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Measure area of irregular shape: Graph paper Measure volume of liquid: Measuring cylinder Burette Pipette CHAPTER 2 Structure of cell and its function
Nucleus Chloroplast Produces chlorophyll

PMR SCIENCE
CREATED BY CIKGU IRWAN@2011

## Cell control centre

FORM 1 CHAPTER 1 Mass Mass is the quantity of matter in an object. SI unit : Kilogram (kg) Lever balance W e i g ht Weight is the pull of gravity on an object SI unit : Newton (N) Spring balance Basic physical quantities & S.I. Physical quantities Length Mass Time Temperature Electric current SI Unit Metre (m) Kilogram (kg) Second (s) Kelvin (K) Ampere (A)

Cell membrane

Vacuole

Cytoplasm

Cell wall

## Maintains the shape of the cell

Unicellular organism Plant : Chlamydomonas Yeast Euglena Animal : Amoeba Paramecium Plasmodium Multicellular organisms: Plant : Spirogyra Sea weed Grass Animal : Eagle Squirrel Ant

## Measuring tools Length : Measuring tape Metre rule Calipers

Cell organisation Cell Tissue Organ System Organism System and function Skeleton system: Protects internal organs and gives support to the body Blood circulation system: Transport dissolved food, gases, and waste materials Nervous system: Conveys nerve impulses and reacts to stimuli Reproductive system: Produces reproductive cells Respiratory system: Enables the exchange of gases with the surroundings Excretory system: Removes wastes materials from the body Digestive system: Breaks up food into simples form to be absorbed and used by the body Muscular system: Moves the parts of the body CHAPTER 3 What is matter? Matter is everything that has mass and occupies space Matter is made up of tiny particles Matter exist in either: Solid: Liquid : Gas :

## Unit : g/cm3 Density formula:

Density = mass of substance (g) 3 Volume of substance (cm )

CHAPTER 4 Basic resources of earth : Water Air Soil Living things Minerals Fossil fuels Classification of matter: Matter is classified into:
Metal

1. 2. 3.

Element

Non - Metal

## Particles move fast and randomly

Substance which is made up of one type of particle only Compound Substance that is made up of two or more types of elements. Chemically combined Separation method : electrolysis Mixture Substance that consist of two or more substance Joined physically Separation method : o Distillation o Filtration CHAPTER 5 Contents of air: Nitrogen : 78% Oxygen : 21% Carbon dioxide : 0.03% Inert gases : 0.9% Microorganisms Water vapour Dust

Properties of oxygen: Colourless, odourless and tasteless gas slightly on water no effect on litmus paper supports combustion and respiration Confirmation test for Oxygen: Glowing wooden splinter: Presence of oxygen causes the glowing wooden splinter to ignites. Properties of carbon dioxide: Colourless, odourless and tasteless gas Slightly soluble in water Very soluble in sodium hydroxide Changes moist blue litmus paper from blue to red Confirmation test for carbon dioxide: Limewater test: Carbon dioxide turns the limewater cloudy Respiration
Oxygen Carbon dioxide Energy Glucose water

CHAPTER 6 FORMS of energy: Potential energy Kinetic energy Heat energy Light energy Chemical energy Sound energy Electrical energy Nuclear energy Potential energy: Energy stored in an object due to its position or condition Kinetic energy: Energy stored in any moving object Heat energy: Is a type of energy that rises the temperature of an object. Light energy: Energy that enables us to see Chemical energy: Energy stored in chemical substances Eq: Food, battery, fuel Sound energy: Energy that is produced in vibrating object Electrical energy: Is produced by an electric charge or current Nuclear energy: Energy stored in the nucleus of an atom SOURCES of Energy: Fossil fuels Biomass fuels Wind Water Sun Radioactive substances Geothermal energy

Glucose + oxygen

## water + carbon dioxide + energy

Comparison between inhaled and exhaled air: Inhaled Exhaled Nitrogen 78% Nitrogen 78% Inert gases 0.9% Inert gases 0.9% Oxygen 21% Oxygen 16% Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide 0.03% 0.03% Combustion:
Carbon + oxygen Hydrocarbon + oxygen Light E. + Heat E. + carbon dioxide Light E. + Heat E. + carbon dioxide + water

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Renewable & Non-renewable energy sources Renewable energy sources: Solar Water Wind Biomass Geothermal Wave/tidal Non-renewable: fossil fuels radioactive substances CHAPTER 7 heat is a form of energy heat can be produced by the following ways: o rubbing two objects together o burning objects o electricity that runs through a coiled wire heat causes solids, liquids and gases to expand and contract differences between heat and temperature Heat Temperature A form of energy The degree of hotness or coldness of a substance Unit = Joule (J) Unit = Kelvins (K)

Sea breeze:

## Physical process that involved in the change of states of matter.

solid

Liquid

Gas

Absorption of heat: Durk and dull objects absorbs heat better than shiny objects Gives out heat: A dull, dark surface, gives out heat better than white shiny surface. FORM 2 CHAPTER 1 Sensory organs: Skin: sense of touch Stimuli : hot, cold, pain, pressure, touch Nose: sense of smell Stimuli : Chemical substance in the air Tongue: Sense of taste Stimuli:Chemical substance in the food Ear: sense of hearing Stimuli: sound Eye: sense of sight Stimuli: light

Heat flows in three different ways: 1. Conduction is the flow of heat through solid 2. Convection is the flow of heat through fluids such as in gases and in liquids 3. Radiation is the transfer of heat through vacuum (Heat flows from hotter area to colder area) Land breeze:

At night Sea is warmer than land Cool air from land flows to the sea as land breeze

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Properties of light: light can be reflected and refracted Defects of vision: 1. long sighted Can see far objects clearly Image formed behind retina Causes: - eyeball too small/short - lens too thin correction Use convex lens 2. short sighted can see near objects clearly image formed infront of retina causes: - eye ball too big/long - Lens too thick correction use concave lens Properties of sound: is a form of energy produced by vibrating objects travels in the form of waves can be reflected (echo) can be absorbed can only travel through medium cannot travel through vacuum Stimuli and responses in plants: Phototropism: Stimuli Light Response to obtain sunlight Geotropism: Stimuli gravity Response to root itself firmly in the soil/to obtain mineral salts and water Hydrotropism: stimuli water Response to obtain water and mineral salts Thigmotropism: Stimuli touch Response to obtain support and light CHAPTER 2 Classes of food: Carbohydrate: supply energy Protein: needed for growth produce new cells fats: insulator of heat for the body supply energy water: helps transport excretory products from cells to excretory organs helps the digestion of food vitamins: maintain good health Minerals: maintain good health Fibre: helps in peristalsis prevents constipation FOOD TESTS Starch: a few drops of iodine solution is added to food sample +ve result = It turns Dark Blue Glucose: Benedicts Solution is added to the food sample and heated +ve result = Brick red precipitate formed Protein: Millons reagent is added to the food sample and heated +ve result = Brick red precipitate formed Fats: A little food sample is placed on a piece of filter paper +ve result = A translucent spot is detected. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Mouth Rectum Oesophagus Stomach Duodenum Small intestine

Large intestine

Anus

END PRODUCT OF DIGESTION Starch glucose Protein amino acids Fat Fatty acid + glycerol CHAPTER 3 Animal kingdom:
Vertebrates: Have backbones Mammals Body covered with hair/fur Breath through lungs Give birth to young alive Birds Body covered with feathers Breath through lungs Lay eggs Have wings Reptiles Body covered with dry scales Lay eggs Amphibians Live on both land and water Breath through lungs & moist skin Have moist skin Fish Live in water Breath through gills Body covered with slimy scales Have fins Warm Blooded Breath Through lungs Inverertebrates: No backbones

Plant Kingdom
Flowering plant Non-Flowering plant Ferns Mosses Fungi Algae

Monocotyledons (Plants with only one cotyledon) Leaves with parallel veins Have fibrous roots Eq: Paddy,oil palm, maize Dicotyledons (Plants with two cotyledon) Have net veined leaves Have tap roots Eq: beans, hibiscus, rubber trees

Conifer

CHAPTER 4 Species: A group of the same kind of organisms with common characteristics Population : a group of organisms of the same species living and reproducing in a defined area Community : is made up of different populations of organisms living together in a habitat Ecosystem : consists of plants, animals and the non-living environment interacting with each other for living Habitat : a place where an organism lives Interaction between living organism: 1. Prey-predator Predator : animal that hunts other animals for food Prey : The animal being hunted (hubungan pemangsa-mangsa) 2. Symbiosis a) Commensalism

satu pihak mendapat faedah dan pihak yang satu lagi tidak ada kesan ve atau +ve b) Mutualism Kedua-dua pihak mendapat faedah c) Parasitism Satu pihak mendapat mendapat faedah dan satu pihak rugi 3. Competition interaksi antara organisma untuk keperluan yang sama Biological control is a control of pests by the introduction of their natural enemy Food web Producer (Selalunya tumbuhan) Primary consumer (Yang memakan tumbuhan-Producer) Secondary consumer(Yang memakan Primary consumer) Tertiary consumer(Yang memakan Secondary consumer) Decomposers (pengurai bahan atau organisma yang sudah mati) Photosynthesis merupakan process membuat makanan oleh tumbuhan hijau
Carbon dioxide + Water sunlight chlorophyll glucose + Oxygen

Conservation means proper management on the use of natural resources to maintain future accessibility Preservation Measures taken to maintain living organisms and the natural environment in their natural balance state CHAPTER 5 Physical characteristics of water water can exist in 3 states : Solid, liquid, gas Colourless, tasteless, odourless at room temperature Freezing point of pure water : 0oC Boiling point of pure water : 100 oC Density of pure water : 1 g/cm3

Test for presence of water: Cobalt chloride paper changes from blue to pink Composition of water Water is a compound, made up of 2 atoms of hydrogen and 1 atom of oxygen H 2O Evaporation is a process by which liquid changes into water vapour at any temperature Factors affecting evaporation: o Surface area o Humidity o Movement of air o Temperature of surroundings Solution & Solubility a) Solution a mixture of solute and solvent b) Solvent Liquid that dissolves a substance c) Solute A substance that is dissolved) 1. Dilute solution a solution that contains very little solute 2. Concentrated solution Solution that contain a lot of solute 3. Saturated solution Solution that contains the maximum amount of solute and cannot dissolve any more solute Factors affecting solubility Nature of the solute Nature of the solvent Temperature of the solvent A C ID Taste sour Corrosive pH less than 7 Change wet blue litmus paper to red

ALKALIS Taste bitter and soapy Corrosive pH more than 7 Change wet blue litmus paper to red PURIFICATION 1. Filtration strength Remove large insoluble solids Cant remove dissolve substance & microorganism 2. Boiling Strengh kills microorganisms Cant remove insoluble particles & dissolve substance 3. Distillation Strengh removes insoluble and dissolve substance/ removes microorganisms Tasteless 4. Chlorination Strengh kills microorganism Cant remove insoluble particles & dissolved substance CHAPTER 6 Kinetic theory of gas gas particles move freely in all direction Gas particles collide with the wall of the container and bounce back A force is exerted by the particles onto the wall This force produces a pressure on the walls of the container Factors affecting Air pressure (AP) Volume Temperature Volume = AP Temperature = AP Volume = AP Temperature = AP CHAPTER 7 F O R CE Is an act of push and pull Cannot be seen EFFECT can be seen or felt

TYPE OF FORCE when two surface in contact o Occurs Frictional force o Always opposes the motion of the object o Acts in the opposite direction to movement o Can slow down or stop moving object Gravitational force o Force that pull objects to the earth o Causes all objects to have weight Electrostatic force o Force of attraction or repulsion between charged substance o Enables charge substance to attract neutral substance such as small pieces of paper o Same charges repel each other o Different charges attract each other Magnetic force o Enables a magnet to attract magnetic substances like iron, nickel and cobalt WORK Work is said to be done when a force moves an object over a distance in the direction of the force Equation for calculating work done:

## Work (joule) = Force (Newton) x distance (metre)

POWER Power is the rate of doing work, which means the amount of work done per unit time. Power can be calculated using the equation:
Power (watts) = Work done (joules) Time taken (seconds)

## Has magnitude and direction

also known as internal skeleton Made up of bones and cartilage Invertebrates have 1. Exoskeleton Made of cuticle or calcium carbonate Examples animals: centipede, ant, crab

2. Hydrostatic skeleton Consist of a muscular wall which encloses a body cavity that is filled with fluid This body fluid pressure gives support and shape to the animal Examples animals: earthworm, leech, jellyfish SUPPORT SYSTEM IN PLANTS Buttress Root thick and wide roots that grow from the stem above the ground e.q: Angsana tree, durian tree Prop roots Roots which grow from the stem or branches E.q.: pandan plant, maize plant Prickles An outgrouwth of the epidermis and can be easily removed from the stem. E.q: Rose Tendrils Curly string-like structures modified from stems and leaves Curl and twine round parts of other plants or objects to help the plant to climb E.q: Cucumber plant, bitter gourd, pumpkin Stilt roots Roots that develop from the main stem and grow into the ground for support. E.q: Mangrove tree (Bakau) Clasping roots Roots that grip onto other plants or structure to get support E.q: betel vine (sirih), orchid

FACTORS AFFECTING THE STABILITY OF AN OBJECT 1. The position of the centre of gravity. the lower the centre of gravity, the more stable the object 2. The base area The wider the base area, the more stable the object CHAPTER 10 LEVER is a simple machine makes work easier have 3 parts : o F = Fulcrum o E = Effort o L = Load CLASSES OF LEVER Notice the middle part of the lever L F E = 1st class F L E F E L = = 2nd class 3rd class

THE MOMENT OF FORCE The SI unit for moment of force = Newton-metre (Nm) Formula for moment of force:
Moment of force = Force X (Nm) (N) Perpendicular distance from the pivot to the force (m)

Thorns (duri) Sharp modified branches that cannot be easily removed Act as hooks to hold on to supports. E.q: Bouganvillea (Bunga Kertas)

## CHAPTER 9 The point of equilibrium

is the point where the whole weight of an object appears to act on.

It is also the point which an object can be balanced on and it is present in all objects. It is also known as the centre of gravity of the object

Distance of effort Distance of load Effort Load X = X from the fulcrum from the fulcrum (E) (L)

LEVER IN EQUILIBRIUM when a lever is in equilibrium, the sum of the anticlockwise moments is equal to the sum of the clockwise moments. The principle of moments can be represented by the following formula:

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