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# Nonlinear control systems

## 7. NONLINEAR CONTROL SYSTEMS

7.1. Dynamic characteristic of nonlinear systems Time of study: 2 - 3 hours
After study this chapter you will know
Define base concepts of nonlinear systems Describe differences between linear and nonlinear systems and types of

Goal

nonlinear elements

Explication

Introduction

All physical systems are nonlinear. In the some area of dynamic characteristic is possible make a linearization. Same of nonlinearities in the system are undesirable, there are parasite nonlinearities e.g. friction, backlash, saturation, etc. Another are putting to the system wittingly, e.g. relay types nonlinearities simple control loops with the costless two step controllers or three step controllers. Dynamic characteristics of nonlinear systems are described by nonlinear differential equations. Axiom of superposition is not valid and no transfer functions. Practical systems are solved approximately or are solved by numerical and graphical methods. The static characteristic of nonlinear system is a general curve, which is determined by analytic expressions, graphs or values tables. In nonlinear systems is possible generation: selfexcitation oscillations or step resonances. Base differences between linear and nonlinear systems :

input/output relationships are not linear nonlinear systems are described by nonlinear differential equations, static characteristic is not linear, definition of stability is more complicated, axiom of superposition is not valid , relations between various modes of descriptions are complicated (from state space description is not possible a simple receive transfer function), nonlinear system is composed by linear and nonlinear parts. Let x(t ) R n , u (t ) R m , y (t ) R p represent vector functions which are smoothly parameterized by time t. The general form of a (finite dimensional) nonlinear control system is  (t ) = f ( x, u, t ), x y (t ) = h( x, u, t ). The vector x(t), called the state history, describes the system state at a given time t. 225 x(t0 ) = x0

Nonlinear control systems The vector u(t), called the input history or control input, is chosen to influence the dynamics in some desired way. The vector of functions f describes the systems dynamics and the vector of functions h provides a set of output measurements. We call any pair (x(t),u(t)) satisfying over some time interval including t = t0 a solution or trajectory. Note that any system of higher order differential equations can be written in the firstorder form. For example, the motion of a simple pendulum with an input torque is described by the second order nonlinear equation
g sin = u l



To write this second order system as two first order equations, define x1 = and x2 = . The equations of motion in first order form are
1 = x2 x 2 = x

g sin x1 + u l

Defining
x1 x= x2 x2 f ( x , u) = g sin x1 + u l

one sees that these equations take the vector form. If f and h do not depend explicitly on time, then we call the system autonomous or time-invariant. Otherwise, the system is non autonomous or time-varying. The defining problem of control theory is to find a control input u, a function of t and possibly of y, which drives the system state from some initial value x0 to a desired final value at some specific future time. If this can be done for any initial state, any final state, and any specified future time, we call the system controllable. If u depends only on time, then the control input is called an open-loop control law. If u depends on the output y as well as time, then the control input is called a closed-loop or feedback control law.
More generally, control design is the problem of selecting u to make y do something desirable, possibly in the face of model uncertainty, unmodeled dynamics, noisy measurements, etc.

Nonlinear elements

There are described static characteristics of nonlinear elements than are important in control technologies: Saturation or Clipping (Fig. 7.1) Some devices have natural maximum values, such as voltage or pressure limitations caused by a regulated supply. Typically occurs at sensors, amplifiers, mechanical end stops, speed limitation, etc.

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## Nonlinear control systems

Fig. 7.1: Nonlinear static characteristic of saturation Deadband (Fig. 7.2) - The region where the applied voltage has no effect is called the deadband e.g. sensors, friction in all components e.g. servomotors.

Fig. 7.2: Nonlinear characteristic with deadband Costs money to reduce friction, so it is better to compensate in software. Small actuation signals not large enough to overcome friction. This effect is normally known as stiction, a combination of the words static and friction.

## Fig.7.3 Motor deadband for a bidirectional motor

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Nonlinear control systems Friction (Fig. 7.4) Friction is is driving a mechanical system. considered. The static friction, breaks free and starts turning, friction. common in less expensive motors, and when a motor In systems there are two type of friction that must be stiction, will prevent initial motion. If the system the kinetic friction will provide a roughly constant

## Fig. 7.6: Nonlinear hysteresis characteristic a backlash in the transmission 228

Nonlinear control systems Hysteresis and Backlash (Fig. 7.6)- regulation elements with ferrum, windup resulting from springiness and friction, backlash. Correct by tracking the previous motion direction and taking extra steps when reversing direction. Relay characteristic (Fig. 7.7) - two-position and three-position with deadband or without deadband.

Fig. 7.7: Two-position and three-position nonlinear relay characteristic without deadband or with deadband General nonlinear characteristic (Fig. 7.8) - characteristics of electronic components, sensors, actuators, etc.

## Fig. 7.8: General nonlinear characteristic 229

Nonlinear control systems Dividing of nonlinearities: parasite nonlinearities are undesirable, voluntary loaded nonlinearities low-cost controllers, improvement or permit of instrument activities (e.g. deadband eliminates unwanted oscillations), impossible dividing (saturation extends a time of response, but it improves a stability).

Methods of solution nonlinear transient responses Analytic methods Approximation of nonlinear characteristic by analytic expression, Approximation of nonlinear characteristic by linear partitions, Approximation of nonlinear characteristic by tangent line or secant line in the working point linearization in praxis.

Estimate analytic methods Graphic and graphic-analytic methods Isoclines method, Phase-space method

## Numeric methods of nonlinear systems solution

Linearization If models include a device that is non linear we will need to linearize the model before we can proceed. A non-linear system can be approximated with a linear equation using the following method: Pick an operating point or range for the component. Find a constant value that relates a change in the input to a change in the output. Develop a linear equation. Use the linear equation in the analysis (Laplace or other)

Consider the example below. In this case the relationship between pressure drop and flow are non-linear. We need to develop an equation that approximates the local operating
point.

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## Numeric methods of nonlinear systems solution

In this student book are not described numeric methods, because students keep at disposition powerful tools Matlab and Simulink, which solve control tasks by numerical methods.

## Introduction of nonlinear systems stability

Stability of linear systems is attribute of the system, which dont depend on the instant state or on the input signal. Several definitions of the stability exist for nonlinear systems. At nonlinear systems are defined steady (stationary) states, which are following:

Static steady state, which is represented by a point in the phase space, it is the singular point. Periodic steady state, which is represented by a curve in the phase space, it is the limit cycle.

Every of steady states can be a stabile steady state (after deflection from the steady state has ability to stabilize) or a non-stabile steady state (after deflection from the steady state has not ability to stabilize). Stability of nonlinear systems depends on initial values of states. Stability of nonlinear systems are examined by following methods:

First Ljapunov method Second Ljapunov method Popov criterion of the stability Equivalent transfers method

## Summary of notions 7.1.

Base differences between linear and nonlinear systems :

input/output relationships are not linear nonlinear systems are described by nonlinear differential equations, static characteristic is not linear, definition of stability is more complicated, axiom of superposition is not valid , relations between various modes of descriptions are complicated (from state space description is not possible a simple receive transfer function), nonlinear system is composed by linear and nonlinear parts. Static characteristics of nonlinear elements than are important technologies: Saturation or Clipping Deadband Friction Hysteresis and Backlash 231 in control

Nonlinear control systems Relay, General nonlinear characteristic. parasite nonlinearities are undesirable, voluntary loaded nonlinearities low-cost controllers, improvement or permit of instrument activities (e.g. deadband eliminates unwanted oscillations), impossible dividing (saturation extends a time of response, but it improves a stability). Methods of solution nonlinear transient responses. Analytic methods Approximation of nonlinear characteristic by analytic expression, Approximation of nonlinear characteristic by linear partitions, Approximation of nonlinear characteristic by tangent line or secant line in the working point linearization in praxis. Estimate analytic methods Graphic and graphic-analytic methods Isoclines method, Phase-space method Numeric methods of nonlinear systems solution

Dividing of nonlinearities:

At nonlinear systems are defined steady (stationary) states, which are following: Static steady state, which is represented by a point in the phase space, it is the singular point. Periodic steady state, which is represented by a curve in the phase space, it is the limit cycle.

Questions 7.1.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. How are base differences between linear and nonlinear systems? How are parasite nonlinearities and voluntary loaded nonlinearities? Get in examples of nonlinearities in the system. Get in examples of relay nonlinearities. How are methods of solution nonlinear transient responses? Define stability of nonlinear systems.

## Examples to solve 7.1.

Example 7.1.1 Problem: Determine a phase trajectory of the deviation and a response of the nonlinear feedback control system with a saturation (Fig 7.7) for step input of the reference variable w from zero to -0.6. Parameters of the feedback control system are following: T=2s, KS=80V/rad, Km=0,02rad.V-1 s-1, u2 = N(u1), saturation is 20V. Solve the example in Matlab. 232

## Fig. 7.7 Nonlinear feedback control system with a saturation.

7.2.

Effect of nonlinearities to the design of nonlinear feedback control systems Time to study: 2 up to 4 hours

Goal

## After study of this you will know how to

Describe effect of nonlinearities to the design of continuous nonlinear feedback control systems, Compare design of linear and nonlinear feedback control systems, Design simple nonlinear feedback control systems with the two-position control, Describe design of nonlinear feedback control systems using numerical methods in Matlab and Simulink.

Explication

Two-position control

Basic methods of the design simple nonlinear feedback control systems with the two-position control are explain in following examples.
Solved Example

Example 7.2.1 Problem: Design the nonlinear feedback control system of electric iron using relay controller. The nonlinear feedback control system is demonstrated in figure 7.8. Heating-up by the heating element is controlled by relay with deadband, which is switch-on or switch-off. Heating system is approximated by the static first order system. Transfer of the system is following
Gs (s) = 1 . 100 s + 1

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Nonlinear control systems Determine a transient characteristic of the heating system and nonlinear feedback control system with two positions relay controller with deadband. Is required temperature of the iron area 60 C. Deadband is 55 to 65C. Model the problem in Simulink.

Fig. 7.8 Nonlinear feedback control system of the electric iron using relay controller
Solution:

Block diagram of the nonlinear feedback control system is demonstrated in figure 7.9.

Fig. 7.9 Block diagram of the nonlinear feedback control system The heating element at the maximum power input heats up the iron area maximal to temperature 120 C. Electric iron with the define transfer and input step is modeled in Simulink (Fig. 7.10.). In figure 7.10 is also modeled the nonlinear feedback control system with two positions relay controller with deadband.

Fig. 7.10 Block diagram for the modeling of system and nonlinear feedback control system step responses in Simulink The system step response for heating to 120 C is demonstrated in figure 7.11 (first order system) by the red color. Response of the manipulated variable for temperature control on 60 C with deviation 5 C is demonstrated in figure 7.11 by yellow color and response of 234

Nonlinear control systems the controlled variable temperature of the iron area for the reference variable 60 C is demonstrated in figure 7.11 by blue color.
120

100

80 w(t),y(t)

60

40

20

50

100

150 t[s]

200

250

300

Fig. 7.11 Transient characteristics of electric iron system (red) and responses of manipulated variable (yellow) and controlled variable (blue). Why is used a relay nonlinear control with the deadband? Because a relay without deadband would oscillate all the time around the reference variable and this way the equipment would be destroyed. The deadband is optimal set.
End of example. Solved Example

Example 7.2.2 Problem: Design nonlinear feedback control of electric iron using a relay controller. The nonlinear feedback control system is demonstrated in figure 7.8. in the example 7.2.1 Heating-up by the heating element is controlled by relay with deadband, which is switch-on or switch-off. Heating system is approximated by the static second order system. Transfer of the system is following Gs (s) = 1 . (100s + 1) 2

Determine a transient characteristic of the heating system and nonlinear feedback control system with two positions relay controller with deadband. Is required temperature of the iron area 60 C. Deadband is 55 to 65C. Model the problem in Simulink. Solution: The heating element at the maximum power input heats up the iron area maximal to temperature 120 C. Electric iron with the define transfer and input step is modeled 235

Nonlinear control systems in Simulink (Fig. 7.12.). In figure 7.12 is also modeled the nonlinear feedback control system with two positions relay controller with deadband.

Fig. 7.12 Block diagram for the modeling of second order system and nonlinear feedback control system step responses in Simulink The system step response for heating to 120 C is demonstrated in figure 7.13 (second order system) by the red color. Response of the manipulated variable for temperature control on 60 C with deviation 5 C is demonstrated in figure 7.13 by yellow color and response of the controlled variable temperature of the iron area for the reference variable 60 C is demonstrated in figure 7.13 by blue color.
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100

80 y1(t),y2(t),u2(t)

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40

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100

200

300

400

500 t[s]

600

700

800

900

1000

Fig. 7.13 Transient characteristics of electric iron system (red) and responses of manipulated variable (yellow) and controlled variable (blue).
End of example.

Comparison of linear and nonlinear feedback control systems with PID controllers

Effects of nonlinear elements are explained in following examples. Examples are solved in Matlab and Simulink. Real functions of P, PD or PID controllers are demonstrated, if in amplifiers is concerned a nonlinearity - saturation. There are compared functions of the ideal linear and real nonlinear controllers.
Solved Example

## Example 7.2.3 236

Nonlinear control systems Problem: Compare control of the system (control of electric iron) from example 7.2.1 by ideal and real P controller. Heating-up by the heating element is controlled by ideal continuous proportional controller or nonlinear proportional controller with saturation. Heating element is approximate by the static first order system. Transfer is following
Gs (s) = 1 . 100 s + 1

Determine a control response with ideal and nonlinear P controller for the temperature 120C. Model the problem in Simulink and results in Matlab.
Solution:

Heating system with the transfer above and two types controllers and power step input is modeled in Simulink (Fig. 7.14.). In figure 7.14 are modeled both control systems.

Fig. 7.14: Block diagrams for responses of linear and nonlinear control systems with the proportional controller in Simulink
120

100

80 y1(t),y2(t)

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100

150 t[s]

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300

Fig. 7.15 Controlled variable response for the ideal P controller (red color) and controlled variable response for the nonlinear P controller with saturation (green color) 237

Nonlinear control systems Controlled variable response for the ideal P controller for the reference variable 120 C is demonstrated in figure 7.15 by red color. Controlled variable response for the nonlinear P controller with saturation for the reference variable 120 C is demonstrated in figure 7.15 by green color. Manipulated variable response for the ideal P controller for the reference variable 120 C is demonstrated in figure 7.16 by red color. Manipulated variable response for the nonlinear P controller with saturation for the reference variable 120 C is demonstrated in figure 7.16 by green color.
1200

1000

800 u1(t),u2(t)

600

400

200

50

100

150 t[s]

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300

Fig. 7.16 Manipulated variable response for the ideal P controller (red) and Manipulated variable response for the nonlinear P controller with saturation (green)
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80 y1(t),y2(t)

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10

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30 t[s]

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50

60

Fig. 7.17: Controlled variable response for the ideal P controller (red color) and controlled variable response for the nonlinear P controller with triple linear part of the saturation (green color) Resulting from figure 7.16 and 7.17 is that the real controller speed is lower then for the ideal controller. Control accuracy is possible to improve by the controller gain, e.g. K=100, control speed is same. Similar results as ideal controller are possible received by increase ten times linear band of the power. 238

Nonlinear control systems In figures 7.17 and 7.18 are results of controller with gain 100 and triple linear part of the saturation. The control speed is essentially higher. It is also important that for a nonastatic control system with negative real roots of characteristic equation has not a saturation any effect to system stability.

12000

10000

8000 u1(t),u2(t)

6000

4000

2000

10

20

30 t[s]

40

50

60

Fig. 7.18 Manipulated variable response for the ideal P controller (red color) and manipulated variable response for the nonlinear P controller with triple linear part of the saturation (green color)
End of example. Solved Example

Example 7.2.4 Problem: Compare control of the system (control of electric iron) from example 7.2.1 by ideal and real PID controller. Heating-up by the heating element is controlled by ideal continuous PID controller or nonlinear PID controller with saturation. Heating element is approximate by the static first order system. Transfer is following
Gs (s) = 1 . 100 s + 1

Determine a control response with ideal and nonlinear PID controller for the temperature 120C. Model the problem in Simulink and results in Matlab.
Solution:

Heating system with the transfer above and two types controllers and power step input is modeled in Simulink (Fig. 7.19.). In figure 7.19 are modeled both control systems.

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Scope3

## 1 100s+1 Transfer Fcn Scope

Scope2

Fig. 7.19 Block diagrams for responses of linear and nonlinear control systems with the PID controller in Simulink
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120

100

y1(t),y2(t)

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150 t[s]

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300

Fig. 7.20 Controlled variable response for the ideal PID controller (red color) and controlled variable response for the nonlinear PID controller with saturation (green color) Controlled variable response for the ideal PID controller for the reference variable 120 C is demonstrated in figure 7.20 by red color. Controlled variable response for the nonlinear PID controller with saturation for the reference variable 120 C is demonstrated in figure 7.20 by green color. Manipulated variable response for the ideal PID controller for the reference variable 120 C is demonstrated in figure 7.21 by red color. Manipulated variable response for the nonlinear PID controller with saturation for the reference variable 120 C is demonstrated in figure 7.21 by green color. In figures 7.22 and 7.23 are results of the nonlinear PID controller with triple linear part of the saturation. The control speed of the nonlinear PID controller is essentially higher. 240

Nonlinear control systems Since the control loop has one zero pole may be observe the effect of nonlinearity to the suppression of control system oscillations in the case with greater linear part of saturation.
7000 6000 5000 4000 u1(t),u2(t) 3000 2000 1000 0 -1000

50

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150 t[s]

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300

Fig. 7.21 Manipulated variable response for the ideal PID controller (red) and Manipulated variable response for the nonlinear PID controller with saturation (green)
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100 y1(t),y2(t) 50 0 0

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100 t[s]

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Fig. 7.22: Controlled variable response for the ideal PID controller (red color) and controlled variable response for the nonlinear PID controller with triple linear part of the saturation (green color)

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## 7000 6000 5000 4000 u1(t),u2(t) 3000 2000 1000 0 -1000

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100 t[s]

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Fig. 7.23: Manipulated variable response for the ideal PID controller (red color) and manipulated variable response for the nonlinear PID controller with triple linear part of the saturation (green color)
End of example. Solved Example

Example 7.2.5 Problem: Compare control of the astatic second order system by ideal and real P controller with saturation. Transfer is following Gs (s) = 1 . s (5s + 1)

Determine a control response with ideal and nonlinear P controller for the reference variable step w= 10. Model the problem in Simulink and results in Matlab.
Solution:

Control systems with the transfer above and two types controllers and reference variable step is modeled in Simulink (Fig. 7.24.). The gain is K = 50. Controlled variable response for the ideal P controller with gain 50 and reference variable step w =10 is demonstrated in figure 7.25 by red color. Manipulated variable response for the ideal P controller with gain 50 and reference variable step w =10 is demonstrated in figure 7.25 by blue color. Controlled variable response for the nonlinear P controller with saturation (10) for the reference variable step w =10 is demonstrated in figure 7.26 by green color. Manipulated variable response for the nonlinear P controller with saturation for the reference variable step w =10 is demonstrated in figure 7.26 by blue color. 242

Scope2

Zero-Pole

Zero-Pole1

## Scope3 50 Add1 Saturation1 0.2 s(s+0.2) Zero-Pole2 Zero-Pole3 Scope1

Fig. 7.24 Block diagram for responses of linear and nonlinear control systems in Simulink
500 400 300 200 100 u(t),y(t) 0 -100 -200 -300 -400 -500

10

15 t[s]

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Fig. 7.25 Manipulated variable response (blue) and controlled variable response (red) for the ideal P controller
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5 u(t),y(t) 0 -5 -10 0

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15 t[s]

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Fig. 7.26 Manipulated variable response (blue) and controlled variable response (red) for the nonlinear P controller with saturation 243

Nonlinear control systems If it is compared responses of controlled variables with both controllers, it stands to reason that the control time in both controlled systems is roughly same, but the amplitude and frequency of oscillations at nonlinear control system is lower. It is evident stabilizing effect of the saturation nonlinearity in the feedback control system (Fig. 7.27).
20 18 16 14 12 y1(t),y2(t) 10 8 6 4 2 0

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15 t[s]

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Fig. 7.27: Controlled variable response (red) for the ideal P controller and controlled variable response (green) for the nonlinear P controller with saturation
End of example. Solved Example

Example 7.2.6 Problem: Compare control of the astatic second order system by ideal and real PD controller with saturation. Transfer is following Gs (s) = 1 . s (5s + 1)

Determine a control response with ideal and nonlinear PD controller for the reference variable step w= 10. Model the problem in Simulink and results in Matlab.
Solution:

Control systems with the transfer above and two types controllers and reference variable step is modeled in Simulink (Fig. 7.28.). The gain is K = 50.

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## 0.2 s(s+0.2) Zero-Pole1 Scope

Scope2

Scope3 500(s+0.2) (s+50) Add1 Zero-Pole2 Saturation1 0.2 s(s+0.2) Zero-Pole3 Scope1

Fig. 7.28 Block diagram for responses of linear and nonlinear control systems with PD controller in Simulink
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15 t[s]

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Fig. 7.29 Controlled variable response (blue) for the ideal PD controller and controlled variable response (red) for the nonlinear PD controller with saturation
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3000 u1(t),u2(t)

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-1000

0.5 t[s]

1.5

Fig. 7.30 Manipulated variable response (blue) for the ideal PD controller and manipulated variable response (red) for the nonlinear PD controller with saturation 245

Nonlinear control systems Controlled variable response for the ideal PD controller with gain 50 and reference variable step w=10 is demonstrated in figure 7.29 by blue color. Controlled variable response for the nonlinear PD controller with saturation (10) for the reference variable step w =10 is demonstrated in figure 7.29 by red color. Manipulated variable response for the ideal PD controller with gain 50 and reference variable step w =10 is demonstrated in figure 7.30 by blue color. Manipulated variable response for the nonlinear PD controller with saturation for the reference variable step w =10 is demonstrated in figure 7.30 by red color. If it is compared responses of controlled variables with both controllers, it stands to reason that the control time in nonlinear controlled system is longer. Due to the choose gain and derivate element is the controlled response aperiodic. It is not evident stabilizing effect of the saturation nonlinearity in the feedback control system.
End of example.

Examples 7.2.3 to 7.2.6 clearly demonstrated how is different characteristics of ideal active controllers with amplifiers and characteristics of real nonlinear controllers with saturations.

## Summary of notions 7.2.

Design of the two-position relay controller. Comparison of linear P,PD and PID controllers with nonlinear P,PD and PID controllers with saturation.

Questions 7.2.
1. Describe design of two-positions relay controller. 2. Why is used a deadband at design of the two-positions control? 3. How is effect of the saturation nonlinearity to the activity of the P controller for different types of controlled systems? 4. How is effect of the saturation nonlinearity to the activity of the PID controller for different types of controlled systems?

## Example to solving 7.2.

Example 7.2.7 Problem: Design a nonlinear control of the electric boiler through the use of the relay controller. Feedback control system is demonstrated in figure 7.31.

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## Nonlinear control systems

Fig. 7.31 Scheme of the electric boiler with relay controller Heating-up by the heating element is controlled by relay with deadband, which is switch-on or switch-off. Heating system is approximated by the static second order system. Transfer of the system is following Gs (s) = 1 . (5s + 1)(150 s + 1)

Determine a transient characteristic of the heating system and nonlinear feedback control system with two positions relay controller with deadband. Is required temperature of the hot water 60 C. Deadband is 55 to 65C. Model the problem in Simulink. Example 7.2.8 Problem: Compare control of the astatic second order system by ideal and real PID controller with saturation. Transfer is following Gs (s) = 1 . s (10s + 1)

Determine a control response with ideal and nonlinear PID controller for the reference variable step w= 10. Model the problem in Simulink and results in Matlab.

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