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Four.

z;, Pitt Street: A Place oI Past and Future


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(CliIIord-Vaughan j6, p. ,) and a new nation
allowed Australia to branch away Irom previous
vices. Australians encompassed multiple skills
ranging Irom convicts to artisans and education
provided tools to prosper and survive in a new
nation. A Iresh beginning sought out many new
avenues to grow, and with an educated background
Australian citizens diIIered Irom those oI the Australian citizens diIIered Irom those oI the
commonwealth and other empirical Luropean
nations. Lducational ReIormations taken place
over Lurope saw the assimilation oI the upper
echelon and lower class in terms oI education as
seen in France where two educational systems were
Figure ;. The Sydney Mechanics School oI the Arts
(Lictionary oI Sydney zo)

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strengthen tradition's hold on the thought and
practice oI individuals' (Cross jjz, pp. zo-z), it
could be entirely possible that with modernity
being so successIul the Australian nation and its
people have come to relive traditional modern
themes oI progress, rationalism, change etc in order
to maintain the bond to a Iamiliar time. Lmpires oI
the past strived on religious traditions to maintain the past strived on religious traditions to maintain
their power and as such a similar system would not
be out oI place in a capitalist and globalised nation
born out oI modernity. In order to survive in the
modern era we must be entwined in the current
news and workings oI technology, this dependence relies on the past to help understand the Iuture.
Traditions within society are vital in keeping with the past and as written by Cross (jjz) traditions are
a 'continuous temporal chain' connecting us to the past. Australia has embraced its heritage, but mainly
the history it has created since becoming a nation, when walking through the streets oI Sydney many
buildings retain a distant connection to the past, this connection helps give comIort to people in reiter-
ating where they come Irom, the Arthouse hotel is one participant oI this in its use oI Australian
artwork. These traditions do not hinder Australia's growth but instead help remind us oI where we have artwork. These traditions do not hinder Australia's growth but instead help remind us oI where we have
come Irom, and help demonstrate how we have paved our way to the Iuture through ingenuity and
progress.
Sydney as a city is very multicultural Irom china town which celebrates Chinese culture to the rocks
which openly embraces Australian nationalism but the city centre ultimately caters Ior the entire city.
The CBL as Sydney's centre through the period oI modernity has evolved to Iit the many Iacets oI
Australia and the world. \ith a constant Iorwarding liIestyle it becomes diIIicult to appreciate the
past, although this is changing with many areas beginning to appreciate the value oI traditions. ation-
alism is a 'distinctively modern invocation' and a new idea Iorming out oI modernity (Calhoun jj, p.
z) and is a wondrous element which maintains a hold on the past. Traditions arisen Irom nationalism z) and is a wondrous element which maintains a hold on the past. Traditions arisen Irom nationalism
Figure 8. The Arthouse Hotel (business.com.au zo)
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are celebrated subconsciously and consciously throughout many countries with Australia holding onto
traditions as well as inventing ones to suit our still young nation. \ith modernity acting to create new
traditions by Iorgetting old ones Australia managed to swiItly dispel ones Irom its empirical past.
Although Cross points out that without tradition there's a risk oI losing meaning in liIe. This concern
with preserving traditions is both important and not important at the same time, as \hite (jj;) puts
Iorth with his coining oI the term invented traditions, traditions will continue to coexist within society.
This understanding enables the expansion oI society Ior the Iuture through ingenuity compensating Ior This understanding enables the expansion oI society Ior the Iuture through ingenuity compensating Ior
old traditions with new ones. It is still important Ior previous traditions to be archived and used in
some instances where they are still highly relevant. The pub as a traditional Australian icon is still
common in Australian society and will most probably continue to due to its ability to adapt, the
Arthouse has maintained its relevance through adapting (embracing corporate liIestyle) and also by
keeping with its roots (photography classes, Australian artwork). These traditions both new and old do
not tarnish Australia's nationalism or modern culture but instead moulds it to aid in its Iruition into the not tarnish Australia's nationalism or modern culture but instead moulds it to aid in its Iruition into the
Iuture.
A rationalistic view on Australian liIe portrays one that embraces the modern whilst also keeping
in touch with the past. In exploring modernity it is important to note the impact oI the enlightenment
on the present moment, without striving Ior betterment the world could be an evidently diIIerent place.
Modernity and capitalism evolved out oI enlightenment and these institutions have been clinical in
establishing a society based on previous ideas. Modernity embraces the Iuture in a way that allows
people to depart Irom the adolescent. Modernity encapsulated a structure oI society which allowed the
Iree Ilow oI inIormation and understanding Ior the Iuture prosperity oI many cultures. This structural Iree Ilow oI inIormation and understanding Ior the Iuture prosperity oI many cultures. This structural-
ism can although be negative Ior modernity leading to a distinct separation between the bourgeois and
the proletariat. Ideas such as capitalism and globalisation will continue to outlast time, but at the cost
oI diIIerent Iaculties within the motor, whether it is sacriIicing costs, or labour suIIering, these Iactors
have been experienced in recent modern depressions and recessions where certain areas within the
modern hierarchy have been hit hard. Harris (jj) points out the autonomous nature oI modernity and
how delicate its structures are. Although good things have Ilowered with the coming oI modernity the
impacts must be weighed in order to allow Ior a prosperous Iuture.
It is evident that impact oI modernity and traditions on an adolescent but maturing nation.
Through addressing the issues oI modernity and tradition within an Australian context with reIerence
to the site which housed the Sydney Mechanics School oI the Arts and now the Arthouse Hotel an
Australian Identity paved through progress is clearly evident. \ithout progress being a vital component
Australia may have grown in an entirely diIIerent way, encompassing vastly diIIerent ideals or struggling
to move into the Iuture. Larly innovation Irom early institutions like that oI the SMSA allowed Ior
Australia to ]ump into the zoth century with a Iirm grip on what could come and public spheres like
that oI Australian pubs and cultural centres maintained Australia's alibility to keep with traditions that that oI Australian pubs and cultural centres maintained Australia's alibility to keep with traditions that
helped create the Iuture we live in, propelling the 'basic need to survive' highlighted by Cross (jjz)
which will continue to be the characteristic oI our Iuture.

Calhoun, C. jj, 'ationalism and Lthnicity', $QQXDO5HYLHZRI6RFLRORJ\, vol. j, pp. z-zj


CliIIord-Vaughan. M, 'Lnlightenment and Lducation', 7KH%ULWLVK-RXUQDORI6RFLRORJ\, vol. , no. z
(]un., j6), pp. ,-.
Cascoigne, ]. zooz, 'The enlightenment and the origins oI Luropean Australia', Cambridge \niversity
Press, Port Melbourne, Victoria, pp-6.
Cross, L. jjz, Cross, L. jjz, 7KHSDVWLQUXLQVWUDGLWLRQDQGWKHFULWLTXHRIPRGHUQLW\, The \niversity oI
Massachusetts, pp.zo-o.
Harris, C. jj, 'Power, Modernity, and Historical Ceography', $QQDOVRIWKH$VVRFLDWLRQRI$PHULFDQ
*HRJUDSKHU, vol. 8, no. , pp.6;-68
Museum oI Australian Lemocracy at Old Parliament House, n.d. viewed 6th May zo,

http://explore.moadoph.gov.au/trails/z-australias-prime-ministers-landmark-speeches/list
Roberts, ].M. & Crossley, . zoo, 'Introduction', in Roberts, ].M. & Crossley, . zoo, 'Introduction', in $IWHU+DEHUPDV1HZ3HUVSHFWLYHVRQWKHSXEOLF
VSKHUH, . Crossley & ].M. Roberts edn, Blackwell Publishing, OxIord \K & Malden MA,
pp.-;
Sydney Mechanics School oI the Arts, n.d. viewed 6th May zo, http://smsa.org.au/about/history/
The Arthouse Hotel, n.d. viewed 6th May zoz, http://www.thearthousehotel.com.au/about/history/
\hite, R. jj;, 'Inventing Australia Revisited' in \. Hudson & C. Bolton, &UHDWLQJ$XVWUDOLD
&KDQJLQJ$XVWUDOLDQ+LVWRU\, Allen and \nwin, St Leonards, S\, pp z-zz.
\ood, L. jj;, 'Modernity, Postmodernity or Capitalism:', \ood, L. jj;, 'Modernity, Postmodernity or Capitalism:', 5HYLHZRI,QWHUQDWLRQDO3ROLWLFDO(FRQRP\.
vol. , no. , The Lirection oI Contemporary Capitalism, pp. ,j-,6o.
ReIerences.

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Figure ;
Lictionary oI Sydney zo, 3URMHFWSDUWQHU6\GQH\0HFKDQLFV6FKRRORI$UWV, viewed z ]une zo,
<http://trust.dictionaryoIsydney.org/support-us/current-partners/smsa/>
Figure 8
business.com.au zo, 7KH$UWKRXVH+RWHO, viewed z ]une zo,
<http://www.business.com.au/the-arthouse-hotel-sydney-cbd/>