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GSM Frequency Hopping

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Contents
1. Hopping Overview 2. Hopping Classification 3. Hopping Parameters

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Definition of Frequency Hopping

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Advantages of Hopping

Provide a similar communication quality for every user

Get an agreeable radio environment

Advantages of Hopping

Tighter reuse patterns are possible to be used for larger capacity

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Frequency Diversity of Hopping

Smoothen the rapid fading (Rayleigh fading)

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Interference Diversity of Hopping

Smoothen and average the interference


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Contents
1. Hopping Overview 2. Hopping Classification 3. Hopping Parameters

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Hopping Classification
According to

Implementation

mode

According to the

Minimum Hopping Time Unit

Baseband Hopping RF Hopping Hybrid Hopping

Timeslot Hopping Frame Hopping

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Baseband Hopping Principle

FH bus

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Baseband Hopping Principle

BCCH carrier attends hopping, on which TS0 can not attend hopping

TS 0 TRX0 TRX1 TRX2 TRX3


No Hopping

TS 1

TS 2

TS 3

TS 4

TS 5

TS 6

TS 7

ARFCN 5(BCCH carrier) 10(TCH carrier) 15(TCH carrier) 20(TCH carrier)

MA={10,15,20}

MA={5,10,15,20}

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Baseband Hopping Principle

BCCH carrier does not attends hopping

TS 0 TRX0 TRX1 TRX2 TRX3


No Hopping

TS 1
No Hopping

TS 2
No Hopping

TS 3
No Hopping

TS 4
No Hopping

TS 5
No Hopping

TS 6
No Hopping

TS 7
No Hopping

ARFCN 5(BCCH carrier) 10(TCH carrier) 15(TCH carrier) 20(TCH carrier)

MA={10,15,20}

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RF Hopping Principle

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RF Hopping Principle

BCCH carrier does not attends hopping

TS 0 TRX0 TRX1 TRX2 TRX3


No Hopping

TS 1
No Hopping

TS 2
No Hopping

TS 3
No Hopping

TS 4
No Hopping

TS 5
No Hopping

TS 6
No Hopping

TS 7
No Hopping

(BCCH carrier)
MA={10,15,20} MA={10,15,20} MA={10,15,20}

(TCH carrier)

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Hybrid Hopping

In hybrid FH, some TRXs adopt RF FH and other TRXs adopt baseband FH in a cell.

One TRX, however, can adopt either RF FH or baseband FH. Generally, hybrid FH is applicable to co-BCCH cells

Overlaid 1800M/1900MHZ overlaid RF Hopping

Underlaid 900M/850MHZ Baseband Hopping

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Hopping Classification

Frame hopping

Frequency changes every TDMA frame. The different channel of one TRX uses the same MAIO.

Timeslot hopping

Frequency changes every timeslot. The different channel of one TRX uses the different MAIO.

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Frame Hopping
RF hopping and baseband hopping without BCCH carrier
Frame 0 f0 f1 f2 f3 f4 Frame 1 Frame 2 Frame 3 Frame 4

One TRX (none BCCH carrier) hopping on 5 frequencies


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Timeslot Hopping
5 timeslots on 1 TRX hopping on 5 frequencies
Frame 0 f0 f1 f2 f3 f4 Frame 1 Frame 2 Frame 3 Frame 4

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Contents
1. Hopping Overview 2. Hopping Classification 3. Hopping Parameters

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Page18

Hopping Mode

All the parameters which are related to hopping are configured in Cell Attributes/Frequency Hopping.

Hopping mode: the mode used by the BTS system

No hopping Baseband hopping RF hopping Hybrid hopping

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Data Configuration of Hopping Mode

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Hopping Parameters

HSNHopping Sequence Number063

HSN=0cycle hopping. HSN0random hopping. Every sequence number corresponds a pseudo random sequence.

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Hopping Parameters

MA (Mobile Allocation Set):

MA is the set of available RF bands when hopping, containing at most 64 frequency carriers. The frequency being used must be those of the available frequency

MAIO (Mobile Allocation Index Offset)

MAIO is used to define the initial frequency of the hopping. Be careful to configure the MAIO of same timeslot in all channels, otherwise interference occurs.

MAI (Mobile Allocation Index)

At the air interface, the frequency used on a specific burst is an element in MA set. MAI is used for indication, referring to a specific element in the MA set.

MAI is the function of TDMA FN, HSN and MAIO.

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Example of MAIO
TS 0 TRX0 TRX1 TRX2 0 TRX3
1 1 1
No Hopping

TS 1
0 2 1 2 2

TS 2
1 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 0

TS 3

TS 4
3 2 0 2 1 0 2 1 2 2

TS 5

TS 6
1 2 2 2 3 2 0 2

TS 7
2 2 3 2 0 2 1 2

ARFCN 5(BCCH carrier) 10(TCH carrier) 15(TCH carrier) 20(TCH carrier)

2 2 MA1={10,15,20}
MAIO

2 2 2 MA2={5,10,15,20} 1 MAIO 2 2 1 0 2
2 33

3 1 2
MAI

0 2

MAIO

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Example of MAIO
TS 0 TRX0 TRX1 TRX2 0 TRX3 TRX4 1 TRX5 TRX6 TRX7
0 3 2 1 1 1
No Hopping

TS 1
0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 1 3

TS 2
1 2 2 2 3 2 0 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 0 2 1 2 3

TS 3

TS 4
3 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 1 3 2 3 3 3 0

TS 5

TS 6
1 2 2 2 3 2 0 2 2 3 3 3 0 3 1

TS 7
2 2 3 2 0 2 1 2 3 3 0 3 1 3
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ARFCN 5(BCCH carrier) 10(TCH carrier) 15(TCH carrier) 20(TCH carrier) 510(TCH carrier) 515(TCH carrier) 520(TCH carrier) 525(TCH carrier)

0 3 1 3 2 3 3

MA1={10,15,20} 2 3 0 MA2={5,10,15,20} 1 3 3 3 3 MA3={510,515,520,525}


2 3 3 3 0 0 3 1 1 3 2

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Example of MAIO
5 TRXs separately belongs to the same MA hopping on 5 frequencies, and uses same HSNs
Frame 0 5 10 15 20 25 Frame 1 Frame 2 Frame 3 Frame 4

MA={5,10,15,20,25}

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Example of Hopping Parameters


8 timeslots of 1 TRX separately belongs to different MAs hopping on 5 frequencies, and uses different HSNs.
Frame 0 f0 f1 f2 f3 f4 Frame 1 Frame 2 Frame 3 Frame 4

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Example of Hopping Parameters


5 TRXs separately belongs to different MAs hopping on 5 frequencies, and uses different HSNs
Frame 0 f0 f1 f2 f3 f4 Frame 1 Frame 2 Frame 3 Frame 4

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Summary

The function of frequency hopping The classification of frequency hopping The realization of frequency hopping

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Thank you
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