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, Vol. 26, No. 67 (Apr., 1948), pp. 341-360 Published by: the Modern Humanities Research Association and University College London, School of Slavonic and East European Studies Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4203951 . Accessed: 30/11/2012 16:11
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RUSSIA The year
to be a landmark in Russian 1848 is not usually considered The of like revolutions that which Herzen seemed to history. year, " " a life-giving ona did storm not the Russian reach sultry day, The drastic changes of policy on the part of the imperial empire. the after of the Decembrist government suppression rising in 1825 seemed all too effective : literary storms like the Chaadayev affair in 1835, the loose student talk for which Herzen and his friends were punished, in the early forties in even minor peasant disorders remote were easily disposed of ; in 1848 itself districts, provincial not a ripple disturbed the peace t.of the vast and still expanding The gigantic of bureaucratic and military empire. strait-jacket if not devised, control was reinforced and pulled which, tighter Nicholas or cases of stupidity I, appeared despite frequent to be conspicuously successful. There was nowhere corruption any or action. sign of effective thought independent in the news from Paris had put earlier, 1830, Eighteen years new life into Russian French socialism radicals; wholly utopian by became the rebellion ; the Polish thought democrats as the much did rallying point everywhere, very in the Spanish civil war a century later. But the rebellion Republic was crushed, and all embers of the great conflagration, at any rate so far as open expression was concerned, were by 1848 virtually of stamped observers autocracy turning-point because of revolutionary Marx and out?in in seemed St. Petersburg no less than and western in the Europe, unshakable. sympathetic Nevertheless of Russia in Warsaw. hostile alike, To the transformed Russian
of because was destined to have upon Russian public opinion, and in particular movement. At the time, however, upon the Russian revolutionary this could scarcely have been foreseen : well might a sober political bility observer?a Granovsky of even moderate contemplate. It seems or Koshelev-?feel about gloomy reforms ; revolution seemed too
the year 1848 is a as of Europe, not only development the decisive part played in subsequent Russian history by heralded socialism, by the Manifesto composed by to celebrate its birth; but more immediately Engels the effect which the failure of the European revolution
the possi? remote to
that anyone in the 1840's, even among the unlikely bolder spirits, except perhaps Bakunin and one or two members of the Petrashevsky on counted the of immediate an circle, possibility 34i
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were composed to the opposed openly or socialist with. pp. that broke out in Italy. the Decembrist which." While this was scarcely then or earlier. Parallels between Russian European but and to are liable be misleading. The period had from no middle the class " opposition. social framework no or extended popular support. feel had preceded intellectuals could the need the great of this in Europe century and liberals Russian nor is desired who are quite powerless. or aesthetic to philosophical forties. like Herzen political intellectual isolated self-conscious a small and highly illuminati. each other in the drawing. help peasantry. scattered to lean The which Russian upon. remained and social problems. or acted in coalition with identified democrats intellectuals. of the in western and popular movements Europe organisations The Russian liberals and radicals of the thirties and 19th century. New York. only by educated This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. 36-38. had grown bolder and more articulate conducted the warfare and early forties.1 And this was echoed ten years later by Chernyshevsky " in in a characteristic : There is no European country hyperbole which indifferent the vast majority of the people is not absolutely to the rights which are the object of concern only to the liberals.217 on Fri. Dan. resembled by the guerrilla German the in or the of France leaders Aufkiar ung by encyclopaedists far more than the mass against the Church and absolute monarchy. or less organised more by These existing regimes. Petersburg. SLAVONIC The revolutions REVIEW. whether they confined themselves in or engaged like the circle gathered round Stankevich." to his friends wrote Belinsky townspeople in 1846. Proiskhozhdeniye Bolshevizma. 1946. 30 Nov 2012 16:11:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . people but none whatever of a constitution?that they look for of potatoes.168. different They tended also to draw a good deal of strength was None of these elements workers and peasants. issues. and they found and social doctrines political recognised national or from frustrated the liberal bourgeoisie. they were led by prominent and sects.342 revolution France. it true of western Europe. they met and argued and influenced but they had no and salons of Moscow or St. 1 Quoted by F. political widely kind of unofficial in the either in the form of political or even parties elite rooms but widespread middle-class French Revolution. development superficial always from disaffected if a comparison offers a closer radicals is to be drawn The at all the 18th of opposition analogy. the situation or organised in Russia in any sense resembling articulate and western in the west. after the severe repressions following in the middle thirties rising. in Prussia THE Russia. radical of. and Ogaryov.82. among support and animated of development at Various movements by stages ideals. and Austria had been made political parties.
RUSSIA the reflected the economic backward AND 1848. No. and this was no longer revolutionary in factor of half a century was itself a powerful causing the time-lag in 1917. The extreme all our legal and in of ordered the lack existence. and Italy which Herzen His topic is the became in their those political The Liberals. the democratic as conditions such materialised. quoted from Kolokol. 343 Until state of Russia enough. not lag far 1848 the in West class middle the time in 1905. late the followed. possible and most unlimited serfdom settlements. of the discover constitutions and charters spectre they for this is and grow pale with terror. the altered behind fearful turn the most Conservatives. stability the one hand the on constitutional makes notions. Perhaps this was the parting of the ways which Herzen had in mind when. military despotism. something they have something to Our attitude at all. in which such revolutionary and on the other creates conditions II are less difficult. and when they did with finally the revolu? tempo in the last decades of the 19th century. steps as those of Peter I and Alexander A man than who lives one who 2 Dan. nor Socialism surprising But to be afraid of. cit. have none . in furnished has acquired op. are not in that position we [Russians] The Liberals all public affairs is much simpler and more naive. socialism liberal and authoritarian between final cleavage increasing tion did Russia and Europe which of paths between and the fatal divergence that was Dan F. to lose.168.217 on Fri. " " in occurred Russian The behind. Protestants. he declared." maturity described and the West at this period is vividly Russia between in the introduction in his composed Revolution " to Letters from France exile ten years Putney of 1848 in western Europe : later. Europe rooms This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. 30 Nov 2012 16:11:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . by which that country reformist or even militantly .. 210. they are are afraid of losing their liberty?we in the industrial nervous of interference sphere by governments with everything interferes ?with us the government anyhow . finds it far easier to move is a house of his own.82. " You will go by way of in his letter to Edgar Quinet. have yet rights?we they are afraid of losing their personal of our still dis? contradictions to acquire them. right in supposing J. to of socialism we by way towards the proletariat socialism. accurately industrial created Russian of the Empire development and with them a middle class and a proletariat and labour problems a dream : remained revolution of the Western type. 2 The difference of political in the degree freedom.
relatively From it was made the basis for subsequent Russian optimism. fact was The important very different from that of western Europe. did not exist." the words. literary tea merchant. some hopefully. and. led to a development and no corresponding degree of disenchantment. Bakunin confession". dark years which followed far from inducing so 1848. and its failure created among idealistic democrats a bitter sense of disillusion and despair. Yet for drastic liberal reforms. paradoxically enough. But you have no need to fear these terrors . remarkable Ravelin its own compensa? brought In Europe had broken out and tion. and the his country the sense of complete antithesis between seven liberal institutions of Europe which. very much as the failure of the Revolution Russia produced and spiritual values of the the call to repentance cynical detachment. for Russia alone.82. Dostoevsky " back upon radicalism.on our estate there is a lightning In other conductor?communal ownership of the land. sprang the strongest hope of a uniquely happy and glorious future. others with despair. begin to feel of the coming storm. open the moment full of strength and energy at precisely history when all political are becoming faded anachronisms. analysis and the to speak of : the journalist Polevoy bourgeoisie and friend of Belinsky and Turgenev. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. or else In Russia. And at the approaching revolution. when we look at our neighbours. religion. Russian like was so bitterly lamented by liberals very fact.344 THE SLAVONIC REVIEW. orthodoxy. let alone revolution. calm yourselves. too. of its cargo?that infinity and perilous expeditions. signed a disingenuous but in general the very fact that Russia had suffered no revolution. sinking because it cannot of treasures accumulated rid itself in distant In our case.168. a conservative Katkov did become Vyekhi group. an international revolution and socialists failed. thundercloud of economic so we. all this is artificial ballast. In some cases it led to this either in a tendency to seek comfort or in or in the ranks of apathetic political resignation. think it best frightened to say nothing about this peril. the total absence of elementary rights and liberties. parties and everyone is pointing. of 1905 in reaction . out with it and over? then and full sail into the sea ! We are entering board. his Botkin turned turned to nationalist. which and even Belinsky. for.217 on Fri. like them. destined There was no Herzen's of the facts was quite correct. Botkin. thinker Russian or home more one to than despair brought apathy. conditions indeed Belinsky were notable exceptions?social himself. 30 Nov 2012 16:11:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .
30 Nov 2012 16:11:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .82. were henceforth to be transformed to the creation to the in Turgenev's fit specifically Russian needs. from the West and capable only of being artificially grafted imported to on to the recalcitrant growth provided by their own countrymen.168. utilitarian This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. There followed a sharp vague search for panaceas of internal moral and accounts : as of receded settling political hope in with western the Russian liberalism. pan-Slavism " The measures taken by the Government to prevent the revolu? " from infecting disease the Russian did no doubt tionary Empire. of the next The discontented and rebellious Russian to the attention intellectuals pride. clearly peculiarities thirty years turned their of their own internal situation . 345 fervour and the belief that the passion for reform?the revolutionary in the feasibility of change by means of public pressure. became less when its failure in the West was so glaring. and then. agitation. Belinsky " " the seven year long night after 1848. intellectuals made it more difficult than to escape from the painful issues before them into a kind of from the West. On the con? not weaken.217 on Fri. and. of Rudin?Bakunin for all himself. teachings Europe. There is even at the lowest not.RUSSIA AND 1848. the possibility of revolutionary play a decisive part in preventing " outbreaks : but the important of this moral quaran? consequence " of western liberalism tine was to weaken the influence . it grew stronger. of action adapted carefully Russia alone. But the argument trary. positivism for the West. it forced in upon themselves. the imaginary Rudin. It favoured harsh. has far deeper roots in Russian soil?and a certain self-conscious genuinely cosmopolitan the supposed indeed his Fathers and and respect not without of new doctrines and modes convincing. Spencer and Comte. for all his militant and materialism Children. Bazarov. original and Germanophobia. inspired by writing rather than Herzen. that flatness point?during crude. peculiar posed by problems They were pre? become the most devoted pared to learn and more than learn?to of the most and assiduous advanced thinkers of western disciples but the of and the German materialists. conspiracy?did for a political revolution. e. and continued the later of optimistic. and both revolutionary and reformist it more often took on a grimmer nationalist. marching step progressive movement to become tended The increasingly uncompromising. opinion. than the men of the forties with their ideal: or than. most crucial and striking fact is that there was no inner collapse on the part of the progressives. anti-aesthetic. as some thought. geratedly be self-confident and to forms. Hegel of Mill. from ready made solutions.g. though grew tone.. self-consciously exag? Russian before materialistic.
The gulf between what became the leftand the right-wing oppositions grew steadily was bitter. mingled promise. In the years of repression. THE which But SLAVONIC REVIEW. from the danger. demarcation frontiers between the Slavophils grew much more real. for this trend?the of Russian responsible independent development radicalism as it was born in the storms of 1848-1849?may be worth retained with liberalism of strength its own nurtured out recalling. no longer existed. and like the right looked for salvation to native institutions and a specifically Russian solution. during the time of almost universal malaise among socialists.346 and these apathy. been easily crossed and re? and the Westerns. whether liberals. Some of the factors tradition. or the the in the years. Consequently. which had hitherto became walls . of the between remedies.217 on Fri.82. losing faith in universal from socialist doctrines imported Thus had it came about social again of the Russian reasserted that. tough-minded. price men. and almost the con? Despite tinued existence of a common enemy?the Imperial police state? the old solidarity was fatally broken. within the intelligentsia. ideals . agrarian and it was an army ready to march. movement its ideals This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. awkward formal affair. lines of 1848-1856. the framework of friendship and dividing the two camps?" the Janus with two faces respect between but one heart "?which had made it possible for radicals like Belinsky crossed. mutual and Herzen in some Aksakov moderates sixties cases to argue furiously but in an atmosphere of deep with Katkov or Khomyakov even of affection. when at last direct western itself in the form of the orthodox democrats of the influence Marxism the revolutionary nineties. Kolokol and the St. wider compounded the West. It had created and radical. their predecessors. the Russian left-wing and its fighting spirit. and this despite the fact that the left wing regarded western far more critically than before. 30 Nov 2012 16:11:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . are left-wing populists. Its beliefs and principles were preserved from con? tamination of the the and remained free by very hostility regime. It had broken and not out of despair. was unbroken the of liberal intelligentsia by collapse hopes in Europe in 1849-1851. The quarrel radicals regard. Chernyshevsky a much wider gap Petersburg meeting with Herzen in London Chernyshevsky's was a stiff. in France at the and Germany of a deep during schism and the is so noticeable this was bought The new from the divided by than any of of the West or of their own country.168. among soft blurred as a result of too and much successful com? growing with disillusion. prevalent their in old allies the of West. out of liberal or brothers.
unconcealed excitement we watched all the peripeteias of the drama With provided by the last years of Louis Philippe's reign. with here and students. to a typical liberal of his memoirs : 3 circle of addressee seemed finished. allusions of the who belonged Saltykov-Shchedrin. the home of socialists and utopians. and Empire. in the middle Redemptorist forties the liberal such as Otechestvenniye or journals. vague The centre of existing regime. will tend to relax its atten? tion to some degree after twenty in this years of relative quiet.82. political police. He saw the sharpest censorship. actual took courage and began to print. which in the course of time were bound to lead humanity towards freedom and happiness.168. forties. in open opposition to the government?with the existing censorship and under the sharp eye of General Dubbelt of the political police. As a result of this. university a few westernising and writers. the to than a few radical-minded greater dangers regime. and being an absolute autocrat made it the first aim of his government to eliminate every form of or even the severest Nevertheless. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. 347 I remained all his life obsessed by the Decembrist the himself as ruler to rising. enthusiasm we read The History of Ten Years^ passionate 3 Za Rubezhom. he tion . the ex-professor Father Pecherin. 123 et foll. of Leroux and Cabet. Paris. of George Sand and Proudhon?the centre of a revolutionary art and literature. spirits was. appointed by Providence save his people from the horrors of atheism. Vol. attraction to all progressive of the home course. of all that was most advanced and freedom-loving in the world. only by with no signs of serious internal and na conspiracy anywhere. in seemed to be beginning .RUSSIA Tsar Nicholas AND 1848. or an convert to Rome like the eccentric of Greek. 8. professors an odd defender of the Roman Church like Chaadayev. In and Russia. says in a famous passage " seals France. . not indeed articles Sovremennik.217 on Fri. case the long peace had been disturbed the Polish rebellion. but containing hints and con? lines. liberalism and revolu? in fact as well as in name. this was out of the question?but articles concerned ostensibly with conditions in an who in western apparently could read critical Europe or in the Ottoman written for those cealed dispassionate the between the manner. Zapiski there. our (French) everything became intense towards With sympathies particularly 1848. 30 Nov 2012 16:11:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . sealed with five everything to the Post Office for delivery to an consigned whom it was beforehand decided not to find . political heterodoxy opposition. . p.
Dubbelt. apart letter to Gogol Belinsky's with from a Correspondence in Russia in its full version an exceptionally eloquent of this for it was regime. V. Petersburg. to those who remembered following the of the an(i knew was remarkable 1825 temper Emperor. savage the against no wonder. author employers. in any case they were often no match for the infinite ingenuity and. unpublished until and 1917. enough. of course. eye to the thought. quite clearly they might the campaign discuss to liberate negro slaves?the analogy with Russian serfs was only too obvious. might be writing journals intended for their own country. above all. By western the censorship was exceptionally efficient and severe . often denounced But the Minister of Education. to survive liberal journals contrived and that in the years immediately itself. " of the celebrated watchword of auto? patriotic triple orthodoxy. to punish. nevertheless. writings his book. 30 Nov 2012 16:11:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. the editors watchdogs who acted as of and the Gretsch.348 THE by Louis Blanc and Thiers?these SLAVONIC . but difficult for the and therefore censors to admit. inveighing violently and the arbitrary Church. The limits of freedom were.217 on Fri. the censors were themselves severity liberalism a timid kind of right-wing towards . Selected Quotations denouncing and that remained Friends. unend? " of the historians and journalists.82. and accusing Gogol of traducing the cause of liberty and civilisation as well as the character and 4 The effective head of the political police. Count Ouvarov. the "?who could be and accused of undue people scarcely cracy nevertheless anxious not to acquire the reputa? liberal leanings?was and turned a blind tion of a bigoted reactionary." of independent manifestations writing. which the censors managed in St. and disloyal" ing persistence " let a certain of through they proportion inevitably dangerous The Russian maximum Those zealous of autocracy. virtually agents Bulgarin political such oversights in private reports to their police. and Philippe almost personal L. men Louis were REVIEW. make to letters. less blatant standards. the from most the arresting Russian of the social document was emigres." more had evidently not at this period reached its censorship at times inclined . about but the moral was France. on the onslaught And existing period. for example.168. quite plain the extent Belinsky's to mutilate his articles . exceedingly narrow . Duchatel enemies. the social system authority of the Emperor and his officials.. contributors depressed.4 Guizot.. perhaps than even Their successes dangerous their failures delighted to our liberal us.
openly discussed were. letters home if cautiously worded. Ego Zhizn i Tsarstvovaniye Primechaniya Prilozheniya ko vtoromu tomu. so Annenkov written the police displayed official. 30 Nov 2012 16:11:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and. openly and Russian met other revolutionary emigres Turgenev in Paris.5 Upon of the news of the abdication of Louis Philippe and the receipt declaration of a Republic in France. But Polish liberty was being acclaimed. of 1831. and sent enthusiastic. the Emperor Nicholas. " in France ! and with a dancers that his worst cried loudly. banquet no echo in Warsaw. reasons the principal 5 N. then under the heel of treason everywhere. of dis? for reading this letter aloud at a private largely gathering so affected and that to death was condemned persons Dostoevsky French In subversive executed two later. into the Bursting an imperious a Republic horses. did not stir. Bakunin and 1847. K. has been proclaimed or not this out of the room. According probably apocryphal heard the disastrous news from Paris. feeling about the instability of European regimes forebodings action. Indeed. 1843 nearly years in the capital: doctrines tells us. to be fulfilled. II).RUSSIA the needs of his AND 1848.e. " sent to guard the i. beyond Petersburg. far in in was circulated manuscript philippic. Schilder. That unhappy western Provinces. about their new moral and political experiences (some echo of which found its way into the radical Russian marks the highest journals). but by the measures taken after the Galician peasant rising and in 1846. gesture. where " an eve-of-Lent he the ball was ballroom. Whether group of courtiers swept it?it does not believe dramatic ever occurred?Schilder episode Prince Peter the conveys general accurately enough. Imperator Nikolai Pervy. the future Tsar Alexander in progress.168. Revolution The story is familiar and may be found in Schilder. Indeed. The of relative on the part of the censorship.217 on Fri. atmosphere that the Tsar Volkonski told at about this time V.82. 349 This celebrated enslaved and helpless country. z This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. to take immediate decided as he soon to Grimm's as account. 1847. Panayev seemed bent on declaring a preventive war in Europe and was only were As it was. he drove to the palace of his were about son. Poland. one of suspected Russian liberal of course. autocracy in Paris and elsewhere . stopped saddle your Gentlemen. secretly was it the of confines Moscow or St. as a matter denounced. toleration point of 1848 put an end to all this for some years to come. I. large reinforcements stopped by lack of money." of the Rebellion broken not only by the savage repression country. at this every awoke although the Tsar Paskevich. (Notes and Supplements to Vol. found The forbidden year western when texts Herzen bookshops. with II. in the Liprandi.
rally to him in order to avert the danger to the throne and to the Church. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. Schilder. ment seems to have been entirely on the unaware of this obsession of what was part of the Tsar and therefore ignorant throughout of him. He failed to include the non-existent Polish expected and altogether too accommodating plot in his otherwise imaginative Bakunin's confession.350 THE SLAVONIC was that attached REVIEW. rate the and official In classes. to mitigate its bellicose on tone. by Prince the head of the gendarmerie. chaos had the Russian Soon after the he not outbreak declared reached in which fortunately that in Berlin. that he would do everything to stop this spreading of the political that he felt and plague. cit. the Tsar published the wave of mutiny and the impregnable of frontiers they were plotting involved?which a new emigres? Polish mutiny in his power Empire . Hungary of the Revolution and and was in Prussia hatred to the commanded . would. commentary it was own known and that had Nicholas read had drafted the manifesto with his in his it to Baron Korff with tears almost to tears6 and reduced apparently the draft.168. beyond democrats of this period very much what the fascist were in our own time : the arch-enemy of freedom and powers the reservoir of darkness. Korff too eyes. certain that all his loyal subjects at such a moment. and oppression enlightenment. when he The heir-apparent. The Chancellor. stimulated a genuine surge of patriotic this does not to have lasted The although feeling. was no less deeply Orlov. at once destroyed was armies. was overcome emotion . Alexander. read it to a meeting of guards officers. hand. and the terror it and every liberal their zenith. a manifesto. Russian . cruelty 1 Cp. Russian any among upper 1849. to the touch capture with of Bakunin Polish was why such importance the Tsar's belief that which in was true?and which he was in close Bakunin was was false?although some utterances lent have extravagant public may Bakunin at the time of his imprison? colour to such a supposition. the effect Whatever seeking in the Russia seems : to have no one deceived Europe. Petersbourg.. op. Count Nesselrode. Russia of constitutionalist in the breast inspired its reached borders. influence a in the major part played suppression in the other provinces of the Austrian Empire the power of Russia in Europe. on which the account of this episode is based.217 on Fri. 30 Nov 2012 16:11:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .82. which crushed the in Revolution by Paskevich. as unworthy. appear long. caused an inspired commentary on the Tsar's manifesto to appear in the Journal de St. Tsar's policy to some of at corresponded degree popular feeling. The document moved. he had been commissioned which to prepare.
history were therefore to be handled with exemplary The first severity. Russia. by innumerable spies and in every whose hidden hand was discovered informers. and even in the path of posi? who did their best to put difficulties tive reform had not. discontinued. himself declared shocked and indignant that this had not been A committee detected earlier.82. with censorship. abruptly dropped. thought it profitable to question the evil of the system itself. by his example. political of national unfavourable to the growth or individual development in Europe. step Menshikov almost which Baron issued Korff from and Bul? Prince it appears. by its own exiled served sons. by either flattery Revolution on internal affairs in Russia was and powerful. the lead given by Gogol Now. 351 most violently denounced frequently. Count Kisselev. he had saved Europe from moral and political ruin : his exertions. institution of serfdom as divinely and resting on sanctioned. 30 Nov 2012 16:11:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in his unfortunate with Friends. and in par? all proposals for the alleviation of the condition of the serfs to speak of plans for their libera? both private and State-owned?not the Emperor had at one were consideration. he carried it out methodi? unmoved or abuse. taken was connected. however. the sinister power.RUSSIA the land most AND 1848. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.217 on Fri. This wave of liberal confirmed liberty indignation in his conviction Nicholas no less than by his that. The steady stream of secret denunciation garim and Gretsch at last had its effect. compiled of of the the the laxity and giving instances censorship dangerous in the periodical liberal tone to be found The Emperor press. memoranda simultaneously. for some years. duty had at all times cally and ruthlessly. The effect of the immediate ticular been plain to him . whom " " his Chief of Staff Agrarian the landowners and the reactionary strongly. was an economic as well as a social Nicholas trusted and had invited to be held this view bureaucrats tion?to which time given much sympathetic For many years it had been a alone. under Menshikov was immediately set up with instructions to look into the activities of the censors and This committee summoned the tighten up existing regulations. stitutions?as Tsar himself. foundation as other patriarchal same unshakable Russian in? sacred in its own way as the divine right of the reforms of local government were likewise Projected " The of revolution" was the hydra threatening in as so and internal often the of enemies. Empire. All plans for agrarian reform. and not in liberal circles commonplace. was followed in Correspondence one the the or two than further government-approved the most extreme school textbooks which went and began to represent Slavophils. that agricultural slavery evil.
necessary punitive measures. cit. and scarcely to be found in Pchela As for the Bulgarin's Severnaya Bee). 1908) has conclusively shown that no such warrant had ever been signed and that the invitation to Belinsky to visit Dubbelt. ignoring all other departments in an of excess at one and enthusiasm. he managed to survive and even publish. op. Peters? burg. (The Northern its most effective contributor whom nothing Sovremennik. and by lying low for a good many months. by persecution. was due mainly to a desire of the Third Department to get a specimen of his hand? writing in order to compare it with that of a subversive anonymous letter circulating at the time. 8 Schilder. but M. actually point. Belinsky. or silence. forms It worked This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. his extraordinary and skill in dealing by displaying fight. Committee The Menshikov was duly superseded was in by a secret committee (the Emperor the habit of submitting critical issues to secret committees. and Zapiski The latter Sovremennik them for strongly in its tone." general on which carried tried and hardened generation. which in ignorance often worked at cross-purposes of each other's existence) headed by Buturlin. and later by Annenkov?commonly known as " the Second of April Committee. 30 Nov 2012 16:11:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .7 Bakunin protest. it succeeded periodical but the of political and social criticism?indeed everything to the and of unlimited conventional loyalty autocracy expressions 7 There is a legend still to be found in the latest Soviet lives of the great critic his arrest. was linked with the with ubiquitous political police through and institu? blind and relentless zeal. and its editor-publisher changed produced Krayevsky article denouncing western and all its Europe 1849 a bien pensant a degree of sycophantic adulation works." Its duty was not that of preto be performed by censors under the censorship (which continued of matter but the scrutiny of Education) direction of the Ministry " of unsound? trace to instructions with any report published.352 editors reproved of the THE SLAVONIC REVIEW. agility with officials.82.217 on Fri. tions. and so formed the living link between the proscribed radicals of the forties and the new and more fanatical to were in Paris.168. could corrupt Herzen and had died early in 1848. Lemke (Nikolaievskie Zhandarmy.8 poem approved in the none every word published going with a fine comb through in virtually too numerous stifling all press. and offering the government at that time unknown even in Russia. a satirical denounced By by the Tsar himself. and it is true that at the time of his death a warrant had gone out for " that Dubbelt later said that he regretted his death as otherwise we should have let him rot inside a fortress ". the This committee Dubbelt. 'the struggle in the fifties and sixties. St. which had largely inspired the story. Granovsky was too mild and too unhappy Nekrasov was left in Russia almost alone to continue the and of Otechestvonniye " unsoundness. already " the to execute who undertook ness to the Emperor himself.
1848 to 1856 University is the darkest hour in the night of Russian obscurantism in the 19th Even craven and torn the Gretsch. pp. trembling. Perpetual truth about life . required you contrary. Zapiski o moyei zhizni.9 out that one of the mainsprings of disaffection was un? pointing the freedom doubtedly the Russian universities. it to the fact that give any sign of thought?of dangerous afraid on the were to were not . partly quoted by A.82. proved and on the plea of ill-health. . This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.RUSSIA the orthodox Church. 10 N. Polnoye Sobraniye Sochineniy. Istoricheskiye Ochezki. you even when there was show that you were scared. the most Perhaps " " White Terror is the well-known literary writer Gleb Ouspensky. panic was then in the air. . the to authorities after the most and. Shikhmatov. are lost/ 9 " Shikhmatov is Shakhmat all education "was a popular (checkmate)?to pun in St. 1912. anxiety of all the creatures of the political zealous Gretsch. please Bulgarin. and in particular by the elimination other This or mediaeval mandate was dangerous leanings. A. 11 Gleb Ouspensky. T. St. him to his appointed of philosophical in speculation permitted The Emperor this thesis and accepted instructions to reform post with express stricter observance of the precepts teaching by introducing university of the orthodox of philo? faith. . 30 Nov 2012 16:11:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . police?even from Paris in 1848 denounce whose the mildest liberal letters of the Second with a degree of scorn hardly measures Republic in his himself?even this poor creature equalled by Benckendorff 10 written in the fifties. for thought . the atmosphere man and cried heaven and earth. Moscow. 175-76 . sycophantic by century. Petersburg.11 of the populist " One could vivid passage of this description in the memoirs not move. His successor was an obscure nobleman?Prince Shirinskywho had submitted a memorandum to the Tsar. I. 1889. and crushed was and robbed it of all desire or capacity the public consciousness ' You was full of terrors . This AND 1848. sophical " a of carried out in the spirit and the letter and led to a purge " " which exceeded education even the notorious of the purification of Kazan ten years earlier by Magnitzky. air and water. Petersburg. one could not even dream . with something complains autobiography bitterness about the stupidities of the and iniquities approaching new double censorship. . Kizevetter.217 on Fri. Gretsch. is what those years have created no real ground for it?that is the root of in the Russian fear?that masses.168. he resigned from the Ministry of Educa? tion. I. 353 too much even for Ouvaroff.
this While have been crushing Hungarian might put down to the horror of popular risings at this time. Chaadayev. p. His salon who visitors. opponent obsession with eastern orthodoxy and Byzantium . 13 Du Developpement des I dees Re'volutionnaires en Russie. Turgenev Friends of megalomania on the part of that unhappy genius. and he continued to receive a variety of distinguished atmosphere) of the members himself strongly against Gogol's damned it as a symptom and in a letter to A. purity personalities he expressed both Russian and foreign in his weekly In 1847 with Correspondence salon. western and an aristocratic of the Slavophil tradition.82. St.354 beast?and the first THE SLAVONIC REVIEW. if anything. his originality. perhaps most Ouspensky's In 1848.12 But his him to the denounced police. Lemke.168. this paladin of western civilisation to wrote suddenly Khomyakov that Europe was in chaos. He was admired above all for his individualism. Yazykov.217 on Fri. was not a liberal. character. this remarkable of Chaadayev. In 1848. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. unbroken by his misfortune. I. Petersburg. his unbreakable his incorruptible and strength of will. he continued with an uncompromising and astonishing political eminent opponents. was and fascinated even attracted visited both Russian by testify that until the blow sympathies his and foreign fell in 1848. and fled from disaster into shuddered everything rabbit hole/' available account is borne out by other evidence. but above the charm and wit of his conversation. especially Slavophil and on one him from time to occasion attacked time. still less a revolutionary a of the Roman an admirer romantic Church and the conservative. and in deep need of Russian help. prestige virtually political were still so great that the Third Department did and popularity not touch him. and of the with much enthusiasm bold initiative in spoke Emperor's the Revolution. to express his pro-western the political (considering The more degree of freedom. in the cause of intellectual as a martyr all his reputation liberty. no longer a his fame. this is not the end of the a book abroad a published containing As soon as he heard of it. independence. Chaadayev : he was. vividly by the behaviour " in Moscow. passionate Chaadayev encomium wrote of to the 12 M. was still living certified lunatic/' man. the poet extreme brotherhood. 451. but he was an avowed and fearless opponent of the regime. 30 Nov 2012 16:11:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and his proud refusal to bend to authority.13 felt by many intellectuals In 1853. 1908. not the left. He seemed of 1835 bad spread debacle The Teleskop and his His pride. Nikolaievskiy Zhandarmy. he was a figure of the right. Herzen story.
it was A good deal of hope after the flood. complicity form of radicalism in later detested who every years Dostoevsky. Lemke. were Christian Socialists. 30 Nov 2012 16:11:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." cynical and most liberty-loving on the part of the proudest abasement man in Russia of his time is tragic evidence of the effect of protracted of aristocratic of the older generation repression upon those members Siberia or the gallows. saying that he had learnt with annoyance a miscreant. of course. 355 of the political police. friend. in which the famous Petrashevsky atmosphere in the fact that it is the consists Its main interest of western ideas under the direct influence conspiracy the only serious When Herzen heard the news." that it was mainly of the publication and in particular evidence. not so institutions. Polnoye Sobraniye Sochineniy. by some miracle.RUSSIA head AND 1848.82. p. after all. aid groups accepted by them to create mutual not as immediately united by any Mombelli went no much or peasants Akhshazumov. of the devil?these an invention clear body of principles further than the desire for the workers Yevropeus. There is. This case was was tried. The third volume has yet to appear. that he had been praised by so notorious and indignation to the of the most abject loyalty this with sentiments and followed of the divine will sent to restore order in the Tsar as an instrument observed he merely To a shocked world. like himself. later said that Korff. to be found in Russia at that time. Pleshcheyev 14 A. had escaped rebels who.217 on Fri. to for sent was Siberia who them Dostoevsky. Vol. that. 591. houses and discussed himself to the of Petrashevsky-Butashevich in spite of the devotion on is said to have built a small Phalanstery ideas of Fourier?he All that who his estate for his peasants. 15 Dyelo Petrashevtsev.168. of the revolutionary conspiracy of enquiry into the case. as for the bourgeois. I. XIII. Herzen. ed. " to Noah's which the dove brought like the olive branch. I and II. in general) tried to secularism and socialism plainly (and indeed a caricature in celebrated his own part minimise it. lt. and perpetrated Baron of his day in The Possessed. 1940-1941. of disaffected number was that a certain had happened in two or three intervals at men regular together gathered young It is also true that the possibility of reform. by the Soviet Govern? 15 this verdict of documents ment of two volumes may be doubted. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. " selfThis act of apparently one must save one's skin. set fire to it almost were all.14 Ark "?the first glimmering in it?among involved about this case by those has been written in it. one of the committee as had been alleged? the plot was not as serious or as widespread " In the light of later a conspiracy of ideas. a sense in which there was no formal conspiracy.
and in the condition of a tightly controlled autocracy.217 on Fri. of such radicals met for the Some. against and may have con? These ideas may have been impracticable. REVIEW. The Possessed stresses this and Durpv aspect. Bakunin these discussion him) and attended groups (who disliked in of him as Stavrogin with a practical The portrait purpose.g. P. Speshnev a Communist. realised the impossibility of organising a mass movement. at any rate. and the establish? the reform but the overthrow in of a revolutionary government. in them much that was fantastic drawn from the French tained " was and other "unscientific but their purpose sources. contained Indeed. a genuine example. Grigoriev that the could act efficiently hour struck?when knock-kneed between the army Russian and ruthlessly and seize the leadership when the elements the oppressed would rise and crush the of courtiers and bureaucrats who alone stood doubt much of a revolutionary the intentions No people and its freedom.82. was a kindly Balasoglo and impressionable man. Nekrasov resembles Nevertheless. in the organisation workers. Similarly. strongly and one or two others certainly seem to have believed Revolution break out at while they might any moment. of the participants a concrete of how to foment of ideas considering specific purpose the rebellion existing regime. as of such English writers not too unlike the nostalgia indeed translated Cobbett. influenced not merely by Dezamy but quite definitely the anti-Proudhonist perhaps also by the early works of Marx?e. Milioukov THE SLAVONIC Lamennais. Blanqui. Utopians of the regime. at least as seriously tionary agitator. gatherings Belinsky. like Weitling and the groups of German communist and perhaps at this period. the only possible means of practical was conspiracy. oppressed young by the horrors of the more and no less than.356 A. information. they put their faith. since nothing remotely resembling situation existed in Russia at this time. Diary revolu? was by temperament and intention. 30 Nov 2012 16:11:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . not ment as who believed in conspiracy. dictionary scientific famous casual even or William which grammar.168. of these men were as concrete and as violent as those of Babeuf and his friends. Morris. Korsh. social order?no Russian Gogol on mildly desired reform and improvement himself?who populist to the ideas of the more romantic and lines similar Slavophils. descriptions Dostoevsky's for A Writers and elsewhere make it clear that Speshnev. Nevertheless. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. for example. this was idle talk. Petrashevsky's " subversive" articles encyclopaedic as disguised so much as Cobbett's nothing from the these differed groups and as Panayev.. of small cells of trained a professional elite which revolutionaries.
under official suspicion much as Ivan fell Samarin. principal precisely that the was not amiably and intimate. to praise him as a satirical genius in an obituary article. In fact. up in April.g. and such reactionary nationalists as.217 on Fri. 1855 proved although Slavophils and all its works. have been snubbed and had suffered was acutely.. for instance. was that of a nationalism which took up the cause of the particularly Slav nationalities of the Austrian oppressed Empire. centenary University a affair. liberal.168. and. atmosphere gay. and continued they rejected the liberal revolution a ceaseless western felt the heavy influences." e. an^ the Petrashevtsi Between I in the last months 1849 an(i the death of Nicholas of the Crimean war. the of this circle for Dostoevsky consisted attraction probably which had also attracted in that Balasoglo?namely. 30 Nov 2012 16:11:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . early populists on one side. it avoided itself with concrete discussion and concerned and aimless issues. lively evenings or Herzen. informal like the and given to literary and intellectual gossip. there is not a glimmering of liberal thought. both his own and the a remorselessly even more secret groups which sprang from it?as well subsidiary. between and socialists liberals. cit. on the whole. who ventured Gogol died an unrepentant reactionary. statistical with a view to direct studies action. Chernyshevsky belonged student?meant business. had done in the previous decade. Op This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. 2. dismal The themselves. by implica? tion thereby placed itself in opposition to the dynastic principle and and to multi-racial between the government The battle empires. and the groups. was promptly arrested for it. against campaign sky dead. The was broken university conspiracy were tried and sent into exile. Herzen lived abroad. but Turgenev. .RUSSIA Misere de la Philosophic one of the things AND 1848. and developing Granovsky depressed The in of Moscow Slavophil sympathies. hand of official and Koshelev Kireyevsky the special brothers. 1 T. 1849. Petrashevsky earnest man. Bakunin was in prison. and conducted references to the tendency of his fellow Dostoevsky's contemptuous conspirators play at being liberal?looks poliberalnichat?to mainly like an attempt to whitewash himself. " that to as as allied which a circles. Belinwas silent. like the parties was not an ideological opposition conflict the and eighties between fought out in the seventies and the Right. the Aksakov repression Khomyakov. at which he seems to Sollogub given by the Panayevs. The secret police and committees considered all ideas to be dangerous as such. long Left the various war.82. 357 16 states that in his evidence Balasoglo which him to Petrashevsky's that attracted liberal patter discussion group was that.
The Revolution of 1848 by its failure. During " to be hostile of official patriotism/' (as it was called) appeared to thought no attempt to obtain as such. Maikov. it was because his own bureaucracy so deeply. 30 Nov 2012 16:11:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . of progress. camp. and dwells on public Koshelev to the outcome of the war?an admission far more indifference at the time of its publication. Petersburg some to drift into the scattered.358 THE SLAVONIC REVIEW. he distrusted perhaps of intellectual because he felt that it presupposed the minimum required activity by any form of rational organisation. and the party 1848-56. on the other. I. it seemed that this dark tunnel " was destined to lead nowhere/' wrote Herzen in the sixties. Never? theless. and above all Katkov Dostoevsky. . and Leontiev Strakhov. recovered from disoriented attainment of liberty peaceful or indeed any civilised means Herzen himself never wholly of his hopes and ideas. and occasionally somewhat disdainfully. published in Berlin in the eighties. " To those who lived through it. such . conservative others to seek comfort in non-political fields. ' A. 18 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.17 declares he and his friends?nationalists and Slavophils?thought that a defeat would serve Russia's best interests. Zapiski. But the effect which the failure of 1848 had had on the stronger natures Russian radicals was to convince them among the younger that no real the accommodation with Tsar's was firmly government the result that the Crimean a War. shocking during the full tide of panSlav agitation. the effect of these years was by no means wholly negative/' And this is acute and true. with as he disliked all thought and speculation ideas. Bakunin was this collapse the older generation of liberal intellectuals left it. The Tsar's uncompromising line precipitated a moral crisis which finally divided the tough core of the opposition from the opportunists : it caused the former to turn in more narrowly This applied to both camps. when volunteers supporters they were accepted made use of. of the possibility of the and equality by . Berlin. was followed by a distrust of the very idea by^a mood of profound disillusionment. Whether they were upon themselves. 80-83.217 on Fri.82. and therefore made intellectual offered themselves. the government.means of persuasion open to men of liberal convictions. possible?with during good were close to being defeatist : and many of the leading intellectuals this was by no means confined to the radicals and revolutionaries. I made no conscious If Nicholas effort to fight ideas rewarded. by in Moscow and St.168. the of Europe which had by discrediting revolutionary intelligentsia been put down so easily by the forces of law and order. that in his memoirs. Koshelev. pp. than the facts themselves can have been during the Crimean war.
and social This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.217 on Fri. Dostoevsky tragic by of peasants in The Village. socially the turmoil. A sharp develop in tone is now noticeable and . AND 1848. and only Herzen's voice faintly audible from plaintive those conscious Russian intellectuals who had survived afar. economic future. published During the period of enforced insulation after 1849. in particular. Russia. wrought descriptions detail Haxthausen. the forms of his social life. Chernyshevsky. which a decade or two earlier was countrymen in considerable of becoming a permanent intellectual danger of Berlin or of Paris. The liberals of the forties may have been stirred to genuine compassion or indignation : by the plight of the peasantry of serfdom had long been an acute public problem and a great and recognised evil.168. in 1847. But these were ripples on the surface. as they were by Yet. and Anton Goremyka. was forced by this insulation to dependency a native social and political outlook of her own. and the consequent a of new class in and a tone Russia as in Europe. their historical their misery. done to awaken by Turgenev something interest in the day-to-day of the realism the of his peasants byt by Sketches. origins. materialistic change " " nihilistic criticism of the sixties and seventies is due not merely to the change in economic and social conditions. 359 and rejected the West like the Aksakovs and Samarin. 30 Nov 2012 16:11:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .RUSSIA Slavophils materialists. to a general toughening of fibre and exacerbation of political differences. or atheists of western and champions scientific ideas like and Pisarev. they became increasingly Dobrolyubov in the specific national absorbed and social problems of Russia and. with Europe in the arms of reaction. but new emergence in at least equal measure to the prison walls within which Nicholas I had enclosed the lives of his thinking led to a This subjects. the harsh. in the problem of the peasant?his his ignorance.82. The gulf between the Right and the Left? between the disciples of Dostoevsky and Kathov and the followers of Chernyshevsky or Bakunin?equally radical intellectuals typical in 1848?had In due course there grown very wide and deep. directed their sharp and fearless analytical apparatus the vast majority conditions in which of their upon the actual were living. sharp break with the polite civilisation and the non-political interests of the past. excited the latest social and philosophical ideas which reached them from the West. had moved both and Sportsman's Grigorovich Belinsky a his later to lifeless and over? but. data which the institution or later in greater Custine. taste. they felt no inclination to spend their time upon detailed indeed and tedious the researches multitude into the actual social by had condition and of the upon had been of unexplored so superficially described economic peasantry.
217 on Fri. without the destruction precept and example. of practical revolutionaries. Henceforth the upon them. history so little in common) the in the libertarian by bankruptcy Europe of movement the of 1848 : they drew which the failure discipline from the very harshness of strength in the West had indirectly imposed Russian radicals the view accepted unsupported . seeking specifically were forced from the general current of European They away in their to have seemed development (with which. The Russian radicals learned this lesson by means of as it were. any case. indirectly of their inner resources. The experience obtained by both sides in the struggle during these dark years of the later revolutionary character New College. that ideas and agitation wholly doomed to impotence necessarily This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. determined movement the uncompromising in Russia. growing army the conscious?of Russian sharply specifically character of their problems.360 a emerged conscious?too vast THE and SLAVONIC REVIEW.168.82. Isaiah Oxford. Berlin. 30 Nov 2012 16:11:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . personal disillusionment and acute frustration which proved too much for so many idealistic radicals in the west. and they force were by material this truth and adopted abandoned sentimental liberalism without being forced to pay for their liberation with that bitter. Russian solutions.
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