the work force .It is the major task of every manager to motivate his subordinate or to create the will to work among the subordinates. And the top management of is (PTC) is aware of this fact that the worker may be immensely capable of doing some work, nothing can be achieved if he is not willing to work. Physiological or Body Needs: The individuals move up the ladder responding first to the physiological needs for nourishment, clothing and shelter. In Pakistan Tobacco Company these physical needs are equated with Good salary and sufficient wage rate the lowest job in PTC is brand ambassador and they are given 16000 per month approximately pay practices are excellent in PTC. Safety: The next in order of needs is safety needs, the need to be free from danger, either from other people or from environment. The safety needs may take the form of job security, security against disease, misfortune, old age etc as also against industrial injury. Such needs are generally met by safety laws, measure of social security, protective labor laws and collective agreements. In Pakistan Tobacco Company there are Non permanent employees but permanent employees who have complete job security and they have also medical and insurance packages by company. Social needs: Going up the scale of needs the individual feels the desire to work in a cohesive group and develop a sense of belonging and identification with a group. He feels the need to love and be loved and the need to belong and be identified with a group. In a large organization it is not easy to build up social relations. But In Pakistan Tobacco Company this need is satisfied through designing the group activities most of the marketing activities of PTC are performed in group activities. They enjoy each and every movement at work. Esteem Needs: - These needs are reflected in our desire for status and recognition, respect and prestige in the work group or work place such as is conferred by the recognition of ones merit by promotion, by participation in management and by fulfillment of workers urge for self expression. In Pakistan Tobacco Company most of the middle and lower level employees lie in this Hierarchy because of most of the officers at good position are very harsh and rude. Most of the employees have need for achievement, self confidence, knowledge, competence etc. On the job, this means praise for a job but more important it means a feeling by employee that at all times he has the respect of his supervisor as a person and as a contributor to the organizational goals. At PTC employees are not well appreciated by their managers

Herzbergs two-factor theory/motivation-hygiene theory According to Herzberg an individuals relation and attitude towards work can determine success or failure. Herzberg further stated that certain characteristics are related to job satisfaction and others to job dissatisfaction. Intrinsic factors, such as advancement, recognition, responsibility and achievement are related to job satisfaction. Job dissatisfaction is a result of extrinsic factors; Supervision, pay, company policies, and working conditions. Herzberg finally states that a job do not get satisfying by removing dissatisfying factors and therefore dissatisfaction is not the opposite of job satisfaction.

Hygiene Factors
Job Environment Working conditions Salary Policies and administration Supervision Benefits

Motivators
job related Achievement Recognition Growth and advancement Responsibility Peer relationships

In Herzbergs study the previous task-related motivators resulted in positive attitudes: recognition, achievement, possibility of growth, advancement, responsibility and work itself. Herzberg suggests that motivation is similar to an internal self-charging battery. For employees to become motivated the energy has to come from within. Herzberg argues that motivation is based on growth needs; it is founded upon satisfaction born of a sense of achievement, recognition for achievement, responsibility and personal growth. Herzberg suggest that recognition for achievement is translated into direct feedback, responsibility to self-regulation, authority to communicate, exercise of control over resources and accountability, whilst advancement and growth is translated into the central dynamic of new learning leading to new expertise. Application of theory in Pakistan Tobacco Company (PTC) In Pakistan Tobacco Company strict policies and administration, unnecessary supervision are the main de motivators. The management always try to reduce the impact of hygiene factors to motivate employees by giving good salary packages, developing good working condition and extra benefits but according Herzberg by improving Hygiene factors only bring employees in balance not motivate them. In Pakistan Tobacco Company management focuses on two motivating factors Responsibility and Peer Relationship. For motivation employees are given responsibilities according to their capabilities. To promote the peer relationships PTC design most of its work activities in group or team based. In PTC other motivation factors like achievement Growth and recognition are not under the consideration of management.