School of Social Sciences and Philosophy Department of Political Science, JS (3rd year


2012–13 Michael Gallagher

Learning outcomes By the end of the course students will have an enhanced understanding of the Irish political and governmental processes and the academic research undertaken into these areas. They will also be aware of the background to and interpretations of Northern Ireland politics.
Approx number of lectures Approx time when lectures delivered (term / weeks)

1. Irish political culture and society 2. The Constitution: background and development 3. Irish electoral behaviour. Origins and development of the party system 4. The parties and the party system: comparative perspectives, explanations, organisation, prospects 5. The electoral system and its political consequences 6. Policy-making in Ireland: the role of the government, the civil service, interest groups 7. TDs and their constituency work 8. The Dáil and the government 9. Power within government: position of the Taoiseach 10. Ireland and the European Union: policy-making within the EU, the impact on Ireland 11. Northern Ireland: historical background to problem 12. Northern Ireland: what is the heart of the problem? Religion, civil rights, colonialism, national identity 13. Loyalism: who are the Loyalists; how do they see the world? 14. Northern Ireland: is it a problem without a solution? The options considered

4–5 2–3 4 3 2–3 3 1 2–3 3 3 3 2–3 2 4

1 / 1–3 1 /3–4 1 / 5–6 1 / 8–9 1 / 9–10 1 / 10–11 1 / 12 1/12 – 2/1 2 / 2–3 2 / 3–4 2 / 5–6 2 / 6–8 2/9 2 / 10–11

Course structure
There will be two lectures a week (Thurs 5 and Fri 12), plus 9 classes for each student during the year, beginning in week 3 of term 1.

My office is Room 5.06, 1 Foster Place.

Clicking on the Irish Politics page currently at

takes you to the course on-line noticeboard (olnb), where course information will be posted on a weekly basis (accessible from TCD computers only).

2004 hardback or 2005 paperback). 2011) is a general and lively introduction to Ireland. 759 pages. Ireland 1798–1998 (Oxford: Blackwell. as TCD students. incoming Socrates and other non-TCD students are required to fulfil the same course requirements. Long but highly readable. Chapter 1 of this book (PRI5) gives a concise historical background. Lee. Useful if you want more detail are: Senia Paseta. 5. and the shortness of chapter sections makes it hard to pick out specific bits to recommend Dermot Keogh. 200 years in 80 pages Eoin O’Malley. 2005) is a good starting point. Reading: The textbook for the course. including history and society as well as politics. 5). Deadline for the second essay: Monday 8 April 2013. Registering for the course implies acceptance of this. 2010). plus a second essay on one of the class discussion topics listed on p. 1989). which is recommended for purchase. 2003). Politics in the Republic of Ireland. Ireland 1912–1985: politics and society (Cambridge: Cambridge UP. more in later handout . Ireland: a social and cultural history. J. 5th edition (Abingdon: Routledge and PSAI Press. Contemporary Ireland (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. or TCD students away for the first term) are required to write two essays: one on the third essay topic. unlike Keogh Terence Brown. The average mark from these two (or the best two if three are submitted) will count as 25 per cent of the overall mark for the course. The other 75 per cent will come from the May examination mark. Resist any temptation to buy a secondhand copy of an earlier edition – those are history now. is John Coakley and Michael Gallagher (eds). The New Northern Irish Politics? (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. If you’re in either of these categories. please make yourself known to the lecturer. 1999) – chs 6 and 8. Those students getting low overall marks on the course are brought down more often by simply not submitting two essays than by any other factor – so do make sure that you submit two essays. The most recent UCC history of Ireland Alvin Jackson.PO3630 Irish Politics 2012–13 2 Three essay topics will be set during the year and assignments must be submitted on two of these. Like it says. are required to do the first assignment along with another piece of work (either the second assignment or one of the first five class discussion topics from p. Twentieth-century Ireland: nation and state (Dublin: Gill and Macmillan. if you need to refresh your memory or find out about it for the first time. along with visiting students who are in TCD for the first term only. 2004) On Northern Ireland: Jonathan Tonge.1 cover the south from 1922–98 J. Modern Ireland: a very short introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press. revised edition (London: Harper Perennial. in terms of coursework and exams. designed particularly for visiting students Diarmaid Ferriter. 1994). The Transformation of Ireland 1900–2000 (London: Profile Books. deadline Wed 16 January 2013. This apart. TCD students going away on Socrates schemes in January 2013. Includes NI. Students here January–May (incoming visiting students.

keeping up to date with current affairs via the newspapers and broadcasting media is also strongly recommended. They should be supplemented by additional reading suggested for each topic – and. p. A mark of zero will be recorded for unsubmitted work. i. the material you encounter. The two assignments submitted (or the best two if three are submitted) will count as 25 per cent of the overall mark for the course. See also the Political Reform site maintained by the PSAI at politicalreform.tcd. course ID number 5535739. and what factors can result in low marks. you should aim to read some of them – and it’s best done as the course proceeds rather than being postponed until April.e. what the markers are looking for. class enrolment password is IrishPols (all of these are case-sensitive).700 words in length. Class name is PO3630IrishPols. i.tcd.59 pm on or before the date specified. The essay topics will not feature as exam questions. week 9 of term 2 (title arising out of Topics 11–14) Assignments should be about 1. Assessment and assignments Three essay topics will be set during the year. such as (Marsh and Cunningham 2011. including the page number(s)—preferably by references embedded in the text. 182)—and append a list of works consulted. which summarises the results of recent among other things. and assignments must be submitted on at least two of these. so you’re expected to be able to show that you can deal with and evaluate. but on their own these will not suffice for a good (click on “On-line browser”). To be sure that you are not inadvertently plagiarising.e. week 2 of term 2 (see page 4) Essay 3 Monday 11 March.turnitin. Please leave a reasonable margin. Be aware that there are disagreements within the political science literature on many Any extension required for some unforeseen reason must be requested in advance. Be sure to number the pages of your essay.e. see www. In the exam answers you’re expected to show that you’ve read into the subject and have some familiarity with the academic of course. They should be submitted by 11. . i. late assignments will not be accepted unless backed up by a medical certificate. which contains commentary on current developments such as the constitutional convention and the children’s rights referendum.php This also gives guidelines about how to write and plan an essay. by your own ideas and reflections.php there’s an opinion poll data archive going back several decades.tcd. and that you are expected to know about these. see the department’s undergraduate handbook at: http://www. and you will have 3 hours to answer any 4 of these. Irish Political Studies is the most useful. it contains articles on Irish politics plus other useful features such as a data section (now published separately). Writing essays tests your ability to identify the central issues of the topic and stick to them. book reviews etc. and not just passively assimilate. and the Irish National Election Study data is online at http://www. There’s quite a bit of information on the internet – see list of useful Web addresses at the end of each chapter of PRI5. This is a 3rd year course. It will consist of 11 questions. week 9 of term 1 (see page 4) Essay 2 Tuesday 22 January. Not least. so essays that go significantly above this limit will be marked down accordingly. indicate the source of material. All coursework needs to be submitted via the plagiarism detector Turnitin. each assignment will carry equal weight. Consequently. The lecture notes and the relevant chapter(s) from the textbook should be very useful in tackling the exam. what qualities a good essay possesses. Exam The exam will take place in May 2013. At http://www.PO3630 Irish Politics 2012–13 3 A number of journals contain articles and other material of relevance. While it may be impossible for anyone to read all the items. Essay 1 Tuesday 20 November. opinion polls.

There will be 9 classes for each student: 4 in the first term. on photocopy reserve in the Berkeley in those rare cases where a journal isn’t collect your essay and learn from the feedback.59 pm Tuesday 20 November) Is there a need for fundamental reform of the constitution? What are the issues that the constitutional convention should prioritise. please let me know. or after the end of the second lecture term. In some cases.tcd. and 5 in the second. unless excused in advance by the course lecturer. will be penalised at a rate of 5 marks per working day. All articles in journals can be found on-line (the library has subscriptions to on-line versions of many journals).PO3630 Irish Politics 2012–13 4 All late work. Classes begin in week 3 of term 1 (week beginning 8 October).php for explanation of the role that classes / tutorials play in courses within the Department of Political Science.59 pm Tuesday 22 January) Do interest groups have too much power in the policy-making process in Ireland? Can anything be done to control or monitor their activities? Reading: John Coakley and Michael Gallagher (eds).ie/Political_Science/undergraduate/handbook. ch 11 (Murphy) is the starting point. Politics in the Republic of Ireland. 5th ed (London: Routledge and PSAI Press. Fuller reading list to follow ************************************************************* Classes / tutorials See the department’s Undergraduate Handbook at http://www. or justified by medical certificate or tutor’s note. Thus it shouldn’t be necessary for you to consult the original hard copy issue of the journal. the essay may even have received a mark of zero for some reason. Other items on reading lists for a lecture topic will be either on reserve or on the shelves (or out on loan). . and/or on the on-line noticeboard. Your essay may have received a lower mark than you expected. Under no circumstances will work be accepted after the set work has been marked and handed back to other students. ************************************************************* Assignment 2 (to be submitted by 11. and you should be able to learn from the comments on early essays how to do the later ones better. Teaching Assistant: Michael Courtney (courtnmj@tcd. In short. All books mentioned as recommended reading for an essay will also be on reserve in the Berkeley library. All items on Irish Politics reading lists should be available in the library. and why should it prioritise these? Should the constitution guarantee socio-economic rights? Would constitutional change really make much of a difference to the conduct of Irish politics? Reading: From the readings for Topic 2. ************************************************************* Assignment 1 (to be submitted by 11. You should be sure to collect your essay at the class as it may not be possible to collect it at other times. 2010). If you find any exceptions to this. The essays will be returned at one of the discussion classes in the weeks following submission. it is very much in your interests to attend the classes.

why does it matter? See p.PO3630 Irish Politics 2012–13 5 At classes. (weeks 5 & 6 of term 1) 3 Why has the left been so weak in Ireland? Is its future likely to be brighter than its past? (weeks 8 & 9 of term 1) 4 ‘Ireland’s electoral system. has had significant negative effects on the Irish political process and should be replaced by something else as soon as possible’. and how could it best be tackled? (weeks 5 & 6 of term 2) 8 Have southern attitudes towards the Northern Ireland problem changed significantly since the late 1960s? Is southern understanding of the problem now greater or less than it was 40 years ago? (weeks 8 & 9 of term 2) 9 Could either an independent Northern Ireland or repartition provide a solution to the Northern Ireland problem? (weeks 10 & 11 of term 2 – essays on assignment 3 will be returned at this class) Reading: from the recommended reading for the appropriate lecture topics. Discuss. Discuss. (weeks 3 & 4 of term 2 – essays on second assignment will be returned at this class) 7 Does membership of the EU create a serious problem of democratic accountability for Ireland? Is the extent of this problem likely to grow larger in the future. is a ‘study week’ – no lectures in this course. 14 below for reading. The topics for discussion are as follows: 1 ‘Just as Irish society has changed fundamentally since the early 1960s. Non-attendance at classes may be reported to your College tutor as it often indicates that a student is having difficulties and is becoming disengaged from his or her studies. Terms: first term from Mon 24 Sept 12 – Fri 14 Dec 12 second term from Mon 14 Jan 13 – Fri 5 Apr 13 Week 7 in each term. ie the week beginning 5 Nov and the week beginning 25 Feb. Is this true. so too has Irish political culture altered out of all recognition from the way it was fifty years ago’. (weeks 11 & 12 of term 1 – essays on first assignment to be returned at this class) 5 How can we best account for the amount of constituency work undertaken by TDs? Do the negative consequences of this work outweigh the positive ones? (weeks 1 & 2 of term 2) 6 ‘Despite the power accorded to the Taoiseach in the constitution. PR-STV. or is Irish political culture characterised more by continuity than by change? (weeks 3 & 4 of term 1) 2 Why have so few women been prominent in Irish political life? Should gender quotas be introduced? Does it really matter that the political elite has been overwhelmingly male – if so. . attendance is expected and is recorded. the records of successive Taoisigh suggest that most occupants of the office feel heavily constrained by its limitations’.

Politics in the Republic of Ireland. 2. 1982). 1992).). Kelly. nationalism. pp. 4. ch 2 (Coakley) Brian Girvin. the “troubles” in NI. social cleavages in society (class. but also an influence on political actors Social structural background: population and emigration. Reading: General analyses: John Coakley and Michael Gallagher (eds). 3. “Theory. The concept of political culture: a dependent or an independent variable? Influenced by various factors. O’Dowd and J. Collective impact of changes. 5 (attitudes to political institutions) and 6 (social and political cleavages) Rona Fitzgerald and Brian Girvin. European Political Culture. What is the evidence that these “isms” are present. ‘Political culture. esp ch 10. Wickham (eds). and passim Bill Kissane. chs. women’s movement. change in RC church. 1 (description) and 2 (on changes since 1960). 2006). the position of the Roman Catholic church Some supposed features of Irish political culture: conservatism. The Government and Politics of Ireland. London: Routledge. ch 1 on ‘Why the Irish did not become British’. esp ch 4 (attitudes to poverty and wealth). 2010). 5th ed (Abingdon: Routledge and PSAI Press. individualism. Explaining Irish Democracy (Dublin: UCD Press. Irish Social and Political Attitudes (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. Union to Union (Dublin: Gill and Macmillan. 2002). deference to authority. personalism. Ireland and the Politics of Change (London: Longman. social structural change. television. 171–85 in M. Bust to Boom? The Irish experience of growth and inequality (Dublin: IPA. Basil Chubb. 1998) John Garry. 268–85 in Brian Nolan et al. 1997. 2003). Niamh Hardiman and Christopher Whelan. L. ch 4 in William Crotty and David E Schmitt (eds). Argues that the establishment of a democratic regime is no mystery Tom Garvin. religion) Historical factors: the British connection.PO3630 Irish Politics 2012–13 6 IRISH POLITICS Topic 1: Irish political culture and society 1. Niamh Hardiman and Diane Payne (eds). Power. 5. pp. growth and the conditions for success in the Irish economy’. on whether political culture should be thought of as a dependent or an independent variable . 2000). aversion to ideology. and what are their political consequences? Summing up The impetus for change since 1960: political generation change. 3rd ed (London. Brian Girvin. impact of the EU. Conflict and Inequality (Dublin. “Changing values”. ch 8 in Roger Eatwell (ed. culture and Fianna Fáil”. “Irish political culture: between tradition and modernity”.

Seirbhís Phoiblí 6:3 (1985). Conflict and Consensus: a study of values and attitudes in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Dublin: IPA. European Legacy 10:1 (2005). “Church. 2003). pp. 10 (overview) Garret FitzGerald. 134–52. 1995).PO3630 Irish Politics 2012–13 7 On the adoption of British political institutions and practices: Brian Farrell. 2005). esp pp. 2007). “Symbols of national identity and sport: the case of the Irish football team”. 1982). pp. pp. on the church’s responsibility for its decline Bill Kissane. The Creation of the Dáil (Dublin: Blackwater. 190–1 (religion) Brian Girvin. 2008). pp. Argues – contrary to almost everyone else’s views – that the state is just as far from being religiously neutral as it ever was Patrick Clancy et al (eds). 2004). chs 9 (decline of the church in recent years). 1996). Politics and Society in Contemporary Ireland (Dublin: Irish Academic Press. politics and socio-cultural change in twentieth-century Ireland’. ch 19 (Máire Nic Ghiolla Phádraig). 2003). ch 10. Reflections on the Irish State (Dublin: Irish Academic Press. ch 2 (religion). 41–54. 388–404 (conservatism & authoritarianism) J. especially Intro. ch 5 on changing attitudes towards the liberal agenda Tony Fahey. Contemporary Irish Society (Dublin. H. Contemporary Ireland: a sociological map (Dublin: UCD Press. pp. 4–10. ch 1 in Brian Farrell (ed. ch 6 is virtually an obituary for the Catholic church in Ireland Pat Lyons. 63–72 (social distance). On the impact of football on the trend towards greater pluralism .). ch 8 (conservatism) Michel Peillon. mainly a historical account of the period 1950s–1970s. a lot has been written. pp. political culture and politics. the Epilogue (237–68) gives a brief account of the period up to 2002 Tom Inglis. 1980). 81–98. On-line noticeboard Other items of reading that are more specialised or rather outdated but still have something of interest: Mícheál Mac Gréil. 67–82 in Sara O’Sullivan (ed. 599–615 Michael Holmes. Preventing the Future: why was Ireland so poor for so long? (Dublin: Gill and Macmillan. “The parliamentary road to independence”. pp. pp. Irish Society: sociological perspectives (Dublin: IPA. 73–94. state and the Irish constitution”. ‘Individualisation and secularisation in Catholic Ireland’. Public Opinion. ‘The illusion of state neutrality in a secularising Ireland’. Irish Values and Attitudes (Dublin: Dominican Publications. Louise Fuller. Conclusion and Epilogue John Whyte. Irish Catholicism since the 1950s (Dublin: Gill and Macmillan.). 2nd ed (Dublin: UCD Press. 1994) On the church. ‘Religion. Moral Monopoly: the rise and fall of the Catholic church in modern Irish society. Bernadette Hayes and Richard Sinnott. such as: Tom Garvin. ch 3 on religion Tom Inglis. 1998). 1994. Church and State in Modern Ireland 1923–79 (Dublin: Gill and Macmillan. West European Politics 26:1 (2003). “Recent developments in church-state relations”. Whyte. Irish Political Studies 9. 1984). Parliamentary Affairs 49:4 (1996). The role of the church in resisting the necessary expansion of the education system is a theme of the book. Prejudice in Ireland Revisited (Maynooth. Partial update of his book Michael Fogarty et al. on “The power of the Catholic church in the Republic of Ireland” Louise Fuller.

institutions of government Narrowly constitutional areas: emergency (28. 2000). Costs only c€2.3.constitution. rights articles Amendment of the constitution Amendment by Oireachtas 1939 & 1941 (especially to 28. has something to say on all the areas where amendments have been suggested. . Constitutional Law in Ireland. 1996). ch 3 (and pp.3) A new constitution? NB the ‘constitutional convention’ is scheduled to be in place while the course is proceeding 3 4 5 6 Reading: John Coakley and Michael Gallagher (eds). Dublin: Clarus Press. 376–85 (criteria employed by courts in interpreting the constitution) Gerard Hogan and Gerry Whyte. The longest book on the reading list.3. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan. 29–40 (international status of state). 180–88 (Emergency articles). Politics in the Republic of Ireland. Constitution of Irish Free State 1922 Bunreacht na hÉireann 1937: international status of state. Amendment by the people through referendum – increasingly common Judicial development of the constitution Positivist approach before 1960s Ryan vs AG 1963 and Art 40. 2011).3). 2003.50. rights.1. 1995. 2010).3. esp pp. 4. how are they appointed. has discussion of the meaning of each Article. such as gender-proofing. 6 James Casey. institutions of govt. 5th ed (Abingdon: Routledge and PSAI Press. J. J. 2008. Constitutional Law: Texts. chs 3. they’re in the hard copy only General texts on BE. M. Bill Kissane. property. Comprehensive review and assessment of the constitution. or free at http://www. 198–201 on the presidency) Bunreacht na hÉireann (Stationery Office. Dublin). The 250 pages of Appendices are for some reason not included in the online version. Kelly: The Irish Constitution. Anthony Foley and Stephen Lalor (eds). Report (Dublin: Stationery Office. Gill and Macmillan Annotated Constitution of Ireland. Cases and Materials. 3rd ed (Dublin: Round Hall Sweet and Maxwell. esp president. its features and constitutional development: Oran Doyle.asp Constitution Review Group. what are their values? A need for further amendment? Major reviews in 1967 and 1996 Areas where changes have been suggested. the idea of “unenumerated rights” Advantages & disadvantages of power of judges Who are the judges. presidential referrals (34. Dublin: LexisNexis Butterworths. Irish language. as interpreted by the courts. 78–100 (president). 21–28 (overview).ie/constitution-of-ireland/default. Tension between constitutionalism and democracy The background to Bunreacht na hÉireann: Constitution of Dáil Éireann 1919.PO3630 Irish Politics 2012–13 8 Topic 2: Bunreacht na hÉireann (The Constitution of Ireland) 1 2 The purpose of constitutions: define and limit the power of govts.3.3). 4th ed. New Beginnings: constitutionalism and democracy in modern Ireland (Dublin: UCD Press. pluralism.

Tim Murphy and Patrick Twomey (eds). “Economic inequality and the constitution”. Dissecting Irish Politics: essays in honour of Brian Farrell (Dublin: UCD Press. pp.). CO: Westview and PSAI Press. chs 11 and 12 on B na hÉ On specific aspects: Oran Doyle and Eoin Carolan (eds). 173–91. Constitutionalism in Contemporary Ireland: an American Perspective. “Evaluating constitutions—the Irish constitution and the limits of constitutionalism”. advocates provision of economic rights. chs 2 (overview). ‘From equality before the law to the equal benefit of the law: social and economic rights in the Irish constitution’. ‘Funding for referendum campaigns: equal or equitable?’. Governing Ireland (Dublin: IPA. 67–78 Michael Gallagher. ch 11 in Eoin O’Malley and Muiris MacCarthaigh (eds). 135–43. 1999). esp chs 3 (drafting). north and south (Boulder. pp. Dublin: Round Hall. 1988). 107–19. 1999). The Referendum Experience in Europe (Basingstoke: Macmillan. pp. 105–25 . De Valera’s Constitution and Ours (Dublin. pp. The Politics of the Irish Constitution (Dublin. Adrian Hunt. 317–34 argues that the CRG was too complacent about the constitution. on the presidency. 9 Alan J Ward. 1988). pp. Chapters by David Gwynn Morgan. 3. “The referendum. pp. Oxford: Hart.PO3630 Irish Politics 2012–13 9 Francis X. pp. 1998. Tim Murphy. pp. Dublin: Thomson Round Hall. Irish Political Studies 15 (2000). A Judgment too Far? Judicial activism and the constitution (Cork: Cork University Press. Chapter by Gerard Hogan. Eilís Ward and Rick Wilford (eds). On the history of constitutional referendums up to 1995 Richard Sinnott. The Constitution of Ireland 1937–87 (Dublin. “Judicial activism—too much of a good thing”. 10 – the whole booklet is only 100 pages long Alpha Connelly. Brian Farrell (ed). 4. Political Studies 40:1 (1992). 1937– 97: Collected Essays. 1996). 2004) John Baker and Richard Sinnott. 1991). chs 7– 10 on the 1919 and 1922 constitutions. 86– 105 in Michael Gallagher and Pier Vincenzo Uleri (eds). 104–23. 1997. 2008. 1782–1992 (Blackrock: Irish Academic Press. pp. 2001). Ireland’s Evolving Constitution. 121–33. “Women and the constitution of Ireland”. Dolores Dooley. “Gendered citizenship in the Irish constitution”. 5 (assessment of CRG Report) Basil Chubb. 163–81. pp. ‘Future directions for the constitution’. pp. “Simulating multi-option referendums in Ireland: neutrality and abortion”. David Gwynn Morgan. 15 (assessment) Frank Litton (ed). 11 (development). 327–46. Constituting Identity: political identity formation and the constitution in post-independence Ireland (Dartmouth: Ashgate. 1994). The Irish Constitution: Governance and Values. Maurice Manning and Richard Sinnott (eds). Contesting Politics: women in Ireland. 160–77 in Tom Garvin. 2001). esp chs 6. chapter on “Ireland”. pp. esp chs 1. If you feel the need for a postmodern perspective on the constitution. “Ireland: the referendum as a conservative device?”. 1996. Kathleen Lynch and Alpha Connelly. Semi-Presidentialism in Europe (Oxford: Oxford University Press. Beytagh. on “Constitutional interpretation” asks just how judges interpret the constitution Patrick Hanafin. the courts and representative democracy in Ireland”. this is it On referendums: Gretchen Macmillan. The Irish Constitutional Tradition: responsible government and modern Ireland. 18–37 in Yvonne Galligan. pp. pp. Esp chapters by Ivana Bacik. Rory O’Connell. Robert Elgie (ed. ‘Government and the courts’. 2012) David Gwynn Morgan. 586–91 in CRG Report. “Equality before the law”. Sweet and Maxwell.

2 53.8 60.3 53.92 25.6 40.9 62. 6.04 12.11 31. 5.3 56.02 11.8 37. see Appendix 2h in PRI5. 6. 9.8 16.10.97 22.2 39. 6.2 46. 5.9 65.6 22.5 60.6 62.8 52.3 74.6 33.01 7.12 autumn 12 Proposal Approve Bunreacht na hÉireann Abolish STV electoral system—replace by SMP Abolish STV electoral system—replace by SMP Allow over-representation of rural voters Permit membership of EC Lower voting age from 21 to 18 Remove “special position” of RC church Legalise contested adoptions (technical change) Permit reorganisation of graduate repn in Seanad Insert “pro-life” (anti-abortion) amendment Allow votes for non-citizens Allow legalisation of divorce Ratify Single European Act Permit ratification of Maastricht Treaty Restrict availability of abortion Affirm freedom to travel (abortion-related) Affirm freedom of information ( ” ) Allow legalisation of divorce Greater judicial power to refuse bail Regulate confidentiality of cabinet discussions Permit ratification of Amsterdam Treaty Approve Northern Ireland Agreement Recognise existence of local govt Permit ratification of Nice Treaty (first time) Permit ratification of Internatln Criminal Court Delete references to death penalty Restrict availability of abortion Permit ratification of Nice Treaty (second time) Remove automatic right to Irish citizenship upon birth in Ireland Permit ratification of Lisbon Treaty (first time) Permit ratification of Lisbon Treaty (second time) Permit reduction in judges’ salaries Extend powers of Oireachtas committees Permit ratification of EU fiscal compact Add specific children’s rights Yes % 56.5 48.4 38.11.1 34.10. 3.1 24.3 42.5 69.1 49. 7.12.01 6.3 48.4 77.87 18.9 35.9 15.1 64. 5.1 49.72 7.2 39.83 14.72 7. 6.0 55.10.6 67.3 59.79 5. 6.5 50.2 62.9 79.9 57.7 Turnout 68.11. 6.72 5.02 19. 6. 5.1 20.01 7.PO3630 Irish Politics 2012–13 10 Constitutional referendums 1937–2012 Date 1. 5.98 11.10.09 27.6 62.0 55.68 10.8 53.9 27.4 99.9 57. 6.7 49.1 79.4 59.2 34.3 64.9 75.6 61.7 60. 6.4 37.86 26.84 26. For fuller details.4 15.08 2.37 17.9 52.10.2 47.10.1 44.6 1. 7.2 83.5 30.9 27.7 25.98 22.9 69.9 50.12.92 24.4 32.92 25.5 51.3 34.68 16.0 92.10.96 30.1 84.8 60.7 46.2 62.4 37.9 65.79 7.95 28. .3 39.59 16.3 5.4 66.7 54.4 53.1 30.6 84.2 34.4 Note: Turnout is measured as valid votes as a percentage of electorate.0 7. 7.5 43.0 47.4 45.8 54.3 No % 43.11.11. 6.1 62.9 50.99 7.92 25.8 46.6 47.0 29.9 20.6 63.4 36.11.9 70.11 27.7 94.3 65.

Richard Sinnott. then a leap in 2011 Labour: 1922–60 mainly rural support. The significance of the Treaty split. pp. others 4. 171–81. 1966– the east–west gradient again. 5th ed (Abingdon: Routledge and PSAI Press. FF: 1922–40 the east–west gradient. 2011) spells out how dramatically different the result of the 2011 election was from any of its predecessors Peter Mair and Michael Marsh. On-line noticeboard See also the Irish National Election Study site at www. 2008). Conclusion Useful general reading: John Coakley and Michael Gallagher (eds). 1. Voting at the 2011 election 6. are unique. left-wing. The immediate origins of the party system 1916– . London: Sage. Explains what the parties’ names mean and how they came about. has Irish politics been “politics without social bases”? From which social groups has each of the parties drawn most support? Do the parties have positive or negative images? 3. Politics in the Republic of Ireland. 1933–48 the years of decline. FG: 1922–33 Cumann na nGaedheal.PO3630 Irish Politics 2012–13 11 DEPARTMENT OF POLITICS 2012–13 IRISH POLITICS Topic 3: Irish electoral behaviour It’s often asserted that Irish voting behaviour. 1977– unprecedented growth followed by decline. The parties since 1922. Müller and Fritz Plasser (eds). and the consequent party system. 1940–66 uniform support across the country. John Coakley. and that the main political parties are difficult to categorise in a comparative context.tcd. How Ireland Voted 2011: the full story of Ireland’s earthquake election (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. ‘Political parties in electoral markets in postwar Ireland’. The Irish Voter (Manchester UP. Voting behaviour. analysis of the first-ever survey data on an Irish election. 5 (Weeks). Études Irlandaises 5 (1980) pp. 234–63 in Peter Mair. “The significance of names: the evolution of Irish party labels”. Wolfgang C. 1960– joining the mainstream of European social democracy Other parties: agricultural. candidate factors. urban / rural). 2004. 2. 2010). Political Parties and Electoral Change: party responses to electoral markets. 6 (Marsh) Michael Marsh. 5. issues (but how much impact do they have on vote?). John Garry and Fiachra Kennedy. Determinants of voting behaviour: other socio-demographic variables besides class (age. militant republicanism. chs 1 (Coakley). that of 2002 Michael Gallagher and Michael Marsh (eds). 1948–77 a recovery. This topic and that on the party system consider the origins and development of the party system and speculate on its future.

esp chs 1 and Conclusion Stephen Collins. or anyone but FF?’. Michael Marsh. Eilís Ward and Rick Wilford (eds). pp. 2011). Kenneth McKenzie. ‘Candidates or parties? Objects of electoral choice in Ireland’. pp. Days of Blue Loyalty: the politics of membership of the Fine Gael party (Dublin: PSAI Press. 1995). 1999). Electoral Studies 25:3 (2006). ch 7 in Michael Gallagher and Michael Marsh (eds). esp pp. The Power Game: Fianna Fáil since Lemass (Dublin: O’Brien Press. 245–67. 240–68 in Yvonne Galligan. addresses question of why the left is weak John Coakley. Fianna Fáil and Irish Labour: 1926 to the present (London: Pluto. Michael Marsh. On particular parties: Noel Whelan. pp. The Irish Labour Party 1922–73. in British Elections and Parties Review 14 (2004). 489–508. pp. 2007. 181–98 on class and voting. Richard Sinnott. pp. Analyses the opinion poll evidence on voting behaviour at 2011 general election. 1922–1989’. north and south (Boulder. ‘Minor parties in Irish political life. ‘Irish voting patterns: dealignment or realignment?’. 500–27. ‘None of that post-modern stuff around here: grassroots campaigning in the 2002 Irish general election’. 2007) Freda Donoghue and Paula Devine. 2011) Richard Dunphy. Recycling the State: the politics of adaptation in Ireland (Dublin: Irish Academic Press. ‘A positive choice. 2000). CO: Westview and PSAI Press. Irish Voters Decide: voting behaviour in elections and referendums since 1918 (Manchester: Manchester UP. Dublin: UCD Press. 180–200 in Katy Hayward and Muiris MacCarthaigh (eds). ‘Party identification in Ireland: an insecure anchor for a floating party system’. 1995). Party Politics 13:4 (2007). 8 (how members see their party’s role in the Irish party system) Niamh Puirséil. Economic and Social Review 21:3 (1990). Past versions of the How Ireland Voted series are also useful. Kieran Allen. . Straightforward historical account by political correspondent Michael Gallagher and Michael Marsh. The Making of Fianna Fáil Power in Ireland 1923–48 (Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 269–97. Written from a SWP perspective – in seeking to explain why FF is strong. 2002). chs 2 (history of FG). Michael Marsh. Contesting Politics: women in Ireland. “Is there a gender gap in political attitudes in Ireland?”. 1997). Fianna Fáil: a biography of the party (Dublin: Gill and Macmillan. How Ireland Voted 2011 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.PO3630 Irish Politics 2012–13 12 On voting behaviour: Michael Marsh and Kevin Cunningham. intro and conclusion.

Clann na Poblachta. Labour 1994* Fine Gael. Cosgrave William T. President of the Executive Council) William T. Cosgrave Éamon de Valera Éamon de Valera Éamon de Valera Éamon de Valera Éamon de Valera Éamon de Valera John A. Clann na Talmhan 1957 Fianna Fáil 1961 Fianna Fáil 1965 Fianna Fáil 1969 Fianna Fáil 1973 Fine Gael. election results and party leaders can be found in the Appendices to Politics in the Republic of Ireland. National Labour. Cosgrave William T. More details of governments. Haughey (Albert Reynolds from 1992) – both FF Albert Reynolds (FF) John Bruton (FG) Bertie Ahern (FF) Bertie Ahern (FF) Bertie Ahern (Brian Cowen from May 2008) – both FF Enda Kenny (FG) * The 1994 government is the only change of government ever to take place without an election. Green Party. Progressive Democrats 1992 Fianna Fáil. Democratic Left 1997 Fianna Fáil. Labour Taoiseach (before 1937. Costello (FG) Éamon de Valera (Seán Lemass from 1959) Seán Lemass Seán Lemass (Jack Lynch from 1966) Jack Lynch Liam Cosgrave (FG) Jack Lynch (Charles Haughey from 1979) Garret FitzGerald (FG) Charles J. . Labour. Clann na Talmhan. Labour 1977 Fianna Fáil 1981 Fine Gael.PO3630 Irish Politics 2012–13 13 IRISH POLITICS Governments in Ireland 1922–2012 Election Party(-ies) forming government 1922 1923 1927(J) 1927(S) 1932 1933 1937 1938 1943 1944 1948 Cumann na nGaedheal Cumann na nGaedheal Cumann na nGaedheal Cumann na nGaedheal Fianna Fáil Fianna Fáil Fianna Fáil Fianna Fáil Fianna Fáil Fianna Fáil Fine Gael. Labour. Progressive Democrats 2011 Fine Gael. Labour 1987 Fianna Fáil 1989 Fianna Fáil. Haughey Charles J. Haughey Garret FitzGerald (FG) Charles J. Progressive Democrats 2002 Fianna Fáil. Independents 1951 Fianna Fáil 1954 Fine Gael. Cosgrave William T. Labour 1982(F) Fianna Fáil 1982(N) Fine Gael. Labour. Progressive Democrats 2007 Fianna Fáil. Costello (FG) Éamon de Valera John A.

Garry et al. 5th edition (Abingdon: Routledge and PSAI Press. Fiona Buckley and Claire McGing. Diarmaid Ferriter. . There are more details in Appendix 2i in PRI5. 35% of middleclass respondents stated that they had voted for Fianna Fáil. 311. from Appendix C in Marsh and Mitchell (eds).3. Éire-Ireland 43:1 (2008). Politics in the Republic of Ireland. 222–39 in Michael Gallagher and Michael Marsh (eds). 179–204. 2007 and 2011 general elections All 1997 2002 2007 2011 Middle class 1997 2002 2007 2011 Working class 1997 2002 2007 2011 Farmers 1997 2002 2007 2011 1997: 2002: 2007: 2011: FF 41 42 42 16 35 39 39 14 41 44 43 16 48 48 44 23 FG 26 21 26 36 28 21 26 38 21 19 22 30 39 37 44 53 Lab 11 12 10 21 12 14 12 23 14 12 9 22 4 4 5 5 Grn 3 5 5 2 5 7 7 3 4 3 3 2 0 2 0 7 SF PDs Oths 3 7 7 11 1 4 5 8 5 10 11 16 1 2 3 1 5 4 3 — 8 6 3 — 3 2 2 — 4 0 1 — 9 10 8 14 9 9 8 15 10 10 9 15 4 7 2 11 RTE / Lansdowne exit poll. 115 Marsh and Cunningham in How Ireland Voted 2011. pp. Table 7. 1997. p. in How Ireland Voted 2002. ‘Women and political change in Ireland since 1960’. Aili Mari Tripp and Alice Kang. ‘The global impact of quotas: on the fast track to increased female legislative representation’. and women: a comparative analysis’. ____________ On the under-representation of women (class discussion topic 2. Democratization 14:4 (2007) 533–53 Drude Dahlerup. 1999). ‘Women and the election’. How Ireland Voted 1997 (Boulder CO: Westview and PSAI Press.PO3630 Irish Politics 2012–13 14 Support for parties by class. 5 above).4. All figures are percentages. 2002. the “35” under FF for middle class support in 1997 means that in the exit poll carried out on election day. ch 9 (Yvonne Galligan). Thus. p. Table 8. Representation 43:2 (2007). for example. see in particular: John Coakley and Michael Gallagher (eds). 182 These sources contain further discussion of the relationship between class and voting. Comparative Political Studies 41:3 (2008) 338–61 Manon Tremblay. p. 131 Marsh in How Ireland Voted 2007. p. 2010). 73–92. ‘Electoral gender quotas: between equality of opportunity and equality of result’. p. ‘Democracy. pp. How Ireland Voted 2011 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 2011). representation.

Whelan (eds). 2002) On explanations for the nature and evolution of the party system: Richard Sinnott. pp. Takes a long-term view Tom Garvin. Labour too centrist). weak class divisions). 47–67 in Michael Gallagher and Michael Marsh (eds). Farrell.PO3630 Irish Politics 2012–13 15 Topic 4: The parties and the party system Having looked. what chance of a new radical right party? Useful general reading: John Coakley and Michael Gallagher (eds). Power within parties John Coakley. Whyte: the Lipset–Rokkan framework helps but only by its non-applicability. On the continued ghostly existence of 19C parties R. T. constituency organisation. 359–81 in J. political explanations (nationalism. “The freezing hypothesis: an evaluation”. pp. In what ways does the Irish party system differ from Western European party systems generally? 2. Which of these is most convincing? Other factors: “the autonomy of the political”. 383–410 in J. Irish Political Studies 17:1 (2002). ‘Candidate selection’. the role of the branch. Party organisation. David M. On-line noticeboard Peter Mair. 1–6. Are Irish parties really different? 3. pp. 4. election of the leader. 5th ed (Abingdon: Routledge and PSAI Press. chs. H. Whelan (eds). Farrell and Ian Holliday (eds). is the Irish electorate becoming more volatile. How Ireland Voted 2011 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 198– 216 in Daniele Albertazzi and Duncan McDonnell (eds). West European Politics 31:5 (2008). Explanations for the nature of the Irish party system. The Irish party system in comparative perspective. head office. Labour mistakes. Party and Parish Pump (Waterloo. national executive. 1. General but with many references to Irish experience . The Development of Industrial Society in Ireland (Oxford. Sinnott: the Lipset–Rokkan framework does apply and contains the key to the puzzle. 1981). 143–7. Goldthorpe and C. Party Systems and Voter Alignments Revisited (London: Routledge. 217–47 in Paul Webb. on the impact of the 1921–23 period on the post-independence party system Theresa Reidy. at the development of the party system since independence and the patterns of voting behaviour. “Interpretations of the Irish party system”. why? Societal explanations (strength of agriculture. Garvin: its roots go back to 19C. 2011). 4–28. T. 27–44 in Lauri Karvonen and Stein Kuhnle (eds). Carty: the elite created it from the top down. ‘Party politics in Ireland: regularising a volatile system’. 960–77. 1–2. Ken Carty. RC church. ‘Why is there no radical right party in Ireland?’. Power within the party: candidate selection. Comparative Politics 11:4 (1979) pp. 445–65 Peter Mair. 289–307 (reviews other approaches). party leader. pp. 10 and 12. The Development of Industrial Society in Ireland (Oxford. European Journal of Political Research 12:3 (1984). parliamentary party. The Evolution of Irish Nationalist Politics (Dublin. and look for explanations for the distinctive nature of the Irish party system. 2005). esp ch 9. Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies (Oxford: Oxford University Press. The absence of ideological debate. Weakness of the left. 2001). pp. 1992)— on explanations for the weakness of the left Michael Laver. 2010). Peter Mair. This topic also looks at party organisation and considers the future prospects for the Irish party system. “The Republic of Ireland: the dog that hasn’t barked in the night?’. Twenty-first Century Populism: the spectre of western European democracy (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. The Politics of the Irish Civil War (Oxford: Oxford UP. Goldthorpe and C. chs. “Explaining the absence of class politics in Ireland”. 1981) pp. annual conference. 2008) Bill Kissane. Politics in the Republic of Ireland. in this topic we ask in what ways the Irish party system is supposedly “different”. in Topic 3 on electoral behaviour. 1992) Eoin O’Malley. Duncan McDonnell. “The autonomy of the political”. Future prospects of Irish party system. pp. ch 5 (Weeks on party system development and on organisation) Ronan Murphy and David M. pp. 4–5. H. ‘Religion. national identity and political change in modern Ireland’. pp. “Are Irish parties peculiar?”.

The political impact of the electoral system (i) accuracy of representation. open and closed (v) Mixed (two-tier) systems (vi) the options reviewed—impact on brokerage Reading: John Coakley and Michael Gallagher (eds). plus pp. the reasons why perfect proportionality is not attained. Is there a need for a new electoral system? What options are there? (i) desirable amendments to STV (ii) British SMP system (iii) Alternative vote (iv) List systems. esp parliamentary parties (v) nature of TDs elected: the impact on political style. Is STV really the cause of brokerage? (vi) election of independent TDs 3. 593–6 of the book . how accurate is the anti-PR argument? (iii) opportunities for participation by the electorate (iv) cohesion of parties. talent suppression. ‘Ireland: the discreet charm of PR-STV’. The single transferable vote (i) principles of STV and how it works (ii) origins of STV (iii) constitutional provisions (iv) referendums (v) some theoretical considerations: monotonicity 2. Politics in the Republic of Ireland. Gallagher. 2008). and why the large parties benefit: (a) the impact of small constituency size. Includes a blow-by-blow description of exactly how STV works. pp. together with an assessment of its political impact. 511–32 in Michael Gallagher and Paul Mitchell (eds). ch 4 by Richard Sinnott. revised edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press. Worth reading before the lecture M. (ii) stability of governments. 5th ed (Abingdon: Routledge and PSAI Press. 2010). (b) the impact of transfers on the votes:seats relationship.PO3630 Irish Politics 2012–13 16 DEPARTMENT OF POLITICS 2012–13 IRISH POLITICS Topic 5: The electoral system 1. The Politics of Electoral Systems.

asp?fn=/documents/Committees30thDail/JConstitution/Report_2008/document1. Representative Government in Modern Europe. not the online version Oireachtas Joint Committee on the Constitution. The Best is Yet to Come (Dublin: Blackhall. Downloadable from http://www. Assesses the likely impact of a German-type mixed electoral system in Ireland David M. 2011. 2007). Assesses the options. 26 July 1999. Elections in Australia. pp. pp. 2000). 2011). Garret FitzGerald.htm R. 2010). Party and Parish Pump. 499–520 (Gallagher). is bad for Ireland Garret FitzGerald. pp. On-line noticeboard Michael Gallagher. 51–64. Ireland. Michael Gallagher. “Does Ireland need a new electoral system?”. 1998. A New Electoral System for Ireland? Dublin: Policy Institute. Electoral Systems: a comparative introduction. 1996). A short book giving straightforward accounts of all the main varieties of electoral system. 33–180 to see their thinking on the subject. On-line noticeboard . Basingstoke: Palgrave. ‘Why a reformed PR system deserves our vote’. Fourth Report: Review of the Electoral System for the Election of Members to Dáil Éireann (Dublin. Ken Carty. 2003). Farrell. What If? (Dublin: Gill and Macmillan. 27–48. Look through pp. 16 February 2008. ‘System turns TDs into messenger boys’.oireachtas. and PR-STV in particular. and Malta under the Single Transferable Vote: reflections on an embedded institution (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 122–7 on why PR in general. Irish Political Studies 2 (1987). 483–91 (Laver).ie/viewdoc. ch 6 on the negative effects he argues are brought about by intra-party electoral competition On alternative systems: Diarmaid Ferriter. Report (Dublin: Stationery Office. ch 6 (intra-party competition. the last three of these are available only in the hard copy version. Reflections on the Irish State (Dublin: Irish Academic Press. Michael Laver and Peter Mair.PO3630 Irish Politics 2012–13 17 Assessments of its political impact: Constitution Review Group. ‘TDs have not thought out results of changing PR system’. talent suppression) Shaun Bowler and Bernard Grofman (eds). 2nd ed. 6 and 7 examine various aspects of STV in Ireland Marc Coleman. Chs 5. 2006). 2 July 1998. 5th ed (London. gives an overview of the range of electoral systems on offer in western Europe Articles in Irish Times by Michael Laver. Noel Dempsey. ch 6 is on STV. ch 16 on what if in the 1959 referendum the people had voted to replace PR-STV by the SMP system Michael Laver. ch 11. 492–8 (Lynch).

5 voters give their first preference to C. Creed and Moynihan are elected. 145–6. pp.343 +1292 +1087 + 566 -3796 + 564 + 287 8.404 33. Now B finishes bottom and is eliminated.349 8.355 + 24 7. This shows that STV does not guarantee that non-monotonicity cannot occur—though how often it does or is likely to occur in practice is another matter. and hence it’s a very desirable property for an electoral system to possess. he loses the election.404 Seats: 3 33404 8. As a demonstration that non-monotonicity is possible under STV. so the quota is 9. their second to C and their third to A. to which 1 is added] (3 + 1) Second stage: Third stage: Transfer of Transfer of First O’Riordan’s Crowley’s € preferences votes surplus ______________________________________________________________ Creed.352 [because = 8. Thus extra support has been damaging to candidate A—he would have fared better without the extra 2 votes. and A is elected as he receives all 5 votes transferred from C. February 1987 general election Valid votes: Quota: 33.352 + 12 8. One possible example occurred in Limerick East in the 1997 election – see How Ireland Voted 1997. ************************************************************* STV is criticised by social choice theorists because it does not absolutely rule out the possibility of non-monotonicity.931 + 0 287 Total 33. their second to B and their third to C. As a result of A’s acquisition of extra support.404 ______________________________________________________________ Crowley. Frank (Fine Gael) Moynihan. In case 1: 6 voters give their first preference to A. Monotonicity is the property that extra support cannot possibly work to a candidate’s detriment.PO3630 Irish Politics 2012–13 18 STV in operation: Cork North-West constituency. and C will be elected as she receives all 4 votes transferred from B. . C is eliminated.796 7. 6 voters give their first preference to B. Donal (Fianna Fáil) O’Riordan. each involving 17 voters and 1 seat.479 -166 8.907 287 +130 8.057 7. Donal (Fine Gael) Crowley.351.404 33. consider two cases.343 7. Seán (PDs) Roche.518 8. their second to A and their third to B. Case 2 is the same as case 1.431 7. except that two voters switch from B to A (so A has 8 first preferences and B has 4). Jack (Fianna Fáil) Non-transferable 7.777 3.

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