0 Up votes0 Down votes

21 views5 pagesBeam Forming Algorithms Study Paper

Jun 05, 2013

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

Beam Forming Algorithms Study Paper

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

21 views

Beam Forming Algorithms Study Paper

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Steve Jobs
- Wheel of Time
- NIV, Holy Bible, eBook
- NIV, Holy Bible, eBook, Red Letter Edition
- Cryptonomicon
- The Woman Who Smashed Codes: A True Story of Love, Spies, and the Unlikely Heroine who Outwitted America's Enemies
- Contagious: Why Things Catch On
- Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling Technology Project
- Everybody Lies: Big Data, New Data, and What the Internet Can Tell Us About Who We Really Are
- Zero to One: Notes on Start-ups, or How to Build the Future
- Console Wars: Sega, Nintendo, and the Battle that Defined a Generation
- Dust: Scarpetta (Book 21)
- Hit Refresh: The Quest to Rediscover Microsoft's Soul and Imagine a Better Future for Everyone
- The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution
- Crushing It!: How Great Entrepreneurs Build Their Business and Influence—and How You Can, Too
- Make Time: How to Focus on What Matters Every Day
- Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions
- Wild Cards

You are on page 1of 5

e-mail: kguney@erciyes.edu.tr e-mail: bilalb@erciyes.edu.tr e-mail: akdagli@erciyes.edu.tr Erciyes University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Electronics Engineering, 38039, Kayseri, Turkey Erciyes University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Computer Engineering, 38039, Kayseri, Turkey Key words: Adaptive array antenna, interference suppression, adaptive algorithms ABSTRACT In this study, the LMS (least mean square) and the SMI (sample matrix inversion) algorithms are presented for the interference rejection of adaptive array antennas. Interference rejection is achieved by optimally determining the array weights. LMS algorithm, which is based on the steepest-descent method, is the most common technique used for continuous adaptation. SMI algorithm based on an estimate of the correlation matrix is a method of directly calculating the antenna array weighs. Performance results of LMS and SMI algorithms are investigated and given for different interference angles, step size of LMS, block size of SMI and interference-to-noise ratios (INRs) for a three elements uniformly spaced linear array. I. INTRODUCTION An adaptive antenna is a multi-beam adaptive array with its gain pattern being adjusted dynamically [1-3]. In recent decades, it has been widely used in different areas such as mobile communications, radar, sonar, medical imaging, radio astronomy etc. Especially with the increasing demand for improving the capacity of mobile communications, adaptive antenna is introduced into mobile systems to mitigate the effect of interference and improve the spectral efficiency. Adaptive antennas have the ability of separating automatically the desired signal from the noise and the interference signals and continuously updating the element weights to ensure that the best possible signal is delivered in the face of interference [4-8]. The first fully adaptive array was conceived in 1965 by Applebaum [9], which was designed to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the arrays output. An alternative approach to canceling unwanted interference is LMS error algorithm of Widrow et al. [10]. Further work on the LMS algorithm, by Frost [11] and Griffiths [12], is introduced constraints to ensure that the desired signals were not filtered out along with the unwanted signals. LMS algorithm uses continuous adaptation. The weights are adjusted as the data is sampled such that the resulting weight vector sequence converges to the optimum solution. In 1974, Reed et al. [13] proposed SMI algorithm for adaptively adjusting the array weights. SMI algorithm uses block adaptation. The statistics are estimated from a temporal block of array data and used in an optimum weight equation. In the literature, there have been many studies about different versions of LMS and SMI algorithms used in adaptive antennas [14-21]. In this paper, LMS and SMI algorithms were used for interference rejection problem of the adaptive antennas. The performance of these algorithms was investigated for different interference angles, step size of LMS, block size of SMI and INRs. In the simulation process, a uniformly spaced linear array with three elements was used. II. ARRAY ANTENNA MODEL Consider a uniformly spaced linear array with M omnidirectional antenna elements shown in Figure 1. Interelement spacing is d and the plane wavefront is impinging upon the array at an angle of with respect to the array normal.

Kerim Guney

Bilal Babayigit

Ali Akdagli

The receiving beamformer is shown in Figure 2. In this receiving beamformer, each signal x is multiplied by a complex weight w and summed to form the output of the array denoted by y.

a( ) = 1, e

d sin( )

,.......,e

d ( M 1) sin( )

(5)

where is the wavelength. III. ADAPTIVE ALGORITHMS Figure 3 shows a block diagram representation of an adaptive antenna array. The weighted signals are summed and the output is fed to a controller that adjusts the weights to satisfy an optimization criterion.

y ( n) =

M m =1

w* x ( n ) = w H x m m

(1) Figure 3. Adaptive antenna array In order to minimize the mean square error between the array output y(n) and the reference (desired) signal d(n), the optimum weights can be chosen by using the following equation [13, 10]

where * denotes the complex conjugate and (.)H denotes hermitian (complex conjugate) transpose operation. The vectors w and x, referred to as array weight vector and the array signal vector, respectively, are

w = w , w ,...., w 1 2 M

[ ]T T x = [x ( n ), x ( n ),...., x ( n ) ] 1 2 M

(2) (3)

wopt = R

1 r xx xd

(6)

where (.)T denotes the transpose operation. The array signal vector x can also be written as:

where Rxx=E[x(n) xH(n)] is the correlation matrix, rxd=E[x(n) d(n)] is the cross correlation vector, and E(.) is the expectation operator. The optimum weights can be estimated with LMS algorithm at time (n+1) as

w( n + 1) = w( n ) + x ( n ) * ( n )

x ( n) = s d ( n) a ( d ) +

L i =1

s ( n) a ( ) + N ( n ) (4) i i

(7)

where sd and si are the desired and interfering signals arriving at the array at an angle d and i, respectively, L is the number of interfering signals, and N is the gaussian noise at the array elements. a(d) and a(i) are the steering vectors for the desired and interfing signals, respectively. a() is given by

where is the step size which controls the rate of convergence. * is the error between the reference signal and the array output, which is formulated as

* (n) = d (n) x

( n ) w( n )

(8)

Array weights can be calculated directly by SMI algorithm. This algorithm is based on an estimate of the correlation matrix and cross correlation vector of the adaptive array output samples. The estimate of the correlation matrix is given by

-10

xx

1 K

K k =1

x ( k ) x (k )

(9)

-20

-30

-40

The estimate of the sample cross-correlation vector can be evaluated by the following formula

-50 Interference at -30 , 60 Interference at -30 , -70 -60 -150 -100 -50 0 50 Direction (degrees) 100 150

1 = r xd K

K k =1

x (k ) d (k )

(10)

where K is the block size. The details on LMS and SMI adaptive algorithms can be found in [13, 6]. IV. SIMULATION RESULTS In this section, several computer simulation results for interference rejection performance of LMS and SMI algorithms are presented. The performance of these algorithms is investigated for different interference angles, step size of LMS, block size of SMI, and different INR values. Four examples of a linear array having three equispaced omnidirectional elements with /2 interelement spacing are carried out. For these examples, the desired (source) signal is located at 10 and the SNR value of this desired signal is 10 dB. In the first example, it is assumed that the INR for all interferers is 20 dB, step size of LMS is 0.001, block size of SMI is 16, and the interferers are located at (-30, 60) and (-30, -70). The beam patterns are then obtained by SMI and LMS algorithms and illustrated in Figures 4 and 5. It is clear from the Figures 4 and 5 that the achieved null depths for both algorithms have very good performance. However, the null depth level of SMI algorithm is deeper than that of LMS algorithm. In the following three examples, it is assumed that the interferers are located at (-30, 60). To show the effects of the step size on the error * of LMS algorithm, the step size values are selected as 0.01, 0.001, 0.0005 for the second example, while the other design parameters are the same as those of the first example. The results obtained for three different step size values are shown in Figure 6. It is clear from Figure 6 that the convergence is slow for = 0.0005, but the convergence is rapid for = 0.01. These results illustrate that a larger step size causes to a faster convergence.

-10

-20

-30

-40

-50 Interference at -30 , 60 Interference at -30 , -70 -60 -150 -100 -50 0 50 Direction (degrees) 100 150

Figure 5.Beam pattern of LMS algorithm In the third example, the patterns are obtained for six different block sizes of SMI algorithm, and the resultant patterns are shown in Figure 7. In this figure, it can be seen that the increase in the value of block size increases the level of interference rejection. In the last example, we examined the effect of the INR values on interference rejection of SMI and LMS algorithms. Figures 8 and 9 show the beam patterns achieved for 20 dB and 30 dB INR values. It is evident from Figures 8 and 9 that as the value of INR increases, the interference rejection capability increases as well.

8 7 6 5 LMS Error 4 3 2 1 0

50

200

250

(a) =0.01

8 7 6 5 LMS Error 4 3 2 1 0

Beam Pattern (dB) -20

Figure 7. Beam patterns of SMI algorithm for (a) K=8, (b) K=16, (c) K=32, (d) N=64, (e) N=128, and (f) N=256.

-10

-30

-40

50

200

250

-50 SNR 10 dB INR1 30 dB INR2 30 dB SNR 10 dB INR1 20 dB INR2 20 dB -150 -100 -50 0 50 Direction (degrees) 100 150

-60

(b) =0.001

8 7 6 5 LMS Error 4 3 2 1 0

Beam Pattern (dB) -20 0

Figure 8. Beam pattern of SMI algorithm for two different INR values.

-10

-30

-40

50

200

250

-50 SNR 10 dB INR1 30 dB INR2 30 dB SNR 10 dB INR1 20 dB INR2 20 dB -60 -150 -100 -50 0 50 Direction (degrees) 100 150

(c) =0.0005 Figure 6. Convergence performance of LMS algorithm for (a) =0.01, (b) =0.001, and (c) =0.0005

Figure 9. Beam pattern of LMS algorithm for two different INR values.

V. CONCLUSION In this work, the LMS and SMI algorithms are used for the interference rejection of the adaptive antenna array with three-elements. The effects of some design specifications such as the interference angles, the step size of LMS, and the block size of SMI and INRs on the interference rejection are investigated. Simulation results show that both algorithms, LMS and SMI, are capable of nulling the interference sources even the interference sources close to each other. The null depth performance of the SMI algorithm is better than that of the LMS algorithm. The weighting factors of LMS and SMI algorithms give greater flexibility and control over the actual pattern. The antenna designer should make a trade-off between the achievable and the desired pattern. By adjusting the factors it is possible to obtain very reasonable approximations and trade-offs. REFERENCES A.A. Monzinco, T.W. Miller, Introduction to Adaptive Arrays, John-Wiley, 1980. 2. B. Widrow, S.D. Stearns, Adaptive Signal Processing, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, USA, 1985. 3. S. Haykn, Adaptive Filter Theory, 4th ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, USA, 2002. 4. G.V. Tsoulos, Adaptive Antennas for Wireless Communications, IEEE Press, 2001. 5. L.C. Godara, Application of Antenna Arrays to Mobile Communications Part I: Performance Improvement, Feasibility, and System Considerations, Proc. of the IEEE, Vol. 85, No. 7, pp. 1029-1060, 1997. 6. L.C. Godara, Applications of Antenna Arrays to Mobile Communications Part II: Beamforming and Direction-of-Arrival Considerations, Proc. of the IEEE, Vol.85, No.8, pp. 1195-1245, 1997. 7. H. Tsuji, M. Mizuno, Applications of Adaptive Array Antennas in Mobile Communications, Electronics and Communications in Japan, Part 3, Vol. 83, No. 12, 2000. 8. Y. Ogawa, T. Ohgane, Adaptive Antennas for Future Mobile Radio, IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals, Vol. E79, No. 7, pp. 961-967, 1996. 9. S.P. Applebaum, Adaptive Arrays, tech. rep., Syracuse University Research Corporation, 1965. Reprinted in IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1976. 10. B. Widrow, P.E. Mantey, L.J. Griffiths, and B.B. Goode, Adaptive Antenna Systems, Proc. of the IEEE, vol. 60, pp. 926-935, Vol. 55. No. 8, pp. 2143-2159, 1967. 11. O.L. Frost III, An Algorithm for Linearly Constrained Adaptive Array Processing, Proc. of the IEEE, Vol. 60, No. 8, pp. 926-935, 1972. 1.

12. L.J. Griffiths, A Simple Adaptive Algorithm for Real-Time Processing in Antenna Arrays, Proc. of the IEEE, Vol. 57, Vol. 9, pp. 1696-1704, 1969. 13. I.S. Reed, J.D. Mallett, and L.E. Brennan, Rapid Convergence Rate in Adaptive Arrays, IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol. AES-10, Vol. 11, 1974. 14. L. Acar, R.T. Compton, The Performance of an LMS Adaptive Array with Frequency Hopped Signals, IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 360-371, 1985. 15. Y. Ogawa,, et al., An LMS Adaptive Array for Multipath Fading Reduction, IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 17-23, 1987. 16. M. Tahernezhadi, L. Zhu, Performance Evaluation of LMS Based Adaptive Suppression Schemes in Asynchronous CDMA, Int. J. Electronics, Vol. 79, No. 5, pp. 541-550, 1995. 17. Y.J. Su, Y.H. Lee, Adaptive Array Beamforming Based on an Efficient Technique, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 44, No. 8, pp. 1094-1101, 1996. 18. Y.C. Liang, P.S. Chin, Coherent LMS, IEEE Communication Letters, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 92-94, 2000. 19. H. Koga, M. Taromaru, A Simple and Fast Converging Algorithm for MMSE Adaptive Array Antenna, IEICE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 83, No. 8, pp. 1671-1677, 2000. 20. R. Yonezawa, I. Chiba, A Combination of Two Adaptive Algorithms SMI and CMA, IEICE Trans. on Communications, Vol. 84, No. 7, 2001. 21. L.M. Tuan, et al., Novel LMS Based Exponential Step Size Adaptive Beamforming Algorithms for Smart Antenna, IEICE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 85, No. 5, 2002.

- wp2 gradedUploaded byapi-463439118
- Multichannel Speech Signal Separation by Beam forming TechniquesUploaded byAnonymous kw8Yrp0R5r
- CS2209 SET2Uploaded bytp2006ster
- 1306.6659Uploaded byCroco Ali
- Regular, shape-polymorphic, parallel arrays in HaskellUploaded byManuel Chakravarty
- 2017 EURODYN.pdfUploaded byRodrigo Rivero
- 1-s2.0-S0301562996001664-mainUploaded byAdib Nahiyan
- EECE 301 Discussion 02 MATLAB TutorialUploaded byQasimBajwa
- a_mtt_ab_09_2Uploaded byMehdi
- 10.1.1.16Uploaded byhekhtiyar
- research paper.pdfUploaded bygemechu
- solns_2002Uploaded byGag Paf
- ANSYS Finite Antenna Array Analysis With a Unit Cell Domain Decomposition Method Application BriefUploaded bykaviarasu1990
- Practical File 201112Uploaded byIshank Goel
- EMW Techniques3_2DUploaded byjustdream
- Syngrasp GuideUploaded byitza
- ARRAYS AssignmentUploaded byKarl Villaseñor
- Lecture 03Uploaded bysofianina05
- MatlabBasics SlidesUploaded byncharala
- matlab cheatsheetUploaded byAnas Asharaf
- Advanced programming Coursework.pdfUploaded byAli Mir
- MATHEMATICS-IIUploaded byBhavani Ramineedi
- Esprit AlgorithmUploaded byrameshmc1
- fx9750g_ch06Uploaded bySantiago Cabrera
- Practice _ GeeksforGeeks _ a Computer Science Portal for Geeks MATRIXUploaded byKaja Dhhsjs
- Syllabus Comp ScienceUploaded bybksreejith4781
- Advanced Maths-EconomicsUploaded byFrancesco Nicolai
- 04814547Uploaded bycftruta
- Syllabus Comp ScienceUploaded byArshSingh
- ojpdf3 (1)Uploaded byJunaid Nz

- On Information Rates for Faster than Nyquist SignalingUploaded bySinshaw Bekele
- Robust Simulation-Based Estimation OfUploaded bySinshaw Bekele
- Fast Robust Estimation of Prediction Error Based OnUploaded bySinshaw Bekele
- ts_132541v130000pUploaded bySinshaw Bekele
- Performance of Single User vs. Multiuser Modulation in Wireless Multicarrier (MC) CommunicationsUploaded bySinshaw Bekele
- DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF LDPC CONVOLUTIONAL CODESUploaded bySinshaw Bekele
- A Novel Velocity-based Handoff Decision Policy for LTEUploaded bySinshaw Bekele
- 5G the Microwave PerspectiveUploaded byOmisakin Adedayo
- FASTER-THAN-NYQUIST SIGNALING FOR NEXT GENERATION COMMUNICATION ARCHITECTURESUploaded bySinshaw Bekele
- Channel Modeling and Capacity Analysis for Electromagnetic Wireless Nanonetworks in the Terahertz BandUploaded bySinshaw Bekele
- ModelingUploaded bySinshaw Bekele
- SimulationUploaded bySinshaw Bekele
- A Novel Multiband and Broadband Fractal PatchUploaded bySinshaw Bekele
- Project CatalogueUploaded bySinshaw Bekele
- Advances_Spectral_Optical-HeritageUploaded bysvt4bhosale
- Rateless Codes Performance AnalysisUploaded bySinshaw Bekele
- Turbo Codes for Pulse Position ModulationUploaded bySinshaw Bekele
- Computation of E FieldsUploaded bythgnguyen
- 171-690-1-PBUploaded byrealdeal01
- Bo Hu, Norman C. Beaulieu, Performance of an UltraUltra-Wideband Communication SystemUploaded bySinshaw Bekele
- CapacityUploaded byAde Wahyudin
- 8.IJAEST Vol No 6 Issue No 1 Adaptive Beam Forming Using DMI and CMA Algorithms 035 040Uploaded byhelpdesk9532
- Switching 97Uploaded byMICECE
- 03 BooksUploaded bySinshaw Bekele
- commMag03Uploaded bySinshaw Bekele
- IJEST11-03-02-104Uploaded bySinshaw Bekele
- Bell Labs Technical Journal Apr-june 2000Uploaded byPvn Sreedhar
- T-REC-Q.521-199303-I!!PDF-EUploaded bySinshaw Bekele
- L4_slidesUploaded bySinshaw Bekele

- SAMS 2000 User's Manual.pdfUploaded bydanilo_vergara_11
- getPDFUploaded bykhurram97et11
- Detection and Localization of Cable Faults by Time and Frequency Domain.pdfUploaded bySahiba Mirza
- Thesis Presentation - Terence ZarbUploaded byTerence Zarb
- Performance Analysis of Ds-cdma System With Bernoulli SequenceUploaded bySoujanya Velugu
- Matlab_code Siddhant Ahuja (Sid)Uploaded byHariprasath Subbarao
- II_II_ECE_RVSPUploaded byAnonymous WL0eWCe
- Creating Depth Maps from Monocular and Stereoscopic ImagesUploaded byTrương Tuấn Vũ
- 1003005_FlowMaster_D80Uploaded byalarihos
- Improved Image-based Deformation Measurement for Geotechnical ApplicationsUploaded byjoake spas
- Regional and General geology and tectonics of Upper Indus basinUploaded byShahbaz Gul
- Detail_study_of_the_diel_function_of_a_lysoz_sol_MDUploaded byTheodora Teddy
- Signals and SystemsUploaded bym_sakarya
- Normalized Cross- Correlation for Tracking Object and Updating the Template: Exploration with Extensive DatasetUploaded byijcsis
- FS_tablesUploaded byJohn Smith
- Paper 7-DNA Sequence Representation and Comparison Based on Quaternion Number SystemUploaded byEditor IJACSA
- MAE566_FinalReportUploaded bysweettanya
- Ausarbeitung_SchuhUploaded bymitsuosakamoto
- 06727030Uploaded byALejandro Palacios
- Td NoiseUploaded byfrostyfoley
- LTE Physical Layer DL Simulator & PSS Detection Algorithm Evaluation Using the LTE DL SimulatorUploaded byInnovative Research Publications
- Vermiculate Artefacts in Image Analysis of Granular MaterialsUploaded byjoake spas
- Data Acquisition LatencyUploaded byAmin
- Language thesisUploaded byneskic86
- Time Domain Analysis of SignalsUploaded byshashankif
- Automated Fault Interpretations in Seismic DataUploaded byMahmoud Said
- dspimpUploaded bySanjay Balwani
- Ice Proceedings Volume 23 Issue 3 1962 [Doi 10.1680%2fiicep.1962.10876] Davenport, A g -- The Response of Slender, Line-like Structures to a Gusty Wind.Uploaded byAnonymous yqVXztBCbB
- digital signal processing lab fileUploaded byRahul Yadav
- 07815344Uploaded byCristian Daniel Antilao Pizarro

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.