ANSYS Tutorial

®

Releases 5.7 & 6.0

Kent L. Lawrence
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of Texas at Arlington

PUBLICATIONS

SDC

Schroff Development Corporation www.schroff.com

Plane Stress / Plane Strain

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Lesson 2 Plane Stress Plane Strain
2-1 OVERVIEW Plane stress and plane strain problems are an important subclass of general threedimensional problems. The tutorials in this lesson demonstrate: ♦Solving planar stress concentration problems. ♦Evaluating potential errors in the solutions. ♦Using the various ANSYS 2D element formulations. 2-2 INTRODUCTION It is possible for an object with arbitrary shape to have six components of stress when subjected to three-dimensional loadings. When referenced to a Cartesian coordinate system these components of stress are: Normal Stresses Shear Stresses

σx, σy, σz τxy, τyz, τzx

Figure 2-1 Stresses in 3 dimensions. In general, the analysis of such objects requires three-dimensional modeling as discussed later in Lesson 4. However, two-dimensional models are often easier to develop, easier to solve and can be employed in many situations if they can accurately represent the behavior of the object under loading.

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τxy lie in the X-Y plane and do not vary in the Z direction. Further, the stresses σz,τyz , and τzx are all zero for this kind of geometry and loading. A thin beam loaded in it plane
and a spur gear tooth are good examples of plane stress problems. ANSYS provides a 6-node planar triangular element along with 4- and 8-node quadrilateral elements for use in the development of plane stress models. We will use both triangles and quads in solution of the example problems that follow. 2-3 PLATE WITH CENTRAL HOLE To start off, let’s solve a problem with a known solution so that we can check our understanding of the FEM process. The problem is that of a tensile-loaded thin plate with a central hole as shown in Figure 2-2.

A state of Plane Stress exists in a thin object loaded in the plane of its largest dimensions. Let the X-Y plane be the plane of analysis. The non-zero stresses σx, σy, and

Figure 2-2 Plate with central hole. The 1.0 m x 0.4 m plate has a thickness of 0.01 m, and a central hole 0.2 m in diameter. It is made of steel with material properties; elastic modulus, E = 2.07 x 1011 N/m2 and Poisson’s ratio, ν = 0.29. We apply a horizontal tensile loading in the form of a pressure p = 1.0 N/m2 along the vertical edges of the plate. Because holes are necessary for fasteners such as bolts, rivets, etc, the need to know stresses and deformations near them occurs very often and has received a great deal of study. The results of these studies are widely published, and we can look up the stress concentration factor for the case shown above. Before the advent of suitable computation methods, the effect of stress concentration geometries had to be evaluated experimentally, and many available charts were developed from experimental results.

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The uniform, homogeneous plate above is symmetric about horizontal axes in both geometry and loading. This means that the state of stress and deformation below a horizontal centerline is a mirror image of that above the centerline, and likewise for a vertical centerline. We can take advantage of the symmetry and, by applying the correct boundary conditions, use only a quarter of the plate for the finite element model. For small problems using symmetry may not be too important; for large problems it can save modeling and solution efforts by eliminating one-half or a quarter or more of the work. Place the origin of X-Y coordinates at the center of the hole. If we pull on both ends of the plate, points on the centerlines will move along the centerlines but not perpendicular to them. This indicates the appropriate displacement conditions to use as shown below.

Figure 2-3 Quadrant used for analysis. In Tutorial 2A we will use ANSYS to determine the maximum stress in the plate and compare the computed results with the maximum value that can be calculated using tabulated values for stress concentration factors. Interactive commands will be used to formulate and solve the problem. 2-4 TUTORIAL 2A - PLATE Follow the steps below to analyze the plate model. The tutorial is divided into separate Preprocessing, Solution, and Postprocessing steps. PREPROCESSING 1. Start ANSYS and select 'Interactive'; select the Working Directory where you will store the files associated with this problem. Also set the Jobname to Tutorial2A or something memorable. Then select Run. Select the six node triangular element to use for the solution of this problem.

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Figure 2-4 Six-node triangle. 2. Preprocessor 6 node 2 OK . Element Type Add/Edit/Delete Add . . . Solid Triangle

Figure 2-5 Element selection.

3. Options

Plane strs w/thk

OK

Close

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Figure 2-6 Element options. Enter the plate thickness of 0.01 m. 4. Preprocessor Real Constants . . . 0.01 OK Close. Add (Type 1 Plane 2) OK Enter

Figure 2-7 Enter plate thickness. Enter the material properties. 5. Preprocessor Material Props Material Models . . .

Material Model Number 1 Double click Structural Linear Elastic OK Isotropic

Enter EX = 2.07E11 and PRXY = 0.29

Create the geometry for the upper right quadrant of the plate by subtracting a 0.2 m diameter circle from a 0.5 x 0.2 m rectangle. Generate the rectangle first.

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6. Preprocessor

-Modeling– Create

-Areas- Rectangle

By 2 Corners

Enter (lower left corner) WP X = 0.0, WP Y = 0.0 and Width = 0.5, Height = 0.2 OK. 7. Preprocessor -Modeling– Create -Areas- Circle OK Solid Circle

Enter WP X = 0.0, WP Y = 0.0 and Radius = 0.1.

Figure 2-8 Create areas. Now subtract the circle from the rectangle. 8. Preprocessor > -Modeling– Operate > Subtract > -Areas >Pick the rectangle > OK, then pick the circle > OK.

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Figure 2-9 Geometry for quadrant of plate. Create a mesh of triangular elements over the quadrant area. 9. Preprocessor > -Meshing– Mesh > -Areas - Free Pick the quadrant OK

Figure 2-10 Triangular element mesh. Apply the displacement boundary conditions and loads. 10. Preprocessor > Loads > -Loads- Apply > -Structural- Displacement > On Lines Pick the left edge of the quadrant > OK > UX = 0. > OK 11. Preprocessor > Loads > -Loads- Apply > -Structural- Displacement > On Lines Pick the bottom edge of the quadrant > OK > UY = 0. > OK 12. Preprocessor > Loads > -Loads- Apply > -Structural- Pressure > On Lines Pick the right edge of the quadrant > OK > Pressure = -1.0 > OK (A positive pressure would be a compressive load, so we use a negative pressure. Version 6.0 may show a single pressure arrow and Version 5.7 multiple arrows.)

Figure 2-11 Model with loading and displacement boundary conditions. The model-building step is now complete, and we can proceed to the solution. First to be safe, save the model.

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13. Utility Menu SOLUTION

File

- Save as Jobname.db

The interactive solution proceeds as illustrated in the tutorials of Lesson 1. 14. Main Menu Solution - Solve - Current LS OK

The /STATUS Command window displays the problem parameters and the Solve Current Load Step window is shown. Check the solution options in the /STATUS window and if all is OK, select File - > Close In the Solve Current Load Step window, Select OK, and when the solution is complete, Close the Information window. POSTPROCESSING We can now plot the results of this analysis and also list the computed values. 15. Mani Menu > General Postproc Undef. OK Plot Results Deformed Shape Def. +

Figure 2-12 Plot of Deformed shape. The deformed shape looks correct. The right end moves to the right in response to the pressure, the circular hole ovals out, and the top moves down because of Poisson’s effect. Notice that the element edges on the circle are represented by straight lines. This is an artifact of the plotting routine not the analysis. The six-node triangle has curved sides,

Plane Stress / Plane Strain

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and if you pick on a mid-side of one these elements, you will see a node placed on the curved edge. The maximum displacement is shown on the graph legend as 0.32e-11 which seems reasonable. The units of displacement are meters because we employed meters and N/m2 in the problem formulation. Now plot the stress in the X direction. 16. General Postproc > Plot Results > -Contour Plot- Element Solu . . .> Stress > Xdirection Sx > OK.

Figure 2-13 Element SX stresses. The minimum, SMN, and maximum, SMX, stresses as well as the color bar legend give an overall evaluation of the SX stress state. We are interested in the maximum stress at the hole. Use the PlotCtrls Pan, Zoom . . .to zoom in on the area with highest stress.

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Figure 2-14 SX stress detail. Stress variations in the actual isotropic, homogeneous plate should be smooth and continuous across elements. The discontinuities in the Sx stress contours above indicate that the number of elements used in this model is too few to accurately calculate the stress values near the hole because of the stress gradients there. We cannot accept this stress solution. More six-node elements are needed in the region near the hole to find accurate values of the stress. On the other hand, in the right half of the model, away from the stress riser, the calculated stress contours are smooth, and Sx would seem to be accurately determined there. It is important to note that in the plotting we selected Element Solu (Element Solution) in order to evaluate the solution accuracy. If you pick Nodal Solution to plot, the stress values will be averaged before plotting, and any contour discontinuities (and thus errors) will be hidden. If you plot nodal solution stresses you will see smooth contours. A word about element accuracy. The FEM implementation of the truss element is taken directly from solid mechanics studies, and there is no approximation in the solutions for truss structures formulated and solved in the ways discussed in Lesson 1. The continuum elements such as the ones for plane stress and plane strain, on the other hand, are normally developed using displacement functions of a polynomial type to represent the displacements within the element, and the higher the polynomial, the greater the accuracy. The ANSYS six-node triangle uses a quadratic polynomial and is capable of representing linear stress and strain variations within an element.

Plane Stress / Plane Strain

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Near stress concentrations the stress gradients vary quite sharply. To capture this variation, the number of elements near the stress concentrations must be increased proportionately. To obtain more elements in the model, return to the Preprocessor. 17. Preprocessor > -Meshing - Modify Mesh > Refine At > All. (Select Level of refinement 1. All elements are subdivided and the mesh below is created.)

Figure 2-15 Global mesh refinement. To further refine the mesh selectively near the hole, 18. Preprocessor > -Meshing - Modify Mesh > Refine At > Nodes. (Select the three nodes shown.) > OK (Select the Level of refinement = 1) > OK.

Figure 2-16 Selective refinement at nodes. Now repeat the solution, and replot the stress SX.

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19. Main Menu > Solution > - Solve - Current LS > OK 20. General Postproc > Plot Results > Element Solu . . .> Stress > X-direction > Sx > OK.

Figure 2-17 SX stress contour after mesh refinement.

Figure 2-18 SX stress detail contour after mesh refinement.

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The stress contours are now smooth across element boundaries, and the stress legend shows a maximum value of 4.38 Pa. To check this result, find the stress concentration factor for this problem in a text or reference book or from a web site such as www.engineerstoolbox.com. For the geometry of this example we find Kt = 2.17. We can compute the maximum stress using (Kt)(load)/(net cross sectional area). Using the pressure p = 1.0 Pa we obtain.
σ x MAX = 2.17 * p * (0.4)(0.01) /[(0.4 − 0.2) * 0.01] = 4.34 Pa

The computed maximum value is 4.38 Pa which is less than one per cent in error. (Assuming that the value of Kt is exact.) 2-5 THE APPROXIMATE NATURE OF FEM As mentioned above, the stiffness matrix for the truss elements of Lesson 1 can be developed directly and simply from elementary solid mechanics principles. For continuum problems in two and three-dimensional stress, this is generally no longer possible, and the element stiffness matrices are usually developed by assuming something specific about the characteristics of the displacements that can occur within an elements. Ordinarily this is done by specifying the highest degree of the polynomial that governs the displacement distribution within an element. For h-method elements, the polynomial degree depends upon the number of nodes used to describe the element, and the interpolation functions that relate displacements within the element to the displacements at the nodes are called shape functions. In ANSYS, 2-dimensional problems can be modeled with six-node triangles, four-node quadrilaterals or eight-node quadrilaterals.

Figure 2-19 Triangular and quadrilateral elements. The greater the number of nodes, the higher the order of the polynomial and the greater the accuracy in describing displacements, stresses and strains within the element. If the stress is constant throughout a region, a very simple model is sufficient to describe the

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stress state, perhaps only one or two elements. If there are gradients in the stress distributions within a region, high-degree displacement polynomials and/or many elements are required to accurately analyze the situation. These comments explain the variation in the accuracy of the results as different numbers of elements were used to solve the problem in the previous tutorial and why the engineer must carefully prepare a model, start with small models, grow the models as understanding of the problem develops and carefully interpret the calculated results. The ease with which models can be prepared and solved sometimes leads to careless evaluation of the computed results. 2-6 ANSYS GEOMETRY The finite element model consists of elements and nodes and is separate from the geometry on which it may be based. It is possible to build the finite element model without consideration of any underlying geometry as was done in the truss examples of Lesson 1, but in many cases, development of the geometry is the first task. Two-dimensional geometry in ANSYS is built from keypoints, lines (straight, arcs, splines), and areas. These geometric items are assigned numbers and can be listed, numbered, manipulated, and plotted. The keypoints (2,3,4,5,6), lines (2,3,5,9,10), and area (3) for Tutorial 2A are shown below.

Figure 2-20 Keypoints, lines and areas. The finite element model developed previously for this part used the area A3 for development of the node/element FEM mesh. The loads, displacement boundary conditions and pressures were applied to the geometry lines. When the solution step was executed, the loads were transferred from the lines to the FEM model nodes. Applying boundary conditions and loads to the geometry facilitates remeshing the problem. The geometry does not change, only the number and location of nodes and elements. At solution time, the loads are transferred to the new mesh. Geometry can be created in ANSYS interactively (as was done in the previous tutorial) or it can be created by reading a text file. For example, the geometry of Tutorial 2A can be generated by creating the following text file and entering it into ANSYS with the File > Read Input from command sequence.

Plane Stress / Plane Strain

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/FILNAM,Geom /title, Stress Concentration Geometry ! Example of creating geometry using keypoints, lines, arcs /prep7 ! Create geometry k, 1, 0.0, 0.0 ! Keypoint 1 is at 0.0, 0.0 k, 2, 0.1, 0.0 k, 3, 0.5, 0.0 k, 4, 0.5, 0.2 k, 5, 0.0, 0.2 k, 6, 0.0, 0.1 L, L, L, L, 2, 3, 4, 5, 3 4 5 6 ! Line from keypoints 2 to 3

! arc from keypoint 2 to 6, center kp 1, radius 0.1 LARC, 2, 6, 1, 0.1 AL, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ! Area defined by lines 1,2,3,4,5

Geometry for FEM analysis also can be created with solid modeling CAD or other software and imported into ANSYS. The IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) neutral file is a common format used to exchange geometry between computer programs. Tutorial 2B demonstrates this option for ANSYS geometry development. 2-7 TUTORIAL 2B – SEATBELT COMPONENT Objective: Determine the stresses and deformation of the prototype seatbelt component shown in the figure below if it is subjected to tensile load of 1000 lbf.

Figure 2-21 Seatbelt component. The seatbelt component is made of steel, has an over all length of about 2.5 inches and is 3/32 = 0.09375 inches thick. A solid model of the part was developed in a CAD system and exported as an IGES file. The file is imported into ANSYS for analysis. For simplicity we will analyze only the right, or ‘tongue’ portion of the part in this tutorial.

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Figure 2-22 Seatbelt ‘tongue’. PREPROCESSING 1. Use a solid modeler to create the top half of the component shown above in the XY plane and export an IGES file of the part. The latch retention slot is 0.375 x 0.8125 inches and is located 0.375 inch from the right edge. If you are not using an IGES file to define the geometry for this exercise, you can create the geometry directly in ANSYS with key points, lines, arcs by selecting File > Read Input from > > > to read in the text file given below. Skip the IGES import step below.
/FILNAM,Seatbelt /title, Seatbelt Geometry ! Example of creating geometry using keypoints, lines, arcs /prep7 ! Create geometry k, 1, 0.0, 0.0 ! Keypoint 1 is at 0.0, 0.0 k, 2, 0.75, 0.0 k, 3, 1.125, 0.0 k, 4, 1.5 0.0 k, 5, 1.5, 0.5 k, 6, 1.25, 0.75 k, 7, 0.0, 0.75 k, 8, 1.125, 0.375 k, 9, 1.09375, 0.40625 k, 10, 0.8125, 0.40625 k, 11, 0.75, 0.34375 k, 12, 1.25, 0.5 k, 13, 1.09375, 0.375 k, 14, 0.8125, 0.34375 L, 1, 2 L, 3, 4 L, 4, 5 ! Line from keypoints 1 to 2

Plane Stress / Plane Strain

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L, L, L, L, L,

6, 7 7, 1 3, 8 9, 10 11, 2

LARC, 5,6, 12, 0.25 ! arc from keypoint 2 to 6, center kp 1, radius 0.1 LARC, 8, 9, 13, 0.03125 LARC, 10, 11, 14, 0.0625LARC, 10, 11, 14, 0.0625 AL,all ! Use all lines to create the area.

2. Start ANSYS, Run Interactive, set jobname, and working directory. 3. Preprocessor -> Element Type -> Add/Edit/Delete ->Add . . . ->Solid -> Quad 8node 183 -> OK . 4. Options -> Plane strs w/thk-> OK -> Close Enter the thickness 5. Preprocessor -> Real Constants . . . -> Add -> (Type 1 Plane 183) -> OK ->Enter 0.09375 -> OK -> Close. (Use the 8-node quad element.) Enter the material properties 6. Preprocessor -> Material Props -> Material Models . . . Material Model Number 1 Double click Structural -> Linear ->Elastic -> Isotropic Enter EX = 3.0E7 and PRXY = 0.3 -> OK To import the IGES file 7. File > Import > IGES Select the IGES file you created earlier. Accept the ANSYS import default settings. If you have trouble with the import, select the alternate options and try again. Defeaturing is an automatic process to remove inconsistencies that may exist in the IGES file, for example lines that, because of the modeling or the file translation process, do not quite join.

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Figure 2-23 IGES import. Turn the solid model around if necessary so you can easily select the X-Y plane 8. PlotCtls > Pan, Zoom, Rotate > Back Now mesh the X-Y plane area. (Turn area numbers on if it helps.)

Figure 2-24 Seatbelt solid, front and back. 9. Preprocessor > -Meshing– Mesh > Areas >Free Pick the X-Y planar area > OK Important note: The mesh that follows was developed from an IGES geometry file. If you use the text file geometry definition, you may obtain a much different mesh. Use the modify mesh refinement tools to obtain a mesh density which produces results with accuracies comparable to those given below.

Plane Stress / Plane Strain

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Figure 2-25 Quad 8 mesh. The solid model is not needed any longer, and since its lines and areas may interfere with subsequent modeling operations, delete it from the session. 10. Preprocessor > -Modeling- Delete > Volume and Below (Don’t be surprised if everything disappears. Just Plot > Elements to see the mesh again.) 11. PlotCtls > Pan, Zoom, Rotate > Front (To see the front side of mesh.)

Figure 2-26 .Mesh, front view. Now apply displacement and pressure boundary conditions. Zero displacement UX along left edge and zero UY along bottom edge. 12. Preprocessor > Loads > -Loads- Apply > -Structural- Displacement > On Lines Pick the left edge > UX = 0. > OK 13. Preprocessor > Loads > -Loads- Apply > -Structural- Displacement > On Lines Pick the lower edge > UY = 0. > OK The 1000 lbf load corresponds to a uniform pressure of about 14,000 psi along the ¾ inch vertical inside edge of the latch retention slot. [1000 lbf/(0.09375 in. x 0.75 in.)]. 14. Preprocessor > Loads > -Loads- Apply > -Structural- Pressure > On Lines Select the inside line and set pressure = 14000 > OK.

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Figure 2-27 Applied displacement and pressure conditions. Solve the equations. SOLUTION 15. Main Menu > Solution > - Solve - Current LS > OK POSTPROCESSING Comparing the von Mises stress with the material yield stress is an accepted way of evaluating yielding for ductile metals in a combined stress state, so we enter the postprocessor and plot the element solution of von Mises, SEQV. 16. General Postproc -> Plot Results -> Element Solu . . .-> Stress -> von Mises -> SEQV -> OK. Zoom in on the small fillet where the maximum stresses occur. The element solution stress contours are reasonably smooth indicating a fairly reliable solution for this mesh, and the maximum von Mises stress is around 120,000 psi.

Figure 2-28 Von Mises stresses. To reduce the maximum stress we need to increase the fillet radius. Take a look at charts of stress concentration factors, and you notice that the maximum stress increases as the radius of the stress raiser decreases, approaching infinite values at zero radii.

Plane Stress / Plane Strain

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If your model has a zero radius notch, your finite-size elements will show a very high stress but not infinite stress. If you refine the mesh, the stress will increase but not reach infinity. The finite element technique necessarily describes finite quantities and cannot directly treat an infinite stress at a singular point, so don’t ‘chase a singularity’. If you do not care what happens at the notch (static load, ductile material, etc.) do not worry about this location but look at the other regions. If you really are concerned about the maximum stress here (fatigue loads or brittle material), then use the actual part notch radius however small (1/32 for this tutorial); do not use a zero radius. Also examine the stress gradient in the vicinity of the notch to make sure the mesh is sufficiently refined near the notch. If a crack tip is the object of the analysis, you should look at fracture mechanics approaches to the problem. (See ANSYS help topics on fracture mechanics.) The engineer’s responsibility is not only to build useful models, but also to interpret the results of such models in intelligent and meaningful ways. This can often get overlooked in the rush to get answers. Continue with the evaluation and check the strains and deflections for this model as well. 17. General Postproc > Plot Results > Element Solu . . .> Strain-total > 1st prin > OK. The maximum principal normal strain value is found to be approximately 0.004 in/in. 18. General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solu . . .> DOF solution > Translation UX > OK.

Figure 2-29 UX displacements. The maximum deflection in the X-direction is about 0.00145 inches and occurs as expected at the center of the right-hand edge of the latch retention slot.

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2-8 MAPPED MESHING Quadrilateral meshes may also be created by mapping a square with a regular array of cells onto a general quadrilateral or triangular region. To illustrate this, modify the text file above so that the area is not created (just the lines) and read it into ANSYS. Use PlotCntrls to turn Keypoint Numbering On. Then use 1. Preprocessor > Create > -Lines- Lines > Straight Lines > Successively pick two keypoints until the lines shown below are created.

Figure 2-30 Lines added to geometry. 2. Preprocessor > Create > -Areas- Areas > Arbitrary > By Lines > Apply Pick the four or three lines defining the areas shown below.

Figure 2-31 Quadrilateral/Triangular regions. 3. Preprocessor > Operate > -Glue > Areas > Pick All The glue operation preserves the boundaries between areas, which we need for mapped meshing. 4. Preprocessor > -Meshing- Size Cntrls > -ManualSize- -Lines- All Lines > > OK Enter 4 for NDIV No. element divisions > OK. All lines will be divided into four segments for mesh creation.

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Figure 2-32 Element size on lines. 5. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > Solid > Quad 8node 183 > OK . (Use the 8-node quadrilateral element for the mesh.) 6. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Mapped > 3 or 4 sided > Pick All. The mesh below is created. Applying boundary and load conditions and solving gives the von Mises stress distribution shown. The stress contours are discontinuous because of the poor mesh quality. Notice the long and narrow the quads near the point of maximum stress. We need more elements and they need to be better shaped with smaller aspect ratios to obtain satisfactory results.

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Figure 2-33 Mapped mesh and von Mises results. One can tailor the mapped mesh by specifying how many elements are to be placed along which lines. This allows much better control over the quality of the mesh, and an example of using this approach is described in Lesson 4. 2-9 CONVERGENCE The goal of finite element analysis as discussed in this lesson is to arrive at computed estimates of deflection, strain and stress that converge to definite values as the number of elements in the mesh increases, just as a convergent series arrives at a definite value once enough terms are summed. For elements based on assumed displacement functions that produce continuum models, the computed displacements are smaller in theory than the true displacements because the assumed displacement functions place an artificial constraint on the deformations that can occur. These constraints are relaxed as the element polynomial is increased or as more elements are used. Thus your computed displacements should converge smoothly from below to fixed values. Strains are the x and/or y derivatives of the displacements and thus depend on the distribution of the displacements for any given mesh. The strains and stresses may change in an erratic way as the mesh is refined, first smaller than the ultimate computed values, then larger, etc. Not all elements are developed using the ideas discussed above, and some will give displacements that converge from above, but you should be alert to these variations as you perform mesh refinement during the solution of a problem. 2-10 TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENT OPTIONS The analysis options for two-dimensional elements are: Plane Stress, Axisymmetric, Plane Strain, and Plane Stress with Thickness. The two examples thus far in this lesson were of the last type, namely problems of plane stress in which we provided the thickness of the part.

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The first analysis option, Plane Stress, is the ANSYS default and provides an analysis for a part with unit thickness. If you are working on a design problem in which the thickness is not yet known, you may wish to use this option and select the thickness based upon the stress, strain, and deflection distributions found for a unit thickness. The second option, Axisymmetric analysis is covered in detail in Lesson 3. Plane Strain occurs in a problem such as a cylindrical roller bearing caged against axial motion and uniformly loaded in a direction normal to the cylindrical surface. Because there is no axial motion, there is no axial strain. Each slice through the cylinder behaves like every other and the problem can be conveniently analyzed with a planar model. Another plane strain example is that of a long retaining wall, restrained at each end and loaded uniformly by soil pressure on one or both faces. 2-11 SUMMARY Problems of stress concentration in plates subject to in-plane loadings were used to illustrate ANSYS analysis of plane stress problems. Free triangular and quadrilateral element meshes were developed and analyzed. Mapped meshing with quads was also presented. Similar methods are used for solving problems involving plane strain; one only has to choose the appropriate option during element selection. The approach is also applicable to axisymmetric geometries that are considered in the next lesson. 2-12 PROBLEMS In the problems below, use triangular and/or quadrilateral elements as desired. Triangles may produce more regular shaped element meshes with free meshing. The six-node triangles and eight-node quads can approximate curved surface geometries and, when stress gradients are present, give much better results than the four-node elements. 2-1 Find the maximum stress in the aluminum plate shown below. Use tabulated stress concentration factors to independently calculate the maximum stress. Compare the two results by determining the percent difference in the two answers.

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Figure P2-1 2-2 Find the maximum stress for the plate from 2-1 if the hole is located halfway between the centerline and top edge as shown. You will now need to model half of the plate instead of just one quarter and to properly restrain vertical rigid body motion. One way to do this is to fix one node along the centerline from UY displacement. When remeshing, you will have to remove this boundary restraint, remseh, and then reapply it.

Figure P2-2 2-3 An aluminum square 10 inches on a side has a 5-inch diameter hole at the center. The object is in a state of plane strain with an internal pressure of 1500 psi. Determine the

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magnitude and location of the maximum principal stress, the maximum principal strain, and the maximum von Mises stress. No thickness is required for plane strain analysis. Figure P2-3 2-4 Repeat 2-3 for a steel plate one inch thick in a state of plane stress. 2-5 See if you can reduce the maximum stress for the plate of problem 2-1 by adding holes as shown below. Select a hole size and location that you think will smooth out the ‘stress flow’ caused by the load transmission through the plate.

Figure P2-5 2-6 Repeat 2-1 but the object is a plate with notches or with a step in the geometry. Select your own dimensions, materials, and loads. Use published stress concentration factor data to compare to your results. The published results are for plates that are relatively long so that there is a uniform state of axial stress at either end relatively far from notch or hole. Create your geometry accordingly.

Figure P2-6

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2-7 Determine the stresses and deflections in an object ‘at hand’ (such as a seatbelt tongue or retaining wall) whose geometry and loading make it suitable for plane stress or plane strain analysis. Do all the necessary modeling of geometry (use a CAD system if you wish), materials and loadings. 2-8 A cantilever beam with a unit width rectangular cross section is loaded with a uniform pressure along its upper surface. Model the beam as a problem in plane stress. Compute the end deflection and the maximum stress at the cantilever support. Compare your results to those you would find using elementary beam theory.

Figure P2-8 Restrain UX along the cantilever support line, but restrain UY at only one node along this line. Otherwise, the strain in the Y direction due to the Poisson effect is prevented, and the root stresses are different from elementary beam theory because of the singularity created. (Try fixing all root points in UX and UY and see what happens.) Select your own dimensions, materials, and pressure. Try a beam that’s long and slender and one that’s short and thick. The effect of shear loading must be included in the deflection analysis as the slenderness decreases.

ANSYS Tutorial
®

Release 6.1

Kent L. Lawrence
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of Texas at Arlington

________

PUBLICATIONS

SDC

Schroff Development Corporation
www.schroff.com www.schroff-europe.com

2-1

Lesson 2 Plane Stress Plane Strain
2-1 OVERVIEW Plane stress and plane strain problems are an important subclass of general threedimensional problems. The tutorials in this lesson demonstrate: ♦Solving planar stress concentration problems. ♦Evaluating potential errors in the solutions. ♦Using the various ANSYS 2D element formulations. 2-2 INTRODUCTION It is possible for an object with arbitrary shape to have six components of stress when subjected to three-dimensional loadings. When referenced to a Cartesian coordinate system these components of stress are: Normal Stresses Shear Stresses

σx, σy, σz τxy, τyz, τzx

Figure 2-1 Stresses in 3 dimensions. In general, the analysis of such objects requires three-dimensional modeling as discussed later in Lesson 4. However, two-dimensional models are often easier to develop, easier to solve and can be employed in many situations if they can accurately represent the behavior of the object under loading.

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ANSYS Tutorial

τxy lie in the X-Y plane and do not vary in the Z direction. Further, the stresses σz,τyz , and τzx are all zero for this kind of geometry and loading. A thin beam loaded in it plane
and a spur gear tooth are good examples of plane stress problems. ANSYS provides a 6-node planar triangular element along with 4- and 8-node quadrilateral elements for use in the development of plane stress models. We will use both triangles and quads in solution of the example problems that follow. 2-3 PLATE WITH CENTRAL HOLE To start off, let’s solve a problem with a known solution so that we can check our understanding of the FEM process. The problem is that of a tensile-loaded thin plate with a central hole as shown in Figure 2-2.

A state of Plane Stress exists in a thin object loaded in the plane of its largest dimensions. Let the X-Y plane be the plane of analysis. The non-zero stresses σx, σy, and

Figure 2-2 Plate with central hole. The 1.0 m x 0.4 m plate has a thickness of 0.01 m, and a central hole 0.2 m in diameter. It is made of steel with material properties; elastic modulus, E = 2.07 x 1011 N/m2 and Poisson’s ratio, ν = 0.29. We apply a horizontal tensile loading in the form of a pressure p = 1.0 N/m2 along the vertical edges of the plate. Because holes are necessary for fasteners such as bolts, rivets, etc, the need to know stresses and deformations near them occurs very often and has received a great deal of study. The results of these studies are widely published, and we can look up the stress concentration factor for the case shown above. Before the advent of suitable computation methods, the effect of stress concentration geometries had to be evaluated experimentally, and many available charts were developed from experimental results.

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The uniform, homogeneous plate above is symmetric about horizontal axes in both geometry and loading. This means that the state of stress and deformation below a horizontal centerline is a mirror image of that above the centerline, and likewise for a vertical centerline. We can take advantage of the symmetry and, by applying the correct boundary conditions, use only a quarter of the plate for the finite element model. For small problems using symmetry may not be too important; for large problems it can save modeling and solution efforts by eliminating one-half or a quarter or more of the work. Place the origin of X-Y coordinates at the center of the hole. If we pull on both ends of the plate, points on the centerlines will move along the centerlines but not perpendicular to them. This indicates the appropriate displacement conditions to use as shown below.

Figure 2-3 Quadrant used for analysis. In Tutorial 2A we will use ANSYS to determine the maximum stress in the plate and compare the computed results with the maximum value that can be calculated using tabulated values for stress concentration factors. Interactive commands will be used to formulate and solve the problem. 2-4 TUTORIAL 2A - PLATE Follow the steps below to analyze the plate model. The tutorial is divided into separate Preprocessing, Solution, and Postprocessing steps. PREPROCESSING 1. Start ANSYS and select 'Interactive'; select the Working Directory where you will store the files associated with this problem. Also set the Jobname to Tutorial2A or something memorable. Then select Run. Select the six node triangular element to use for the solution of this problem.

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Figure 2-4 Six-node triangle. 2. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add >Solid > Triangle 6 node 2 > OK .

Figure 2-5 Element selection. Select the option where you define the plate thickness. 3. Options (Element behavior K3) > Plane strs w/thk > OK > Close

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2-5

Figure 2-6 Element options. 4. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > OK

Figure 2-7 Real constants. (Enter the plate thickness of 0.01 m.) > Enter 0.01 > OK > Close.

Figure 2-8 Enter plate thickness.

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Enter the material properties. 5. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models Material Model Number 1, Double click Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic Enter EX = 2.07E11 and PRXY = 0.29 > OK. (Close the Define Material Model Behavior window.) Create the geometry for the upper right quadrant of the plate by subtracting a 0.2 m diameter circle from a 0.5 x 0.2 m rectangle. Generate the rectangle first. 6. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners Enter (lower left corner) WP X = 0.0, WP Y = 0.0 and Width = 0.5, Height = 0.2 > OK. 7. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle Enter WP X = 0.0, WP Y = 0.0 and Radius = 0.1. > OK

Figure 2-9 Create areas.

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Figure 2-10 Rectangle and circle. Now subtract the circle from the rectangle. (Read the messages in the window at the bottom of the screen as necessary.) 8. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas > Pick the rectangle > OK, then pick the circle > OK.

Figure 2-11 Geometry for quadrant of plate. Create a mesh of triangular elements over the quadrant area. 9. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free Pick the quadrant > OK

Figure 2-12 Triangular element mesh. Apply the displacement boundary conditions and loads. 10. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Pick the left edge of the quadrant > OK > UX = 0. > OK

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11. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Pick the bottom edge of the quadrant > OK > UY = 0. > OK 12. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines. Pick the right edge of the quadrant > OK > Pressure = -1.0 > OK (A positive pressure would be a compressive load, so we use a negative pressure. The pressure is shown as a single arrow.)

Figure 2-13 Model with loading and displacement boundary conditions. The model-building step is now complete, and we can proceed to the solution. First to be safe, save the model. 13. Utility Menu > File > - Save as Jobname.db SOLUTION The interactive solution proceeds as illustrated in the tutorials of Lesson 1. 14. Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK The /STATUS Command window displays the problem parameters and the Solve Current Load Step window is shown. Check the solution options in the /STATUS window and if all is OK, select File > Close In the Solve Current Load Step window, Select OK, and when the solution is complete, Close the Information window. POSTPROCESSING We can now plot the results of this analysis and also list the computed values. 15. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape > Def. + Undef. > OK

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Figure 2-14 Plot of Deformed shape. The deformed shape looks correct. The right end moves to the right in response to the tensile load in the x-direction, the circular hole ovals out, and the top moves down because of Poisson’s effect. Note that the element edges on the circular arc are represented by straight lines. This is an artifact of the plotting routine not the analysis. The six-node triangle has curved sides, and if you pick on a mid-side of one these elements, you will see a node placed on the curved edge. The maximum displacement is shown on the graph legend as 0.32e-11 which seems reasonable. The units of displacement are meters because we employed meters and N/m2 in the problem formulation. Now plot the stress in the X direction. 16. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu > Stress > X-direction Sx > OK.

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Figure 2-15 Element SX stresses. The minimum, SMN, and maximum, SMX, stresses as well as the color bar legend give an overall evaluation of the SX stress state. We are interested in the maximum stress at the hole. Use the PlotCtrls > Pan, Zoom > Box Zoom to focus on the area with highest stress.

Figure 2-16 SX stress detail. Stress variations in the actual isotropic, homogeneous plate should be smooth and continuous across elements. The discontinuities in the Sx stress contours above indicate

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that the number of elements used in this model is too few to accurately calculate the stress values near the hole because of the stress gradients there. We cannot accept this stress solution. More six-node elements are needed in the region near the hole to find accurate values of the stress. On the other hand, in the right half of the model, away from the stress riser, the calculated stress contours are smooth, and Sx would seem to be accurately determined there. It is important to note that in the plotting we selected Element Solu (Element Solution) in order to look for stress contour discontinuities. If you pick Nodal Solu to plot instead, for problems like the one in this tutorial, the stress values will be averaged before plotting, and any contour discontinuities (and thus errors) will be hidden. If you plot nodal solution stresses you will always see smooth contours. A word about element accuracy. The FEM implementation of the truss element is taken directly from solid mechanics studies, and there is no approximation in the solutions for truss structures formulated and solved in the ways discussed in Lesson 1. The continuum elements such as the ones for plane stress and plane strain, on the other hand, are normally developed using displacement functions of a polynomial type to represent the displacements within the element, and the higher the polynomial, the greater the accuracy. The ANSYS six-node triangle uses a quadratic polynomial and is capable of representing linear stress and strain variations within an element. Near stress concentrations the stress gradients vary quite sharply. To capture this variation, the number of elements near the stress concentrations must be increased proportionately. To obtain more elements in the model, return to the Preprocessor. 17. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Modify Mesh > Refine At > All. (Select Level of refinement 1. All elements are subdivided and the mesh below is created.)

Figure 2-17 Global mesh refinement. To further refine the mesh selectively near the hole,

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18. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Modify Mesh > Refine At > Nodes. (Select the three nodes shown.) > OK (Select the Level of refinement = 1) > OK.

Figure 2-18 Selective refinement at nodes. Now repeat the solution, and replot the stress SX. 19. Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK 20. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Element Solu > Stress > Xdirection > Sx > OK.

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Figure 2-19 SX stress contour after mesh refinement.

Figure 2-20 SX stress detail contour after mesh refinement. The stress contours are now smooth across element boundaries, and the stress legend shows a maximum value of 4.38 Pa. To check this result, find the stress concentration factor for this problem in a text or reference book or from a web site such as www.engineerstoolbox.com. For the geometry

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of this example we find Kt = 2.17. We can compute the maximum stress using (Kt)(load)/(net cross sectional area). Using the pressure p = 1.0 Pa we obtain.
σ x MAX = 2.17 * p * (0.4)(0.01) /[(0.4 − 0.2) * 0.01] = 4.34 Pa

The computed maximum value is 4.38 Pa which is less than one per cent in error. (Assuming that the value of Kt is exact.) 2-5 THE APPROXIMATE NATURE OF FEM As mentioned above, the stiffness matrix for the truss elements of Lesson 1 can be developed directly and simply from elementary solid mechanics principles. For continuum problems in two and three-dimensional stress, this is generally no longer possible, and the element stiffness matrices are usually developed by assuming something specific about the characteristics of the displacements that can occur within an elements. Ordinarily this is done by specifying the highest degree of the polynomial that governs the displacement distribution within an element. For h-method elements, the polynomial degree depends upon the number of nodes used to describe the element, and the interpolation functions that relate displacements within the element to the displacements at the nodes are called shape functions. In ANSYS, 2-dimensional problems can be modeled with six-node triangles, four-node quadrilaterals or eight-node quadrilaterals.

Figure 2-21 Triangular and quadrilateral elements. The greater the number of nodes, the higher the order of the polynomial and the greater the accuracy in describing displacements, stresses and strains within the element. If the stress is constant throughout a region, a very simple model is sufficient to describe the stress state, perhaps only one or two elements. If there are gradients in the stress distributions within a region, high-degree displacement polynomials and/or many elements are required to accurately analyze the situation.

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These comments explain the variation in the accuracy of the results as different numbers of elements were used to solve the problem in the previous tutorial and why the engineer must carefully prepare a model, start with small models, grow the models as understanding of the problem develops and carefully interpret the calculated results. The ease with which models can be prepared and solved sometimes leads to careless evaluation of the computed results. 2-6 ANSYS GEOMETRY The finite element model consists of elements and nodes and is separate from the geometry on which it may be based. It is possible to build the finite element model without consideration of any underlying geometry as was done in the truss examples of Lesson 1, but in many cases, development of the geometry is the first task. Two-dimensional geometry in ANSYS is built from keypoints, lines (straight, arcs, splines), and areas. These geometric items are assigned numbers and can be listed, numbered, manipulated, and plotted. The keypoints (2,3,4,5,6), lines (2,3,5,9,10), and area (3) for Tutorial 2A are shown below.

Figure 2-22 Keypoints, lines and areas. The finite element model developed previously for this part used the area A3 for development of the node/element FEM mesh. The loads, displacement boundary conditions and pressures were applied to the geometry lines. When the solution step was executed, the loads were transferred from the lines to the FEM model nodes. Applying boundary conditions and loads to the geometry facilitates remeshing the problem. The geometry does not change, only the number and location of nodes and elements. At solution time, the loads are transferred to the new mesh. Geometry can be created in ANSYS interactively (as was done in the previous tutorial) or it can be created by reading a text file. For example, the geometry of Tutorial 2A can be generated by creating the following text file and entering it into ANSYS with the File > Read Input from command sequence.
/FILNAM,Geom /title, Stress Concentration Geometry ! Example of creating geometry using keypoints, lines, arcs /prep7

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! Create geometry k, 1, 0.0, 0.0 k, 2, 0.1, 0.0 k, 3, 0.5, 0.0 k, 4, 0.5, 0.2 k, 5, 0.0, 0.2 k, 6, 0.0, 0.1 L, L, L, L, 2, 3, 4, 5, 3 4 5 6

! Keypoint 1 is at 0.0, 0.0

! Line from keypoints 2 to 3

! arc from keypoint 2 to 6, center kp 1, radius 0.1 LARC, 2, 6, 1, 0.1 AL, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ! Area defined by lines 1,2,3,4,5

Geometry for FEM analysis also can be created with solid modeling CAD or other software and imported into ANSYS. The IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) neutral file is a common format used to exchange geometry between computer programs. Tutorial 2B demonstrates this option for ANSYS geometry development. 2-7 TUTORIAL 2B – SEATBELT COMPONENT Objective: Determine the stresses and deformation of the prototype seatbelt component shown in the figure below if it is subjected to tensile load of 1000 lbf.

Figure 2-23 Seatbelt component. The seatbelt component is made of steel, has an over all length of about 2.5 inches and is 3/32 = 0.09375 inches thick. A solid model of the part was developed in a CAD system and exported as an IGES file. The file is imported into ANSYS for analysis. For simplicity we will analyze only the right, or ‘tongue’ portion of the part in this tutorial.

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Figure 2-24 Seatbelt ‘tongue’. PREPROCESSING 1. Use a solid modeler to create the top half of the component shown above in the XY plane and export an IGES file of the part. The latch retention slot is 0.375 x 0.8125 inches and is located 0.375 inch from the right edge. If you are not using an IGES file to define the geometry for this exercise, you can create the geometry directly in ANSYS with key points, lines, arcs by selecting File > Read Input from to read in the text file given below. Skip the IGES import step below.
/FILNAM,Seatbelt /title, Seatbelt Geometry ! Example of creating geometry using keypoints, lines, arcs /prep7 ! Create geometry k, 1, 0.0, 0.0 ! Keypoint 1 is at 0.0, 0.0 k, 2, 0.75, 0.0 k, 3, 1.125, 0.0 k, 4, 1.5 0.0 k, 5, 1.5, 0.5 k, 6, 1.25, 0.75 k, 7, 0.0, 0.75 k, 8, 1.125, 0.375 k, 9, 1.09375, 0.40625 k, 10, 0.8125, 0.40625 k, 11, 0.75, 0.34375 k, 12, 1.25, 0.5 k, 13, 1.09375, 0.375 k, 14, 0.8125, 0.34375 L, 1, 2 L, 3, 4 L, 4, 5 ! Line from keypoints 1 to 2

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L, L, L, L, L,

6, 7 7, 1 3, 8 9, 10 11, 2

LARC, 5,6, 12, 0.25 ! arc from keypoint 2 to 6, center kp 1, radius 0.1 LARC, 8, 9, 13, 0.03125 LARC, 10, 11, 14, 0.0625LARC, 10, 11, 14, 0.0625 AL,all ! Use all lines to create the area.

2. Start ANSYS, Run Interactive, set jobname, and working directory. 3. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > Solid > Quad 8node 183 > OK . (Use the 8-node quadrilateral element for this problem.) 4. Options > Plane strs w/thk > OK > Close Enter the thickness 5. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > (Type 1 Plane 183) > OK >Enter 0.09375 > OK > Close. Enter the material properties 6. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models Material Model Number 1, Double click Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic Enter EX = 3.0E7 and PRXY = 0.3 > OK (Close Define Material Model Behavior window.) To import the IGES file 7. Utility Menu > File > Import > IGES Select the IGES file you created earlier. Accept the ANSYS import default settings. If you have trouble with the import, select the alternate options and try again. Defeaturing is an automatic process to remove inconsistencies that may exist in the IGES file, for example lines that, because of the modeling or the file translation process, do not quite join.

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Figure 2-25 IGES import. Turn the solid model around if necessary so you can easily select the X-Y plane 8. Utility Menu > PlotCtls > Pan, Zoom, Rotate > Back Now mesh the X-Y plane area. (Turn area numbers on if it helps.)

Figure 2-26 Seatbelt solid, front and back. 9. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free. Pick the X-Y planar area > OK Important note: The mesh that follows was developed from an IGES geometry file. If you use the text file geometry definition, you may obtain a much different mesh. Use the modify mesh refinement tools to obtain a mesh density which produces results with accuracies comparable to those given below.

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Figure 2-27 Quad 8 mesh. The solid model is not needed any longer, and since its lines and areas may interfere with subsequent modeling operations, delete it from the session. 10. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Delete > Volume and Below (Don’t be surprised if everything disappears. Just Plot > Elements to see the mesh again.) 11. Utility Menu > PlotCtls > Pan, Zoom, Rotate > Front mesh.) (To see the front side of

Figure 2-28 .Mesh, front view. Now apply displacement and pressure boundary conditions. Zero displacement UX along left edge and zero UY along bottom edge. 12. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Pick the left edge > UX = 0. > OK 13. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Pick the lower edge > UY = 0. > OK The 1000 lbf load corresponds to a uniform pressure of about 14,000 psi along the ¾ inch vertical inside edge of the latch retention slot. [1000 lbf/(0.09375 in. x 0.75 in.)]. 14. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines.

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Select the inside line and set pressure = 14000 > OK.

Figure 2-29 Applied displacement and pressure conditions. Solve the equations. SOLUTION 15. Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK POSTPROCESSING Comparing the von Mises stress with the material yield stress is an accepted way of evaluating yielding for ductile metals in a combined stress state, so we enter the postprocessor and plot the element solution of von Mises, SEQV. 16. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Element Solu > Stress > (scroll down) von Mises > SEQV > OK. Zoom in on the small fillet where the maximum stresses occur. The element solution stress contours are reasonably smooth indicating a fairly reliable solution for this mesh, and the maximum von Mises stress is around 120,000 psi.

Figure 2-30 Von Mises stresses.

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To reduce the maximum stress we need to increase the fillet radius. Take a look at charts of stress concentration factors, and you notice that the maximum stress increases as the radius of the stress raiser decreases, approaching infinite values at zero radii. If your model has a zero radius notch, your finite-size elements will show a very high stress but not infinite stress. If you refine the mesh, the stress will increase but not reach infinity. The finite element technique necessarily describes finite quantities and cannot directly treat an infinite stress at a singular point, so don’t ‘chase a singularity’. If you do not care what happens at the notch (static load, ductile material, etc.) do not worry about this location but look at the other regions. If you really are concerned about the maximum stress here (fatigue loads or brittle material), then use the actual part notch radius however small (1/32 for this tutorial); do not use a zero radius. Also examine the stress gradient in the vicinity of the notch to make sure the mesh is sufficiently refined near the notch. If a crack tip is the object of the analysis, you should look at fracture mechanics approaches to the problem. (See ANSYS help topics on fracture mechanics.) The engineer’s responsibility is not only to build useful models, but also to interpret the results of such models in intelligent and meaningful ways. This can often get overlooked in the rush to get answers. Continue with the evaluation and check the strains and deflections for this model as well. 17. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Element Solu > Strain-total > 1st prin > OK. The maximum principal normal strain value is found to be approximately 0.004 in/in. 18. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solu > DOF solution > Translation UX > OK.

Figure 2-31 UX displacements. The maximum deflection in the X-direction is about 0.00145 inches and occurs as expected at the center of the right-hand edge of the latch retention slot.

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2-8 MAPPED MESHING Quadrilateral meshes may also be created by mapping a square with a regular array of cells onto a general quadrilateral or triangular region. To illustrate this, delete the last line, AL,all, from the text file above so that the area is not created (just the lines) and read it into ANSYS. Use PlotCntrls to turn Keypoint Numbering On. Then use 1. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Lines. Successively pick pairs of keypoints until the lines shown below are created.

Figure 2-32 Lines added to geometry. 2. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitrary > By Lines > Apply. Pick the four (or three) lines defining the various areas shown below > Apply, etc.

Figure 2-33 Quadrilateral/Triangular regions. 3. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Glue > Areas > Pick All The glue operation preserves the boundaries between areas, which we need for mapped meshing. 4. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines Enter 4 for NDIV, No. element divisions > OK.

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All lines will be divided into four segments for mesh creation.

Figure 2-34 Element size on lines. 5. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > Solid > Quad 8node 183 > OK . (Use the 8-node quadrilateral element for the mesh.) 6. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Mapped > 3 or 4 sided > Pick All. The mesh below is created. Applying boundary and load conditions and solving gives the von Mises stress distribution shown. The stress contours are discontinuous because of the poor mesh quality. Notice the long and narrow the quads near the point of maximum stress. We need more elements and they need to be better shaped with smaller aspect ratios to obtain satisfactory results.

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Figure 2-35 Mapped mesh and von Mises results. One can tailor the mapped mesh by specifying how many elements are to be placed along which lines. This allows much better control over the quality of the mesh, and an example of using this approach is described in Lesson 4. 2-9 CONVERGENCE The goal of finite element analysis as discussed in this lesson is to arrive at computed estimates of deflection, strain and stress that converge to definite values as the number of elements in the mesh increases, just as a convergent series arrives at a definite value once enough terms are summed. For elements based on assumed displacement functions that produce continuum models, the computed displacements are smaller in theory than the true displacements because the assumed displacement functions place an artificial constraint on the deformations that can occur. These constraints are relaxed as the element polynomial is increased or as more elements are used. Thus your computed displacements should converge smoothly from below to fixed values. Strains are the x and/or y derivatives of the displacements and thus depend on the distribution of the displacements for any given mesh. The strains and stresses may change in an erratic way as the mesh is refined, first smaller than the ultimate computed values, then larger, etc. Not all elements are developed using the ideas discussed above, and some will give displacements that converge from above, but you should be alert to these variations as you perform mesh refinement during the solution of a problem. 2-10 TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENT OPTIONS The analysis options for two-dimensional elements are: Plane Stress, Axisymmetric, Plane Strain, and Plane Stress with Thickness. The two examples thus far in this lesson were of the last type, namely problems of plane stress in which we provided the thickness of the part.

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The first analysis option, Plane Stress, is the ANSYS default and provides an analysis for a part with unit thickness. If you are working on a design problem in which the thickness is not yet known, you may wish to use this option and select the thickness based upon the stress, strain, and deflection distributions found for a unit thickness. The second option, Axisymmetric analysis is covered in detail in Lesson 3. Plane Strain occurs in a problem such as a cylindrical roller bearing caged against axial motion and uniformly loaded in a direction normal to the cylindrical surface. Because there is no axial motion, there is no axial strain. Each slice through the cylinder behaves like every other and the problem can be conveniently analyzed with a planar model. Another plane strain example is that of a long retaining wall, restrained at each end and loaded uniformly by soil pressure on one or both faces. 2-11 SUMMARY Problems of stress concentration in plates subject to in-plane loadings were used to illustrate ANSYS analysis of plane stress problems. Free triangular and quadrilateral element meshes were developed and analyzed. Mapped meshing with quads was also presented. Similar methods are used for solving problems involving plane strain; one only has to choose the appropriate option during element selection. The approach is also applicable to axisymmetric geometries that are considered in the next lesson. 2-12 PROBLEMS In the problems below use triangular and/or quadrilateral elements as desired. Triangles may produce more regular shaped element meshes with free meshing. The six-node triangles and eight-node quads can approximate curved surface geometries and, when stress gradients are present, give much better results than the four-node elements. 2-1 Find the maximum stress in the aluminum plate shown below. Use tabulated stress concentration factors to independently calculate the maximum stress. Compare the two results by determining the percent difference in the two answers.

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Figure P2-1 2-2 Find the maximum stress for the plate from 2-1 if the hole is located halfway between the centerline and top edge as shown. You will now need to model half of the plate instead of just one quarter and to properly restrain vertical rigid body motion. One way to do this is to fix one node along the centerline from UY displacement. When remeshing, you will have to remove this boundary restraint, remseh, and then reapply it.

Figure P2-2

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2-3 An aluminum square 10 inches on a side has a 5-inch diameter hole at the center. The object is in a state of plane strain with an internal pressure of 1500 psi. Determine the magnitude and location of the maximum principal stress, the maximum principal strain, and the maximum von Mises stress. No thickness is required for plane strain analysis.

Figure P2-3 2-4 Repeat 2-3 for a steel plate one inch thick in a state of plane stress. 2-5 See if you can reduce the maximum stress for the plate of problem 2-1 by adding holes as shown below. Select a hole size and location that you think will smooth out the ‘stress flow’ caused by the load transmission through the plate.

Figure P2-5 2-6 Repeat 2-1 but the object is a plate with notches or with a step in the geometry. Select your own dimensions, materials, and loads. Use published stress concentration factor data to compare to your results. The published results are for plates that are relatively long so that there is a uniform state of axial stress at either end relatively far from notch or hole. Create your geometry accordingly.

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Figure P2-6 2-7 Determine the stresses and deflections in an object ‘at hand’ (such as a seatbelt tongue or retaining wall) whose geometry and loading make it suitable for plane stress or plane strain analysis. Do all the necessary modeling of geometry (use a CAD system if you wish), materials and loadings. 2-8 A cantilever beam with a unit width rectangular cross section is loaded with a uniform pressure along its upper surface. Model the beam as a problem in plane stress. Compute the end deflection and the maximum stress at the cantilever support. Compare your results to those you would find using elementary beam theory.

Figure P2-8 Restrain UX along the cantilever support line, but restrain UY at only one node along this line. Otherwise, the strain in the Y direction due to the Poisson effect is prevented, and the root stresses are different from elementary beam theory because of the singularity created. (Try fixing all root points in UX and UY and see what happens.) Select your own dimensions, materials, and pressure. Try a beam that’s long and slender and one that’s short and thick. The effect of shear loading must be included in the deflection analysis as the slenderness decreases.

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NOTES:

ANSYS Tutorial
®

Release 7.0
(and Release 6.1)

Kent L. Lawrence
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of Texas at Arlington

________

PUBLICATIONS

SDC

Schroff Development Corporation
www.schroff-europe.com

www.schroff.com

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Lesson 2 Plane Stress Plane Strain
2-1 OVERVIEW Plane stress and plane strain problems are an important subclass of general threedimensional problems. The tutorials in this lesson demonstrate: ♦Solving planar stress concentration problems. ♦Evaluating potential errors in the solutions. ♦Using the various ANSYS 2D element formulations. 2-2 INTRODUCTION It is possible for an object with arbitrary shape to have six components of stress when subjected to three-dimensional loadings. When referenced to a Cartesian coordinate system these components of stress are: Normal Stresses Shear Stresses

σx, σy, σz τxy, τyz, τzx

Figure 2-1 Stresses in 3 dimensions. In general, the analysis of such objects requires three-dimensional modeling as discussed later in Lesson 4. However, two-dimensional models are often easier to develop, easier to solve and can be employed in many situations if they can accurately represent the behavior of the object under loading.

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A state of Plane Stress exists in a thin object loaded in the plane of its largest dimensions. Let the X-Y plane be the plane of analysis. The non-zero stresses σx, σy, and

τxy lie in the X-Y plane and do not vary in the Z direction. Further, the stresses σz,τyz , and τzx are all zero for this kind of geometry and loading. A thin beam loaded in it plane
and a spur gear tooth are good examples of plane stress problems. ANSYS provides a 6-node planar triangular element along with 4- and 8-node quadrilateral elements for use in the development of plane stress models. We will use both triangles and quads in solution of the example problems that follow. 2-3 PLATE WITH CENTRAL HOLE To start off, let’s solve a problem with a known solution so that we can check our understanding of the FEM process. The problem is that of a tensile-loaded thin plate with a central hole as shown in Figure 2-2.

Figure 2-2 Plate with central hole. The 1.0 m x 0.4 m plate has a thickness of 0.01 m, and a central hole 0.2 m in diameter. It is made of steel with material properties; elastic modulus, E = 2.07 x 1011 N/m2 and Poisson’s ratio, ν = 0.29. We apply a horizontal tensile loading in the form of a pressure p = 1.0 N/m2 along the vertical edges of the plate. Because holes are necessary for fasteners such as bolts, rivets, etc, the need to know stresses and deformations near them occurs very often and has received a great deal of study. The results of these studies are widely published, and we can look up the stress concentration factor for the case shown above. Before the advent of suitable computation methods, the effect of complex stress concentration geometries had to be evaluated experimentally, and many available charts were developed from experimental results.

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2-3

The uniform, homogeneous plate above is symmetric about horizontal axes in both geometry and loading. This means that the state of stress and deformation below a horizontal centerline is a mirror image of that above the centerline, and likewise for a vertical centerline. We can take advantage of the symmetry and, by applying the correct boundary conditions, use only a quarter of the plate for the finite element model. For small problems using symmetry may not be too important; for large problems it can save modeling and solution efforts by eliminating one-half or a quarter or more of the work. Place the origin of X-Y coordinates at the center of the hole. If we pull on both ends of the plate, points on the centerlines will move along the centerlines but not perpendicular to them. This indicates the appropriate displacement conditions to use as shown below.

Figure 2-3 Quadrant used for analysis. In Tutorial 2A we will use ANSYS to determine the maximum stress in the plate and compare the computed results with the maximum value that can be calculated using tabulated values for stress concentration factors. Interactive commands will be used to formulate and solve the problem. 2-4 TUTORIAL 2A - PLATE Follow the steps below to analyze the plate model. The tutorial is divided into separate Preprocessing, Solution, and Postprocessing steps. PREPROCESSING 1. Start ANSYS and select 'Interactive'; select the Working Directory where you will store the files associated with this problem. Also set the Jobname to Tutorial2A or something memorable. Then select Run. Select the six node triangular element to use for the solution of this problem. (If you want to make changes in the Jobname, working Directory, or Title after you’ve started ANSYS, use File > Change Jobname or Directory or Title.)

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Figure 2-4 Six-node triangle. 2. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add >Solid > Triangle 6 node 2 > OK .

Figure 2-5 Element selection. Select the option where you define the plate thickness. 3. Options (Element behavior K3) > Plane strs w/thk > OK > Close

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2-5

Figure 2-6 Element options. 4. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > OK

Figure 2-7 Real constants. (Enter the plate thickness of 0.01 m.) > Enter 0.01 > OK > Close.

Figure 2-8 Enter plate thickness.

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Enter the material properties. 5. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models Material Model Number 1, Double click Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic Enter EX = 2.07E11 and PRXY = 0.29 > OK. (Close the Define Material Model Behavior window.) Create the geometry for the upper right quadrant of the plate by subtracting a 0.2 m diameter circle from a 0.5 x 0.2 m rectangle. Generate the rectangle first. 6. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners Enter (lower left corner) WP X = 0.0, WP Y = 0.0 and Width = 0.5, Height = 0.2 > OK. 7. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle Enter WP X = 0.0, WP Y = 0.0 and Radius = 0.1. > OK

Figure 2-9 Create areas.

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Figure 2-10 Rectangle and circle. Now subtract the circle from the rectangle. (Read the messages in the window at the bottom of the screen as necessary.) 8. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas > Pick the rectangle > OK, then pick the circle > OK.

Figure 2-11 Geometry for quadrant of plate. Create a mesh of triangular elements over the quadrant area. 9. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free Pick the quadrant > OK

Figure 2-12 Triangular element mesh. Apply the displacement boundary conditions and loads. 10. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Pick the left edge of the quadrant > OK > UX = 0. > OK

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11. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Pick the bottom edge of the quadrant > OK > UY = 0. > OK 12. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines. Pick the right edge of the quadrant > OK > Pressure = -1.0 > OK (A positive pressure would be a compressive load, so we use a negative pressure. The pressure is shown as a single arrow.)

Figure 2-13 Model with loading and displacement boundary conditions. The model-building step is now complete, and we can proceed to the solution. First to be safe, save the model. 13. Utility Menu > File > - Save as Jobname.db SOLUTION The interactive solution proceeds as illustrated in the tutorials of Lesson 1. 14. Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK The /STATUS Command window displays the problem parameters and the Solve Current Load Step window is shown. Check the solution options in the /STATUS window and if all is OK, select File > Close In the Solve Current Load Step window, Select OK, and when the solution is complete, Close the Information window. POSTPROCESSING We can now plot the results of this analysis and also list the computed values. 15. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape > Def. + Undef. > OK

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Figure 2-14 Plot of Deformed shape. The deformed shape looks correct. (The undeformed shape is indicated by the dashed lines.) The right end moves to the right in response to the tensile load in the x-direction, the circular hole ovals out, and the top moves down because of Poisson’s effect. Note that the element edges on the circular arc are represented by straight lines. This is an artifact of the plotting routine not the analysis. The six-node triangle has curved sides, and if you pick on a mid-side of one these elements, you will see a node placed on the curved edge. The maximum displacement is shown on the graph legend as 0.32e-11 which seems reasonable. The units of displacement are meters because we employed meters and N/m2 in the problem formulation. Now plot the stress in the X direction. 16. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu > Stress > X-direction Sx > OK. Use PlotCtrls > Symbols [/PSF] Surface Load Symbols (set to Pressures) and Show pre and convect as (set to Arrows) to display the pressure loads.

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Figure 2-15 Element SX stresses. The minimum, SMN, and maximum, SMX, stresses as well as the color bar legend give an overall evaluation of the SX stress state. We are interested in the maximum stress at the hole. Use the PlotCtrls > Pan, Zoom > Box Zoom to focus on the area with highest stress.

Figure 2-16 SX stress detail. Stress variations in the actual isotropic, homogeneous plate should be smooth and continuous across elements. The discontinuities in the Sx stress contours above indicate

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that the number of elements used in this model is too few to accurately calculate the stress values near the hole because of the stress gradients there. We cannot accept this stress solution. More six-node elements are needed in the region near the hole to find accurate values of the stress. On the other hand, in the right half of the model, away from the stress riser, the calculated stress contours are smooth, and Sx would seem to be accurately determined there. It is important to note that in the plotting we selected Element Solu (Element Solution) in order to look for stress contour discontinuities. If you pick Nodal Solu to plot instead, for problems like the one in this tutorial, the stress values will be averaged before plotting, and any contour discontinuities (and thus errors) will be hidden. If you plot nodal solution stresses you will always see smooth contours. A word about element accuracy. The FEM implementation of the truss element is taken directly from solid mechanics studies, and there is no approximation in the solutions for truss structures formulated and solved in the ways discussed in Lesson 1. The continuum elements such as the ones for plane stress and plane strain, on the other hand, are normally developed using displacement functions of a polynomial type to represent the displacements within the element, and the higher the polynomial, the greater the accuracy. The ANSYS six-node triangle uses a quadratic polynomial and is capable of representing linear stress and strain variations within an element. Near stress concentrations the stress gradients vary quite sharply. To capture this variation, the number of elements near the stress concentrations must be increased proportionately. To obtain more elements in the model, return to the Preprocessor. 17. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Modify Mesh > Refine At > All. (Select Level of refinement 1. All elements are subdivided and the mesh below is created.)

Figure 2-17 Global mesh refinement. To further refine the mesh selectively near the hole,

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18. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Modify Mesh > Refine At > Nodes. (Select the three nodes shown.) > OK (Select the Level of refinement = 1) > OK.

Figure 2-18 Selective refinement at nodes. Now repeat the solution, and replot the stress SX. 19. Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK 20. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Element Solu > Stress > Xdirection > Sx > OK.

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Figure 2-19 SX stress contour after mesh refinement.

Figure 2-20 SX stress detail contour after mesh refinement. The stress contours are now smooth across element boundaries, and the stress legend shows a maximum value of 4.38 Pa. To check this result, find the stress concentration factor for this problem in a text or reference book or from a web site such as www.engineerstoolbox.com. For the geometry

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of this example we find Kt = 2.17. We can compute the maximum stress using (Kt)(load)/(net cross sectional area). Using the pressure p = 1.0 Pa we obtain.
σ x MAX = 2.17 * p * (0.4)(0.01) /[(0.4 − 0.2) * 0.01] = 4.34 Pa

The computed maximum value is 4.38 Pa which is less than one per cent in error. (Assuming that the value of Kt is exact.) 2-5 THE APPROXIMATE NATURE OF FEM As mentioned above, the stiffness matrix for the truss elements of Lesson 1 can be developed directly and simply from elementary solid mechanics principles. For continuum problems in two and three-dimensional stress, this is generally no longer possible, and the element stiffness matrices are usually developed by assuming something specific about the characteristics of the displacements that can occur within an element. Ordinarily this is done by specifying the highest degree of the polynomial that governs the displacement distribution within an element. For h-method elements, the polynomial degree depends upon the number of nodes used to describe the element, and the interpolation functions that relate displacements within the element to the displacements at the nodes are called shape functions. In ANSYS, 2-dimensional problems can be modeled with six-node triangles, four-node quadrilaterals or eight-node quadrilaterals.

Figure 2-21 Triangular and quadrilateral elements. The greater the number of nodes, the higher the order of the polynomial and the greater the accuracy in describing displacements, stresses and strains within the element. If the stress is constant throughout a region, a very simple model is sufficient to describe the stress state, perhaps only one or two elements. If there are gradients in the stress distributions within a region, high-degree displacement polynomials and/or many elements are required to accurately analyze the situation.

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These comments explain the variation in the accuracy of the results as different numbers of elements were used to solve the problem in the previous tutorial and why the engineer must carefully prepare a model, start with small models, grow the models as understanding of the problem develops and carefully interpret the calculated results. The ease with which models can be prepared and solved sometimes leads to careless evaluation of the computed results. 2-6 ANSYS GEOMETRY The finite element model consists of elements and nodes and is separate from the geometry on which it may be based. It is possible to build the finite element model without consideration of any underlying geometry as was done in the truss examples of Lesson 1, but in many cases, development of the geometry is the first task. Two-dimensional geometry in ANSYS is built from keypoints, lines (straight, arcs, splines), and areas. These geometric items are assigned numbers and can be listed, numbered, manipulated, and plotted. The keypoints (2,3,4,5,6), lines (2,3,5,9,10), and area (3) for Tutorial 2A are shown below.

Figure 2-22 Keypoints, lines and areas. The finite element model developed previously for this part used the area A3 for development of the node/element FEM mesh. The loads, displacement boundary conditions and pressures were applied to the geometry lines. When the solution step was executed, the loads were transferred from the lines to the FEM model nodes. Applying boundary conditions and loads to the geometry facilitates remeshing the problem. The geometry does not change, only the number and location of nodes and elements. At solution time, the loads are transferred to the new mesh. Geometry can be created in ANSYS interactively (as was done in the previous tutorial) or it can be created by reading a text file. For example, the geometry of Tutorial 2A can be generated by creating the following text file and entering it into ANSYS with the File > Read Input from command sequence.
/FILNAM,Geom /title, Stress Concentration Geometry ! Example of creating geometry using keypoints, lines, arcs /prep7

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! Create geometry k, 1, 0.0, 0.0 k, 2, 0.1, 0.0 k, 3, 0.5, 0.0 k, 4, 0.5, 0.2 k, 5, 0.0, 0.2 k, 6, 0.0, 0.1 L, L, L, L, 2, 3, 4, 5, 3 4 5 6

! Keypoint 1 is at 0.0, 0.0

! Line from keypoints 2 to 3

! arc from keypoint 2 to 6, center kp 1, radius 0.1 LARC, 2, 6, 1, 0.1 AL, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ! Area defined by lines 1,2,3,4,5

Geometry for FEM analysis also can be created with solid modeling CAD or other software and imported into ANSYS. The IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) neutral file is a common format used to exchange geometry between computer programs. Tutorial 2B demonstrates this option for ANSYS geometry development. 2-7 TUTORIAL 2B – SEATBELT COMPONENT Objective: Determine the stresses and deformation of the prototype seatbelt component shown in the figure below if it is subjected to tensile load of 1000 lbf.

Figure 2-23 Seatbelt component. The seatbelt component is made of steel, has an over all length of about 2.5 inches and is 3/32 = 0.09375 inches thick. A solid model of the part was developed in a CAD system and exported as an IGES file. The file is imported into ANSYS for analysis. For simplicity we will analyze only the right, or ‘tongue’ portion of the part in this tutorial.

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Figure 2-24 Seatbelt ‘tongue’. PREPROCESSING 1. Use a solid modeler to create the top half of the component shown above in the XY plane and export an IGES file of the part. The latch retention slot is 0.375 x 0.8125 inches and is located 0.375 inch from the right edge. If you are not using an IGES file to define the geometry for this exercise, you can create the geometry directly in ANSYS with key points, lines, arcs by selecting File > Read Input from to read in the text file given below. Skip the IGES import step below.
/FILNAM,Seatbelt /title, Seatbelt Geometry ! Example of creating geometry using keypoints, lines, arcs /prep7 ! Create geometry k, 1, 0.0, 0.0 ! Keypoint 1 is at 0.0, 0.0 k, 2, 0.75, 0.0 k, 3, 1.125, 0.0 k, 4, 1.5 0.0 k, 5, 1.5, 0.5 k, 6, 1.25, 0.75 k, 7, 0.0, 0.75 k, 8, 1.125, 0.375 k, 9, 1.09375, 0.40625 k, 10, 0.8125, 0.40625 k, 11, 0.75, 0.34375 k, 12, 1.25, 0.5 k, 13, 1.09375, 0.375 k, 14, 0.8125, 0.34375 L, 1, 2 L, 3, 4 L, 4, 5 ! Line from keypoints 1 to 2

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L, L, L, L, L,

6, 7 7, 1 3, 8 9, 10 11, 2 ! arc from keypoint 5 to 6, center kp 12, radius 0.25

LARC, 5,6, 12, 0.25 LARC, 8, 9, 13, 0.03125 LARC, 10, 11, 14, 0.0625 AL,all

! Use all lines to create the area.

2. Start ANSYS, Run Interactive, set jobname, and working directory. 3. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > Solid > Quad 8node 183 > OK . (Use the 8-node quadrilateral element for this problem.) 4. Options > Plane strs w/thk > OK > Close Enter the thickness 5. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > (Type 1 Plane 183) > OK >Enter 0.09375 > OK > Close. Enter the material properties 6. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models Material Model Number 1, Double click Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic Enter EX = 3.0E7 and PRXY = 0.3 > OK (Close Define Material Model Behavior window.) To import the IGES file 7. Utility Menu > File > Import > IGES Select the IGES file you created earlier. Accept the ANSYS import default settings. If you have trouble with the import, select the alternate options and try again. Defeaturing is an automatic process to remove inconsistencies that may exist in the IGES file, for example lines that, because of the modeling or the file translation process, do not quite join.

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Figure 2-25 IGES import. Turn the solid model around if necessary so you can easily select the X-Y plane 8. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Pan, Zoom, Rotate > Back Now mesh the X-Y plane area. (Turn area numbers on if it helps.)

Figure 2-26 Seatbelt solid, front and back. 9. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free. Pick the X-Y planar area > OK Important note: The mesh below was developed from an IGES geometry file. Using the text file geometry definition, may produce a much different mesh. If so, use the Modify Mesh refinement tools to obtain a mesh density that produces results with accuracies comparable to those given below. Stress values can be very sensitive mesh differences.

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Figure 2-27 Quad 8 mesh. The IGES solid model is not needed any longer, and since its lines and areas may interfere with subsequent modeling operations, delete it from the session. 10. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Delete > Volume and Below (Don’t be surprised if everything disappears. Just Plot > Elements to see the mesh again.) 11. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Pan, Zoom, Rotate > Front (To see the front side of mesh.)

Figure 2-28 .Mesh, front view. Now apply displacement and pressure boundary conditions. Zero displacement UX along left edge and zero UY along bottom edge. 12. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Pick the left edge > UX = 0. > OK 13. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Pick the lower edge > UY = 0. > OK The 1000 lbf load corresponds to a uniform pressure of about 14,000 psi along the ¾ inch vertical inside edge of the latch retention slot. [1000 lbf/(0.09375 in. x 0.75 in.)]. 14. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines.

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Select the inside line and set pressure = 14000 > OK.

Figure 2-29 Applied displacement and pressure conditions. Solve the equations. SOLUTION 15. Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK POSTPROCESSING Comparing the von Mises stress with the material yield stress is an accepted way of evaluating yielding for ductile metals in a combined stress state, so we enter the postprocessor and plot the element solution of von Mises, SEQV. 16. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Element Solu > Stress > (scroll down) von Mises > SEQV > OK. Zoom in on the small fillet where the maximum stresses occur. The element solution stress contours are reasonably smooth, and the maximum von Mises stress is around 118,000 psi. Further mesh refinement gives a stress value a little over 120, 000 psi.

Figure 2-30 Von Mises stresses.

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Redesign to reduce the maximum stress requires an increase in the fillet radius. Look at charts of stress concentration factors, and you notice that the maximum stress increases as the radius of the stress raiser decreases, approaching infinite values at zero radii. If your model has a zero radius notch, your finite-size elements will show a very high stress but not infinite stress. If you refine the mesh, the stress will increase but not reach infinity. The finite element technique necessarily describes finite quantities and cannot directly treat an infinite stress at a singular point, so don’t ‘chase a singularity’. If you do not care what happens at the notch (static load, ductile material, etc.) do not worry about this location but look at the other regions. If you really are concerned about the maximum stress here (fatigue loads or brittle material), then use the actual part notch radius however small (1/32 for this tutorial); do not use a zero radius. Also examine the stress gradient in the vicinity of the notch to make sure the mesh is sufficiently refined near the notch. If a crack tip is the object of the analysis, you should look at fracture mechanics approaches to the problem. (See ANSYS help topics on fracture mechanics.) The engineer’s responsibility is not only to build useful models, but also to interpret the results of such models in intelligent and meaningful ways. This can often get overlooked in the rush to get answers. Continue with the evaluation and check the strains and deflections for this model as well. 17. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Element Solu > Strain-total > 1st prin > OK. The maximum principal normal strain value is found to be approximately 0.004 in/in. 18. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solu > DOF solution > Translation UX > OK.

Figure 2-31 UX displacements. The maximum deflection in the X-direction is about 0.00145 inches and occurs as expected at the center of the right-hand edge of the latch retention slot.

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2-8 MAPPED MESHING Quadrilateral meshes may also be created by mapping a square with a regular array of cells onto a general quadrilateral or triangular region. To illustrate this, delete the last line, AL,all, from the text file above so that the area is not created (just the lines) and read it into ANSYS. Use PlotCntrls to turn Keypoint Numbering On. Then use 1. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Lines. Successively pick pairs of keypoints until the lines shown below are created.

Figure 2-32 Lines added to geometry. 2. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitrary > By Lines > Apply. Pick one of the four (or three) line combinations defining an area below > Apply. Repeat for the other areas.

Figure 2-33 Quadrilateral/Triangular regions. 3. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Glue > Areas > Pick All The glue operation preserves the boundaries between areas, which we need for mapped meshing. 4. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines Enter 4 for NDIV, No. element divisions > OK. All lines will be divided into four segments for mesh creation.

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Figure 2-34 Element size on lines. 5. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > Solid > Quad 8node 183 > OK . (Use the 8-node quadrilateral element for the mesh.) 6. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Mapped > 3 or 4 sided > Pick All. The mesh below is created. Applying boundary and load conditions and solving gives the von Mises stress distribution shown. The stress contours are discontinuous because of the poor mesh quality. Notice the long and narrow the quads near the point of maximum stress. We need more elements and they need to be better shaped with smaller aspect ratios to obtain satisfactory results.

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Figure 2-35 Mapped mesh and von Mises results. One can tailor the mapped mesh by specifying how many elements are to be placed along which lines. This allows much better control over the quality of the mesh, and an example of using this approach is described in Lesson 4. 2-9 CONVERGENCE The goal of finite element analysis as discussed in this lesson is to arrive at computed estimates of deflection, strain and stress that converge to definite values as the number of elements in the mesh increases, just as a convergent series arrives at a definite value once enough terms are summed. For elements based on assumed displacement functions that produce continuum models, the computed displacements are smaller in theory than the true displacements because the assumed displacement functions place an artificial constraint on the deformations that can occur. These constraints are relaxed as the element polynomial is increased or as more elements are used. Thus your computed displacements should converge smoothly from below to fixed values. Strains are the x and/or y derivatives of the displacements and thus depend on the distribution of the displacements for any given mesh. The strains and stresses may change in an erratic way as the mesh is refined, first smaller than the ultimate computed values, then larger, etc. Not all elements are developed using the ideas discussed above, and some will give displacements that converge from above, but you should be alert to these variations as you perform mesh refinement during the solution of a problem. 2-10 TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENT OPTIONS The analysis options for two-dimensional elements are: Plane Stress, Axisymmetric, Plane Strain, and Plane Stress with Thickness. The two examples thus far in this lesson were of the last type, namely problems of plane stress in which we provided the thickness of the part.

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The first analysis option, Plane Stress, is the ANSYS default and provides an analysis for a part with unit thickness. If you are working on a design problem in which the thickness is not yet known, you may wish to use this option and select the thickness based upon the stress, strain, and deflection distributions found for a unit thickness. The second option, Axisymmetric analysis is covered in detail in Lesson 3. Plane Strain occurs in a problem such as a cylindrical roller bearing caged against axial motion and uniformly loaded in a direction normal to the cylindrical surface. Because there is no axial motion, there is no axial strain. Each slice through the cylinder behaves like every other and the problem can be conveniently analyzed with a planar model. Another plane strain example is that of a long retaining wall, restrained at each end and loaded uniformly by soil pressure on one or both faces. 2-11 SUMMARY Problems of stress concentration in plates subject to in-plane loadings were used to illustrate ANSYS analysis of plane stress problems. Free triangular and quadrilateral element meshes were developed and analyzed. Mapped meshing with quads was also presented. Similar methods are used for solving problems involving plane strain; one only has to choose the appropriate option during element selection. The approach is also applicable to axisymmetric geometries as discussed in the next lesson. 2-12 PROBLEMS In the problems below use triangular and/or quadrilateral elements as desired. Triangles may produce more regular shaped element meshes with free meshing. The six-node triangles and eight-node quads can approximate curved surface geometries and, when stress gradients are present, give much better results than the four-node elements. 2-1 Find the maximum stress in the aluminum plate shown below. Use tabulated stress concentration factors to independently calculate the maximum stress. Compare the two results by determining the percent difference in the two answers.

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Figure P2-1 2-2 Find the maximum stress for the plate from 2-1 if the hole is located halfway between the centerline and top edge as shown. You will now need to model half of the plate instead of just one quarter and to properly restrain vertical rigid body motion. One way to do this is to fix one node along the centerline from UY displacement. When remeshing, you will have to remove this boundary restraint, remseh, and then reapply it.

Figure P2-2

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2-3 An aluminum square 10 inches on a side has a 5-inch diameter hole at the center. The object is in a state of plane strain with an internal pressure of 1500 psi. Determine the magnitude and location of the maximum principal stress, the maximum principal strain, and the maximum von Mises stress. No thickness is required for plane strain analysis.

Figure P2-3 2-4 Repeat 2-3 for a steel plate one inch thick in a state of plane stress. 2-5 See if you can reduce the maximum stress for the plate of problem 2-1 by adding holes as shown below. Select a hole size and location that you think will smooth out the ‘stress flow’ caused by the load transmission through the plate.

Figure P2-5 2-6 Repeat 2-1 but the object is a plate with notches or with a step in the geometry. Select your own dimensions, materials, and loads. Use published stress concentration factor data to compare to your results. The published results are for plates that are relatively long so that there is a uniform state of axial stress at either end relatively far from notch or hole. Create your geometry accordingly.

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Figure P2-6 2-7 Determine the stresses and deflections in an object ‘at hand’ (such as a seatbelt tongue or retaining wall) whose geometry and loading make it suitable for plane stress or plane strain analysis. Do all the necessary modeling of geometry (use a CAD system if you wish), materials and loadings. 2-8 A cantilever beam with a unit width rectangular cross section is loaded with a uniform pressure along its upper surface. Model the beam as a problem in plane stress. Compute the end deflection and the maximum stress at the cantilever support. Compare your results to those you would find using elementary beam theory.

Figure P2-8 Restrain UX along the cantilever support line, but restrain UY at only one node along this line. Otherwise, the strain in the Y direction due to the Poisson effect is prevented, and the root stresses are different from elementary beam theory because of the singularity created. (Try fixing all root points in UX and UY and see what happens.) Select your own dimensions, materials, and pressure. Try a beam that’s long and slender and one that’s short and thick. The effect of shear loading must be included in the deflection analysis as the slenderness decreases.

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NOTES:

ANSYS Tutorial
®

Release 8.0
and Release 7.1

Kent L. Lawrence
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of Texas at Arlington

________

PUBLICATIONS

SDC

Schroff Development Corporation www.schroff.com
www.schroff-europe.com

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Lesson 2 Copyrighted Plane Material Stress Plane Strain
2-1 OVERVIEW

Plane stress and plane strain problems are an important subclass of general threedimensional problems. The tutorials in this lesson demonstrate: ♦Solving planar stress concentration problems.

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♦Evaluating potential inaccuracies in the solutions. ♦Using the various ANSYS 2D element formulations.

2-2 INTRODUCTION

It is possible for an object such as the one on the cover of this book to have six components of stress when subjected to arbitrary three-dimensional loadings. When referenced to a Cartesian coordinate system these components of stress are: Normal Stresses Shear Stresses

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σx, σy, σz τxy, τyz, τzx
Figure 2-1 Stresses in 3 dimensions.

In general, the analysis of such objects requires three-dimensional modeling as discussed in Lesson 4. However, two-dimensional models are often easier to develop, easier to solve and can be employed in many situations if they can accurately represent the behavior of the object under loading.

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τxy lie in the X-Y plane and do not vary in the Z direction. Further, the other stresses (σz,τyz , and τzx )are all zero for this kind of geometry and loading. A thin beam loaded
in its plane and a spur gear tooth are good examples of plane stress problems. ANSYS provides a 6-node planar triangular element along with 4-node and 8-node quadrilateral elements for use in the development of plane stress models. We will use both triangles and quads in solution of the example problems that follow. 2-3 PLATE WITH CENTRAL HOLE To start off, let’s solve a problem with a known solution so that we can check our computed results and understanding of the FEM process. The problem is that of a tensileloaded thin plate with a central hole as shown in Figure 2-2.

A state of Plane Stress exists in a thin object loaded in the plane of its largest dimensions. Let the X-Y plane be the plane of analysis. The non-zero stresses σx, σy, and

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Figure 2-2 Plate with central hole. The 1.0 m x 0.4 m plate has a thickness of 0.01 m, and a central hole 0.2 m in diameter. It is made of steel with material properties; elastic modulus, E = 2.07 x 1011 N/m2 and Poisson’s ratio, ν = 0.29. We apply a horizontal tensile loading in the form of a pressure p = -1.0 N/m2 along the vertical edges of the plate. Because holes are necessary for fasteners such as bolts, rivets, etc, the need to know stresses and deformations near them occurs very often and has received a great deal of study. The results of these studies are widely published, and we can look up the stress concentration factor for the case shown above. Before the advent of suitable computation methods, the effect of most complex stress concentration geometries had to be evaluated experimentally, and many available charts were developed from experimental results.

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2-3

The uniform, homogeneous plate above is symmetric about horizontal axes in both geometry and loading. This means that the state of stress and deformation below a horizontal centerline is a mirror image of that above the centerline, and likewise for a vertical centerline. We can take advantage of the symmetry and, by applying the correct boundary conditions, use only a quarter of the plate for the finite element model. For small problems using symmetry may not be too important; for large problems it can save modeling and solution efforts by eliminating one-half or a quarter or more of the work. Place the origin of X-Y coordinates at the center of the hole. If we pull on both ends of the plate, points on the centerlines will move along the centerlines but not perpendicular to them. This indicates the appropriate displacement conditions to use as shown below.

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Figure 2-3 Quadrant used for analysis. In Tutorial 2A we will use ANSYS to determine the maximum horizontal stress in the plate and compare the computed results with the maximum value that can be calculated using tabulated values for stress concentration factors. Interactive commands will be used to formulate and solve the problem. 2-4 TUTORIAL 2A - PLATE

Objective: Find the maximum axial stress in the plate with a central hole and compare your result with a computation using published stress concentration factor data. PREPROCESSING 1. Start ANSYS, select the Working Directory where you will store the files associated with this problem. Also set the Jobname to Tutorial2A or something memorable and provide a Title. (If you want to make changes in the Jobname, working Directory, or Title after you’ve started ANSYS, use File > Change Jobname or Directory or Title.) Select the six node triangular element to use for the solution of this problem.

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2. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > Structural Solid > Triangle 6 node 2 > OK

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Figure 2-4 Six-node triangle.

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Figure 2-5 Element selection. Select the option where you define the plate thickness. 3. Options (Element behavior K3) > Plane strs w/thk > OK > Close

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2-5

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4. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > OK

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Figure 2-6 Element options. Figure 2-7 Real constants.

(Enter the plate thickness of 0.01 m.) >Enter 0.01 > OK > Close

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Figure 2-8 Enter the plate thickness.

Enter the material properties.

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5. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models

Material Model Number 1, Double click Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic Enter EX = 2.07E11 and PRXY = 0.29 > OK (Close the Define Material Model Behavior window.)

Create the geometry for the upper right quadrant of the plate by subtracting a 0.2 m diameter circle from a 0.5 x 0.2 m rectangle. Generate the rectangle first. 6. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners Enter (lower left corner) WP X = 0.0, WP Y = 0.0 and Width = 0.5, Height = 0.2 > OK 7. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle Enter WP X = 0.0, WP Y = 0.0 and Radius = 0.1 > OK

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Figure 2-9 Create areas.

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2-7

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Figure 2-10 Rectangle and circle. Now subtract the circle from the rectangle. (Read the messages in the window at the bottom of the screen as necessary.) 8. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas > Pick the rectangle > OK, then pick the circle > OK

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Figure 2-11 Geometry for quadrant of plate.

Create a mesh of triangular elements over the quadrant area.

9. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free Pick the quadrant > OK

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Figure 2-12 Triangular element mesh.

Apply the displacement boundary conditions and loads.

10. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Pick the left edge of the quadrant > OK > UX = 0. > OK

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11. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Pick the bottom edge of the quadrant > OK > UY = 0. > OK 12. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines. Pick the right edge of the quadrant > OK > Pressure = -1.0 > OK (A positive pressure would be a compressive load, so we use a negative pressure. The pressure is shown as a single arrow.)

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Figure 2-13 Model with loading and displacement boundary conditions.

The model-building step is now complete, and we can proceed to the solution. First to be safe, save the model. 13. Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname.db (Or Save as …. ; use a new name) SOLUTION The interactive solution proceeds as illustrated in the tutorials of Lesson 1. 14. Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK

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The /STATUS Command window displays the problem parameters and the Solve Current Load Step window is shown. Check the solution options in the /STATUS window and if all is OK, select File > Close In the Solve Current Load Step window, Select OK, and when the solution is complete, close the ‘Solution is Done!’ window. POSTPROCESSING We can now plot the results of this analysis and also list the computed values. First examine the deformed shape. 15. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape > Def. + Undef. > OK

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2-9

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Figure 2-14 Plot of Deformed shape.

The deformed shape looks correct. (The undeformed shape is indicated by the dashed lines.) The right end moves to the right in response to the tensile load in the x-direction, the circular hole ovals out, and the top moves down because of Poisson’s effect. Note that the element edges on the circular arc are represented by straight lines. This is an artifact of the plotting routine not the analysis. The six-node triangle has curved sides, and if you pick on a mid-side of one these elements, you will see that a node is placed on the curved edge. The maximum displacement is shown on the graph legend as 0.32e-11 which seems reasonable. The units of displacement are meters because we employed meters and N/m2 in the problem formulation. Now plot the stress in the X direction. 16. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu > Stress > X-direction SX > OK Use PlotCtrls > Symbols [/PSF] Surface Load Symbols (set to Pressures) and Show pre and convect as (set to Arrows) to display the pressure loads.

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Figure 2-15 Element SX stresses.

The minimum, SMN, and maximum, SMX, stresses as well as the color bar legend give an overall evaluation of the SX stress state. We are interested in the maximum stress at the hole. Use the Zoom to focus on the area with highest stress.

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Figure 2-16 SX stress detail.

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2-11

Stress variations in the actual isotropic, homogeneous plate should be smooth and continuous across elements. The discontinuities in the SX stress contours above indicate that the number of elements used in this model is too few to accurately calculate the stress values near the hole because of the stress gradients there. We will not accept this stress solution. More six-node elements are needed in the region near the hole to find accurate values of the stress. On the other hand, in the right half of the model, away from the stress riser, the calculated stress contours are smooth, and SX would seem to be accurately determined there. It is important to note that in the plotting we selected Element Solu (Element Solution) in order to look for stress contour discontinuities. If you pick Nodal Solu to plot instead, for problems like the one in this tutorial, the stress values will be averaged before plotting, and any contour discontinuities (and thus errors) will be hidden. If you plot nodal solution stresses you will always see smooth contours. A word about element accuracy: The FEM implementation of the truss element is taken directly from solid mechanics studies, and there is no approximation in the solutions for truss structures formulated and solved in the ways discussed in Lesson 1. The continuum elements such as the ones for plane stress and plane strain, on the other hand, are normally developed using displacement functions of a polynomial type to represent the displacements within the element, and the higher the polynomial, the greater the accuracy. The ANSYS six-node triangle uses a quadratic polynomial and is capable of representing linear stress and strain variations within an element. Near stress concentrations the stress gradients vary quite sharply. To capture this variation, the number of elements near the stress concentrations must be increased proportionately. To obtain more elements in the model, return to the Preprocessor and refine the mesh. 17. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Modify Mesh > Refine At > All (Select Level of refinement 1. All elements are subdivided and the mesh below is created.)

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We will also refine the mesh selectively near the hole.

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Figure 2-17 Global mesh refinement.

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18. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Modify Mesh > Refine At > Nodes. (Select the three nodes shown.) > OK (Select the Level of refinement = 1) > OK

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Figure 2-18 Selective refinement at nodes. (Note: Alternatively you can use Preprocessor > Meshing > Clear > Areas to remove all elements and build a completely new mesh. Plot > Areas afterwards to view the area again.) Now repeat the solution, and replot the stress SX.

19. Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK

20. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu > Stress > X-direction > SX > OK

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2-13

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Figure 2-19 SX stress contour after mesh refinement.

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The element solution stress contours are now smooth across element boundaries, and the stress legend shows a maximum value of 4.38 Pa. To check this result, find the stress concentration factor for this problem in a text or reference book or from a web site such as www.etbx.com. For the geometry of this

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Figure 2-20 SX stress detail contour after mesh refinement.

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example we find Kt = 2.17. We can compute the maximum stress using (Kt)(load)/(net cross sectional area). Using the pressure p = 1.0 Pa we obtain.

The computed maximum value is 4.38 Pa which is less than one per cent in error, assuming that the value of Kt is exact. The result from the first mesh was 5.8% in error.
2-5 THE APPROXIMATE NATURE OF FEM

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σ x MAX = 2.17 * p * (0.4)(0.01) /[(0.4 − 0.2) * 0.01] = 4.34 Pa

As mentioned above, the stiffness matrix for the truss elements of Lesson 1 can be developed directly and simply from elementary solid mechanics principles. For continuum problems in two and three-dimensional stress, this is generally no longer possible, and the element stiffness matrices are usually developed by assuming something specific about the characteristics of the displacements that can occur within an element. Ordinarily this is done by specifying the highest degree of the polynomial that governs the displacement distribution within an element. For h-method elements, the polynomial degree depends upon the number of nodes used to describe the element, and the interpolation functions that relate displacements within the element to the displacements at the nodes are called shape functions. In ANSYS, 2-dimensional problems can be modeled with six-node triangles, four-node quadrilaterals or eight-node quadrilaterals.

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Figure 2-21 Triangular and quadrilateral elements.

The greater the number of nodes, the higher the order of the polynomial and the greater the accuracy in describing displacements, stresses and strains within the element. If the stress is constant throughout a region, a very simple model is sufficient to describe the stress state, perhaps only one or two elements. If there are gradients in the stress distributions within a region, high-degree displacement polynomials and/or many elements are required to accurately analyze the situation.

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2-15

These comments explain the variation in the accuracy of the results as different numbers of elements were used to solve the problem in the previous tutorial and why the engineer must carefully prepare a model, start with small models, grow the models as understanding of the problem develops and carefully interpret the calculated results. The ease with which models can be prepared and solved sometimes leads to careless evaluation of the computed results. 2-6 ANSYS GEOMETRY

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The finite element model consists of elements and nodes and is separate from the geometry on which it may be based. It is possible to build the finite element model without consideration of any underlying geometry as was done in the truss examples of Lesson 1, but in many cases, development of the geometry is the first task. Two-dimensional geometry in ANSYS is built from keypoints, lines (straight, arcs, splines), and areas. These geometric items are assigned numbers and can be listed, numbered, manipulated, and plotted. The keypoints (2,3,4,5,6), lines (2,3,5,9,10), and area (3) for Tutorial 2A are shown below.

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Figure 2-22 Keypoints, lines and areas.

The finite element model developed previously for this part used the area A3 for development of the node/element FEM mesh. The loads, displacement boundary conditions and pressures were applied to the geometry lines. When the solution step was executed, the loads were transferred from the lines to the FEM model nodes. Applying boundary conditions and loads to the geometry facilitates remeshing the problem. The geometry does not change, only the number and location of nodes and elements, and. at solution time, the loads are transferred to the new mesh. Geometry can be created in ANSYS interactively (as was done in the previous tutorial) or it can be created by reading a text file. For example, the geometry of Tutorial 2A can be generated with the following text file using the File > Read Input from command sequence. (The keypoint, line, etc. numbers will be different from those shown above.)

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/FILNAM,Geom /title, Stress Concentration Geometry ! Example of creating geometry using keypoints, lines, arcs /prep7 ! Create geometry k, 1, 0.0, 0.0 ! Keypoint 1 is at 0.0, 0.0 k, 2, 0.1, 0.0 k, 3, 0.5, 0.0 k, 4, 0.5, 0.2 k, 5, 0.0, 0.2 k, 6, 0.0, 0.1 L, L, L, L, 2, 3, 4, 5, 3 4 5 6 ! Line from keypoints 2 to 3

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! Area defined by lines 1,2,3,4,5

! arc from keypoint 2 to 6, center kp 1, radius 0.1 LARC, 2, 6, 1, 0.1 AL, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Geometry for FEM analysis also can be created with solid modeling CAD or other software and imported into ANSYS. The IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) neutral file is a common format used to exchange geometry between computer programs. Tutorial 2B demonstrates this option for ANSYS geometry development. 2-7 TUTORIAL 2B – SEATBELT COMPONENT Objective: Determine the stresses and deformation of the prototype seatbelt component shown in the figure below if it is subjected to tensile load of 1000 lbf.

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Figure 2-23 Seatbelt component.

The seatbelt component is made of steel, has an over all length of about 2.5 inches and is 3/32 = 0.09375 inches thick. A solid model of the part was developed in a CAD system and exported as an IGES file. The file is imported into ANSYS for analysis. For simplicity we will analyze only the right, or ‘tongue’ portion of the part in this tutorial.

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Figure 2-24 Seatbelt ‘tongue’.

PREPROCESSING

1. Start ANSYS, Run Interactive, set jobname, and working directory.

Create the top half of the geometry above. The latch retention slot is 0.375 x 0.8125 inches and is located 0.375 inch from the right edge. If you are not using an IGES file to define the geometry for this exercise, you can create the geometry directly in ANSYS with key points, lines, arcs by selecting File > Read Input from to read in the text file given below and skipping the IGES import steps 2, 3, 4, and 10 below.
/FILNAM,Seatbelt /title, Seatbelt Geometry ! Example of creating geometry using keypoints, lines, arcs /prep7 ! Create geometry k, 1, 0.0, 0.0 ! Keypoint 1 is at 0.0, 0.0 k, 2, 0.75, 0.0 k, 3, 1.125, 0.0 k, 4, 1.5, 0.0 k, 5, 1.5, 0.5 k, 6, 1.25, 0.75 k, 7, 0.0, 0.75 k, 8, 1.125, 0.375 k, 9, 1.09375, 0.40625 k, 10, 0.8125, 0.40625 k, 11, 0.75, 0.34375 k, 12, 1.25, 0.5 k, 13, 1.09375, 0.375 k, 14, 0.8125, 0.34375

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L, L, L, L, L, L, L, L, 1, 2 3, 4 4, 5 6, 7 7, 1 3, 8 9, 10 11, 2

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! arc LARC, LARC, LARC,

from keypoint 5 to 6, center kp 12, radius 0.25, etc. 5,6, 12, 0.25 8, 9, 13, 0.03125 10, 11, 14, 0.0625

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! Line from keypoints 1 to 2 ! Use all lines to create the area.

AL,all

2. Alternatively, use a solid modeler to create the top half of the component shown above in the X-Y plane and export an IGES file of the part. To import the IGES file

3. Utility Menu > File > Import > IGES

Select the IGES file you created earlier. Accept the ANSYS import default settings. If you have trouble with the import, select the alternate options and try again. Defeaturing is an automatic process to remove inconsistencies that may exist in the IGES file, for example lines that, because of the modeling or the file translation process, do not quite join.

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Figure 2-25 IGES import.

Turn the IGES solid model around if necessary so you can easily select the X-Y plane.

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4. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Pan, Zoom, Rotate > Back, or use the side-bar icon.

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Figure 2-26 Seatbelt solid, front and back.

5. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > Solid > Quad 8node 183 > OK (Use the 8-node quadrilateral element for this problem.) 6. Options > Plane strs w/thk > OK > Close Enter the thickness 7. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > (Type 1 Plane 183) > OK >Enter 0.09375 > OK > Close Enter the material properties

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8. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models

Material Model Number 1, Double click Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic Enter EX = 3.0E7 and PRXY = 0.3 > OK (Close Define Material Model Behavior window.) Now mesh the X-Y plane area. (Turn area numbers on if it helps.) 9. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free. Pick the X-Y planar area > OK Important note: The mesh below was developed from an IGES geometry file. Using the text file geometry definition, may produce a much different mesh. If so, use the Modify Mesh refinement tools to obtain a mesh density which produces results with accuracies comparable to those given below. Stress values can be very sensitive mesh differences.

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Figure 2-27 Quad 8 mesh. The IGES solid model is not needed any longer, and since its lines and areas may interfere with subsequent modeling operations, delete it from the session. 10. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Delete > Volume and Below (Don’t be surprised if everything disappears. Just Plot > Elements to see the mesh again.) 11. Utility Menu >PlotCtrls > Pan, Zoom, Rotate > Front front side of mesh.) (If necessary to see the

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Now apply displacement and pressure boundary conditions. Zero displacement UX along left edge and zero UY along bottom edge. 12. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Pick the left edge > UX = 0. > OK 13. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Pick the lower edge > UY = 0. > OK The 1000 lbf load corresponds to a uniform pressure of about 14,000 psi along the ¾ inch vertical inside edge of the latch retention slot. [1000 lbf/(0.09375 in. x 0.75 in.)]. 14. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines

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Figure 2-28 .Mesh, front view.

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Plane Stress / Plane Strain Select the inside line and set pressure = 14000 > OK

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Figure 2-30 Von Mises stresses. Figure 2-29 Applied displacement and pressure conditions.

Solve the equations. SOLUTION

15. Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK POSTPROCESSING

Comparing the von Mises stress with the material yield stress is an accepted way of evaluating yielding for ductile metals in a combined stress state, so we enter the postprocessor and plot the element solution of von Mises stress, SEQV. 16. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu > Stress > (scroll down) von Mises > SEQV > OK Zoom in on the small fillet where the maximum stresses occur. The element solution stress contours are reasonably smooth, and the maximum von Mises stress is around 118,000 psi. Further mesh refinement gives a stress value a little over 120, 000 psi.

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Redesign to reduce the maximum stress requires an increase in the fillet radius. Look at charts of stress concentration factors, and you notice that the maximum stress increases as the radius of the stress raiser decreases, approaching infinite values at zero radii. If your model has a zero radius notch, your finite-size elements will show a very high stress but not infinite stress. If you refine the mesh, the stress will increase but not reach infinity. The finite element technique necessarily describes finite quantities and cannot directly treat an infinite stress at a singular point, so don’t ‘chase a singularity’. If you do not care what happens at the notch (static load, ductile material, etc.) do not worry about this location but look at the other regions. If you really are concerned about the maximum stress here (fatigue loads or brittle material), then use the actual part notch radius however small (1/32 for this tutorial); do not use a zero radius. Also examine the stress gradient in the vicinity of the notch to make sure the mesh is sufficiently refined near the notch. If a crack tip is the object of the analysis, you should look at fracture mechanics approaches to the problem. (See ANSYS help topics on fracture mechanics.) The engineer’s responsibility is not only to build useful models, but also to interpret the results of such models in intelligent and meaningful ways. This can often get overlooked in the rush to get answers. Continue with the evaluation and check the strains and deflections for this model as well. 17. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu > Strain-total > 1st prin > OK The maximum principal normal strain value is found to be approximately 0.004 in/in. 18. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > DOF solution > Translation UX > OK

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Figure 2-31 UX displacements.

The maximum deflection in the X-direction is about 0.00145 inches and occurs as expected at the center of the right-hand edge of the latch retention slot.

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Plane Stress / Plane Strain 2-8 MAPPED MESHING

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Quadrilateral meshes can also be created by mapping a square with a regular array of cells onto a general quadrilateral or triangular region. To illustrate this, delete the last line, AL,all, from the text file above so that the area is not created (just the lines) and read it into ANSYS. Use PlotCtrls to turn Keypoint Numbering On. Then use 1. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line. Successively pick pairs of keypoints until the four interior lines shown below are created.

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Figure 2-32 Lines added to geometry. 2. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitrary > By Lines Pick the three lines defining the lower left triangular area. > Apply > Repeat for the quadrilateral areas. > Apply > OK

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Figure 2-33 Quadrilateral/Triangular regions.

3. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Glue > Areas > Pick All The glue operation preserves the boundaries between areas, which we need for mapped meshing.

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4. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines Enter 4 for NDIV, No. element divisions > OK All lines will be divided into four segments for mesh creation.

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Figure 2-34 Element size on picked lines.

5. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > Solid > Quad 8node 183 > OK (Use the 8-node quadrilateral element for the mesh.) 6. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Mapped > 3 or 4 sided > Pick All The mesh below is created. Applying boundary and load conditions and solving gives the von Mises stress distribution shown. The stress contours are discontinuous because of the poor mesh quality. Notice the long and narrow quads near the point of maximum stress. We need more elements and they need to be better shaped with smaller aspect ratios to obtain satisfactory results.

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Figure 2-35 Mapped mesh and von Mises results. One can tailor the mapped mesh by specifying how many elements are to be placed along which lines. This allows much better control over the quality of the mesh, and an example of using this approach is described in Lesson 4. 2-9 CONVERGENCE

The goal of finite element analysis as discussed in this lesson is to arrive at computed estimates of deflection, strain and stress that converge to definite values as the number of elements in the mesh increases, just as a convergent series arrives at a definite value once enough terms are summed. For elements based on assumed displacement functions that produce continuum models, the computed displacements are smaller in theory than the true displacements because the assumed displacement functions place an artificial constraint on the deformations that can occur. These constraints are relaxed as the element polynomial is increased or as more elements are used. Thus your computed displacements should converge smoothly from below to fixed values. Strains are the x and/or y derivatives of the displacements and thus depend on the distribution of the displacements for any given mesh. The strains and stresses may change in an erratic way as the mesh is refined, first smaller than the ultimate computed values, then larger, etc. Not all elements are developed using the ideas discussed above, and some will give displacements that converge from above. (See Lesson 6.) In any case you should be alert to computed displacement and stress variations as you perform mesh refinement during the solution of a problem. 2-10 TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENT OPTIONS

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The analysis options for two-dimensional elements are: Plane Stress, Axisymmetric, Plane Strain, and Plane Stress with Thickness. The two examples thus far in this lesson were of the last type, namely problems of plane stress in which we provided the thickness of the part.

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The first analysis option, Plane Stress, is the ANSYS default and provides an analysis for a part with unit thickness. If you are working on a design problem in which the thickness is not yet known, you may wish to use this option and then select the thickness based upon the stress, strain, and deflection distributions found for a unit thickness. The second option, Axisymmetric analysis is covered in detail in Lesson 3.

Plane Strain occurs in a problem such as a cylindrical roller bearing caged against axial motion and uniformly loaded in a direction normal to the cylindrical surface. Because there is no axial motion, there is no axial strain. Each slice through the cylinder behaves like every other and the problem can be conveniently analyzed with a planar model. Another plane strain example is that of a long retaining wall, restrained at each end and loaded uniformly by soil pressure on one or both faces. 2-11 SUMMARY

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Problems of stress concentration in plates subject to in-plane loadings were used to illustrate ANSYS analysis of plane stress problems. Free triangular and quadrilateral element meshes were developed and analyzed. Mapped meshing with quads was also presented. Similar methods are used for solving problems involving plane strain; one only has to choose the appropriate option during element selection. The approach is also applicable to axisymmetric geometries as discussed in the next lesson. 2-12 PROBLEMS In the problems below, use triangular and/or quadrilateral elements as desired. Triangles may produce more regular shaped element meshes with free meshing. The six-node triangles and eight-node quads can approximate curved surface geometries and, when stress gradients are present, give much better results than the four-node elements. 2-1 Find the maximum stress in the aluminum plate shown below. Use tabulated stress concentration factors to independently calculate the maximum stress. Compare the two results by determining the percent difference in the two answers.

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Figure P2-1

2-2 Find the maximum stress for the plate from 2-1 if the hole is located halfway between the centerline and top edge as shown. You will now need to model half of the plate instead of just one quarter and properly restrain vertical rigid body motion. One way to do this is to fix one keypoint along the centerline from UY displacement.

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Figure P2-2

2-28 2-3 An aluminum square 10 inches on a side has a 5-inch diameter hole at the center. The object is in a state of plane strain with an internal pressure of 1500 psi. Determine the magnitude and location of the maximum principal stress, the maximum principal strain, and the maximum von Mises stress. No thickness is required for plane strain analysis.

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Figure P2-3

2-4 Repeat 2-3 for a steel plate one inch thick in a state of plane stress.

2-5 See if you can reduce the maximum stress for the plate of problem 2-1 by adding holes as shown below. Select a hole size and location that you think will smooth out the ‘stress flow’ caused by the load transmission through the plate.

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Figure P2-5 2-6 Repeat 2-1 but the object is a plate with notches or with a step in the geometry. Select your own dimensions, materials, and loads. Use published stress concentration factor data to compare to your results. The published results are for plates that are relatively long so that there is a uniform state of axial stress at either end relatively far from notch or hole. Create your geometry accordingly.

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2-29

2-7 Determine the stresses and deflections in an object ‘at hand’ (such as a seatbelt tongue or retaining wall) whose geometry and loading make it suitable for plane stress or plane strain analysis. Do all the necessary modeling of geometry (use a CAD system if you wish), materials and loadings. 2-8 A cantilever beam with a unit width rectangular cross section is loaded with a uniform pressure along its upper surface. Model the beam as a problem in plane stress. Compute the end deflection and the maximum stress at the cantilever support. Compare your results to those you would find using elementary beam theory.

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Figure P2-6

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Figure P2-8

Restrain UX along the cantilever support line, but restrain UY at only one keypoint along this line. Otherwise, the strain in the Y direction due to the Poisson effect is prevented, and the root stresses are different from elementary beam theory because of the singularity created. (Try fixing all node points in UX and UY and see what happens.) Select your own dimensions, materials, and pressure. Try a beam that’s long and slender and one that’s short and thick. The effect of shear loading must be included in the deflection analysis as the slenderness decreases.

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2-30 NOTES:

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ANSYS Tutorial
®

Release 9

Kent L. Lawrence
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of Texas at Arlington

________

PUBLICATIONS

SDC

Schroff Development Corporation
www.schroff-europe.com

www.schroff.com

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2-1

Lesson 2 Copyrighted Plane Material Stress Plane Strain
2-1 OVERVIEW

Plane stress and plane strain problems are an important subclass of general threedimensional problems. The tutorials in this lesson demonstrate: ♦Solving planar stress concentration problems.

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♦Evaluating potential inaccuracies in the solutions. ♦Using the various ANSYS 2D element formulations.

2-2 INTRODUCTION

It is possible for an object such as the one on the cover of this book to have six components of stress when subjected to arbitrary three-dimensional loadings. When referenced to a Cartesian coordinate system these components of stress are: Normal Stresses Shear Stresses

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σx, σy, σz τxy, τyz, τzx
Figure 2-1 Stresses in 3 dimensions.

In general, the analysis of such objects requires three-dimensional modeling as discussed in Lesson 4. However, two-dimensional models are often easier to develop, easier to solve and can be employed in many situations if they can accurately represent the behavior of the object under loading.

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τxy lie in the X-Y plane and do not vary in the Z direction. Further, the other stresses (σz,τyz , and τzx )are all zero for this kind of geometry and loading. A thin beam loaded
in its plane and a spur gear tooth are good examples of plane stress problems. ANSYS provides a 6-node planar triangular element along with 4-node and 8-node quadrilateral elements for use in the development of plane stress models. We will use both triangles and quads in solution of the example problems that follow. 2-3 PLATE WITH CENTRAL HOLE To start off, let’s solve a problem with a known solution so that we can check our computed results and understanding of the FEM process. The problem is that of a tensileloaded thin plate with a central hole as shown in Figure 2-2.

A state of Plane Stress exists in a thin object loaded in the plane of its largest dimensions. Let the X-Y plane be the plane of analysis. The non-zero stresses σx, σy, and

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Figure 2-2 Plate with central hole. The 1.0 m x 0.4 m plate has a thickness of 0.01 m, and a central hole 0.2 m in diameter. It is made of steel with material properties; elastic modulus, E = 2.07 x 1011 N/m2 and Poisson’s ratio, ν = 0.29. We apply a horizontal tensile loading in the form of a pressure p = -1.0 N/m2 along the vertical edges of the plate. Because holes are necessary for fasteners such as bolts, rivets, etc, the need to know stresses and deformations near them occurs very often and has received a great deal of study. The results of these studies are widely published, and we can look up the stress concentration factor for the case shown above. Before the advent of suitable computation methods, the effect of most complex stress concentration geometries had to be evaluated experimentally, and many available charts were developed from experimental results.

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2-3

The uniform, homogeneous plate above is symmetric about horizontal axes in both geometry and loading. This means that the state of stress and deformation below a horizontal centerline is a mirror image of that above the centerline, and likewise for a vertical centerline. We can take advantage of the symmetry and, by applying the correct boundary conditions, use only a quarter of the plate for the finite element model. For small problems using symmetry may not be too important; for large problems it can save modeling and solution efforts by eliminating one-half or a quarter or more of the work. Place the origin of X-Y coordinates at the center of the hole. If we pull on both ends of the plate, points on the centerlines will move along the centerlines but not perpendicular to them. This indicates the appropriate displacement conditions to use as shown below.

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Figure 2-3 Quadrant used for analysis. In Tutorial 2A we will use ANSYS to determine the maximum horizontal stress in the plate and compare the computed results with the maximum value that can be calculated using tabulated values for stress concentration factors. Interactive commands will be used to formulate and solve the problem. 2-4 TUTORIAL 2A - PLATE

Objective: Find the maximum axial stress in the plate with a central hole and compare your result with a computation using published stress concentration factor data. PREPROCESSING 1. Start ANSYS, select the Working Directory where you will store the files associated with this problem. Also set the Jobname to Tutorial2A or something memorable and provide a Title. (If you want to make changes in the Jobname, working Directory, or Title after you’ve started ANSYS, use File > Change Jobname or Directory or Title.) Select the six node triangular element to use for the solution of this problem.

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2. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > Structural Solid > Triangle 6 node 2 > OK

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Figure 2-4 Six-node triangle.

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Figure 2-5 Element selection. Select the option where you define the plate thickness. 3. Options (Element behavior K3) > Plane strs w/thk > OK > Close

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2-5

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4. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > OK

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Figure 2-6 Element options. Figure 2-7 Real constants.

(Enter the plate thickness of 0.01 m.) >Enter 0.01 > OK > Close

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Figure 2-8 Enter the plate thickness.

Enter the material properties.

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5. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models

Material Model Number 1, Double click Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic Enter EX = 2.07E11 and PRXY = 0.29 > OK (Close the Define Material Model Behavior window.)

Create the geometry for the upper right quadrant of the plate by subtracting a 0.2 m diameter circle from a 0.5 x 0.2 m rectangle. Generate the rectangle first. 6. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners Enter (lower left corner) WP X = 0.0, WP Y = 0.0 and Width = 0.5, Height = 0.2 > OK 7. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle Enter WP X = 0.0, WP Y = 0.0 and Radius = 0.1 > OK

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Figure 2-9 Create areas.

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Figure 2-10 Rectangle and circle. Now subtract the circle from the rectangle. (Read the messages in the window at the bottom of the screen as necessary.) 8. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas > Pick the rectangle > OK, then pick the circle > OK

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Figure 2-11 Geometry for quadrant of plate.

Create a mesh of triangular elements over the quadrant area.

9. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free Pick the quadrant > OK

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Figure 2-12 Triangular element mesh.

Apply the displacement boundary conditions and loads.

10. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Pick the left edge of the quadrant > OK > UX = 0. > OK

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11. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Pick the bottom edge of the quadrant > OK > UY = 0. > OK 12. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines. Pick the right edge of the quadrant > OK > Pressure = -1.0 > OK (A positive pressure would be a compressive load, so we use a negative pressure. The pressure is shown as a single arrow.)

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Figure 2-13 Model with loading and displacement boundary conditions.

The model-building step is now complete, and we can proceed to the solution. First to be safe, save the model. 13. Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname.db (Or Save as …. ; use a new name) SOLUTION The interactive solution proceeds as illustrated in the tutorials of Lesson 1. 14. Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK

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The /STATUS Command window displays the problem parameters and the Solve Current Load Step window is shown. Check the solution options in the /STATUS window and if all is OK, select File > Close In the Solve Current Load Step window, Select OK, and when the solution is complete, close the ‘Solution is Done!’ window. POSTPROCESSING We can now plot the results of this analysis and also list the computed values. First examine the deformed shape. 15. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape > Def. + Undef. > OK

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2-9

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Figure 2-14 Plot of Deformed shape.

The deformed shape looks correct. (The undeformed shape is indicated by the dashed lines.) The right end moves to the right in response to the tensile load in the x-direction, the circular hole ovals out, and the top moves down because of Poisson’s effect. Note that the element edges on the circular arc are represented by straight lines. This is an artifact of the plotting routine not the analysis. The six-node triangle has curved sides, and if you pick on a mid-side of one these elements, you will see that a node is placed on the curved edge. The maximum displacement is shown on the graph legend as 0.32e-11 which seems reasonable. The units of displacement are meters because we employed meters and N/m2 in the problem formulation. Now plot the stress in the X direction. 16. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu > Stress > X-direction SX > OK Use PlotCtrls > Symbols [/PSF] Surface Load Symbols (set to Pressures) and Show pre and convect as (set to Arrows) to display the pressure loads.

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Figure 2-15 Element SX stresses.

The minimum, SMN, and maximum, SMX, stresses as well as the color bar legend give an overall evaluation of the SX stress state. We are interested in the maximum stress at the hole. Use the Zoom to focus on the area with highest stress.

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Figure 2-16 SX stress detail.

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2-11

Stress variations in the actual isotropic, homogeneous plate should be smooth and continuous across elements. The discontinuities in the SX stress contours above indicate that the number of elements used in this model is too few to accurately calculate the stress values near the hole because of the stress gradients there. We will not accept this stress solution. More six-node elements are needed in the region near the hole to find accurate values of the stress. On the other hand, in the right half of the model, away from the stress riser, the calculated stress contours are smooth, and SX would seem to be accurately determined there. It is important to note that in the plotting we selected Element Solu (Element Solution) in order to look for stress contour discontinuities. If you pick Nodal Solu to plot instead, for problems like the one in this tutorial, the stress values will be averaged before plotting, and any contour discontinuities (and thus errors) will be hidden. If you plot nodal solution stresses you will always see smooth contours. A word about element accuracy: The FEM implementation of the truss element is taken directly from solid mechanics studies, and there is no approximation in the solutions for truss structures formulated and solved in the ways discussed in Lesson 1. The continuum elements such as the ones for plane stress and plane strain, on the other hand, are normally developed using displacement functions of a polynomial type to represent the displacements within the element, and the higher the polynomial, the greater the accuracy. The ANSYS six-node triangle uses a quadratic polynomial and is capable of representing linear stress and strain variations within an element. Near stress concentrations the stress gradients vary quite sharply. To capture this variation, the number of elements near the stress concentrations must be increased proportionately. To obtain more elements in the model, return to the Preprocessor and refine the mesh. 17. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Modify Mesh > Refine At > All (Select Level of refinement 1. All elements are subdivided and the mesh below is created.)

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We will also refine the mesh selectively near the hole.

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Figure 2-17 Global mesh refinement.

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18. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Modify Mesh > Refine At > Nodes. (Select the three nodes shown.) > OK (Select the Level of refinement = 1) > OK

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Figure 2-18 Selective refinement at nodes. (Note: Alternatively you can use Preprocessor > Meshing > Clear > Areas to remove all elements and build a completely new mesh. Plot > Areas afterwards to view the area again.) Now repeat the solution, and replot the stress SX.

19. Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK

20. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu > Stress > X-direction > SX > OK

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Figure 2-19 SX stress contour after mesh refinement.

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The element solution stress contours are now smooth across element boundaries, and the stress legend shows a maximum value of 4.38 Pa. To check this result, find the stress concentration factor for this problem in a text or reference book or from a web site such as www.etbx.com. For the geometry of this

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Figure 2-20 SX stress detail contour after mesh refinement.

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example we find Kt = 2.17. We can compute the maximum stress using (Kt)(load)/(net cross sectional area). Using the pressure p = 1.0 Pa we obtain.

The computed maximum value is 4.38 Pa which is less than one per cent in error, assuming that the value of Kt is exact. The result from the first mesh was 5.8% in error.
2-5 THE APPROXIMATE NATURE OF FEM

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σ x MAX = 2.17 * p * (0.4)(0.01) /[(0.4 − 0.2) * 0.01] = 4.34 Pa

As mentioned above, the stiffness matrix for the truss elements of Lesson 1 can be developed directly and simply from elementary solid mechanics principles. For continuum problems in two and three-dimensional stress, this is generally no longer possible, and the element stiffness matrices are usually developed by assuming something specific about the characteristics of the displacements that can occur within an element. Ordinarily this is done by specifying the highest degree of the polynomial that governs the displacement distribution within an element. For h-method elements, the polynomial degree depends upon the number of nodes used to describe the element, and the interpolation functions that relate displacements within the element to the displacements at the nodes are called shape functions. In ANSYS, 2-dimensional problems can be modeled with six-node triangles, four-node quadrilaterals or eight-node quadrilaterals.

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Figure 2-21 Triangular and quadrilateral elements.

The greater the number of nodes, the higher the order of the polynomial and the greater the accuracy in describing displacements, stresses and strains within the element. If the stress is constant throughout a region, a very simple model is sufficient to describe the stress state, perhaps only one or two elements. If there are gradients in the stress distributions within a region, high-degree displacement polynomials and/or many elements are required to accurately analyze the situation.

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2-15

These comments explain the variation in the accuracy of the results as different numbers of elements were used to solve the problem in the previous tutorial and why the engineer must carefully prepare a model, start with small models, grow the models as understanding of the problem develops and carefully interpret the calculated results. The ease with which models can be prepared and solved sometimes leads to careless evaluation of the computed results. 2-6 ANSYS GEOMETRY

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The finite element model consists of elements and nodes and is separate from the geometry on which it may be based. It is possible to build the finite element model without consideration of any underlying geometry as was done in the truss examples of Lesson 1, but in many cases, development of the geometry is the first task. Two-dimensional geometry in ANSYS is built from keypoints, lines (straight, arcs, splines), and areas. These geometric items are assigned numbers and can be listed, numbered, manipulated, and plotted. The keypoints (2,3,4,5,6), lines (2,3,5,9,10), and area (3) for Tutorial 2A are shown below.

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Figure 2-22 Keypoints, lines and areas.

The finite element model developed previously for this part used the area A3 for development of the node/element FEM mesh. The loads, displacement boundary conditions and pressures were applied to the geometry lines. When the solution step was executed, the loads were transferred from the lines to the FEM model nodes. Applying boundary conditions and loads to the geometry facilitates remeshing the problem. The geometry does not change, only the number and location of nodes and elements, and. at solution time, the loads are transferred to the new mesh. Geometry can be created in ANSYS interactively (as was done in the previous tutorial) or it can be created by reading a text file. For example, the geometry of Tutorial 2A can be generated with the following text file using the File > Read Input from command sequence. (The keypoint, line, etc. numbers will be different from those shown above.)

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/FILNAM,Geom /title, Stress Concentration Geometry ! Example of creating geometry using keypoints, lines, arcs /prep7 ! Create geometry k, 1, 0.0, 0.0 ! Keypoint 1 is at 0.0, 0.0 k, 2, 0.1, 0.0 k, 3, 0.5, 0.0 k, 4, 0.5, 0.2 k, 5, 0.0, 0.2 k, 6, 0.0, 0.1 L, L, L, L, 2, 3, 4, 5, 3 4 5 6 ! Line from keypoints 2 to 3

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! Area defined by lines 1,2,3,4,5

! arc from keypoint 2 to 6, center kp 1, radius 0.1 LARC, 2, 6, 1, 0.1 AL, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Geometry for FEM analysis also can be created with solid modeling CAD or other software and imported into ANSYS. The IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) neutral file is a common format used to exchange geometry between computer programs. Tutorial 2B demonstrates this option for ANSYS geometry development. 2-7 TUTORIAL 2B – SEATBELT COMPONENT Objective: Determine the stresses and deformation of the prototype seatbelt component shown in the figure below if it is subjected to tensile load of 1000 lbf.

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Figure 2-23 Seatbelt component.

The seatbelt component is made of steel, has an over all length of about 2.5 inches and is 3/32 = 0.09375 inches thick. A solid model of the part was developed in a CAD system and exported as an IGES file. The file is imported into ANSYS for analysis. For simplicity we will analyze only the right, or ‘tongue’ portion of the part in this tutorial.

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Figure 2-24 Seatbelt ‘tongue’.

PREPROCESSING

1. Start ANSYS, Run Interactive, set jobname, and working directory.

Create the top half of the geometry above. The latch retention slot is 0.375 x 0.8125 inches and is located 0.375 inch from the right edge. If you are not using an IGES file to define the geometry for this exercise, you can create the geometry directly in ANSYS with key points, lines, arcs by selecting File > Read Input from to read in the text file given below and skipping the IGES import steps 2, 3, 4, and 10 below.
/FILNAM,Seatbelt /title, Seatbelt Geometry ! Example of creating geometry using keypoints, lines, arcs /prep7 ! Create geometry k, 1, 0.0, 0.0 ! Keypoint 1 is at 0.0, 0.0 k, 2, 0.75, 0.0 k, 3, 1.125, 0.0 k, 4, 1.5, 0.0 k, 5, 1.5, 0.5 k, 6, 1.25, 0.75 k, 7, 0.0, 0.75 k, 8, 1.125, 0.375 k, 9, 1.09375, 0.40625 k, 10, 0.8125, 0.40625 k, 11, 0.75, 0.34375 k, 12, 1.25, 0.5 k, 13, 1.09375, 0.375 k, 14, 0.8125, 0.34375

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L, L, L, L, L, L, L, L, 1, 2 3, 4 4, 5 6, 7 7, 1 3, 8 9, 10 11, 2

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! arc LARC, LARC, LARC,

from keypoint 5 to 6, center kp 12, radius 0.25, etc. 5,6, 12, 0.25 8, 9, 13, 0.03125 10, 11, 14, 0.0625

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! Line from keypoints 1 to 2 ! Use all lines to create the area.

AL,all

2. Alternatively, use a solid modeler to create the top half of the component shown above in the X-Y plane and export an IGES file of the part. To import the IGES file

3. Utility Menu > File > Import > IGES

Select the IGES file you created earlier. Accept the ANSYS import default settings. If you have trouble with the import, select the alternate options and try again. Defeaturing is an automatic process to remove inconsistencies that may exist in the IGES file, for example lines that, because of the modeling or the file translation process, do not quite join.

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Figure 2-25 IGES import.

Turn the IGES solid model around if necessary so you can easily select the X-Y plane.

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4. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Pan, Zoom, Rotate > Back, or use the side-bar icon.

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Figure 2-26 Seatbelt solid, front and back.

5. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > Solid > Quad 8node 183 > OK (Use the 8-node quadrilateral element for this problem.) 6. Options > Plane strs w/thk > OK > Close Enter the thickness 7. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > (Type 1 Plane 183) > OK >Enter 0.09375 > OK > Close Enter the material properties

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8. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models

Material Model Number 1, Double click Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic Enter EX = 3.0E7 and PRXY = 0.3 > OK (Close Define Material Model Behavior window.) Now mesh the X-Y plane area. (Turn area numbers on if it helps.) 9. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free. Pick the X-Y planar area > OK Important note: The mesh below was developed from an IGES geometry file. Using the text file geometry definition, may produce a much different mesh. If so, use the Modify Mesh refinement tools to obtain a mesh density which produces results with accuracies comparable to those given below. Stress values can be very sensitive mesh differences.

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Figure 2-27 Quad 8 mesh. The IGES solid model is not needed any longer, and since its lines and areas may interfere with subsequent modeling operations, delete it from the session. 10. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Delete > Volume and Below (Don’t be surprised if everything disappears. Just Plot > Elements to see the mesh again.) 11. Utility Menu >PlotCtrls > Pan, Zoom, Rotate > Front front side of mesh.) (If necessary to see the

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Now apply displacement and pressure boundary conditions. Zero displacement UX along left edge and zero UY along bottom edge. 12. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Pick the left edge > UX = 0. > OK 13. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Pick the lower edge > UY = 0. > OK The 1000 lbf load corresponds to a uniform pressure of about 14,000 psi along the ¾ inch vertical inside edge of the latch retention slot. [1000 lbf/(0.09375 in. x 0.75 in.)]. 14. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines

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Figure 2-28 .Mesh, front view.

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Figure 2-30 Von Mises stresses. Figure 2-29 Applied displacement and pressure conditions.

Solve the equations. SOLUTION

15. Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK POSTPROCESSING

Comparing the von Mises stress with the material yield stress is an accepted way of evaluating yielding for ductile metals in a combined stress state, so we enter the postprocessor and plot the element solution of von Mises stress, SEQV. 16. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu > Stress > (scroll down) von Mises > SEQV > OK Zoom in on the small fillet where the maximum stresses occur. The element solution stress contours are reasonably smooth, and the maximum von Mises stress is around 118,000 psi. Further mesh refinement gives a stress value a little over 120, 000 psi.

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Redesign to reduce the maximum stress requires an increase in the fillet radius. Look at charts of stress concentration factors, and you notice that the maximum stress increases as the radius of the stress raiser decreases, approaching infinite values at zero radii. If your model has a zero radius notch, your finite-size elements will show a very high stress but not infinite stress. If you refine the mesh, the stress will increase but not reach infinity. The finite element technique necessarily describes finite quantities and cannot directly treat an infinite stress at a singular point, so don’t ‘chase a singularity’. If you do not care what happens at the notch (static load, ductile material, etc.) do not worry about this location but look at the other regions. If you really are concerned about the maximum stress here (fatigue loads or brittle material), then use the actual part notch radius however small (1/32 for this tutorial); do not use a zero radius. Also examine the stress gradient in the vicinity of the notch to make sure the mesh is sufficiently refined near the notch. If a crack tip is the object of the analysis, you should look at fracture mechanics approaches to the problem. (See ANSYS help topics on fracture mechanics.) The engineer’s responsibility is not only to build useful models, but also to interpret the results of such models in intelligent and meaningful ways. This can often get overlooked in the rush to get answers. Continue with the evaluation and check the strains and deflections for this model as well. 17. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu > Strain-total > 1st prin > OK The maximum principal normal strain value is found to be approximately 0.004 in/in. 18. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > DOF solution > Translation UX > OK

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Figure 2-31 UX displacements.

The maximum deflection in the X-direction is about 0.00145 inches and occurs as expected at the center of the right-hand edge of the latch retention slot.

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Quadrilateral meshes can also be created by mapping a square with a regular array of cells onto a general quadrilateral or triangular region. To illustrate this, delete the last line, AL,all, from the text file above so that the area is not created (just the lines) and read it into ANSYS. Use PlotCtrls to turn Keypoint Numbering On. Then use 1. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line. Successively pick pairs of keypoints until the four interior lines shown below are created.

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Figure 2-32 Lines added to geometry. 2. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitrary > By Lines Pick the three lines defining the lower left triangular area. > Apply > Repeat for the quadrilateral areas. > Apply > OK

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Figure 2-33 Quadrilateral/Triangular regions.

3. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Glue > Areas > Pick All The glue operation preserves the boundaries between areas, which we need for mapped meshing.

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4. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines Enter 4 for NDIV, No. element divisions > OK All lines will be divided into four segments for mesh creation.

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Figure 2-34 Element size on picked lines.

5. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > Solid > Quad 8node 183 > OK (Use the 8-node quadrilateral element for the mesh.) 6. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Mapped > 3 or 4 sided > Pick All The mesh below is created. Applying boundary and load conditions and solving gives the von Mises stress distribution shown. The stress contours are discontinuous because of the poor mesh quality. Notice the long and narrow quads near the point of maximum stress. We need more elements and they need to be better shaped with smaller aspect ratios to obtain satisfactory results.

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Figure 2-35 Mapped mesh and von Mises results. One can tailor the mapped mesh by specifying how many elements are to be placed along which lines. This allows much better control over the quality of the mesh, and an example of using this approach is described in Lesson 4. 2-9 CONVERGENCE

The goal of finite element analysis as discussed in this lesson is to arrive at computed estimates of deflection, strain and stress that converge to definite values as the number of elements in the mesh increases, just as a convergent series arrives at a definite value once enough terms are summed. For elements based on assumed displacement functions that produce continuum models, the computed displacements are smaller in theory than the true displacements because the assumed displacement functions place an artificial constraint on the deformations that can occur. These constraints are relaxed as the element polynomial is increased or as more elements are used. Thus your computed displacements should converge smoothly from below to fixed values. Strains are the x and/or y derivatives of the displacements and thus depend on the distribution of the displacements for any given mesh. The strains and stresses may change in an erratic way as the mesh is refined, first smaller than the ultimate computed values, then larger, etc. Not all elements are developed using the ideas discussed above, and some will give displacements that converge from above. (See Lesson 6.) In any case you should be alert to computed displacement and stress variations as you perform mesh refinement during the solution of a problem. 2-10 TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENT OPTIONS

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The analysis options for two-dimensional elements are: Plane Stress, Axisymmetric, Plane Strain, and Plane Stress with Thickness. The two examples thus far in this lesson were of the last type, namely problems of plane stress in which we provided the thickness of the part.

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The first analysis option, Plane Stress, is the ANSYS default and provides an analysis for a part with unit thickness. If you are working on a design problem in which the thickness is not yet known, you may wish to use this option and then select the thickness based upon the stress, strain, and deflection distributions found for a unit thickness. The second option, Axisymmetric analysis is covered in detail in Lesson 3.

Plane Strain occurs in a problem such as a cylindrical roller bearing caged against axial motion and uniformly loaded in a direction normal to the cylindrical surface. Because there is no axial motion, there is no axial strain. Each slice through the cylinder behaves like every other and the problem can be conveniently analyzed with a planar model. Another plane strain example is that of a long retaining wall, restrained at each end and loaded uniformly by soil pressure on one or both faces. 2-11 SUMMARY

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Problems of stress concentration in plates subject to in-plane loadings were used to illustrate ANSYS analysis of plane stress problems. Free triangular and quadrilateral element meshes were developed and analyzed. Mapped meshing with quads was also presented. Similar methods are used for solving problems involving plane strain; one only has to choose the appropriate option during element selection. The approach is also applicable to axisymmetric geometries as discussed in the next lesson. 2-12 PROBLEMS In the problems below, use triangular and/or quadrilateral elements as desired. Triangles may produce more regular shaped element meshes with free meshing. The six-node triangles and eight-node quads can approximate curved surface geometries and, when stress gradients are present, give much better results than the four-node elements. 2-1 Find the maximum stress in the aluminum plate shown below. Use tabulated stress concentration factors to independently calculate the maximum stress. Compare the two results by determining the percent difference in the two answers.

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Figure P2-1

2-2 Find the maximum stress for the plate from 2-1 if the hole is located halfway between the centerline and top edge as shown. You will now need to model half of the plate instead of just one quarter and properly restrain vertical rigid body motion. One way to do this is to fix one keypoint along the centerline from UY displacement.

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Figure P2-2

2-28 2-3 An aluminum square 10 inches on a side has a 5-inch diameter hole at the center. The object is in a state of plane strain with an internal pressure of 1500 psi. Determine the magnitude and location of the maximum principal stress, the maximum principal strain, and the maximum von Mises stress. No thickness is required for plane strain analysis.

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Figure P2-3

2-4 Repeat 2-3 for a steel plate one inch thick in a state of plane stress.

2-5 See if you can reduce the maximum stress for the plate of problem 2-1 by adding holes as shown below. Select a hole size and location that you think will smooth out the ‘stress flow’ caused by the load transmission through the plate.

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Figure P2-5 2-6 Repeat 2-1 but the object is a plate with notches or with a step in the geometry. Select your own dimensions, materials, and loads. Use published stress concentration factor data to compare to your results. The published results are for plates that are relatively long so that there is a uniform state of axial stress at either end relatively far from notch or hole. Create your geometry accordingly.

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2-7 Determine the stresses and deflections in an object ‘at hand’ (such as a seatbelt tongue or retaining wall) whose geometry and loading make it suitable for plane stress or plane strain analysis. Do all the necessary modeling of geometry (use a CAD system if you wish), materials and loadings. 2-8 A cantilever beam with a unit width rectangular cross section is loaded with a uniform pressure along its upper surface. Model the beam as a problem in plane stress. Compute the end deflection and the maximum stress at the cantilever support. Compare your results to those you would find using elementary beam theory.

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Figure P2-6

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Figure P2-8

Restrain UX along the cantilever support line, but restrain UY at only one keypoint along this line. Otherwise, the strain in the Y direction due to the Poisson effect is prevented, and the root stresses are different from elementary beam theory because of the singularity created. (Try fixing all node points in UX and UY and see what happens.) Select your own dimensions, materials, and pressure. Try a beam that’s long and slender and one that’s short and thick. The effect of shear loading must be included in the deflection analysis as the slenderness decreases.

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2-30 NOTES:

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ANSYS Tutorial
®

Release 10

Kent L. Lawrence
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of Texas at Arlington

PUBLICATIONS

SDC

Schroff Development Corporation
www.schroff-europe.com

www.schroff.com

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Lesson 2 Copyrighted Plane Material Stress Plane Strain
2-1 OVERVIEW

Plane stress and plane strain problems are an important subclass of general threedimensional problems. The tutorials in this lesson demonstrate: ♦Solving planar stress concentration problems.

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♦Evaluating potential inaccuracies in the solutions. ♦Using the various ANSYS 2D element formulations.

2-2 INTRODUCTION

It is possible for an object such as the one on the cover of this book to have six components of stress when subjected to arbitrary three-dimensional loadings. When referenced to a Cartesian coordinate system these components of stress are: Normal Stresses Shear Stresses

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σx, σy, σz τxy, τyz, τzx
Figure 2-1 Stresses in 3 dimensions.

In general, the analysis of such objects requires three-dimensional modeling as discussed in Lesson 4. However, two-dimensional models are often easier to develop, easier to solve and can be employed in many situations if they can accurately represent the behavior of the object under loading.

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A state of Plane Stress exists in a thin object loaded in the plane of its largest dimensions. Let the X-Y plane be the plane of analysis. The non-zero stresses σx, σy, and τxy lie in the X - Y plane and do not vary in the Z direction. Further, the other stresses (σz,τyz , and τzx )are all zero for this kind of geometry and loading. A thin beam loaded in its plane and a spur gear tooth are good examples of plane stress problems. ANSYS provides a 6-node planar triangular element along with 4-node and 8-node quadrilateral elements for use in the development of plane stress models. We will use both triangles and quads in solution of the example problems that follow. 2-3 PLATE WITH CENTRAL HOLE To start off, let’s solve a problem with a known solution so that we can check our computed results and understanding of the FEM process. The problem is that of a tensileloaded thin plate with a central hole as shown in Figure 2-2.

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The 1.0 m x 0.4 m plate has a thickness of 0.01 m, and a central hole 0.2 m in diameter. It is made of steel with material properties; elastic modulus, E = 2.07 x 1011 N/m2 and Poisson’s ratio, ν = 0.29. We apply a horizontal tensile loading in the form of a pressure p = -1.0 N/m2 along the vertical edges of the plate. Because holes are necessary for fasteners such as bolts, rivets, etc, the need to know stresses and deformations near them occurs very often and has received a great deal of study. The results of these studies are widely published, and we can look up the stress concentration factor for the case shown above. Before the advent of suitable computation methods, the effect of most complex stress concentration geometries had to be evaluated experimentally, and many available charts were developed from experimental results.

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Figure 2-2 Plate with central hole.

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2-3

The uniform, homogeneous plate above is symmetric about horizontal axes in both geometry and loading. This means that the state of stress and deformation below a horizontal centerline is a mirror image of that above the centerline, and likewise for a vertical centerline. We can take advantage of the symmetry and, by applying the correct boundary conditions, use only a quarter of the plate for the finite element model. For small problems using symmetry may not be too important; for large problems it can save modeling and solution efforts by eliminating one-half or a quarter or more of the work. Place the origin of X-Y coordinates at the center of the hole. If we pull on both ends of the plate, points on the centerlines will move along the centerlines but not perpendicular to them. This indicates the appropriate displacement conditions to use as shown below.

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Figure 2-3 Quadrant used for analysis. In Tutorial 2A we will use ANSYS to determine the maximum horizontal stress in the plate and compare the computed results with the maximum value that can be calculated using tabulated values for stress concentration factors. Interactive commands will be used to formulate and solve the problem. 2-4 TUTORIAL 2A - PLATE

Objective: Find the maximum axial stress in the plate with a central hole and compare your result with a computation using published stress concentration factor data. PREPROCESSING 1. Start ANSYS, select the Working Directory where you will store the files associated with this problem. Also set the Jobname to Tutorial2A or something memorable and provide a Title. (If you want to make changes in the Jobname, working Directory, or Title after you’ve started ANSYS, use File > Change Jobname or Directory or Title.) Select the six node triangular element to use for the solution of this problem.

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2. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > Structural Solid > Triangle 6 node 2 > OK

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Figure 2-4 Six-node triangle.

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Figure 2-5 Element selection. Select the option where you define the plate thickness. 3. Options (Element behavior K3) > Plane strs w/thk > OK > Close

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4. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > OK

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Figure 2-6 Element options. Figure 2-7 Real constants.

(Enter the plate thickness of 0.01 m.) >Enter 0.01 > OK > Close

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Figure 2-8 Enter the plate thickness.

Enter the material properties.

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5. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models

Material Model Number 1, Double click Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic Enter EX = 2.07E11 and PRXY = 0.29 > OK (Close the Define Material Model Behavior window.) Create the geometry for the upper right quadrant of the plate by subtracting a 0.2 m diameter circle from a 0.5 x 0.2 m rectangle. Generate the rectangle first. 6. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners Enter (lower left corner) WP X = 0.0, WP Y = 0.0 and Width = 0.5, Height = 0.2 > OK 7. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle Enter WP X = 0.0, WP Y = 0.0 and Radius = 0.1 > OK

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Figure 2-9 Create areas.

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Figure 2-10 Rectangle and circle. Now subtract the circle from the rectangle. (Read the messages in the window at the bottom of the screen as necessary.) 8. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas > Pick the rectangle > OK, then pick the circle > OK

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Figure 2-11 Geometry for quadrant of plate.

Create a mesh of triangular elements over the quadrant area.

9. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free Pick the quadrant > OK

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Figure 2-12 Triangular element mesh.

Apply the displacement boundary conditions and loads.

10. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Pick the left edge of the quadrant > OK > UX = 0. > OK

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11. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Pick the bottom edge of the quadrant > OK > UY = 0. > OK 12. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines. Pick the right edge of the quadrant > OK > Pressure = -1.0 > OK (A positive pressure would be a compressive load, so we use a negative pressure. The pressure is shown as a single arrow.)

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Figure 2-13 Model with loading and displacement boundary conditions.

The model-building step is now complete, and we can proceed to the solution. First to be safe, save the model. 13. Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname.db (Or Save as …. ; use a new name) SOLUTION The interactive solution proceeds as illustrated in the tutorials of Lesson 1. 14. Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK

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The /STATUS Command window displays the problem parameters and the Solve Current Load Step window is shown. Check the solution options in the /STATUS window and if all is OK, select File > Close In the Solve Current Load Step window, Select OK, and when the solution is complete, close the ‘Solution is Done!’ window. POSTPROCESSING We can now plot the results of this analysis and also list the computed values. First examine the deformed shape. 15. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape > Def. + Undef. > OK

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Figure 2-14 Plot of Deformed shape.

The deformed shape looks correct. (The undeformed shape is indicated by the dashed lines.) The right end moves to the right in response to the tensile load in the x-direction, the circular hole ovals out, and the top moves down because of Poisson’s effect. Note that the element edges on the circular arc are represented by straight lines. This is an artifact of the plotting routine not the analysis. The six-node triangle has curved sides, and if you pick on a mid-side of one these elements, you will see that a node is placed on the curved edge. The maximum displacement is shown on the graph legend as 0.32e-11 which seems reasonable. The units of displacement are meters because we employed meters and N/m2 in the problem formulation. Now plot the stress in the X direction. 16. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu > Stress > X-Component of stress > OK Use PlotCtrls > Symbols [/PSF] Surface Load Symbols (set to Pressures) and Show pre and convect as (set to Arrows) to display the pressure loads. Display All Applied BCs as well.

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Figure 2-15 Surface load symbols.

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The minimum, SMN, and maximum, SMX, stresses as well as the color bar legend give an overall evaluation of the SX stress state. We are interested in the maximum stress at the hole. Use the Zoom to focus on the area with highest stress.

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Figure 2-16 Element SX stresses.

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Figure 2-17 SX stress detail.

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Stress variations in the actual isotropic, homogeneous plate should be smooth and continuous across elements. The discontinuities in the SX stress contours above indicate that the number of elements used in this model is too few to accurately calculate the stress values near the hole because of the stress gradients there. We will not accept this stress solution. More six-node elements are needed in the region near the hole to find accurate values of the stress. On the other hand, in the right half of the model, away from the stress riser, the calculated stress contours are smooth, and SX would seem to be accurately determined there. It is important to note that in the plotting we selected Element Solu (Element Solution) in order to look for stress contour discontinuities. If you pick Nodal Solu to plot instead, for problems like the one in this tutorial, the stress values will be averaged before plotting, and any contour discontinuities (and thus errors) will be hidden. If you plot nodal solution stresses you will always see smooth contours. A word about element accuracy: The FEM implementation of the truss element is taken directly from solid mechanics studies, and there is no approximation in the solutions for truss structures formulated and solved in the ways discussed in Lesson 1. The continuum elements such as the ones for plane stress and plane strain, on the other hand, are normally developed using displacement functions of a polynomial type to represent the displacements within the element, and the higher the polynomial, the greater the accuracy. The ANSYS six-node triangle uses a quadratic polynomial and is capable of representing linear stress and strain variations within an element. Near stress concentrations the stress gradients vary quite sharply. To capture this variation, the number of elements near the stress concentrations must be increased proportionately. To obtain more elements in the model, return to the Preprocessor and refine the mesh. 17. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Modify Mesh > Refine At > All (Select Level of refinement 1. All elements are subdivided and the mesh below is created.)

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Figure 2-18 Global mesh refinement.

We will also refine the mesh selectively near the hole.

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18. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Modify Mesh > Refine At > Nodes. (Select the three nodes shown.) > OK (Select the Level of refinement = 1) > OK

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Figure 2-19 Selective refinement at nodes. (Note: Alternatively you can use Preprocessor > Meshing > Clear > Areas to remove all elements and build a completely new mesh. Plot > Areas afterwards to view the area again. Note also that too much local refinement can create a mesh with too rapid a transition between fine and coarse mesh regions.) Now repeat the solution, and replot the stress SX. 19. Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK Save your work.

20. File > Save as Jobname.db

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Plot the stresses in the X-direction. 21. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu > Stress > X-Component of stress > OK

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Figure 2-20 SX stress contour after mesh refinement.

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Figure 2-21 SX stress detail contour after mesh refinement. The element solution stress contours are now smooth across element boundaries, and the stress legend shows a maximum value of 4.386 Pa, a 4.3 percent change in the computed stress. To check this result, find the stress concentration factor for this problem in a text or reference book or from a web site such as www.etbx.com. For the geometry of this example we find Kt = 2.17. We can compute the maximum stress using (Kt)(load)/(net cross sectional area). Using the pressure p = 1.0 Pa we obtain.

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The computed maximum value is 4.39 Pa which is around one percent in error, assuming that the value of Kt is exact. 2-5 THE APPROXIMATE NATURE OF FEM

As mentioned above, the stiffness matrix for the truss elements of Lesson 1 can be developed directly and simply from elementary solid mechanics principles. For continuum problems in two and three-dimensional stress, this is generally no longer possible, and the element stiffness matrices are usually developed by assuming something specific about the characteristics of the displacements that can occur within an element. Ordinarily this is done by specifying the highest degree of the polynomial that governs the displacement distribution within an element. For h-method elements, the polynomial degree depends upon the number of nodes used to describe the element, and the interpolation functions that relate displacements within the element to the displacements at the nodes are called shape functions. In ANSYS, 2-dimensional problems can be modeled with six-node triangles, four-node quadrilaterals or eight-node quadrilaterals.

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σ x MAX = 2.17 * p * (0.4)(0.01) /[(0.4 − 0.2) * 0.01] = 4.34 Pa

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Figure 2-22 Triangular and quadrilateral elements. The greater the number of nodes, the higher the order of the polynomial and the greater the accuracy in describing displacements, stresses and strains within the element. If the stress is constant throughout a region, a very simple model is sufficient to describe the stress state, perhaps only one or two elements. If there are gradients in the stress distributions within a region, high-degree displacement polynomials and/or many elements are required to accurately analyze the situation. These comments explain the variation in the accuracy of the results as different numbers of elements were used to solve the problem in the previous tutorial and why the engineer must carefully prepare a model, start with small models, grow the models as understanding of the problem develops and carefully interpret the calculated results. The

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ease with which models can be prepared and solved sometimes leads to careless evaluation of the computed results. 2-6 ANSYS FILES

The files created during the solution were saved in step 20 of Tutorial 2A. Look in the working directory and you see Tutorial2A files with extensions BCS, db, dbb, esav, full, mntr, PVTS, rst, and stat. However, the Tutorial 2A problem can be reloaded using only Tutorial2A.db, so if you want to save disk space, you can delete the others. 2-7 ANSYS GEOMETRY The finite element model consists of elements and nodes and is separate from the geometry on which it may be based. It is possible to build the finite element model without consideration of any underlying geometry as was done in the truss examples of Lesson 1, but in many cases, development of the geometry is the first task. Two-dimensional geometry in ANSYS is built from keypoints, lines (straight, arcs, splines), and areas. These geometric items are assigned numbers and can be listed, numbered, manipulated, and plotted. The keypoints (2,3,4,5,6), lines (2,3,5,9,10), and area (3) for Tutorial 2A are shown below.

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The finite element model developed previously for this part used the area A3 for development of the node/element FEM mesh. The loads, displacement boundary conditions and pressures were applied to the geometry lines. When the solution step was executed, the loads were transferred from the lines to the FEM model nodes. Applying boundary conditions and loads to the geometry facilitates remeshing the problem. The geometry does not change, only the number and location of nodes and elements, and. at solution time, the loads are transferred to the new mesh. Geometry can be created in ANSYS interactively (as was done in the previous tutorial) or it can be created by reading a text file. For example, the geometry of Tutorial 2A can be generated with the following text file using the File > Read Input from command sequence. (The keypoint, line, etc. numbers will be different from those shown above.)

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Figure 2-23 Keypoints, lines and areas.

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/FILNAM,Geom /title, Stress Concentration Geometry ! Example of creating geometry using keypoints, lines, arcs /prep7 ! Create geometry k, 1, 0.0, 0.0 ! Keypoint 1 is at 0.0, 0.0 k, 2, 0.1, 0.0 k, 3, 0.5, 0.0 k, 4, 0.5, 0.2 k, 5, 0.0, 0.2 k, 6, 0.0, 0.1 L, L, L, L, 2, 3, 4, 5, 3 4 5 6 ! Line from keypoints 2 to 3

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! Area defined by lines 1,2,3,4,5

! arc from keypoint 2 to 6, center kp 1, radius 0.1 LARC, 2, 6, 1, 0.1 AL, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Geometry for FEM analysis also can be created with solid modeling CAD or other software and imported into ANSYS. The IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) neutral file is a common format used to exchange geometry between computer programs. Tutorial 2B demonstrates this option for ANSYS geometry development. 2-8 TUTORIAL 2B – SEATBELT COMPONENT Objective: Determine the stresses and deformation of the prototype seatbelt component shown in the figure below if it is subjected to tensile load of 1000 lbf.

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Figure 2-24 Seatbelt component.

The seatbelt component is made of steel, has an over all length of about 2.5 inches and is 3/32 = 0.09375 inches thick. A solid model of the part was developed in a CAD system and exported as an IGES file. The file is imported into ANSYS for analysis. For simplicity we will analyze only the right, or ‘tongue’ portion of the part in this tutorial.

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Figure 2-25 Seatbelt ‘tongue’.

PREPROCESSING

1. Start ANSYS, Run Interactive, set jobname, and working directory.

Create the top half of the geometry above. The latch retention slot is 0.375 x 0.8125 inches and is located 0.375 inch from the right edge. If you are not using an IGES file to define the geometry for this exercise, you can create the geometry directly in ANSYS with key points, lines, and arcs by selecting File > Read Input from to read in the text file given below and skipping the IGES import steps 2, 3, 4, and 10 below.
/FILNAM,Seatbelt /title, Seatbelt Geometry ! Example of creating geometry using keypoints, lines, arcs /prep7 ! Create geometry k, 1, 0.0, 0.0 ! Keypoint 1 is at 0.0, 0.0 k, 2, 0.75, 0.0 k, 3, 1.125, 0.0 k, 4, 1.5, 0.0 k, 5, 1.5, 0.5 k, 6, 1.25, 0.75 k, 7, 0.0, 0.75 k, 8, 1.125, 0.375 k, 9, 1.09375, 0.40625 k, 10, 0.8125, 0.40625 k, 11, 0.75, 0.34375 k, 12, 1.25, 0.5 k, 13, 1.09375, 0.375 k, 14, 0.8125, 0.34375

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L, L, L, L, L, L, L, L, 1, 2 3, 4 4, 5 6, 7 7, 1 3, 8 9, 10 11, 2

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! arc LARC, LARC, LARC, AL,all

from keypoint 5 to 6, center kp 12, radius 0.25, etc. 5,6, 12, 0.25 8, 9, 13, 0.03125 10, 11, 14, 0.0625

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! Line from keypoints 1 to 2 ! Use all lines to create the area.

2. Alternatively, use a solid modeler to create the top half of the component shown above in the X-Y plane and export an IGES file of the part. To import the IGES file

3. Utility Menu > File > Import > IGES

Select the IGES file you created earlier. Accept the ANSYS import default settings. If you have trouble with the import, select the alternate options and try again. Defeaturing is an automatic process to remove inconsistencies that may exist in the IGES file, for example lines that, because of the modeling or the file translation process, do not quite join.

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Figure 2-26 IGES import.

Turn the IGES solid model around if necessary so you can easily select the X-Y plane.

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4. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Pan, Zoom, Rotate > Back, or use the side-bar icon.

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Figure 2-27 Seatbelt solid, front and back.

5. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > Solid > Quad 8node 183 > OK (Use the 8-node quadrilateral element for this problem.) 6. Options > Plane strs w/thk > OK > Close Enter the thickness

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7. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > (Type 1 Plane 183) > OK > Enter 0.09375 > OK > Close Enter the material properties

8. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models

Material Model Number 1, Double click Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic Enter EX = 3.0E7 and PRXY = 0.3 > OK (Close Define Material Model Behavior window.) Now mesh the X-Y plane area. (Turn area numbers on if it helps.)

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9. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free. Pick the X-Y planar area > OK IMPORTANT NOTE: The mesh below was developed from an IGES geometry file. Using the text file geometry definition, may produce a much different mesh. If so, use the Modify Mesh refinement tools to obtain a mesh density that produces results with accuracies comparable to those given below. Computed stress values can be very sensitive mesh differences.

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Figure 2-28 Quad 8 mesh. The IGES solid model is no longer needed, and since its lines and areas may interfere with subsequent modeling operations, we can delete it from the session. 10. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Delete > Volume and Below (Don’t be surprised if everything disappears. Just Plot > Elements to see the mesh again.) 11. Utility Menu >PlotCtrls > Pan, Zoom, Rotate > Front (If necessary to see the front side of mesh.)

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Figure 2-29. Mesh, front view.

Now apply displacement and pressure boundary conditions. Zero displacement UX along left edge and zero UY along bottom edge. 12. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Pick the left edge > UX = 0. > OK 13. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Pick the lower edge > UY = 0. > OK The 1000 lbf load corresponds to a uniform pressure of about 14,000 psi along the ¾ inch vertical inside edge of the latch retention slot. [1000 lbf/(0.09375 in. x 0.75 in.)]. 14. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines

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Plane Stress / Plane Strain Select the inside line and set pressure = 14000 > OK

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Figure 2-30 Applied displacement and pressure conditions.

Solve the equations. SOLUTION

15. Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK POSTPROCESSING

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Comparing the von Mises stress with the material yield stress is an accepted way of evaluating yielding for ductile metals in a combined stress state, so we enter the postprocessor and plot the element solution of von Mises stress, SEQV. 16. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu > Stress > (scroll down) von Mises > OK Zoom in on the small fillet where the maximum stresses occur. The element solution stress contours are reasonably smooth, and the maximum von Mises stress is around 118,000 psi. Further mesh refinement gives a stress value of approximately 140,000 psi. The small fillet radius of this geometry illustrates the challenges that can arise in creating accurate solutions; however you can easily come within a few percent of the most likely true result using the methods discussed thus far.

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Figure 2-31 Von Mises stresses.

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Redesign to reduce the maximum stress requires an increase in the fillet radius. Look at charts of stress concentration factors, and you notice that the maximum stress increases as the radius of the stress raiser decreases, approaching infinite values at zero radii. If your model has a zero radius notch, your finite-size elements will show a very high stress but not infinite stress. If you refine the mesh, the stress will increase but not reach infinity. The finite element technique necessarily describes finite quantities and cannot directly treat an infinite stress at a singular point, so don’t ‘chase a singularity’. If you do not care what happens at the notch (static load, ductile material, etc.) do not worry about this location but examine the stress in other regions. If you really are concerned about the maximum stress here (fatigue loads or brittle material), then use the actual part notch radius however small (1/32 for this tutorial); do not use a zero radius. Also examine the stress gradient in the vicinity of the notch to make sure the mesh is sufficiently refined near the notch. If a crack tip is the object of the analysis, you should look at fracture mechanics approaches to the problem. (See ANSYS help topics on fracture mechanics.) The engineer’s responsibility is not only to build useful models, but also to interpret the results of such models in intelligent and meaningful ways. This can often get overlooked in the rush to get answers. Continue with the evaluation and check the strains and deflections for this model as well. 17. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu > Strain-total > 1st prin > OK The maximum principal normal strain value is found to be approximately 0.004 in/in. 18. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > DOF Solution > X-Component of displacement > OK

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Figure 2-32 UX displacements.

The maximum deflection in the X-direction is about 0.00145 inches and occurs as expected at the center of the right-hand edge of the latch retention slot.

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Plane Stress / Plane Strain 2-9 MAPPED MESHING

2-23

Quadrilateral meshes can also be created by mapping a square with a regular array of cells onto a general quadrilateral or triangular region. To illustrate this, delete the last line, AL,all, from the text file above so that the area is not created (just the lines) and read it into ANSYS. Use PlotCtrls to turn Keypoint Numbering On. Then use 1. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line. Successively pick pairs of keypoints until the four interior lines shown below are created.

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Figure 2-33 Lines added to geometry. 2. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitrary > By Lines Pick the three lines defining the lower left triangular area. > Apply > Repeat for the quadrilateral areas. > Apply > OK

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Figure 2-34 Quadrilateral/Triangular regions.

3. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Glue > Areas > Pick All The glue operation preserves the boundaries between areas that we will need for mapped meshing.

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Plane Stress / Plane Strain

4. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines Enter 4 for NDIV, No. element divisions > OK All lines will be divided into four segments for mesh creation.

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Figure 2-35 Element size on picked lines.

5. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > Solid > Quad 8node 183 > OK (Use the 8-node quadrilateral element for the mesh.) 6. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Mapped > 3 or 4 sided > Pick All The mesh below is created. Applying boundary and load conditions and solving gives the von Mises stress distribution shown. The stress contours are discontinuous because of the poor mesh quality. Notice the long and narrow quads near the point of maximum stress. We need more elements and they need to be better shaped with smaller aspect ratios to obtain satisfactory results.

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Plane Stress / Plane Strain

2-25

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Figure 2-36 Mapped mesh and von Mises results. One can tailor the mapped mesh by specifying how many elements are to be placed along which lines. This allows much better control over the quality of the mesh, and an example of using this approach is described in Lesson 4. 2-10 CONVERGENCE

The goal of finite element analysis as discussed in this lesson is to arrive at computed estimates of deflection, strain and stress that converge to definite values as the number of elements in the mesh increases, just as a convergent series arrives at a definite value once enough terms are summed. For elements based on assumed displacement functions that produce continuum models, the computed displacements are smaller in theory than the true displacements because the assumed displacement functions place an artificial constraint on the deformations that can occur. These constraints are relaxed as the element polynomial is increased or as more elements are used. Thus your computed displacements usually converge smoothly from below to fixed values. Strains are the x and/or y derivatives of the displacements and thus depend on the distribution of the displacements for any given mesh. The strains and stresses may change in an erratic way as the mesh is refined, first smaller than the final computed values, then larger, etc. Not all elements are developed using the ideas discussed above, and some will give displacements that converge from above. (See Lesson 6.) In any case you should be alert to computed displacement and stress variations as you perform mesh refinement during the solution of a problem. 2-11 TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENT OPTIONS

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The analysis options for two-dimensional elements are: Plane Stress, Axisymmetric, Plane Strain, and Plane Stress with Thickness. The two examples thus far in this lesson were of the last type, namely problems of plane stress in which we provided the thickness of the part.

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The first analysis option, Plane Stress, is the ANSYS default and provides an analysis for a part with unit thickness. If you are working on a design problem in which the thickness is not yet known, you may wish to use this option and then select the thickness based upon the stress, strain, and deflection distributions found for a unit thickness. The second option, Axisymmetric analysis is covered in detail in Lesson 3.

Plane Strain occurs in a problem such as a cylindrical roller bearing caged against axial motion and uniformly loaded in a direction normal to the cylindrical surface. Because there is no axial motion, there is no axial strain. Each slice through the cylinder behaves like every other and the problem can be conveniently analyzed with a planar model. Another plane strain example is that of a long retaining wall, restrained at each end and loaded uniformly by soil pressure on one or both faces. 2-12 SUMMARY

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Problems of stress concentration in plates subject to in-plane loadings were used to illustrate ANSYS analysis of plane stress problems. Free triangular and quadrilateral element meshes were developed and analyzed. Mapped meshing with quads was also presented. Similar methods are used for solving problems involving plane strain; one only has to choose the appropriate option during element selection. The approach is also applicable to axisymmetric geometries as discussed in the next lesson. 2-13 PROBLEMS In the problems below, use triangular and/or quadrilateral elements as desired. Triangles may produce more regular shaped element meshes with free meshing. The six-node triangles and eight-node quads can approximate curved surface geometries and, when stress gradients are present, give much better results than the four-node quad elements. 2-1 Find the maximum stress in the aluminum plate shown below. Use tabulated stress concentration factors to independently calculate the maximum stress. Compare the two results by determining the percent difference in the two answers. Convert the 12 kN concentrated force into an equivalent pressure applied to the edge.

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Plane Stress / Plane Strain

2-27

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Figure P2-1

2-2 Find the maximum stress for the plate from 2-1 if the hole is located halfway between the centerline and top edge as shown. You will now need to model half of the plate instead of just one quarter and properly restrain vertical rigid body motion. One way to do this is to fix one keypoint along the centerline from UY displacement.

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Figure P2-2

2-28 2-3 An aluminum square 10 inches on a side has a 5-inch diameter hole at the center. The object is in a state of plane strain with an internal pressure of 1500 psi. Determine the magnitude and location of the maximum principal stress, the maximum principal strain, and the maximum von Mises stress. Note that no thickness need be supplied for plane strain analysis.

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Figure P2-3

2-4 Repeat 2-3 for a steel plate one inch thick in a state of plane stress.

2-5 See if you can reduce the maximum stress for the plate of problem 2-1 by adding holes as shown below. Select a hole size and location that you think will smooth out the ‘stress flow’ caused by the load transmission through the plate.

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Figure P2-5 2-6 Repeat 2-1 but the object is now a plate with notches or with a step in the geometry. (See the next figure.) Select your own dimensions, materials, and loads. Use published stress concentration factor data to compare to your results. The published results are for plates that are relatively long so that there is a uniform state of axial stress at either end relatively far from notch or hole. Create your geometry accordingly.

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Plane Stress / Plane Strain

2-29

2-7 Solve the seatbelt component problem of Tutorial 2B again using six node triangular elements instead of the quadrilaterals. Experiment with mesh refinement. Turn on Smart Sizing using size controls to examine the effect on the solution. See if you can compute a maximum von Mises stress of around 140 kpsi. 2-8 Determine the stresses and deflections in an object ‘at hand’ (such as a seatbelt tongue or retaining wall) whose geometry and loading make it suitable for plane stress or plane strain analysis. Do all the necessary modeling of geometry (use a CAD system if you wish), materials and loadings. 2-9 A cantilever beam with a unit width rectangular cross section is loaded with a uniform pressure along its upper surface. Model the beam as a problem in plane stress. Compute the end deflection and the maximum stress at the cantilever support. Compare your results to those you would find using elementary beam theory.

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Figure P2-6

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Figure P2-8

Restrain UX along the cantilever support line, but restrain UY at only one keypoint along this line. Otherwise, the strain in the Y direction due to the Poisson effect is prevented here, and the root stresses are different from elementary beam theory because of the singularity created. (Try fixing all node points in UX and UY and see what happens.) Select your own dimensions, materials, and pressure. Try a beam that’s long and slender and one that’s short and thick. The effect of shear loading becomes more important in the deflection analysis as the slenderness decreases.

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2-30 NOTES:

Plane Stress / Plane Strain

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ANSYS Workbench Tutorial
ANSYS Release 10

®

Kent L. Lawrence
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of Texas at Arlington

PUBLICATIONS

SDC

Schroff Development Corporation
www.schroff-europe.com

www.schroff.com

Solid Modeling Fundamentals

1-1

Chapter 1 Copyrighted Solid Modeling Material Fundamentals

1-1 OVERVIEW

A simple L-shaped cross section is used to introduce basic solid modeling concepts with ANSYS DesignModeler. These tutorials explore modeling by: ♦Extruding

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♦Revolving ♦Sweeping

A number of additional parametric, feature-based modeling possibilities and formulations are demonstrated in this chapter.

1-2 INTRODUCTION

Solid modeling can be accomplished in a number of ways, and one favorite method involves starting with a two-dimensional shape and manipulating it to create a solid. That is the approach we will use for many of object models created in this book. Figure 1-1 shows an L-shaped cross section that has been variously extruded, revolved, or swept along a curve to produce the solid object models shown.

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1-2

Solid Modeling Fundamentals

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Figure 1-1 Extruding, revolving, sweeping an L-shaped section. In the following we use the simple L-shaped section to illustrate these three fundamental solid modeling approaches.

1-3 TUTORIAL 1A – EXTRUSION

Follow the steps below to create a solid model of an extrusion with an L-shaped cross section. 1. Start ANSYS Workbench

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Figure 1-2 Start ANSYS Workbench in Windows.

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1-3

The startup menu allows you to retrieve old files, begin a new DesignModeler geometry, start a Simulation or initiate a New Project. Select New geometry. 2. Select New > Geometry

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Figure 1-3 ANSYS Workbench startup menu.

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Figure 1-4 DesignModeler interface.

1-4 3. Select OK – To work in millimeter units.

Solid Modeling Fundamentals

We will sketch the L-shaped cross section on the XY Plane. Make it 35 mm high, 20 mm wide with 5 mm thick legs. 4. Select XYPlane as in the figure below. Then click on the Look at icon to view the XYPlane.

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Figure 1-5 Select the sketching plane.

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Solid Modeling Fundamentals

1-5

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Figure 1-6 View of the sketching plane.

5.

Sketching. Change from Modeling to Sketching by selecting the Sketching tab.

Select Draw > Line

6.

Use the line drawing tool to draw the left vertical edge of the L-shape. Left click at the beginning and again at the end of the line. The V indicates that you’ve got it exactly vertical.

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Figure 1-7 Sketching tools.

1-6

Solid Modeling Fundamentals

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7. Continue sketching until you have something like what is shown below. (Notice that the top edge is not quite horizontal.) If you need to change something, use the New Selection, Edge filter to select the line, press the delete key and redraw it. Also note that the cursor changes shape when it is snapped onto another point or axis.

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Figure 1-8 Left edge of the L-shape.

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Figure 1-9 L-section sketch.

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1-7

Now use constraint options to make the top edge horizontal and to make sure that the vertical and horizontal legs of the L are of the same thickness. 8. Sketching > Constraints > Horizontal – Left click the top edge.

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Figure 1-10 Sketching constraints.

9.

Sketching > Constraints > Equal length – Left Click the top edge and then the right edge.

The figure is just a sketch so far, and a number of different dimensioning schemes could be used to produce the section we want. We will use the Sketching > Dimensions options to give it the desired properties. 10. Sketching > Dimensions > General – Left click on the left vertical edge of the section and drag the dimension to a convenient location. The V1 means this is the first vertical dimension for this sketch.

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Figure 1-11 L-section sketch.

1-8

Solid Modeling Fundamentals

Continue with General dimensioning to specify H2 and V4. Don’t dimension the top edge; it has to be equal to V4. The bottom edge is located directly on the X axis but we need to locate the vertical edge with respect to the Y axis. 11. Sketching > Dimensions > Horizontal – Left click the left vertical edge then click the dotted Y axis and drag the H3 dimension to a convenient location.

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Figure 1-12 L-section sketch with all dimensions. Figure 1-13 Default dimension values.

The current values for the dimensions depend upon the scale used in the sketching process, e.g., H2 = 20.012 mm in the figure above. 12. Edit the dimensions to give them the desired values. – Click on a value, enter the change and press return.

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Solid Modeling Fundamentals 13.

1-9

View > Ruler (Top menu) to turn off the ruler display. Use the middle mouse roller to zoom in and out.

The result is shown in the figure below.

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Figure 1-14 Edited dimension values.

To reposition the section on the screen, Right Click and select one of the following options: Cursor Mode, View, or Zoom to Fit. To perform the extrusion, switch from Sketching to Modeling. If is not already highlighted, click Sketch1 to highlight it. 14. Modeling > Sketch1 > Extrude

The L-shaped section will be extruded along the positive Z axis by the amount specified in the Depth field shown in the next figure. Edit this value (45 mm) to give the solid a depth of 100 mm.

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1-10

Solid Modeling Fundamentals

The tree structure shows the components from which the solid model is created.

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15.

Click the Generate icon to complete creation of the extruded shape model.

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Figure 1-15 Section ready for extrusion.

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Solid Modeling Fundamentals

1-11

Right click > View > Isometric (or hold down the middle mouse button and rotate the object).

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Figure 1-16 Extrusion.

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1-12

Solid Modeling Fundamentals

16.

Click on the Display Plane icon to turn off the axes display and high-light the last item in the model tree (Solid) to display the volume, surface area, faces, edges and vertices in this model.

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Figure 1-17 Solid and its properties.

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Solid Modeling Fundamentals 17.

1-13

Save your work – Use the Save As option to save the extrusion using a name (e.g. T1A) and location of your choice.

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Figure 1-18 File menu.

Basic solid modeling notions have been used thus far to demonstrate creating a solid by extruding a two-dimensional section. In the next tutorial we will revolve the same Lshape to create a solid of revolution.

1-4 TUTORIAL 1B – REVOLUTION We can reuse the extrusion model after it has been safely saved somewhere. Start from the screen shown below if the extrusion is still in memory, or start Workbench and reload the extrusion. First modify the tree structure.

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Solid Modeling Fundamentals

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Figure 1-19 Select the extrusion. 1. Click on Extrude1 and press Delete. Click Yes to the query. The extrusion is deleted and the new tree structure shows 0 Parts and 0 Bodies.

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Figure 1-20 Delete the extrusion.

2. 3.

Use Save As to save this work using a new file name, say Tutorial1B. Click on Sketch1, the Display Plane icon

We obtain the view of the same sketch we had earlier.

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and the Look at Plane icon

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Figure 1-21 Select the sketch. 4. Be sure Sketch1 is highlighted and Click Revolve. Click Axis > Select the Y axis > Apply (below right) Select Angle > Enter 120 deg. Click Generate 5.

6. 7.

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Figure 1-22 Revolve1 tree.

The L-shaped section is rotated about the Y axis by 120 degrees using a right-hand rule to create the solid of revolution shown next.

1-16

Solid Modeling Fundamentals

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Figure 1-23 Solid of revolution.

8.

Save to archive your work.

Next we will take the same cross section and sweep it along an arbitrary path to create the third kind of modeling discussed in this chapter.

1-5 TUTORIAL 1C – SWEEP 1.

Start ANSYS Workbench. Sketch the 20 x 35 mm L-shape on the XYPlane as before. We get the figure shown below. Save this file as tutorial1c or T1C or something convenient.

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Solid Modeling Fundamentals

1-17

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Figure 1-24 Cross section sketch. We now want to sketch a path along which the L-shape will be swept to produce a solid. We will use a simple curve to define this path. 2. 3. Select the YZPlane and Select Sketching. Use the Line option to sketch a simple two-segment line in the YZPlane similar to the one below. Turn on the Ruler and use the middle scroll wheel to Zoom out so that your line is about 150 to 200 mm in length. If you make a mistake, click the New Select button , click the line and press delete. (I deleted several before settling on the one shown, so my sketch is numbered Sketch6. Not to worry if your number is different.)

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1-18

Solid Modeling Fundamentals

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Figure 1-25 Path of sweep. 4. Select Sweep to create the solid. We need to specify the Profile (cross section) of the solid and the Path along which the profile will be swept. 5. 6. Click Sketch1 > Details of Sweep1 > Click on Profile > Apply.

Click Sketch6 > Details of Sweep1 > Path > Apply (Sketch6 in the figure above. Your path sketch number will be different.)

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See the figure below.

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Solid Modeling Fundamentals

1-19

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Figure 1-26 Profile and path selection. 7. Generate to obtain the solid shown next.

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Figure 1-27 Swept solid.

Notice that the profile is not necessarily perpendicular to the path as when we used Extrude to create a solid. Also the path can be a more complex curve as in the example of Figure 1-1 where a spline was used for the path.

1-20 1-6 SKETCHING

Solid Modeling Fundamentals

A wide variety of sketching tools are available to help in creating two-dimensional sections. We used the line drawing option and the equality constraint option in the tutorials above. Some of the other sketching features are shown below. The next illustration shows the Draw and Modify options. The Draw menu includes Line, Tangent Line, Line by two Tangents, Polyline, Polygon, Rectangle, Oval, Circle, Arc, Ellipse, Spline and Construction Point. The Modify menu includes Fillet, Chamfer, Trim, Extend, Split, Drag, Cut, Copy, Paste, Move, Replicate and Offset.

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We will have the occasion to illustrate the use of many of these options in what follows.

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Figure 1-28 Draw and Modify sketching options.

Solid Modeling Fundamentals

1-21

Menu selections for assigning Dimensions and enforcing Constraints are shown in the next figure. In addition to a General dimension specification, Dimensions can be assigned which are Horizontal, Vertical, Length/Distance, Radius/Diameter, or an Angle. Select SemiAutomatic Dimensioning if you want DesignModeler to select a dimensioning scheme automatically. You then have the option to accept, add or delete dimensions to meet your specific design needs. Constraints that can be enforced for sketching entities include Horizontal, Vertical, Perpendicular, Tangent, Coincident, Midpoint, Symmetric, Parallel, Concentric, Equal Radius, Equal Length and Equal Distance. As sketching proceeds DesignModeler will attempt to detect and enforce constraints that seem to be part of the design intent of the sketch. The Auto Constraints option allows you to turn these on and off as desired. Cursor triggered constraints are local, while Global constraints relate to all entities in the sketching plane.

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Figure 1-29 Dimension and Constraint sketching options.

1-22

Solid Modeling Fundamentals

Dimensioning is the process of defining how geometry is to be constructed.

In that regard, sketches must be unambiguously defined; that is, they cannot have too many dimensions or too few dimensions specified. The figure below shows two different dimensioning schemes for a simple shape.

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Figure 1-30 Dimensioning schemes. If you over dimension a sketch, DesignModeler will issue the following warning:

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Figure 1-31 Over-constraint message.

Finally, the Settings option provides a grid sketching aid that allows you create drawing entities placed at vertices of the grid as indicated in the next figure.

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Solid Modeling Fundamentals

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Figure 1-32 Settings options and a sketching grid.

1-7 SUMMARY

Three tutorials in Chapter 1 introduce basic solid model creation in ANSYS DesignModeler and provide examples from which more complex shapes can be developed. In the next chapter we will extend these ideas and introduce additional modeling features.

1-8 PROBLEMS

1-1 Identify some common objects (such as an unsharpened pencil, drinking glass, etc.) and develop models of them using the ideas presented in this chapter. 1-2 Use a “Z” shaped section to create a solid by extrusion, another by revolving, and another by sweeping. Select your own units and dimensions. 1-3 Measure the exterior dimensions of a light bulb, estimate the wall thickness of the glass and base, and create a model by revolving the sketch. 1-4 Create the shape shown and extrude it to form a solid. Choose your own dimensions. Use the Sketching Trim option to help in the sketch development. Save it and we’ll use it in a simulation problem later in the text.

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Figure P1-4

1-24 NOTES:

Solid Modeling Fundamentals

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ANSYS Workbench Tutorial

®

Structural & Thermal Analysis using the ANSYS Workbench Release 11.0 Environment

Kent L. Lawrence
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of Texas at Arlington

PUBLICATIONS

SDC

Schroff Development Corporation
www.schroff-europe.com

www.schroff.com

Solid Modeling Fundamentals

1-1

Chapter 1 Copyrighted Solid Modeling Material Fundamentals

1-1 OVERVIEW

A simple L-shaped cross section is used to introduce basic solid modeling concepts with ANSYS DesignModeler. These tutorials explore solid modeling by: ♦Extruding

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♦Revolving ♦Sweeping

A number of additional parametric, feature-based modeling possibilities and formulations are demonstrated in this chapter.

1-2 INTRODUCTION

Solid modeling can be accomplished in a number of ways, and one favorite method involves starting with a two-dimensional shape and manipulating it to create a solid. That is the approach we will use for many of the object models created in this book. Figure 1-1 shows an L-shaped cross section that has been variously extruded, revolved, or swept along a curve to produce the solid object models shown.

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1-2

Solid Modeling Fundamentals

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Figure 1-1 Extruding, revolving, sweeping an L-shaped section. In the following we use this simple L-shaped section to illustrate the three fundamental solid modeling approaches mentioned above.

1-3 TUTORIAL 1A – EXTRUSION

Follow the steps below to create a solid model of an extrusion with an L-shaped cross section. 1. Start ANSYS Workbench

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Figure 1-2 Start ANSYS Workbench in Windows.

Solid Modeling Fundamentals

1-3

The startup menu allows you to retrieve old files, begin a new DesignModeler geometry, start a Simulation or initiate a New Project. Select New geometry. 2. Select New > Geometry

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Figure 1-3 ANSYS Workbench startup menu.

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Figure 1-4 DesignModeler interface.

1-4 3. Select OK – To work in millimeter units.

Solid Modeling Fundamentals

We will sketch the L-shaped cross section on the XY Plane. Make it 35 mm high, 20 mm wide with 5 mm thick legs. 4. Select XYPlane as in the figure below. Then click on the Look at icon to view the XYPlane.

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Figure 1-5 Select the sketching plane.

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Solid Modeling Fundamentals

1-5

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Figure 1-6 View of the sketching plane. 5. Sketching. Change from Modeling Sketching by selecting the Sketching tab. to Select Draw > Line.

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Figure 1-7 Sketching tools.

6.

Use the line drawing tool to draw the left vertical edge of the L-shape. Left click at the beginning and again at the end of the line. The V indicates that you’ve got it exactly vertical.

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1-6

Solid Modeling Fundamentals

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7. Continue sketching until you have something like what is shown below. Left click at the beginning and again at the end of each line. (Notice that the top edge is not quite horizontal.) If you need to change something, use Undo to back up or use New Selection, Edge filter to select a line, press the delete key and redraw it. Also note that the cursor changes shape when it is snapped onto another point or axis.

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Figure 1-8 Left edge of the L-shape.

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Figure 1-9 L-section sketch.

Solid Modeling Fundamentals

1-7

Use constraint options horizontal to make the top edge horizontal and equal length to make sure that the vertical and horizontal legs of the L are of the same thickness. 8. Sketching > Constraints > Horizontal – Left click the top edge.

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Figure 1-10 Sketching constraints.

9.

Sketching > Constraints > Equal length – Left click the top edge and then the right edge.

The figure is just a sketch so far, and a number of different dimensioning schemes could be used to produce the section we want. We will use the Sketching > Dimensions options to give it the desired properties. 10. Sketching > Dimensions > General – Left click and (hold down the button) on the left vertical edge of the section and drag the dimension to a convenient location. The V1 means this is the first vertical dimension for this sketch.

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Figure 1-11 L-section sketch.

1-8

Solid Modeling Fundamentals

Continue with general dimensioning to specify H2 and V4. Don’t dimension the top edge; it has to be equal to V4. The bottom edge is located directly on the X axis but we need to locate the vertical edge with respect to the Y axis. 11. Sketching > Dimensions > Horizontal – Left click the left vertical edge then click the dotted Y axis and drag the H3 dimension to a convenient location.

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Figure 1-12 L-section sketch with all dimensions. Figure 1-13 Default dimension values.

The current values for the dimensions depend upon the scale used in the sketching process, e.g., H2 = 20.012 mm in the Details of Sketch1 box shown in the figure above. 12. Edit the dimensions to give them the desired values. – Click on a value, enter the change and press return.

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Solid Modeling Fundamentals 13.

1-9

View > Ruler (Top menu) to turn off the ruler display. Use the middle mouse roller to zoom in and out.

To reposition the section on the screen, right click in the graphics area of the display and select one of the following options: Cursor Mode, View, or Zoom to Fit. The result is shown in the figure below.

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Figure 1-14 Edited dimension values.

To perform the extrusion, switch back from Sketching to Modeling. If it is not already highlighted, click Sketch1 in the Tree Outline to highlight it. 14. Modeling > Sketch1 > Extrude

The L-shaped section will be extruded along the positive Z axis by the amount specified in the Depth field shown in the Details of Extrude1 box (next figure). Edit this value (45 mm) to give the solid an extrude depth of 100 mm.

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1-10

Solid Modeling Fundamentals

The tree structure shows the components from which the solid model is created.

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15.

Click the Generate icon to complete creation of the extruded shape model.

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Figure 1-15 Section ready for extrusion.

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Solid Modeling Fundamentals

1-11

In the graphics area of the display, right click > View > Isometric (or hold down the middle mouse button and rotate the object).

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Figure 1-16 Extrusion.

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Solid Modeling Fundamentals

16.

Click on the Display Plane icon to turn off the axes display and highlight the last item in the model tree (Solid) to display the volume, surface area, faces, edges and vertices in this model.

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Figure 1-17 Solid and its properties.

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Solid Modeling Fundamentals 17.

1-13

Save your work – Use the Save As option to save the extrusion using a name (e.g. T1A) and location of your choice.

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Figure 1-18 File menu.

Basic solid modeling notions have been used thus far to demonstrate creating a solid by extruding a two-dimensional section. In the next tutorial we will revolve the same Lshape to create a solid of revolution.

1-4 TUTORIAL 1B – REVOLUTION We can reuse the extrusion model after it has been safely saved somewhere. Start from the screen shown below if the extrusion is still in memory, or start Workbench and reload the extrusion. First modify the tree structure.

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Figure 1-19 Select the extrusion. 1. Click on Extrude1 and press Delete. Click Yes to the query. The extrusion is deleted and the new tree structure shows 0 Parts and 0 Bodies.

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Figure 1-20 Delete the extrusion. and the Look at Plane icon

2. 3.

Use Save As to save this work using a new file name, say Tutorial1B. Click on Sketch1, the Display Plane icon

We obtain the view of the same sketch we had earlier.

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Solid Modeling Fundamentals

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Figure 1-21 Select the sketch. 4. Be sure Sketch1 is highlighted and click Revolve. Click Axis > Select the Y axis > Apply in Details of Revolve1 box (below right). Select Angle > Enter 120 deg. Click Generate 5. 6. 7.

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Figure 1-22 Revolve1 tree.

The L-shaped section is rotated about the Y axis by 120 degrees to create the solid of revolution shown next. Direction options change the rotation direction.

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Figure 1-23 Solid of revolution.

8.

Save to archive your work.

Next we will take the same cross section and sweep it along an arbitrary path to create the third kind of modeling discussed in this chapter.

1-5 TUTORIAL 1C – SWEEP 1.

Start ANSYS Workbench. Sketch the 20 x 35 mm L-shape on the XYPlane as before. We get the figure shown below. Save this file as tutorial1c or T1C or something convenient.

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Figure 1-24 Cross section sketch.

We now want to sketch a path along which the L-shape will be swept to produce a solid. We will use a simple curve to define this path. 2. 3. Select the YZPlane and Select Sketching. Use the Line option to sketch a simple two-segment line in the YZPlane similar to the one below.

Turn on the Ruler and use the middle scroll wheel to Zoom out so that your line is about 150 to 200 mm in length. If you make a mistake, click the New Select button , click the line and press delete. (I deleted several before settling on the one shown, so my sketch is numbered Sketch6. Not to worry if your number is different.)

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Figure 1-25 Path of sweep. 4. Select Sweep to create the solid. We need to specify the Profile (cross section) of the solid and the Path along which the profile will be swept. 5. In the Tree Outline click Sketch1, then in Details of Sweep1 > click on Profile > Apply. In the Tree Outline click Sketch6, then in Details of Sweep1 > Path > Apply (Sketch6 in the figure above; your path sketch number may be different.)

6.

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See the figure below.

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Solid Modeling Fundamentals

1-19

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Figure 1-26 Profile and path selection. 7. Generate to obtain the solid shown next.

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Figure 1-27 Swept solid.

Notice that the profile is not necessarily perpendicular to the path as when we used Extrude to create a solid. Also the path can be a more complex curve as in the example of Figure 1-1 where a spline was used for the path.

1-20 1-6 SKETCHING

Solid Modeling Fundamentals

A wide variety of sketching tools are available to help in creating two-dimensional sections. We used the line drawing option and the equality constraint option in the tutorials above. Some of the other sketching features are shown below. The next illustration shows the Draw and Modify options. The Draw menu includes Line, Tangent Line, Line by two Tangents, Polyline, Polygon, Rectangle, Oval, Circle, Arc, Ellipse, Spline and Construction Point. The Modify menu includes Fillet, Chamfer, Trim, Extend, Split, Drag, Cut, Copy, Paste, Move, Replicate and Offset.

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We will have the occasion to illustrate the use of many of these options in what follows.

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Figure 1-28 Draw and Modify sketching options.

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Menu selections for assigning Dimensions and enforcing Constraints are shown in the next figure. In addition to a General dimension specification, dimensions can be assigned which are Horizontal, Vertical, Length/Distance, Radius/Diameter, or an Angle. Select SemiAutomatic Dimensioning if you want DesignModeler to select a dimensioning scheme automatically. You then have the option to accept, add or delete dimensions to meet your specific design needs. Constraints that can be enforced for sketching entities include Horizontal, Vertical, Perpendicular, Tangent, Coincident, Midpoint, Symmetric, Parallel, Concentric, Equal Radius, Equal Length and Equal Distance. As sketching proceeds DesignModeler will attempt to detect and enforce constraints that seem to be part of the design intent of the sketch. The Auto Constraints option allows you to turn these on and off as desired. Cursor triggered constraints are local, while Global constraints relate to all entities in the sketching plane.

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Figure 1-29 Dimensions and Constraints sketching options.

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Dimensioning is the process of defining how geometry is to be constructed.

In that regard, sketches must be unambiguously defined; that is, they cannot have too many dimensions or too few dimensions specified. The figure below shows two different dimensioning schemes for a simple shape.

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Figure 1-30 Dimensioning schemes. If you over-dimension a sketch, DesignModeler will issue the following warning:

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Figure 1-31 Over-constraint message.

Finally, the Settings option provides a grid sketching aid that allows you create drawing entities placed at vertices of the grid as indicated in the next figure.

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Figure 1-32 Settings options and a sketching grid.

1-7 SUMMARY

Three tutorials in Chapter 1 introduce basic solid model creation in ANSYS DesignModeler and provide examples from which more complex shapes can be developed. In the next chapter we will extend these ideas and introduce additional modeling features.

1-8 PROBLEMS

1-1 Identify some common objects (such as an unsharpened pencil, drinking glass, etc.) and develop models of them using the ideas presented in this chapter. 1-2 Use a “Z” shaped section to create a solid by extrusion, another by revolving, and another by sweeping. Select your own units and dimensions. 1-3 Measure the exterior dimensions of a light bulb, estimate the wall thickness of the glass and base, and create a model by revolving the sketch. 1-4 Create the shape shown and extrude it to form a solid. Choose your own dimensions. Use the Sketching Trim option to help in the sketch development. Save it and we’ll use it in a simulation problem later in the text.

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Figure P1-4

ANSYS Tutorial
® Release 11.0
Structural & Thermal Analysis Using the ANSYS Release 11.0 Environment

Kent L. Lawrence
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of Texas at Arlington

PUBLICATIONS

SDC

Schroff Development Corporation
www.schroff-europe.com

www.schroff.com

ANSYS Tutorial

2-1

Lesson 2 Copyrighted Plane Material Stress Plane Strain
2-1 OVERVIEW

Plane stress and plane strain problems are an important subclass of general threedimensional problems. The tutorials in this lesson demonstrate: ♦Solving planar stress concentration problems.

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♦Evaluating potential inaccuracies in the solutions. ♦Using the various ANSYS 2D element formulations.

2-2 INTRODUCTION

It is possible for an object such as the one on the cover of this book to have six components of stress when subjected to arbitrary three-dimensional loadings. When referenced to a Cartesian coordinate system these components of stress are: Normal Stresses Shear Stresses

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σx, σy, σz τxy, τyz, τzx

In general, the analysis of such objects requires three-dimensional modeling as discussed in Lesson 4. However, two-dimensional models are often easier to develop, easier to solve and can be employed in many situations if they can accurately represent the behavior of the object under loading.

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Figure 2-1 Stresses in 3 dimensions.

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A state of Plane Stress exists in a thin object loaded in the plane of its largest dimensions. Let the X-Y plane be the plane of analysis. The non-zero stresses σx, σy, and τxy lie in the X - Y plane and do not vary in the Z direction. Further, the other stresses (σz,τyz , and τzx )are all zero for this kind of geometry and loading. A thin beam loaded in its plane and a spur gear tooth are good examples of plane stress problems. ANSYS provides a 6-node planar triangular element along with 4-node and 8-node quadrilateral elements for use in the development of plane stress models. We will use both triangles and quads in solution of the example problems that follow. 2-3 PLATE WITH CENTRAL HOLE To start off, let’s solve a problem with a known solution so that we can check our computed results and understanding of the FEM process. The problem is that of a tensileloaded thin plate with a central hole as shown in Figure 2-2.

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The 1.0 m x 0.4 m plate has a thickness of 0.01 m, and a central hole 0.2 m in diameter. It is made of steel with material properties; elastic modulus, E = 2.07 x 1011 N/m2 and Poisson’s ratio, ν = 0.29. We apply a horizontal tensile loading in the form of a pressure p = -1.0 N/m2 along the vertical edges of the plate. Because holes are necessary for fasteners such as bolts, rivets, etc, the need to know stresses and deformations near them occurs very often and has received a great deal of study. The results of these studies are widely published, and we can look up the stress concentration factor for the case shown above. Before the advent of suitable computation methods, the effect of most complex stress concentration geometries had to be evaluated experimentally, and many available charts were developed from experimental results.

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Figure 2-2 Plate with central hole.

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Plane Stress / Plane Strain

2-3

The uniform, homogeneous plate above is symmetric about horizontal axes in both geometry and loading. This means that the state of stress and deformation below a horizontal centerline is a mirror image of that above the centerline, and likewise for a vertical centerline. We can take advantage of the symmetry and, by applying the correct boundary conditions, use only a quarter of the plate for the finite element model. For small problems using symmetry may not be too important; for large problems it can save modeling and solution efforts by eliminating one-half or a quarter or more of the work. Place the origin of X-Y coordinates at the center of the hole. If we pull on both ends of the plate, points on the centerlines will move along the centerlines but not perpendicular to them. This indicates the appropriate displacement conditions to use as shown below.

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Figure 2-3 Quadrant used for analysis. In Tutorial 2A we will use ANSYS to determine the maximum horizontal stress in the plate and compare the computed results with the maximum value that can be calculated using tabulated values for stress concentration factors. Interactive commands will be used to formulate and solve the problem. 2-4 TUTORIAL 2A - PLATE

Objective: Find the maximum axial stress in the plate with a central hole and compare your result with a computation using published stress concentration factor data. PREPROCESSING 1. Start ANSYS, select the Working Directory where you will store the files associated with this problem. Also set the Jobname to Tutorial2A or something memorable and provide a Title. (If you want to make changes in the Jobname, working Directory, or Title after you’ve started ANSYS, use File > Change Jobname or Directory or Title.) Select the six node triangular element to use for the solution of this problem.

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2. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > Structural Solid > Quad 8node 183 > OK

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Figure 2-4 Six-node triangle.

Select the option where you define the plate thickness. 3. Options (Element shape K1) > Triangle,

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Figure 2-5 Element selection.

Options (Element behavior K3) > Plane strs w/thk > OK > Close

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Figure 2-6 Element options.

4. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > OK

(Enter the plate thickness of 0.01 m.) >Enter 0.01 > OK > Close

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Figure 2-7 Real constants.

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Figure 2-8 Enter the plate thickness.

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Enter the material properties.

5. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models

Material Model Number 1, Double click Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic Enter EX = 2.07E11 and PRXY = 0.29 > OK (Close the Define Material Model Behavior window.) Create the geometry for the upper right quadrant of the plate by subtracting a 0.2 m diameter circle from a 0.5 x 0.2 m rectangle. Generate the rectangle first. 6. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners Enter (lower left corner) WP X = 0.0, WP Y = 0.0 and Width = 0.5, Height = 0.2 > OK 7. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle Enter WP X = 0.0, WP Y = 0.0 and Radius = 0.1 > OK

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Figure 2-9 Create areas.

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Figure 2-10 Rectangle and circle. Now subtract the circle from the rectangle. (Read the messages in the window at the bottom of the screen as necessary.) 8. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas > Pick the rectangle > OK, then pick the circle > OK

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Figure 2-11 Geometry for quadrant of plate.

Create a mesh of triangular elements over the quadrant area.

9. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free Pick the quadrant > OK

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Figure 2-12 Triangular element mesh.

Apply the displacement boundary conditions and loads to the geometry lines instead of the nodes as we did in the previous Lesson. 10. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Pick the left edge of the quadrant > OK > UX = 0. > OK

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11. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Pick the bottom edge of the quadrant > OK > UY = 0. > OK 12. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines. Pick the right edge of the quadrant > OK > Pressure = -1.0 > OK (A positive pressure would be a compressive load, so we use a negative pressure. The pressure is shown by the two arrows.)

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Figure 2-13 Model with loading and displacement boundary conditions.

The model-building step is now complete, and we can proceed to the solution. First, to be safe, save the model. 13. Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname.db (Or Save as …. ; use a new name) SOLUTION The interactive solution proceeds as illustrated in the tutorials of Lesson 1. 14. Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK

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The /STATUS Command window displays the problem parameters and the Solve Current Load Step window is shown. Check the solution options in the /STATUS window and if all is OK, select File > Close In the Solve Current Load Step window, Select OK, and when the solution is complete, close the ‘Solution is Done!’ window. POSTPROCESSING We can now plot the results of this analysis and also list the computed values. First examine the deformed shape. 15. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape > Def. + Undef. > OK

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Figure 2-14 Plot of Deformed shape.

The deformed shape looks correct. (The undeformed shape is indicated by the dashed lines.) The right end moves to the right in response to the tensile load in the x-direction, the circular hole ovals out, and the top moves down because of Poisson’s effect. Note that the element edges on the circular arc are represented by straight lines. This is an artifact of the plotting routine not the analysis. The six-node triangle has curved sides, and if you pick on a mid-side of one these elements, you will see that a node is placed on the curved edge. The maximum displacement is shown on the graph legend as 0.32e-11 which seems reasonable. The units of displacement are meters because we employed meters and N/m2 in the problem formulation. Now plot the stress in the X direction. 16. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu > Stress > X-Component of stress > OK Use PlotCtrls > Symbols [/PSF] Surface Load Symbols (set to Pressures) and Show pre and convect as (set to Arrows) to display the pressure loads.

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Also select Display All Applied BCs

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Figure 2-15 Surface load symbols.

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The minimum, SMN, and maximum, SMX, stresses as well as the color bar legend give an overall evaluation of the SX stress state. We are interested in the maximum stress at the hole. Use the Zoom to focus on the area with highest stress. (Your meshes and results may differ a bit from those shown here.)

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Figure 2-16 Element SX stresses.

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Figure 2-17 SX stress detail.

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Stress variations in the actual isotropic, homogeneous plate should be smooth and continuous across elements. The discontinuities in the SX stress contours above indicate that the number of elements used in this model is too few to accurately calculate the stress values near the hole because of the stress gradients there. We will not accept this stress solution. More six-node elements are needed in the region near the hole to find accurate values of the stress. On the other hand, in the right half of the model, away from the stress riser, the calculated stress contours are smooth, and SX would seem to be accurately determined there. It is important to note that in the plotting we selected Element Solu (Element Solution) in order to look for stress contour discontinuities. If you pick Nodal Solu to plot instead, for problems like the one in this tutorial, the stress values will be averaged before plotting, and any contour discontinuities (and thus errors) will be hidden. If you plot nodal solution stresses you will always see smooth contours. A word about element accuracy: The FEM implementation of the truss element is taken directly from solid mechanics studies, and there is no approximation in the solutions for node-loaded truss structures formulated and solved in the ways discussed in Lesson 1. The continuum elements such as the ones for plane stress and plane strain, on the other hand, are normally developed using displacement functions of a polynomial type to represent the displacements within the element, and the higher the polynomial, the greater the accuracy. The ANSYS six-node triangle uses a quadratic polynomial and is capable of representing linear stress and strain variations within an element. Near stress concentrations the stress gradients vary quite sharply. To capture this variation, the number of elements near the stress concentrations must be increased proportionately. To obtain more elements in the model, return to the Preprocessor and refine the mesh, first remove the pressure. All elements are subdivided and the mesh below is created 17. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Delete > Structural > Pressure > On Lines. Pick the right edge of the quadrant. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Modify Mesh > Refine At > All (Select Level of refinement 1.)

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Figure 2-18 Global mesh refinement.

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We will also refine the mesh selectively near the hole.

18. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Modify Mesh > Refine At > Nodes. (Select the three nodes shown.) > OK (Select the Level of refinement = 1) > OK

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Figure 2-19 Selective refinement at nodes. (Note: Alternatively you can use Preprocessor > Meshing > Clear > Areas to remove all elements and build a completely new mesh. Plot > Areas afterwards to view the area again. Note also that too much local refinement can create a mesh with too rapid a transition between fine and coarse mesh regions.) Now repeat the solution, and replot the stress SX.

19. Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK Save your work.

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20. File > Save as Jobname.db Plot the stresses in the X-direction. 21. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu > Stress > X-Component of stress > OK

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Figure 2-20 SX stress contour after mesh refinement.

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Figure 2-21 SX stress detail contour after mesh refinement. The element solution stress contours are now smooth across element boundaries, and the stress legend shows a maximum value of 4.386 Pa, a 4.3 percent change in the computed stress. To check this result, find the stress concentration factor for this problem in a text or reference book or from a suitable web site. For the geometry of this example we find Kt = 2.17. We can compute the maximum stress using (Kt)(load)/(net cross sectional area). Using the pressure p = 1.0 Pa we obtain.

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ANSYS Tutorial

The computed maximum value is 4.39 Pa which is around one percent in error, assuming that the value of Kt is exact. 2-5 THE APPROXIMATE NATURE OF FEM

As mentioned above, the stiffness matrix for the truss elements of Lesson 1 can be developed directly and simply from elementary solid mechanics principles. For continuum problems in two and three-dimensional stress, this is generally no longer possible, and the element stiffness matrices are usually developed by assuming something specific about the characteristics of the displacements that can occur within an element. Ordinarily this is done by specifying the highest degree of the polynomial that governs the displacement distribution within an element. For h-method elements, the polynomial degree depends upon the number of nodes used to describe the element, and the interpolation functions that relate displacements within the element to the displacements at the nodes are called shape functions. In ANSYS, 2-dimensional problems can be modeled with six-node triangles, four-node quadrilaterals or eight-node quadrilaterals.

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σ x MAX = 2.17 * p * (0.4)(0.01) /[(0.4 − 0.2) * 0.01] = 4.34 Pa

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Figure 2-22 Triangular and quadrilateral elements. The greater the number of nodes, the higher the order of the polynomial and the greater the accuracy in describing displacements, stresses and strains within the element. If the stress is constant throughout a region, a very simple model is sufficient to describe the stress state, perhaps only one or two elements. If there are gradients in the stress distributions within a region, high-degree displacement polynomials and/or many elements are required to accurately analyze the situation.

These comments explain the variation in the accuracy of the results as different numbers of elements were used to solve the problem in the previous tutorial and why the engineer must carefully prepare a model, start with small models, grow the models as understanding of the problem develops and carefully interpret the calculated results. The

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Plane Stress / Plane Strain

2-15

ease with which models can be prepared and solved sometimes leads to careless evaluation of the computed results. 2-6 ANSYS FILES

The files created during the solution were saved in step 20 of Tutorial 2A. Look in the working directory and you see Tutorial2A files with extensions BCS, db, dbb, esav, full, mntr, PVTS, rst, and stat. However, the Tutorial 2A problem can be reloaded using only Tutorial2A.db, so if you want to save disk space, you can delete the others. 2-7 ANSYS GEOMETRY The finite element model consists of elements and nodes and is separate from the geometry on which it may be based. It is possible to build the finite element model without consideration of any underlying geometry as was done in the truss examples of Lesson 1, but in many cases, development of the geometry is the first task. Two-dimensional geometry in ANSYS is built from keypoints, lines (straight, arcs, splines), and areas. These geometric items are assigned numbers and can be listed, numbered, manipulated, and plotted. The keypoints (2,3,4,5,6), lines (2,3,5,9,10), and area (3) for Tutorial 2A are shown below.

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The finite element model developed previously for this part used the area A3 for development of the node/element FEM mesh. The loads, displacement boundary conditions and pressures were applied to the geometry lines. When the solution step was executed, the loads were transferred from the lines to the FEM model nodes. Applying boundary conditions and loads to the geometry facilitates remeshing the problem. The geometry does not change, only the number and location of nodes and elements, and at solution time, the loads are transferred to the new mesh. Geometry can be created in ANSYS interactively (as was done in the previous tutorial) or it can be created by reading a text file. For example, the geometry of Tutorial 2A can be generated with the following text file using the File > Read Input from command sequence. (The keypoint, line, etc. numbers will be different from those shown above.)

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Figure 2-23 Keypoints, lines and areas.

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ANSYS Tutorial

/FILNAM,Geom /title, Stress Concentration Geometry ! Example of creating geometry using keypoints, lines, arcs /prep7 ! Create geometry k, 1, 0.0, 0.0 ! Keypoint 1 is at 0.0, 0.0 k, 2, 0.1, 0.0 k, 3, 0.5, 0.0 k, 4, 0.5, 0.2 k, 5, 0.0, 0.2 k, 6, 0.0, 0.1 L, L, L, L, 2, 3, 4, 5, 3 4 5 6 ! Line from keypoints 2 to 3

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! Area defined by lines 1,2,3,4,5

! arc from keypoint 2 to 6, center kp 1, radius 0.1 LARC, 2, 6, 1, 0.1 AL, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Geometry for FEM analysis also can be created with solid modeling CAD or other software and imported into ANSYS. The IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) neutral file is a common format used to exchange geometry between computer programs. Tutorial 2B demonstrates this option for ANSYS geometry development. 2-8 TUTORIAL 2B – SEATBELT COMPONENT Objective: Determine the stresses and deformation of the prototype seatbelt component shown in the figure below if it is subjected to tensile load of 1000 lbf.

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Figure 2-24 Seatbelt component.

The seatbelt component is made of steel, has an over all length of about 2.5 inches and is 3/32 = 0.09375 inches thick. A solid model of the part was developed in a CAD system and exported as an IGES file. The file is imported into ANSYS for analysis. For simplicity we will analyze only the right, or ‘tongue’ portion of the part in this tutorial.

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Figure 2-25 Seatbelt ‘tongue’.

PREPROCESSING

1. Start ANSYS, Run Interactive, set jobname, and working directory.

Create the top half of the geometry above. The latch retention slot is 0.375 x 0.8125 inches and is located 0.375 inch from the right edge. If you are not using an IGES file to define the geometry for this exercise, you can create the geometry directly in ANSYS with key points, lines, and arcs by selecting File > Read Input from to read in the text file given below and by skipping the IGES import steps 2, 3, 4, and 10 below.
/FILNAM,Seatbelt /title, Seatbelt Geometry ! Example of creating geometry using keypoints, lines, arcs /prep7 ! Create geometry k, 1, 0.0, 0.0 ! Keypoint 1 is at 0.0, 0.0 k, 2, 0.75, 0.0 k, 3, 1.125, 0.0 k, 4, 1.5, 0.0 k, 5, 1.5, 0.5 k, 6, 1.25, 0.75 k, 7, 0.0, 0.75 k, 8, 1.125, 0.375 k, 9, 1.09375, 0.40625 k, 10, 0.8125, 0.40625 k, 11, 0.75, 0.34375 k, 12, 1.25, 0.5 k, 13, 1.09375, 0.375 k, 14, 0.8125, 0.34375

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L, L, L, L, L, L, L, L,

1, 2 3, 4 4, 5 6, 7 7, 1 3, 8 9, 10 11, 2

! arc LARC, LARC, LARC,

from keypoint 5 to 6, center kp 12, radius 0.25, etc. 5,6, 12, 0.25 8, 9, 13, 0.03125 10, 11, 14, 0.0625

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! Line from keypoints 1 to 2 ! Use all lines to create the area.

AL,all

2. Alternatively, use a solid modeler to create the top half of the component shown above in the X-Y plane and export an IGES file of the part. To import the IGES file

3. Utility Menu > File > Import > IGES

Select the IGES file you created earlier. Accept the ANSYS import default settings. If you have trouble with the import, select the alternate options and try again. Defeaturing is an automatic process to remove inconsistencies that may exist in the IGES file, for example lines that, because of the modeling or the file translation process, do not quite join to digital precision accuracy.

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Figure 2-26 IGES import.

Turn the IGES solid model around if necessary so you can easily select the X-Y plane.

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4. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Pan, Zoom, Rotate > Back, or use the side-bar icon.

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Figure 2-27 Seatbelt solid, front and back.

5. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > Solid > Quad 8node 183 > OK (Use the 8-node quadrilateral element for this problem.) 6. Options > Plane strs w/thk > OK > Close Enter the thickness

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7. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > (Type 1 Plane 183) > OK > Enter 0.09375 > OK > Close Enter the material properties

8. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models

Material Model Number 1, Double click Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic Enter EX = 3.0E7 and PRXY = 0.3 > OK (Close Define Material Model Behavior window.) Now mesh the X-Y plane area. (Turn area numbers on if it helps.) 9. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free. Pick the X-Y planar area > OK IMPORTANT NOTE: The mesh below was developed from an IGES geometry file. Using the text file geometry definition, may produce a much different mesh. If so, use the Modify Mesh refinement tools to obtain a mesh density that produces results with accuracies comparable to those given below. Computed stress values can be surprisingly sensitive mesh differences.

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Figure 2-28 Quad 8 mesh. The IGES solid model is no longer needed, and since its lines and areas may interfere with subsequent modeling operations, we can delete it from the session. 10. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Delete > Volume and Below (Don’t be surprised if everything disappears. Just Plot > Elements to see the mesh again.) 11. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Pan, Zoom, Rotate > Front front side of mesh.) (If necessary to see the

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Figure 2-29 .Mesh, front view.

Now apply displacement and pressure boundary conditions. Zero displacement UX along left edge and zero UY along bottom edge. 12. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Pick the left edge > UX = 0. > OK 13. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Pick the lower edge > UY = 0. > OK The 1000 lbf load corresponds to a uniform pressure of about 14,000 psi along the ¾ inch vertical inside edge of the latch retention slot. [1000 lbf/(0.09375 in. x 0.75 in.)]. 14. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines

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Plane Stress / Plane Strain

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Select the inside line and set pressure = 14000 > OK

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Figure 2-30 Applied displacement and pressure conditions.

Solve the equations. SOLUTION

15. Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK POSTPROCESSING

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Comparing the von Mises stress with the material yield stress is an accepted way of evaluating yielding for ductile metals in a combined stress state, so we enter the postprocessor and plot the element solution of von Mises stress, SEQV. 16. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu > Stress > (scroll down) von Mises > OK Zoom in on the small fillet where the maximum stresses occur. The element solution stress contours are reasonably smooth, and the maximum von Mises stress is around 118,000 psi. Further mesh refinement gives a stress value of approximately 140,000 psi. The small fillet radius of this geometry illustrates the challenges that can arise in creating accurate solutions, however you can easily come within a few percent of the most likely true result using the methods discussed thus far.

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Figure 2-31 Von Mises stresses.

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ANSYS Tutorial

Redesign to reduce the maximum stress requires an increase in the thickness or fillet radius. Look at charts of stress concentration factors, and you notice that the maximum stress increases as the radius of the stress raiser decreases, approaching infinite values at zero radii. If your model has a zero radius notch, your finite-size elements will show a very high stress but not infinite stress. If you refine the mesh, the stress will increase but not reach infinity. The finite element technique necessarily describes finite quantities and cannot directly treat an infinite stress at a singular point, so don’t ‘chase a singularity’. If you do not care what happens at the notch (static load, ductile material, etc.) do not worry about this location but examine the stress in other regions. If you really are concerned about the maximum stress here (fatigue loads or brittle material), then use the actual part notch radius however small (1/32 for this tutorial); do not use a zero radius. Also examine the stress gradient in the vicinity of the notch to make sure the mesh is sufficiently refined near the notch. If a crack tip is the object of the analysis, you should look at fracture mechanics approaches to the problem. (See ANSYS help topics on fracture mechanics.) The engineer’s responsibility is not only to build useful models, but also to interpret the results of such models in intelligent and meaningful ways. This can often get overlooked in the rush to get answers. Continue with the evaluation and check the strains and deflections for this model as well. 17. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu > Strain-total > 1st prin > OK The maximum principal normal strain value is found to be approximately 0.004 in/in. 18. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > DOF Solution > X-Component of displacement > OK

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Figure 2-32 UX displacements.

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The maximum deflection in the X-direction is about 0.00145 inches and occurs as expected at the center of the right-hand edge of the latch retention slot. 2-9 MAPPED MESHING

Quadrilateral meshes can also be created by mapping a square with a regular array of cells onto a general quadrilateral or triangular region. To illustrate this, delete the last line, AL,all, from the text file above so that the area is not created (just the lines) and read it into ANSYS. Use PlotCtrls to turn Keypoint Numbering On. Then use 1. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line. Successively pick pairs of keypoints until the four interior lines shown below are created.

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Figure 2-33 Lines added to geometry. 2. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitrary > By Lines Pick the three lines defining the lower left triangular area. > Apply > Repeat for the quadrilateral areas. > Apply > OK

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Figure 2-34 Quadrilateral/Triangular regions.

3. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Glue > Areas > Pick All

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ANSYS Tutorial

The glue operation preserves the boundaries between areas that we will need for mapped meshing. 4. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines Enter 4 for NDIV, No. element divisions > OK All lines will be divided into four segments for mesh creation.

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Figure 2-35 Element size on picked lines. 5. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add > Solid > Quad 8node 183 > OK (Use the 8-node quadrilateral element for the mesh.) 6. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Mapped > 3 or 4 sided > Pick All The mesh below is created. Applying boundary and load conditions and solving gives the von Mises stress distribution shown. The stress contours are discontinuous because of the poor mesh quality. Notice the long and narrow quads near the point of maximum stress. We need more elements and they need to be better shaped with smaller aspect ratios to obtain satisfactory results.

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Figure 2-36 Mapped mesh and von Mises results. One can tailor the mapped mesh by specifying how many elements are to be placed along which lines. This allows much better control over the quality of the mesh, and an example of using this approach is described in Lesson 4. 2-10 CONVERGENCE

The goal of finite element analysis as discussed in this lesson is to arrive at computed estimates of deflection, strain and stress that converge to definite values as the number of elements in the mesh increases, just as a convergent series arrives at a definite value once enough terms are summed. For elements based on assumed displacement functions that produce continuum models, the computed displacements are smaller in theory than the true displacements because the assumed displacement functions place an artificial constraint on the deformations that can occur. These constraints are relaxed as the element polynomial is increased or as more elements are used. Thus your computed displacements usually converge smoothly from below to fixed values. Strains are the x and/or y derivatives of the displacements and thus depend on the distribution of the displacements for any given mesh. The strains and stresses may change in an erratic way as the mesh is refined, first smaller than the final computed values, then larger, etc. Not all elements are developed using the ideas discussed above, and some will give displacements that converge from above. (See Lesson 6.) In any case you should be alert to computed displacement and stress variations as you perform mesh refinement during the solution of a problem. 2-11 TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENT OPTIONS

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The analysis options for two-dimensional elements are: Plane Stress, Axisymmetric, Plane Strain, Plane Stress with Thickness and Generalized Plane Strain. The two examples thus far in this lesson were of the third type, namely problems of plane stress in which we provided the thickness of the part.

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ANSYS Tutorial

The first analysis option, Plane Stress, is the ANSYS default and provides an analysis for a part with unit thickness. If you are working on a design problem in which the thickness is not yet known, you may wish to use this option and then select the thickness based upon the stress, strain, and deflection distributions found for a unit thickness. The second option, Axisymmetric analysis is covered in detail in Lesson 3.

Plane Strain occurs in a problem such as a cylindrical roller bearing caged against axial motion and uniformly loaded in a direction normal to the cylindrical surface. Because there is no axial motion, there is no axial strain. Each slice through the cylinder behaves like every other and the problem can be conveniently analyzed with a planar model. Another plane strain example is that of a long retaining wall, restrained at each end and loaded uniformly by soil pressure on one or both faces. The Generalized Plane Strain feature assumes a finite deformation domain length in the Z direction, as opposed to the infinite value assumed for standard plane strain. 2-12 SUMMARY

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Problems of stress concentration in plates subject to in-plane loadings were used to illustrate ANSYS analysis of plane stress problems. Free triangular and quadrilateral element meshes were developed and analyzed. Mapped meshing with quads was also presented. Similar methods are used for solving problems involving plane strain; one only has to choose the appropriate option during element selection. The approach is also applicable to axisymmetric geometries as discussed in the next lesson. 2-13 PROBLEMS

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In the problems below, use triangular and/or quadrilateral elements as desired. Triangles may produce more regular shaped element meshes with free meshing. The six-node triangles and eight-node quads can approximate curved surface geometries and, when stress gradients are present, give much better results than the four-node quad elements. 2-1 Find the maximum stress in the aluminum plate shown below. Use tabulated stress concentration factors to independently calculate the maximum stress. Compare the two results by determining the percent difference in the two answers. Convert the 12 kN concentrated force into an equivalent pressure applied to the edge.

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Figure P2-1

2-2 Find the maximum stress for the plate from 2-1 if the hole is located halfway between the centerline and top edge as shown. You will now need to model half of the plate instead of just one quarter and properly restrain vertical rigid body motion. One way to do this is to fix one keypoint along the centerline from UY displacement.

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Figure P2-2

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ANSYS Tutorial

2-3 An aluminum square 10 inches on a side has a 5-inch diameter hole at the center. The object is in a state of plane strain with an internal pressure of 1500 psi. Determine the magnitude and location of the maximum principal stress, the maximum principal strain, and the maximum von Mises stress. Note that no thickness need be supplied for plane strain analysis.

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Figure P2-3

2-4 Repeat 2-3 for a steel plate one inch thick in a state of plane stress.

2-5 See if you can reduce the maximum stress for the plate of problem 2-1 by adding holes as shown below. Select a hole size and location that you think will smooth out the ‘stress flow’ caused by the load transmission through the plate.

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Figure P2-5 2-6 Repeat 2-1 but the object is now a plate with notches or with a step in the geometry. (See the next figure.) Select your own dimensions, materials, and loads. Use published stress concentration factor data to compare to your results. The published results are for plates that are relatively long so that there is a uniform state of axial stress at either end relatively far from notch or hole. Create your geometry accordingly.

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2-7 Solve the seatbelt component problem of Tutorial 2B again using six node triangular elements instead of the quadrilaterals. Experiment with mesh refinement. Turn on Smart Sizing using size controls to examine the effect on the solution. See if you can compute a maximum von Mises stress of around 140 kpsi. 2-8 Determine the stresses and deflections in an object ‘at hand’ (such as a seatbelt tongue or retaining wall) whose geometry and loading make it suitable for plane stress or plane strain analysis. Do all the necessary modeling of geometry (use a CAD system if you wish), materials and loadings. 2-9 A cantilever beam with a unit width rectangular cross section is loaded with a uniform pressure along its upper surface. Model the beam as a problem in plane stress. Compute the end deflection and the maximum stress at the cantilever support. Compare your results to those you would find using elementary beam theory.

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Figure P2-6

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Figure P2-8

Restrain UX along the cantilever support line, but restrain UY at only one keypoint along this line. Otherwise, the strain in the Y direction due to the Poisson effect is prevented here, and the root stresses are different from elementary beam theory because of the singularity created. (Try fixing all node points in UX and UY and see what happens.) Select your own dimensions, materials, and pressure. Try a beam that’s long and slender and one that’s short and thick. The effect of shear loading becomes more important in the deflection analysis as the slenderness decreases.

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ANSYS Tutorial

NOTES:

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Engineering Graphics

FREEHAND SKETCHING

Sketching is a very important technique for technical communication. Sketches can transfer ideas, instructions and information in a clear, concise form. "Thinking with a pencil" is a practice designers use to bring ideas and mental pictures to reality. Freehand sketches are often the first view of new designs. Long before formal drawings are made or computer models are created, a series of detailed sketches are analyzed and approved. Sketching is a personal skill which everyone can improve.

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Introduction to Freehand Sketching

Sketching tools include: __Pencil or leadholder. __Leads: "H", "F" or "HB" hardness. __Eraser: pink type preferred or white. __Sketching paper: rectangular grid, isometric grid, vellum overlay, newsprint, etc. __Straightedge. __Circle and ellipse templates. __Plastic triangles. __Gadgets like tiny drafting machines, roller parallel tools, etc.

Designers may use a variety of these tools when many sketches are to be made. Since sketches may be needed quickly, it is best to rely only on pencil, paper and eraser.

Printed grids or papers with lightly ruled lines are often used for sketching. The grids are used to keep freehand lines straight. Grids may also be used to create accurately scaled sketches, keeping the drawing in correct proportion.

Grids act as guides for sketching. They help keep lines straight and in correct proportion.

FREEHAND SKETCHING

Engineering Graphics

Grids may be used to keep features in correct X - Y scale. The rounded corner is measured three units horizontal, three units vertical and a construction point is measured half-way around the arc.

Sketches must be very neat and proportional to the real objects. Lines must be very black to scan or fax clearly.

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Using Sketching Grids

Engineering and architectural forms are available with many guide line spacings. 1/4 inch forms are common. Sketches of objects may be scaled down (or up) to fit the sheet size. The examples show several possible scale factors. Accurately scaled sketches are needed to convey proportions.

This sketch of a small room is drawn to a scale of 1/4" = 1’-0". It indicates the room is about 9’-6" wide by 11’-0" deep. The bookcase is 14" deep and 5’ wide. Other furnishings are sketched to scale. Scaled sketches are often the first step in working out the sizes and proportions for a design. Sketches may be created anywhere and at any time with a minimum of tools. Neat sketches convey accurate information. Professionals take pride in the appearance and accuracy of their sketches.

The quality of the work projects the integrity of the designer.

Engineering Graphics

FREEHAND SKETCHING

Construction lines and points will improve the appearance of freehand circles. It takes only a few seconds to block in horizontal, vertical and 45 degree points shown. These points help when sketching the arcs for the circle.

The edge of a piece of paper may be used as a gage for measuring points on a circle.

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Sketching Arcs and Circles

Tangent points define the extent of an arc. Tangent points are located by sketching a line from the center of the arc or circle perpendicular to the tangent line. These points show where the arc ends and the straight line begins. Locating tangent points will improve the appearance of sketches.

When two circles are tangent, the tangent point s on the line connecting the centers. This point shows where one arc ends and the other begins.

There are only two rules to remember when locating tangent points: 1. The point of tangency between a line and a circle is on the line perpendicular through the center of the circle. 2. The point of tangency between two circles is on the line connecting the centers of the circles.

Ellipses may be sketched using four arcs. Sketch a small arc at each side and a longer arc across the top and bottom.

FREEHAND SKETCHING

Engineering Graphics

Block in the entire circle even if only a part of the circle will be needed. This helps space the object and verify proportions. __Sketch the three circles. __Sketch the lines tangent to the circles. __Sketch each radius perpendicular to each tangent line. These constructions will locate points needed for darkening-in the final shape.

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Sketching Techniques

The final shape is sketched by pressing down hard on the pencil to create a smooth black outline.

Geometric shapes like this hexagon are based on first sketching a circle. Draw the hexagon using the circle as a control surface. Construct tangent lines at approximately 60 degrees (in this case). Blacken the lines for the final shape.

An octagon has eight sides. __Sketch a circle. __Sketch horizontal and vertical lines tangent to the circle. __Sketch lines from the center of the circle at 45 degrees. (Use the diagonals of the grid boxes.) __Sketch lines perpendicular at each diagonal. __Blacken-in the octagonal shape.

Engineering Graphics

FREEHAND SKETCHING

Pictorial sketches are easier if an isometric sketching grid is used. By following the angles of the guide lines, the shape of the front, top and side faces may be sketched. Isometric axes are 30 degrees upward to the left (width), 30 degrees upward to the right ( depth) and vertical (height).

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Pictorial Sketches

Pictorial sketches show three faces of a three dimensional object. This type of sketch helps designers and viewers portray three dimensional shapes quickly.

Circular shapes appear as ellipses on pictorial sketches. 4-center ellipses are often sketched or drawn. Centers are located by construction lines.

Pictorial sketch of a counter bored hole.

FREEHAND SKETCHING

Engineering Graphics

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Extracted from American National Standards Institute Y14.2 C-6

ANSI Linetypes

Engineering Graphics

FREEHAND SKETCHING

Drawings may require very large sheet sizes. Standard sizes are labeled: __A = 8 1/2 x 11 __B = 11 x 17 __C = 17 x 22 etc.

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Glass cylinder Mercury vapor tube. Original Copy

Drawing Sizes - Copying Large Drawings

(Figure extracted from A.N.S.I Y14.1). Drawings are created on transparent paper or plastic film. The reason the material is transparent relates to the copy process used to duplicate drawings. Many drawings are copied using the diazo process. This process allows large sheets to be duplicated at relatively low cost.

Prints are made by copying through the original. The copy paper is placed underneath. A bright light shines through from the top. Lines on the original must be very black to prevent light from passing through.

In commercial machines a mercury-vapor light is placed inside a glass cylinder. The original and copy paper roll around the cylinder during exposure. Very long drawings may be duplicated this way. Hot ammonia gas is used to develop the dry copy.

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FREEHAND SKETCHING

Engineering Graphics

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FREEHAND SKETCHING

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C-206. Sketch the design office layout on rectangular grid. Use 1/4" = 1’-0" scale. (One grid = 1 foot). Use rectangular grids printed on the back of other pages in this chapter. Dimension as shown. Some dimesnions may have to be moved inside the walls to fit the page. Do not place dimensions outside the title block border lines. Note size and shape of arrows. Arrows should be 1/8" long and 1/3 as wide as long. Omit text under NOTE:

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AutoCAD 2008
Relative and Angular Input Unit2

Relative Coordinates

Relative Input

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Relative Measurements vs. Absolute
Relative "@"X,Y,Z Input Format

Polar (Angular) Inputs

Input format and options

Relative @dist<angle Format

Object Snaps

Reset "Last Point"

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Object Snap Modifiers
Running Object Snaps
Using "ID" to set Last Point
Other Options

Examples

Example Drawing

Exercises

Most drawings are created using relative coordinates. This means that the next point is set from the last point drawn. The last point drawn is stored as “temporary 0,0”. AutoCAD uses the “@” (shift 2) as a prefix to the X,Y coordinates to denote relative input mode. Any measurements after the “@” are referenced from the last point drawn rather than from the world space 0,0. Absolute input: X,Y Relative input: @X,Y Polar (angular) input: @dist<angle

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Review Relative Input

Printing and Plotting

DYNamic input is a new form of input recently introduced. We will work with dynamic input at a later time. For now, be sure dynamic input is turned off. OFF

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Relative Coordinates Relative coordinates have two basic formats: One (@X,Y) when the endpoints of lines are known, and Two (@dist<angle) when the length of a line and the angle is known. The example shows the sequence for drawing horizontal and vertical lines. Two inputs are needed. Any point to the right is positive. Any point to the left is negative. Any point up is positive. Any point down is negative.

AutoCAD 2008

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C-18 0 degrees

Above, an offset input is shown. Lines may be drawn at angles by giving the X distance over and the Y distance up from the start point. Positive or negative offsets may be specified. Angular (polar) input specifies the length along the line (hypotenuse) and the angle from zero. Zero defaults to East or the X-axis but may be set to a different direction. Positive angles are measured counterclockwise.

AutoCAD 2008 Object Snaps.

Relative Coordinates

Drawings require very accurate connections. Information from drawings may be used in many different ways. Approximate ( “eyeball” ) connections may cause inaccurate results or failure of extended uses. Exporting drawing data to machine tools is a common process. Machine tools need a series of connected lines to calculate tool paths. If the lines are not connected, the machine will stop. AutoCAD provides a number of modifiers (Object Snaps) which assure accurate connections. Object snaps may be invoked as the drawing is created or a series of Running Object Snaps may be set. Basic format: Start a line (you can use an object snap to start the line accurately) the end the line (you can add an object snap to end the line accurately.

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Accurate

A circle with a 2.00 inch diameter was drawn.

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1

Not Accurate

1. The Line command was started then the object snap Quadrant was invoked. Line � Qua � {point at left side of circle the endpoint was @0,-1.5 The next point was object snap Tangent. Tan �

Common Object Snaps are:

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2 3 @0,-1.5 Endpoint Midpoint Quadrant Tangent Center

Endpoint Intersection Tangent Center Quadrant Perpendicular Nearest Midpoint Use the first three letters. Some drafters prefer to invoke each object snap by typing each command as the drawing is created.

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Perpendicular C-19

Intersection

Relative Coordinates Running Object Snaps.

AutoCAD 2008

Pop down Tools ..... Drafting Settings

Toggle on the Object Snaps you wish to use. (All on at one time can cause confusing results. )

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Study the icons for each object snap. These appear as you work. Click when you see the icon to set the connection

F-3 function key turns the running object snaps off/on.

Click OSNAP on the bottom toolbar to turn running object snaps on/off.

Dynamic Input may be set from the next tab over. To use Dynamic Input, turn on the DYN button. (see above).

Experiment with these available tools. See what you prefer to use as you draw. AutoCAD will configure menus, toolbars and input options to work as you like to work. After several months, designers begin to customize their workspace.

AutoCAD 2008 Adding the Object Snap Toolbar to your drawing. __ right-click on any toolbar. __ select Object Snap

Relative Coordinates

Picking a reference point (Resetting the temporary 0,0 point.)

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Newer versions of AutoCAD added the “from” command to shorten the sequence of locating one object from another.

Situations occur while creating drawings where an object must be drawn in reference to an existing point or intersection.

The circle B must be drawn in reference to the intersection at A. __1st method. ID the intersection at “A”. Type ID � (identify) ... Int � and point at the intersection at “A” This resets the temporary “last point” 0,0 to “A”. Type C (circle) � and key in @-.75,-.25 � to set the center. Key in D � and .625 � to set the size. __ 2nd method. Start the circle command. C � (type) from � (type) int � and point at “A”. key in @-.75,-.25 � Key in D � and .625 to set the size.

__ 3rd method. Use the From option on the Object Snap Toolbar. Start the circle command then click the Snap From icon. Select the point at “A” then key in the offsets: @-.75,-.25. Type in the circle diameter.

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Relative Coordinates

AutoCAD 2008

Tutorial - Relative and Polar mode drawing.

The drawing shown below combines a number of relative (linear) and polar (angular) drawing inputs. To start the drawing, start the line command and pick any point for “A”. Command: line ↵ From point: pick any point To point :@1.50,0 (a to b) To point:@1.80<34 (angle from zero - b to c) To point:@1.50,0 (c to d) To point:@0,1.25 (d↵ to e) To point:@-1,1 (e to f) To point:@1,1 (f to g) To point:@0,.75 (g to h) To point:@-2.75,0 (h to i) To point:@-1.5,-1.25 (i to j) To point:@0,-1.5 (j to k) To point:@1.46<239 (angle from zero — k to l) c↵ to close. ( Or, osnap endp at “a”) Note: Key in this example. Verify the steps, math and reasoning.

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Below: (Some numbers will vary.) Sequence to draw the circle and hexagon:

Draw the circle: first ID point “c”

(These numbers will vary)

Key in the offset from “c” and draw the circle

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Draw the polygon: ID point “f”

AutoCAD 2008

Relative Coordinates

Save the drawing. Make a habit of saving drawings each 15 to 20 minutes. A computer crash can wipe out a lot of work. Dimension the drawing approximately as shown. Some dimension settings need to be changed: Pop down Dimension ....

__ Select Dimension Style __ Select Modify on the Dimension Style Manager dialog box.

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__ Select the Primary Units Tab.

__ Set the number of decimal places as shown to 2 places.

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C-23 .X = +/- .1 inches is a very large tolerance - rarely used. .XX = +/- .03 inches. Common shop tolerance for non-critical features. .06 inches is the thickness of a penny. Preferred. .XXX = +/- .010 inches. About the thickness of 5 pieces of paper. Closer tolerance. More expensive to produce.

Note: The number of decimal places on a dimension is often used on drawings to indicate the required accuracy of the dimensions. No dimension can be perfect so all dimensions on a drawing must have a Tolerance. A Tolerance Block is placed on drawings to show the required accuracy.

Relative Coordinates The dimension pop down menu is shown.

AutoCAD 2008

__ Use Object Snaps Endpoint, Intersection, Center, etc. when placing dimensions to be sure you are connecting to the correct points. __ Use Linear dimensions to place horizontal and vertical dimensions.

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Right click any toolbar and select the Dimension toolbar. Drag anyplace on the window. This is a quick way to select and place dimensions.

__ Use Aligned dimensions to place dimensions on an angle. __ Always dimension the Diameter of full circles and dimension the Radius of arcs.

The easiest way to edit a dimension is to erase and re-dimension. __ You do not need to place the letters (a,b,c,d,e,f etc.) on the drawing. __ Be sure to put your name on the drawing. __Save the drawing and plot the drawing as we did in the previous chapter.

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End of Tutorial

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w C

Use object snap to center to dimension from “c” to the center of the circle. Vertical and horizontal dimensions are needed.

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v

f

There is no center for the polygon. For now, dimension from “f” to the Intersection at “v” and “f” to the Midpoint at “w”.

AutoCAD 2008 Using the List command to verify objects.

Relative Coordinates

__ Type List and select an object. A dialog box will appear that tabulates all the information about the object. This is a tool which allows you to verify starting points, lengths, angles, etc. It is very helpful when troubleshooting a drawing. The hexagon from the tutorial was selected. This is the data that the list command provided.

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Exercise C-101.
Start a new drawing and draw the object shown.

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You will use many different input formats for the layout.

Pick any point to start at “a”. Draw to b and to c. Then go back to a and draw to k, j,i etc. Length c-d is not given. When you finish, c-d should be a vertical line. Save often. __ Put your name on the drawing. __ Dimension the drawing. __ Plot the drawing

Relative Coordinates

AutoCAD 2008

Exercise C-102.
Layout the drawing. Be sure to put your name on and dimension the layout as shown. __Save __ plot.

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AutoCAD 2008

Geometry I

AutoCAD Geometry I

Setting Points

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Point Styles Node Object Snap Divide Measure Construction Lines Polylines Splines

AutoCAD Geometry

Lines

Geometric Shapes

Tangent Constructions

Editing

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Arcs Polygons Ellipses Tangent Options Obtaining Information Trim Copy Move

Getting Information

Points are the most basic element of a drawing. Lines are defined by two points. A circle is defined by a center point and a point on the radius. Setting points at key locations on a layout is a very good drawing technique and helps assure accuracy.

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A point is a single pixel on the drawing screen and by being so small may be very hard to see. AutoCAD provides special point marker icons which make points more visible on drawings. At plot time there is an option to display or not display the points on a drawing. __ Pop down Format menu and select Point Style.

Geometry I Select a marker shape from the chart. Note the options for a single dot and no marker in the upper left. Earlier versions of AutoCAD set point styles using the command: Pdmode. (Point description mode). The marker highlighted is Pdmode 34. The command to draw a point is: Point �

AutoCAD 2008

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To snap to a point use Object Snap: Node. Tip: Since polygons do not have a center point, set a point first then draw the polygon. Dimensions to the center of he polygon can reference the Node.

Divide and Measure are on a flyout from the Point command.

Draw ..... Point .... Measure or Divide

These commands set points at intervals along lines, polylines, circles, arcs, splines, etc. Divide will place points at equal intervals.

Measure will place points at the distance specified. Pick the end of the object to start measuring from.

Measure along an arc.

AutoCAD 2008 Lines. Several types of lines are available. Standard lines are individual entities used to draw shapes.

Geometry I

Construction lines are infinite in length and do not print on drawings.

Polylines are a series OD connected lines and arcs. They are considered one entity. Polylines were originally added to define tool paths for machining. Polylines are also important for defining shapes to be extruded onto solids. Polylines should be used for drawing shapes whenever possible.

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Construction lines - xlines are defined as shown. They are used to quickly “block in” key locations on a layout.

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Polylines may be returned to individual lines and arcs using the Explode command. Individual lines and arcs may be joined into polylines using the Pedit .... Join commands. Polylines may be assigned thickness and variable thickness.

Spline is a special type of mathematical curve. It is used to define curved shapes that are more complex than simple arcs. A spline curve was placed through several points.

Geometry I Arcs. Many options are available for drawing arcs. In many drawings it is better to draw a circle then trim the circle to display the arc segment needed. (Examples will be shown later.) Circles require 2 points to draw - Arcs require 3 points. Polygons were drawn on manual drawings by first drawing a construction circle then inscribing the polygon or circumscribing the polygon. The circle acted as a “control surface” to assure accuracy.

AutoCAD 2008

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AutoCAD used this analogy when prompting for polygon construction data. The circles are not drawn but the prompt is based on the circle construction. Polygons. AutoCAD will draw regular polygons from 3 sides up. Procedure: 1. Set a point at the center of the polygon. 2. Click Polygon 3. Input number of sides. 4. Select the center point. 5. Set Inscribed or Circumscribed. (I or C) 6. Input “Radius of circle.”

Polygons are constructed using polylines. Polygons may be exploded to edit individual elements.

AutoCAD 2008 Ellipses are generated by two methods: 1. Specify the ends of the first axis and one end of the second axis. (default method). 2. Specify the center, end of one axis, end of the other axis. A Ellipse Arc command is also available.

Geometry I

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Major Axis

Minor Axis

Tangent constructions are needed for many shapes. Line Tangent to two circles. __ Start the Line command. __ Invoke Tangent Object Snap to start the line. __ Pick the 1st circle. __ Invoke Tangent Object Snap to finish the line. __ Click the 2nd circle.

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Pt C-31 Pt

Circle Tangent to two circles. __ Start the circle command. __ Type TTR (Two tangents and a Radius). __ Click the first circle __ Click the 2nd circle __ Type in the Radius. Note: AutoCAD infers the circle connection and direction based on how you select the existing circles.

Tangent lines show points of tangency in the lower figure.

Geometry I

AutoCAD 2008

Editing Geometry

Trim. This command requires a bit of practice as it works differently than you might expect. First, select the cutting elements. Press Enter Second, select the object to be cut. (Select the line to remove). Press Enter

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__ Start Trim __ Select the left and right circles. __ Press Enter � __ Select the bottom of the middle circle. __ Press Enter �

__ Start the Trim command.

Copy and Move work in a similar way. 1st select the objects. Press Enter. 2nd Show where the objects are now. Press Enter. 3rd Show where the object is to be copied/moved to. Click to set. Copy will continue placing more copies. Press ESC.

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__ Select the top line and the bottom arc. __ press Enter �

__ Click the inner arcs. __ press Enter �

Practice with the commands shown. be sure you are familiar with the way each command works and what responses are needed at each step. C-32

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AutoCAD 2008 Getting Information. The internal accuracy of AutoCAD drawings is 17 decimal places. If the drawing is accurate the very accurate data can be obtained. The X,Y location of the tangent point at D is needed for machining or surveying. Calculating the tangent point involves solving several right triangles.

Geometry I

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AutoCAD will display the X,Y coordinates using the ID command. 1. Reset the UCS to the center point at “A” 2. Type ID and point at the tangent point at “D”. The X,Y data is displayed.

Exercise C-201.
Draw the part shown.

__ Dimension as shown. __ Put your name on the drawing. __ Save. __ Plot.

Geometry I

AutoCAD 2008

Exercise C-202
Draw the part shown.

__ Dimension as shown. __ Put your name on the drawing. __ Save. __ Plot.

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Exercise C-203.
Draw the part shown.

__ Dimension as shown. __ Put your name on the drawing. __ Save. __ Plot.

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6

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Introduction to Finite Element Simulation

Historically, finite element modeling tools were only capable of solving the simplest engineering problems which tended to reduce the problem to a manageable size and scope. These early FEA tools could generally solve steady-state, linear problems in two dimensions. The factors that forced these simplifications were lack of efficient computational techniques and the computing power to model more complex real-life problems. As numerical computation techniques have advanced and computing power has increased, analysis tools have also advanced to solve more complex problems. A real-life engineering problem may involve different physics such as fluid flow, heat transfer, electromagnetism and other factors. The finite element method has been used to solve engineering problems in all of these areas successfully and the goal of most software developers is to include as much of the real-world in the simulation they perform as possible. However, in many situations, use of simplifying assumptions such as symmetry, axisymmetry, plane stress, plane strain, etc., is still preferable to using a complete three dimensional model because of the efficiency they provide. These assumptions should be used if the problem being solved requires it. In other words, there is no need or justification to perform a full three dimensional analysis if symmetry is present in the problem being solved. The ANSYS philosophy can be summarized as one that aims to simulate the complete real-life engineering problem. The simulation usually begins by using a three dimensional CAD model to construct a finite element mesh followed by imposing loads and boundary conditions and then computing the solution to the finite element problem.

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6-2

ANSYS Workbench Software Tutorial

6.1 Steps required to solve a problem

In general you follow the same steps to perform a finite element analysis. However, it is important to note that it is possible to use Workbench to perform a large number of different analysis types. These analysis types may include various material nonlinearities, transient loads, rigid body dynamics, etc. which may require additional steps to be performed. The steps described below are aimed at solving a static, linear stress, heat transfer or free vibration analysis. Also remember that the following steps are performed in the Simulation application of Workbench. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Attach to geometry Define/Assign material properties Define the analysis type Set loading and boundary conditions Request results Solve Review the results Generate a report

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Below is a brief explanation of each step.

1. Attach to geometry. In this step you identify the geometry (CAD) model that will be used in your simulation. The model may have been created in DesignModeler or in some other CAD tool. 2. Define/Assign material properties. In this step you specify the type of material each part of your model is made of. You can assign material types from a small database supplied with Workbench or if the material is not in the database you must define it using the Engineering Materials application. 3. Define the analysis type. In this step you set the type of analysis you will be performing such as Static Structural, Modal or Steady-state heat transfer. 4. Set loading and boundary conditions. In this step you specify how your model is constrained and what loads are acting on it. 5. Request results. In this step you specify the results quantities that you want to see once the problem has been solved. 6. Solve. In this step you request that Simulation solve the problem you have defined and compute the results you requested. 7. Review the results. In this step you review the analysis results that you requested in step 5. 8. Generate a report. This step is optional but is recommended. In this step you generate an HTML report which includes the inputs to your simulation, the results and any comments you want to add. You can publish the report or e-mail it in various formats.

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Introduction to Finite Element Simulation

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6.2 Tutorial 6_1 – 4”x1”x1” 3-D cantilevered beam

In this tutorial you will create a cantilevered beam, and perform a stress analysis after constraining it and loading it with a 500lb load. The beam is 4 inches long and has a 1 inch square cross-section.

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Manual calculation of the deflection at the end of the cantilevered beam can be done using the following formula introduced in strength of materials courses: δ = (PL3)/(3EI), along with an additional term that takes into account the deflection due to shear (6PL)/(5AG). Although the deflection due to shear for the cantilevered beam is small, we will include it here for sake of completeness1. Since the beam is made of structural steel, we will be using a modulus of elasticity E = 29,007,557psi, and determining the shear modulus, from the formula G= E/(2 (1 + µ) ) = 11,156,753psi (based on the values stored in the ANSYS database for structural steel). Substituting these values into the deflection equation yields an expected deflection of:

δ=

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PL3 6 PL + = 3EI 5 AG

(500lb)(4in) 3 6(500lb)(4in) + = 0.004627in 3 5(1in) 2 (11.16e6 psi) (1in)(1in) 3(29.01e6 psi)( ) 12

The maximum bending stress in the beam is expected to occur at the top and bottom of the beam where it contacts the wall. Again, from strength of materials, we would expect a maximum bending stress value of:

We will use these two values to compare with our finite element results.

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σ=
Mc (500lb)(4in)(0.5in) = = 12,000 psi I (1in)(1in) 3 12

6-4

ANSYS Workbench Software Tutorial

Step 1 – Start a new DesignModeler database and select Inch in the unit selection dialog box. Step 2 – On the XZPlane construct a 1”x1” square section.

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Step 3 A. B. C. D. – Create a beam by extruding the section 4 inches in the Y direction. Switch to Isometric view by clicking on the ISO icon in the toolbar. In the Details View switch the Direction to Reversed. Enter 4 for FD1, Depth(>0). Click Generate.

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Step 4 – Save the solid model. Click on the Save (Floppy disk) icon, browse to a desired location and save the file as Tutorial 6_1.

Introduction to Finite Element Simulation

6-5

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Step 5 – Begin a simulation using the solid model of the beam. A. Go to the project page by clicking on the project tab. B. Select the solid model (Tutorial 6_1.agdb) and click on New Simulation.

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Step 5 (continued) – The simulation window will open and the part file will be brought in and displayed as shown. Note: If you see the Map of Analysis Types window pane on the right hand side, click on the X at the top of the window pane to close it. See section 3.6.2 for steps to prevent the map from being displayed when the Simulation application starts. Check the bottom right portion of the Simulation window to make sure the units are set correctly. In this tutorial the working units are “US Customary (in,lbm,lbf,F,s)”. If a different system is displayed, use the Units pull down menu to change working units.

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6-6

ANSYS Workbench Software Tutorial

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Step 5 C. D. E. (continued) – Rename the solid model to Beam. In the Outline pane expand the Geometry object. Click the RMB on Solid and select Rename. Type Beam.

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Step 6 – Set the material type. By default, the Simulation application sets all materials in the model to be Structural Steel. In this step we simply check that the material type has been set. Select Beam in the Outline pane look at the Material setting in the Details pane below.

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Introduction to Finite Element Simulation

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See section 3.5 in chapter 3 for instructions on adding new material types to your project. Step 7 – Define the analysis type. Click on the New Analysis pull-down menu and select Static Structural.

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Step 7 (continued) – The Static Structural folder and the Solution folder are added to the Model in the Outline pane. Note the question mark icons next to the Static Structural folder and the Solution folder. The reason for the question marks is that we have not yet defined any loading, boundary conditions or desired results for this analysis. Once these quantities are specified, the questions marks will be replaced by green check marks or other appropriate icons.

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6-8

ANSYS Workbench Software Tutorial

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Step 7 (continued) – Set the load. The loading for this analysis consists of a 500lbf force in the –Z direction. A. Select the Static Structural folder in the Outline view. The Environment toolbar is displayed. B. Orient the beam by rotating it so that the Z axis is in the vertical direction and one end of the beam is visible as shown. The Y-axis should point towards you. C. Change the selection mode to Face by clicking on the face icon in the and graphics toolbar (called the Selection toolbar in DesignModeler) then select the visible end face. D. Click on Loads in the toolbar and select Force from the menu. E. In the Details pane, change Define By to Components if it is not already set. F. Enter -500 for the Z component and 0 for the X and Y components.

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Step 8 – Set The boundary conditions. The boundary condition for this analysis consists of a fixed support at one end of the beam.

Introduction to Finite Element Simulation

6-9

A. Orient the beam by rotating it so that the Z axis is in the vertical direction and the opposite end of the beam (opposite end on which you imposed the force in step 7) is visible. The Y axis will point away from you. B. Select the visible end face of the beam. C. Select the Static Structural folder. D. Click on Supports in the toolbar and select Fixed Support. E. Click on Apply in the Details window pane.

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Step 9 – Request results. First request deformation. A. Select the Solution folder. B. In the Solution toolbar click on Deformation and select DeformationDirectional. C. In the Details pane change the Orientation to Z Axis.

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6-10

ANSYS Workbench Software Tutorial

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Step 9 (continued) – Request normal stress D. Click on Stress in the toolbar and select Stress-Normal. E. In the Details pane change the Orientation to Y Axis.

Introduction to Finite Element Simulation

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The Project Outline pane now appears as shown below. The question mark next to Static Structural folder has been replaced by a green check mark indicating that loads and boundary conditions sufficient to solve this simulation haven been specified. The question mark next to the Solution folder is replaced by a yellow lightning bolt. This icon indicates that the solution has not been calculated yet.

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Step 10 – Solve. Click on the Solve icon in the toolbar.

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The solution status window will appear and display the various stages of the solution process. The solution is complete when this window disappears.

Step 10 (Continued) – Once the solution is successfully completed, green check marks will be placed next to the solution quantities you had requested.

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ANSYS Workbench Software Tutorial

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Step 11 – Save the analysis. Click on the floppy disk icon in the toolbar and click the Save button in the dialog box that appears next. The file name will be automatically entered as Tutorial 6_1.dsdb and the directory will be the same one you selected when you saved the DesignModeler file. Step 12 – Review the results. When the solution is complete, click on one of the solution quantities you requested such as Directional Deformation or Normal Stress to display those quantities as contour plots. For example, the figure below shows the contour plot of the normal stress in the Y direction superimposed on the deformed shape of the beam. Note that since in most cases deflections and deformations are too small to be perceptible, these quantities are automatically scaled (exaggerated) to make them easily visible. In this way you can quickly determine if you have set the loads and boundary conditions correctly. The scale factor can be modified from the Result toolbar and set to various values including 1.0 (True Scale).

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Introduction to Finite Element Simulation

6-13

Step 12 (continued) – Enlarge the displayed results area. By default, when displaying graphical results, a considerable portion of the Workbench window is occupied by window panes such as the Timeline and Tabular Data window panes. These window panes can be unpinned (collapsed) in order to enlarge the graphical results display as described in section 3.4.3, Window Manager Features. To unpin the Timeline and Tabular Data Window panes, click on the push-pins located at the top right hand corner of each pane. The resulting display is shown below.

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Step 12 (continued) – The displayed contour plots can be modified in several ways in order to better represent the results of the analysis. The modifications are performed from three pull-down menus as shown below.

The previous display is set to display Exterior, Contour bands and No WireFrame.

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6-14

ANSYS Workbench Software Tutorial

Step 12 (continued) – Select Contours Bands and Show Elements from the pulldown menus. The resulting display is shown below.

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Step 12 (continued) – Click on Directional Deformation. The resulting display is shown below.

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Introduction to Finite Element Simulation

6-15

Step 12 (continued) – Note that the maximum and minimum values displayed are the range values for the contours. For example, on the Normal Stress plot, the red contours represent stress values ranging from 12,454. PSI to 16,012. PSI. In order to get a more precise value, use the Probe tool: A. Rotate the beam and position it as shown below. B. Click on Probe in the toolbar. C. Move the cursor over the contoured part and observe the contour values at the position of the cursor. D. Click the LMB to place a tag indicating the value at that location.

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To remove a tag, click on the Label icon in the toolbar deleted and press the Delete key on the keyboard.

, select the tag to be

Step 13 – Generate a report. A simple HTML report can be automatically generated by simply clicking on the Report Preview tab.

The report generated in this way includes basic information about the analysis such as the type of analysis, material properties of the materials used, boundary conditions, etc.

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6-16

ANSYS Workbench Software Tutorial

Step 13 (continued) – The table of contents of the default report is shown below. The entries in the table of contents are hyperlinked to the location of the information in the report.

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Step 13 (continued) – The default report includes the calculated results in tabular form but deformed shapes and contour plots are not automatically included in the report. Below is an example of tabular results.

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Step 14 – Include contour plot of normal stress in the report. A. In the Project tree click on Normal Stress. B. Click on the Geometry tab at the bottom of the window. C. Adjust the figure as desired by zooming, rotating, etc. D. From the Figures pull down menu in the toolbar select Figure.

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Introduction to Finite Element Simulation

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Step 14 (continued) – A figure of the contour plot of normal stress has been inserted in the project tree under Normal Stress. The figure can be renamed using the RMB and you can also add text that appears as caption with the figure.

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Step 15 – Regenerate the report. Click on the Report Preview tab as before to regenerate an updated report which includes the contour plot figure. Note: Figures inserted in the project tree are updated with the latest results every time a new report is generated. Therefore, they always reflect the latest conditions of the analysis. In order to include a static picture, select Image in Step 14, sub step D.

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ANSYS Workbench Software Tutorial

Step 16 – Save the project as Tutorial 6_1.

Summary

As we can see by comparing our manual calculations with the values calculated by ANSYS, the displacements are fairly close. However, the stress values do not have very good correlation.

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Manual Calculation ANSYS Results

% difference

Max. Deflection

Max. Bending Stress

The primary reason for the poor correlation of stress values was due to the boundary condition occurring at the same location as our maximum stress values. However, our goal during this chapter was to become familiar with the steps needed to get a very simply job to run, and not to be concerned with the accuracy of the results. During the next chapters we will investigate several different techniques that can be used to improve the results of our analysis.

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12,000psi 13,923psi 15,877psi

0.004627 in.

0.0045486 in

1.694% 16.03% 32.31%

Reference [1] Popov, E. P., Mechanics of Materials, 2nd Edition, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs NJ, 1976

Exercises:

1. Use ANSYS Workbench to build a finite element model of the beam shown below, that has a 20mm x 20mm cross section and is made from structural steel. Determine the maximum deflection and bending stress in the beam. Then compare these values with those that you manually calculate using strength of material formulas from your textbooks (you do not have to take into account the deflection due to shear, as was done in the example problem in this chapter).

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Introduction to Finite Element Simulation

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2. Use ANSYS Workbench to model and analyze the 36 inch long beam shown below. Imprint lines on your model of the beam, to use as edges on which to apply the 1500 lbs. loads. The beam is made from 1/2” thick, structural steel. Determine the deflection and normal (bending) stress at the center of the beam. Then compare these values with those that you manually calculate using strength of material formulas from your textbooks (you do not have to take into account the deflection due to shear, as was done in the example problem in this chapter).

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3. Use ANSYS Workbench to build a finite element model of the cantilevered beam shown below, that is made from structural steel. Determine the maximum deflection and bending stress in the beam. Then compare these values with those that you manually calculate using strength of material formulas from your textbooks (you do not have to take into account the deflection due to shear, as was done in the example problem in this chapter).

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