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KAP STUDY ON BREAST FEEDING AMONG THE MOTHERS WORKING IN GARMENTS FACTORY IN CHITTAGONG.
Pranay Kumar Mazumder1*, AHM Isaque Chowdhury2, Pulak Kumar mazumder3, Ashish Kumar Mazumder4, Sourav Nath5
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, USTC. Pro-VC & Head; Department of pathology and microbiology, University of Science & Technology Chittagong. GP; Aston Health Care Ltd, Manor Farm, Liverpool, UK. Head, Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, USTC. Internee Doctor; Department of Paediatrics, BBMH, USTC.
ABSTRACT It was a cross sectional type of descriptive study under taken to find out knowledge, attitude & practice of breast feeding by the mothers working in garments factory. Total 120 respondents were selected by the ‘purposive sampling’ method and interviewed to collect data. Data were drawn from a cross sectional survey, conducted on June-July, 2012 at Global Specialist Garments Limited located in Sadarghat, Chittagong. Data were collected by using of pre tested questionnaire through face to face interview and were then compiled, processed and analyzed manually. A total of 120 mothers working in garments aged between 18 – 39 years were included in this study, majority 71% belongs to Muslim religion, 42% had education below SSC and 60% found good in family management. According to the study report we found that 66% respondents lived in nuclear families and 41.67 % mothers had only single child while about 10% mothers had 4 or more children. Among the mothers 80% had knowledge about benefits of breast feeding and 80% had given colostrum to their baby. Regarding initiation of breast feeding about 41.67% (50 mothers) started the breast feeding just after birth within an hour and 91.67% (110 respondents) heard about exclusive breast feeding. About 50% mothers would like to continue breast feeding up to 2 - 2.5 years. Maximum 83.33% mothers had knowledge about weaning and 6.67% (74 mothers) answered that they had started weaning after 6 months of birth. A discussion is made with updated relevant literature.
KEYWORDS: Knowledge, Breastfeeding, Colostrum, Weaning, Female garment workers. INTRODUCTION The breast feeding tradition in Bangladesh is undoubtedly strongest in the world. After birth, the best food for a newborn is the mother’s milk. It is known that a large majority of women could successfully breast feed their babies, if they were given proper guidance both before and after child birth. Failure to breast feed the baby is nearly always due to some mistakes and prejudices committed because of lack of proper knowledge of nature’s law of lactation. Mother feeds the child whenever the child cries because of hunger and the child is fed every 3 hourly. Colostrum is the secretion of breast following child birth for first 2-3 days which contains a great quantity of proteins, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals in addition to antibodies. It is the infants’ first immunization1. Breast feeding should be initiated within an hour of birth instead of waiting several hours as is often customary. Although there is little milk at that time, it helps to establish feeding and a close mother-child relationship known as bonding. The best way to feed an infant is to breastfeed exclusively. Exclusive breast feeding means that the infant takes only breast milk, and no additional food, water or other fluids (medicines are exception). It has been estimated that only exclusive beast feeding can save 1.3 million babies deaths every year globally2. Exclusive breast feeding gives a young infant Corresponding author’s address: Pranay Kumar Mazumder, Assistant Professor, Department of Community Medicine, USTC. Email: email@example.com
the best nutrition and protection from possible disease.com . Regarding ethical issue purpose of the study was mentioned to the respondents precisely and verbal consent was taken. 60% found average in family management. 37. usually after 4 months of age the baby needs more nutrients than that of breast milk. Global Specialised Garments Limited. Absolute breast feeding for first four months followed by introduction of weaning food on completion of four months is rational regimen. Chittagong. Female workers in Bangladesh tend to have very low level of education as they drop out of school early to help support their families and some are illiterate6. majority 71% belongs to Muslim religion.67 Total 120 100 Source: Survey report In this study it was revealed that 45.4. Sadarghat. In this study our aims to investigate the existing knowledge and associated factors influencing breastfeeding among female garment workers in Chittagong. RESULTS A total of 120 mothers working in garments aged between 18 – 39 years were included in this study. This period is the most crucial period in child development. The relevant data were collected by the trained Paramedics by face to face interview with the prepared questionnaire. No Onset of Breast Feeding Number of Respondents % 1 Just after birth 55 45.67% after few days of birth. USTC. The readymade garments opened up a new door of economic development for Bangladesh and females are the major workforce of garment industries in Bangladesh. A healthy nation can enrich its human resources and therefore proper knowledge on breastfeeding among working mothers is vital. Data were analyzed manually with the help of scientific calculator according to the objectives of study and then the compiled data displayed with tables and diagrams. A pre tested questionnaire was designed to collect data. 1: Distribution of the respondents regarding onset of breast feeding. Basic demographics. So for the proper growth and development the baby should be fed some extra foods which may meet the need of baby and the period is called weaning period. The study covered about 500 female garment workers of reproductive age group in the factory.83 % of respondents start breast feeding just after birth (within hour).50 3 Few days after birth 20 16. According to the study report we found that 66% respondents lived in joint families and 41% mothers had only single child while about 12% mothers had 4 or more children. In other words. Children are the future of a nation.PK Mazumder et al.sectional analytical study conducted during June-July. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a cross.50 % after few hours (less than 1 day) and 16. Along with other food breastfeeding even if in small quantities should continue up to 2 years by which time the child should be ready to share food 3. Among the mothers 87% had knowledge about benefits of breast feeding. 2012 in the selected garment factory. Supplementation of extra food along with breast feeding starting from the age of 5 to 6 months is called weaning. Assistant Professor. Sl. The possible factors causing non-compliance with the breastfeeding were also noted. 42% had education below SSC. because during the weaning process children are particularly exposed to deleterious synergistic interaction of malnutrition and infections5. socio-economic status and available health facilities were also considered. Corresponding author’s address: Pranay Kumar Mazumder. Purposive sampling technique was applied and 120 respondents were selected aged ( 18-39 years) who agreed to participate in the study. Department of Community Medicine. Mothers working in the factory were interviewed about knowledge on breastfeeding. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org 2 Few hour after birth 45 37. Table No.
00% 0.00% 60.67% ( 24 mothers) do not.33% (4 mothers) due to traditional practice. Assistant Professor.33% (96 mothers) has given colostrum to their newborn and 21.00% 30. It was a satisfactory finding.PK Mazumder et al.00% From birth Within After Above 1 4-6 6th year month month From birth Within 4-6 month After 6th month Above 1 year Figure no. Table No. 16. Sl. 2.00% 20.67% 41. Corresponding author’s address: Pranay Kumar Mazumder.00% 50. Email: email@example.com% 10. USTC.67 Total 120 100 Source: Survey report Regarding trend of feeding colostrum to the newborn it was documented that 78. 33. 70.33 2 No 24 21. 2: Distribution of the respondents regarding colostrum administration to newborn.33% Figure no 1: Pie Chart showing reasons for not giving colostrum to newborn.67% 33. 2: Simple bar chart showing response regarding initiation of weaning. No Response Number of Respondents % 1 Yes 96 78.67 % (5 mothers) thought that colostrum is harmful to the baby.com .67 % (2 mothers) replied that their babies could not suck properly and only two mothers mentioned unavailability. About 20% ( 24 mothers) respondents did not gave colostrum to their babies and among them reasons for not giving Colostrum were 41.00% 40. Department of Community Medicine.00% Harmful to the baby Traditional Baby cannot suck Not available 16.
9.73% source of knowledge from Health personal. check for feeding problem and counsel the mother about feeding problems.67% (110 mothers) had knowledge on exclusive breast feeding and among them 72. DISCUSSION A total of 120 mothers were surveyed. USTC. Large scale entry of female into the garments factories has been one of the most striking features of recent Bangladesh. Assistant Professor. About 91.67% (74 mothers) answered that they had started weaning after 6 months of birth. only 41. out of which over all knowledge on initial breastfeeding were 80%. Those 20% (24 mothers) respondents (who are in favor of not giving colostrum to the newborn) were asked about the reasons for not giving colostrum to the newborn. Corresponding author’s address: Pranay Kumar Mazumder. Attitude and Practice of breastfeeding by the mothers working in garment factory are very important factors that maintain future mental and physical health of their child. In this study.33 % for less than a year. 3: Distribution of the respondents regarding duration of Breast Feeding.67 % as long as baby wants and 8. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org % answered that they start after 6 months of birth followed by 31. This study revealed that most of the respondents have good knowledge regarding duration of exclusive breastfeeding and weaning compare with similar study showing that (73. due to working period hampered breastfeeding. No association were drawn between knowledge on breastfeeding and others socio-demographic factors. have knowledge about appropriate feeding. Duration of Breast Feeding No. No. It is necessary to have knowledge on advantages of breastfeeding.33% 2 Less than 2 year 18 15% 3 2 to 2. Table No. storage of breast milk.3%) on duration of breast feeding 7. 15% for less than 2 years. 26.com . where mother had knowledge (63.67% Total 120 100% Source: Survey report Regarding duration for the continuation of breast feeding. Colostrum feeding has reached 92% according to Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) report 2007 10.66 % (2 mothers) just after birth. Sl. knowledge on benefits of breast feeding and colostrums feeding both were 80% which failed to reach the national level. In this study maximum 83. A significant association was found only between mothers’ education and breast feeding. Respondents were also interviewed about the time of initiation of supplementary food or weaning.PK Mazumder et al.67 % (38 mothers) 4-6 months after birth.67% ( 50 mothers) start breast feeding just after birth (within hour) and colostrum feeding were 80% (96 mothers). So proper knowledge. frequency of breastfeeding. of Respondent % 1 Less than 1 year 10 8. attitude and practice by the mothers help in preventing major child health problems like nutritional problem. It is really encouraging to observe the gradual progress in the particular field of study results.3%) of respondents knew about duration of exclusive breast feeding and other study conducted in India. Moreover.33% (100 mothers) had knowledge about weaning and 6. 5% (3 mothers) above 1 year and only 1. Department of Community Medicine. better use of life and health services. 50% would continue for two to two and half years. An educated mother able to provides better child care. childhood diseases.5 year 60 50% 4 As long as baby want 32 26. Though the situation has improved but the target has yet not been achieved.8% had the knowledge on initiation of breast feeding5.8. CONCLUSION Knowledge. Respondents were also asked about the time of initiation of supplementary food or weaning and 76% answered that they started after 6 months of birth. development of mental faculties and improvement of social behavior of the child so that children will be able to live healthy. About 61. A similar finding was supported by another study where 75.
who. Kabir. United Nations Children’s fund. Philadelphia: LIincott Company. New York. Text Book of Preventive and Social Medicine. Exclussive breastfeeding of low birth weight infants for the first six months: infant morbidity and maternal and infant anthropometry. Perception and Knowledge on exclusive breastfeeding among attending antenatal and postnatal Clinics:a study from Mbaraa Hospital-Uganda.com?pubs/pdf/FR207/Fr207[April-10-2009}. India. Salahuddin AFM. Exclusive breast feeding.aliveandthrive. 7. Marks G. Park K. Journal of Mechanical Engineering. No. Rashid. 20 February. Malek ABMA and Jahan. 9. Department of Community Medicine. Hyder’s Text Book of Community Medicine and Public Health.com . Email: email@example.com. Dhaka. ME 41.org/our-focus-areas/exclusive-accessed 11 July 2012. Kylberg E and Gustafsson J. Assistant Professor. 2.pdfaccssed 17 Jul 2012. 6.1994. Corresponding author’s address: Pranay Kumar Mazumder. http://www. Rahman M and Hyder S.2004. Ed 4 (second reprint). HEALTH AND OCUUPATIONAL SAFETY FOR FEMALE WORKFORCE OF GARMENT INDUSTRIES IN BANGLADESH.PK Mazumder et al.June 2010: 65-70 Alive & Thrive. Peti IA. P151. 2009: 454 – 457. Our special thanks go to GSGL Workers Union for this opportunity to conduct the study. Vol. http://www. 8. USTC. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2011): 62 – 64. New York:UNICEF. Ewald U.int/nutrition/topics/exclusive_breastfeeding/en/-access 11 July 2012. Exclusive breast feeding.16:29 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Suvey 2007. Ed. 2008. Rasid KM. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We are indebted to the female garment workers of Global Specialized Garments Limited (GSGL) who participated in our study. Geneva:WHO. Banani. Jabalpur. Breastfeeding can save over 1 million lives yearly. World Health Organization. REFERENCES 1. boardribb’s introductory pediatric nursing. Agrasada GV.1. Bangladesh. 3. RHM Publishers. 2008: 136-154. Akther S. 4. Banarsidas Bhanot Publishers.org/media_22646. 5.http:www. 10. Dar Es Salaam Medical Student’s journal.www. Iqbal M.htm-accessed 11 July 2012.