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CORE PAPER-2 PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT (UDAB) UNIT-1 INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY
The term Psychology derives from two Greek words: Psyche-means soul,mind or self Logos-means study Psychology is thus the study of the self as it manifests itself in action-that is,in behaviour. AIMS OF PSYCHOLOGY: The major aims of psychology are: To understand and describe behaviour. To control behaviour. To predict future behaviour. MAJOR SUBFIELDS OF PSYCHOLOGY: 1.clinical psychology: A branch of psychology that studies diagnosis,causes,and treatment of mental disorders. 2.counselling psychology:A branch of psychology that assists individual in dealing with many personal problems that do not involve psychological disorders. 3.Developmental psychology:A branch of psychology that studies how people change physically ,cognitively,and socially over the entire life span. 4.Educational psychology:A branch of psychology that studies all aspects of the educational process.

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5.Experimental psychology:A branch of psychology that studies all basic psychology processes,including perception,learning and motivation. 6.Cognitive psychology:A branch of psychology that studies all aspects of cognition such as memory,thinking,reasoning,language ana soon. 7.Industrial/organizational psychology:A branch of psychology that studies all aspects of behaviour in work settings. 8.Psychobiology and Evolutionary psychology:A branch of psychology that investigates biological bases of behaviour and the role of evolution in human behaviour. 9.Social psychology:A branch of psychology that studies all aspects of social behaviour and social thought-how we think about and interact with others. UNIT-2

Methods of psychology
1.Introspection method 2.Genetic method 3.Observation method 4.Interview method 5.case study method 6.Experimental method 7.sociometry 1.INTROSPECTION METHOD: Introspection is a method to study the private or personal or subjective behaviour of an individual. 2.GENETIC METHOD:
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Genetic method is a study of human behaviour as manifested at different periods of life,and in different grades of life. 3.OBSERVATION METHOD: Observation is a method to study carefully a significant behaviour of a particular individual. Types of observation: 1.uncontrolled observation or naturalistic observation. 2.controlled observation or systematic observation. 4.INTERVIEW METHOD: The interview is,in a sense,an oral questionnaire.Interview is a face-toface method to collect information orally from the subject(s) or student(s). 5.CASE METHOD: Case method is a detailed and indepth study of a single individual who has a behavioural problem or difficulty. 6.EXPERIMENTAL METHOD: The experimental method is used when the experimenter wants to measure precisely the effect of independent variable upon dependent variable under controlled conditions. 7.SOCIOMETRY: Sociometry method can be used to: To identify informal leaders(stars) To identify social rankings To identify isolated individuals.

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UNIT-3

HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT


Growth versus development:
Growth usually refers to a simple increase in height,weight or other aspects of physical size.Growth occurs due to maturation. Developmental tasks Developmental tasks of Adolescents(12-18years) Making new-relations with age-mates of both sexes. Accepting ones sex-role-accepting a masculine or feminine role. Realising and accepting ones own abilities and talants.

1.physical development: It refers to bodily growth.It is basic to all the other aspects of development and it is under almost complete genetic control.However,children must get adequate nutrition and exercise.physical development arises from the growth of an anatomical structures. 2.cognitive development: Cognitive development(in ordinary language intellectual developmental) refers to activities that involve thinking,perceiving and problem-solving. 3.social Development: It refers to any form of behaviour that involves relations with others. 4.Emotional Development:

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It refers to feelings and attitudes.It is often called by psychologists as affective development. Eriksons eight stages: Stages 1.infancy 2.Toddlerhood 3.Early childhood 4.Middle childhood 5.Adolescence 6.young Adulthood 7.Adulthood 8.Aging Developmental crisis Trust vs mistrust Autonomy vs shame and Doubt Initiative vs Guilt Industry vs inferiority Identity vs Role diffusion Intimacy vs Isolation Generativity vs Self-absorption Integrity vs Despair

Cognitive Development:Attention
Attention is the consciousness or heightened awareness of a limited range of objects neglecting others in the environment. External factors of Attention 1.Intensity 2.size 3.Repetition 4.change 5.movement 6.contrast

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7.Novelty Internal factors of Attention 1.Interest 2.Mood 3.Attitude Types of Attention 1.Involuntary Attention 2.voluntary Attention 3.Habitual Attention Span of Attention The number of items that can be perceived in a single glance is known as span of attention or apprehension. Division of Attention The fundamental fact regarding attention is that only one thing can be attended to at a time,and that attention cannot be divided and directed on two or more activities at the same time. Distraction of Attention Distraction is any stimulus that draws away from the object to which a person wishes to attend.Distraction of attention may be due to internal and external factors. UNIT-4

Learning of concepts
A concept is a class of objects,events or persons which have common characteristics.A concept is usually known by its name or label.
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Teacher,student,school,book,love,peace,war,women,politician-all are examples of concepts. Types of concepts There are three types of concepts. Conjunctive concepts Disjunctive concepts Relational concepts

Development of concept Perception Abstraction Generalisation Discrimination Sensation and perception Sensations=sense organs+External stimuli Perception Perception=sensation+interpretation Thinking Thinking is often loosely defined as the action of the mind,or reasoning or being logical. According to Gray,thinking is language or symbolic behaviour,although all symbolic behaviour is not thinking. Types of thinking 1.perceptual Thinking It is the first step towards cognition.It is the lowest form of thinking.
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2.conceptual thinking It develops in a child next to perceptual thinking. 3.Recall thinking If a person makes a simple description of past events and remote places,and things,it is called Recall thinking. 4.Reasoning It refers to logical thinking leading to new understanding. 5.convergent and divergent thinking Convergent thinking is concerned with a particular single answer or solution. Divergent thinking is concerned with a variety of thoughts and responses.

Modern cognitive Theories of Learning


PIAGET:stages in cognitive development 1.sensori-motor stage(from birth to 2 years) 2.pre operational stage(2 to 7 years) 3.concrete operations(7 to 11 years) 4.Formal operations(12 and above) Sensori-motor stage In this stage,the infant explores the world primarily with senses and motions. Pre-operational stage It includes pre-conceptual stage(2-4 years) and perceptual stage(4-7 years). pre-conceptual stage is dominated by symbolic play,but perceptual stage is dominated by imitation.

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3.concrete operations The child is able to engage in operations or mental activities.The child can deal with concrete facts logically,but cannot yet think abstractly. 4.Formal operations During this period the child acquires the ability to think abstractly. BRUNER:Modes in cognitive development Enactive mode(0-3) Iconic(3-7 or 8) Symbolic(7 or 8-more)

1.Enactive mode(0-3) The first of Bruners modes of representation.It extends from birth to age three. 2.Iconic mode(3-7 or 8) The second of Bruners modes of representation.It extends from about age three to age seven or eight. 3.symbolic mode The third of Bruners mode of representation,which begins at about 7 or eight.In this mode,children use symbols to think abstractly. GAGNE:Learning Types 1.signal learning 2.stimulus-response learning 3.chaining-of-behaviour learning 4.verbel association learning

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5.multiple discrimination learning 6.concept learning 7.principle or rule learning 8.problem-solving 1.signal learning The child mechanically performs a conditioned response or emotional response to a new stimulus or signal.It is similar to classical conditioning. 2.stimulus-response learning The child makes specific response to a particular stimulus.Here the child uses precise movements of the muscles to make a response. 3.chaining-of-behaviour learning The child makes a series of responses that are linked together. 4.verbal association learning The child associates words to objects 5.Discrimination learning The student learns to differentiate many similar appearing stimuli and to respond to them in as many different ways. 6.concept learning The student classifies objects,events or ideas into classes or categories on the basis of common abstract qualities. 7.principle learning The student acquires a clear understanding of a statement by relating two or more concepts.

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8.problem solving The student applies principles to arrive at new principles. UNIT-5

Learning
Classification of learning theories 1.Earlier theories 2.Modern theories Earlier theories 1.Thorndike(Trial and error) 2.pavlov(classical conditioning) 3.kohler(insight learning) 4.Lewin(field theory) Modern theories Types: 1.Behavioural approach - skinner(operant conditioning) 2.cognitive approach piaget Bruner Gagne Ausubel

Transfer of Learning
Meaning of transfer learning

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The process of carrying over habits of thinking,knowledge,skills and abilities,and attitudes from one learning situation to another is called transfer of learning. Kinds of Transfer 1.positive transfer 2.Negative transfer 3.zero transfer Positive transfer Previous Learning Facilitates Present learning

Negative transfer Hinders Previous learning present learning

Zero transfer

Has no effect on Previous learning present learning

The learning curve

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It refers to any graphical representation that shows progress in learning with practice. Causes of plateau Plateau refers to a period of no apparent progress.It is plotted as a small horizontal line in the learning curve. UNIT-6

Learning and Forgetting


Forgetting refers to the amount of material lost over a period of time.Forgetting is failure to retain and recall or recognize what was once learned.

Measuring Learning:Retention and Forgetting


Retention refers to the amount of material remaining over a period of time. Forgetting is the amount of material last over a period time.Retention and forgetting are related to learning. Retention and forgetting curve The first significant study of forgetting was made by Ebbinghaus.In his study Ebbinghaus used as a subject.He learned seven different lists of nonsense syllabus with a time interval of 20 minutes.1hour,9hours,24hours,2hours,6days and 31days respectively.He relearned the same seven lists again with the same specified time intervals.He found the saving scores in percentages for all the lists.A graph was drawn between time and saving score.This graph is known as retention or forgetting curve. UNIT-7

Learning and Remembering

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Much of education is concerned with encouraging remembering.The process of remembering consists of three interrelated phases: 1.Learning a material 2.Retention of the learned material over a period of time 3.Recall:the learned material is brought back into attention out of long term memory. Meaning of memory Memory is the mental power by which past experience are both recalled and recognised.

Motivation
Motivation is any inner conditions of the individual that directs or activates his behaviour towards a goal. Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation It refers to the internal forces that originate within and impel the learner to learn a given instructional goal. Extrinsic motivation It refers to the external forces existing outside of the learner that press him to undertake a given learning task. Maslows theory of motivation SELF-ACTUALIZATION NEEDS | SELF-ESTEEM NEEDS

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| LOVE AND BELONGING NEEDS | SAFETY NEEDS | PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS 1.Physiological needs The need for food,water,sleep,thrist,etc,are physiological needs.These are lower needs of human being. 2.Safety needs It includes the need for protection from bodily harm and security from threats.They also include freedom from anxiety. 3.Love and Belongingness needs These are the need for acceptance,the need for affection,the need for approval and the need for affiliation. 4.self-esteem needs When the above needs are satisfied,a need for self-esteem and the esteem of the others will arise. 5.self-actualization needs At the top of the hierarchy,maslow places the need for self-actualization. Achievement motivation According to David McClelland,achievement motivation refers to the desire to achieve and to avoid failure.It is a desire for attaining some specific standard of excellence.
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Hulls drive reduction theory Hull(1940)proposed the Drive Reduction Theory.Hulls theory is meant to be a general theory of learning. Hull developed a version of behaviourism in which the stimulus(S)affects the organism(O)and the resulting response(R)depends upon the characteristics of both o and s. Levels of Aspiration According to Hurlock,level of aspiration is the standard a person expects and hopes to reach in a given performance. Methods of studying levels of aspiration 1.studies of wishes Studies of wishes of an adolescent give clues about both immediate and remote goals. 2.studies of ideals Studies of ideals tell something about what the adolescent is aspiring to be,either in now or in the future. 3.studies of resolution Resolutions imply that the adolescent is dissatisfied with himself and his achievements and is aspiring to improve. 4.Laboratory Experiments In the labouratory,the adolescent is assigned a task and informed of his level of performance. UNIT-8

Intelligence
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Several theories of intelligence have been put forward. 1.The two-factor theory 2.Group-factor theory 3.structure-of-intellect model(sI) Cattells Theory of Intelligence Cattell(1963)proposed the human intelligence consists of two major clusters of mental abilities.He termed them as: Fluid intelligence Crystallized intelligence Intelligence quotient(IQ) Terman was the first to suggest the term intelligence quotient. Intelligence quotient is the ratio between mental age(MA) and chronological age(CA) and multiplied by 100. IQ=MA/CA*100 Intelligence quotient is used in reporting intelligence test scores.

Creativity
It is defined as the tendency to generate or recognize ideas,alternative, or possibilities that may be useful in solving problems,communicating with others,and entertaining ourselves and others(Franken,2003). Steps in creative process There are five stages in creative process.They are 1.preparation 2.Incubation

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3.Illumination 4.Evaluation 5.Revision or verification Theories of creativity 1.cognitive approach 2.social approach 3.confluence approach Lateral thinking De Bono defines lateral thinking as methods of thinking concerned with changing concepts and perception. UNIT-9

Personality
The term personality is derived from the latin word persona,which means mask. Personality is a dynamic organization,inside the person of those psycho-physical systems that determine a persons characteristic patterns of behaviour,thoughts,and feelings. Approaches to understanding personality There are four major theoretical approaches to an understanding of personality. They are: 1.Trait theory 2.Psycho-analytic theory 3.social learning theory

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4.Humanistic theory Trait theory describes personality in terms of a number of limited distinctive characteristics. Psycho-analytic theory assumes that personality is composed of id,ego and super ego.The id is irrational and impulsive,seeking immediate gratification.The ego is realistic and logical,postponing gratification until it can be achieved in socially acceptable ways.The super ego imposes moral codes. Social learning theory assumes that personality differences result from variations in learning experience. Humanistic theory views personality as the development of the individuals selfconcept,his personal view of the world and his push toward growth of selfactualization. Assessing personality traits 1.The sixteen personality factor questionnaire(16 P.F) It was developed by cattell.The 16P.F.is used to measure several personality traits simultaneously. 2.Maudsley personality Inventory It was designed by H.Eysenck.It is used to measure only two dimensions of personality namely,neuroticism and exteroversion-introversion. 3.Bells adjustment inventory It has been designed to measure personal adjustment in four areas-home adjustment,health adjustment,social adjustment and emotional adjustment. 4.Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory(MMPI) The important feature of MMPI is its empirical validity.MMPI measures abnormal traits.

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5.Allport-vernon-lindzey scale It measures a persons major values and interests: theoretical,economic, esthetic, social,politician and religious. Projective Tests Projective tests are used to assess personality. Types of projective tests Three of the most widely used projective tests to assess personality are Rorschach Test,Thematic Apperception Test,and sentence completion test. Integrated personality According to Hurlock,a person with integrated personality is one who can gratify his needs,interests,and aspirations through behaviour that conforms to social expectations. Characteristics of integrated personality According to Hurlock(1974)the following are the most common characteristics of integrated personality. 1.Realistic self-appraisals The well-adjusted person reveals the ability to appraise themselves realistically. 2.Realistic appraisal of situations They take a realistic approach to situations. 3.Realistic evalution of achievements They reveal the ability to evaluate their achievements realistically. 4.Acceptance of reality

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One of the characteristics of a well-adjusted person is his willingness to accept reality instead of running away from it. 5.Acceptance of responsibility The well-adjusted person is a responsible person.They are not revealing the Let-John-do-it tendency.

Group dynamics
A group consists of two or more persons.They: Interact with one another Have shared goals. Are interdependent. View themselves as members of the group. Social psychologies describe any group having these characteristics as social group. Group behaviour It refers to the situation where people interact in large or small groups. It refers to small group that may reach consensus and act in a coordinated way. Competition and cooperation Competition: Many of the things we value most-a good job,a nice home,a high status- are in short supply.There is a competition between social groups over valued commodities or opportunities. Cooperation: According to Ted panitz(1996),Cooperation is a structure of interaction designed to facilitate the accomplishment of an end product or goal.

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Leadership Traits According Drucker(1954),leadership is lifting of mans vision to higher sights,the raising of mans performance to a higher standard,and the building of mans personality beyond its limitation. Types of leadership Autocratic leadership Democratic leadership Free-reign leadership Classroom climate It refers to the psychological oremotional environment that prevails between the teacher and students in the classroom. UNIT-10

Mental Health
It refers to personal adjustments relatively free of behaviour disorders.Mental health also refers to the ability maintaining satisfying personal adjustments with various types of situations in ones life. Conflicts 1.Approach-Approach conflict 2.Avoidance-Avoidance conflict 3.Approach-Avoidance conflict Frustration Frustration is a feeling of failure in fulfilling ones needs. Defense or mental mechanisms

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Defense mechanisms are typical behaviours that a person displays unconsciously at the time of anxiety-producing situations in order to avoid or lessen anxiety.

Guidance and counseling


Guidance is the process of helping individuals achieve the selfunderstanding and self-direction necessary to make the maximum adjustment to school,home and community. Counseling refers to the face-to-face relationship between the counsellor and the student.In counseling,the student is helped by the counselor to get over his personal,emotional,social,educational and vocational problems. Psychoanalysis psychoanalysis is a kind of therapy developed by Freud.It focuses on helping individuals gain insight into their inner conflicts and repressed wishes. Psychodynamic therapies Psychodynamic therapies are based on the idea that mental disorders stem primarily from the kind of hidden inner conflicts as described by Freud. Types of psychodynamic therapy: 1.Free association 2.Resistance Psychodynamic Therapy Freuds psychoanalysis is rarely practised today. However,Freuds students and the neo-freudians have modified the classical psychoanalysis and use the modified version of it.

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