US GOVERNMENT – CULTURALLY RELEVANT MEXICAN AMERICAN VIEWPOINT: GRADE 12

CURRICULUM NOT ADOPTED

Course Description: This one semester course is designed to provide students with a practical knowledge and critical understanding of the American government and its direct connection to them. Students will be able to apply knowledge of the US Constitution and demonstrate their understanding of how the American system of government functions as well as how it impacts individual citizens. This course encourages students to view themselves as holders and creators of knowledge. It emphasizes and nurtures an appreciation for diversity. Students are presented with opportunity to examine and critique the progressive elements and the inequities embedded in the United States’ structures and systems. Lastly, students will research an issue that exist in their community, and they will recommend potential remedies to this problem. The nine enduring understandings in this curriculum are intended to raise the students’ critical consciousness about governmental policies and law and how they have been shaped by the traditional perspectives, philosophies, and practices. They challenge students to examine and pursue the actions that promote policies and laws that advance social equity all for people (Ukpokodu, 2003).i

TUCSON UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT

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US GOVERNMENT – CULTURALLY RELEVANT MEXICAN AMERICAN VIEWPOINT: GRADE 12

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1.

Introduction to Critical Praxis: Knowledge and action for societal transformation

Enduring Understanding: The history of the United States has been constructed by its laws and policies. As students examine these laws and policies it is important that they develop a praxis based methodologyii by which to critically evaluate and construct meaning. State Standards: Concept 1: Foundations of Government: The United States democracy is based on principles and ideals that are embodied by symbols, people, and documents. PO 1. Examine the foundations of democratic representative government: a. Greek direct democracy b. Roman republic PO 3. Describe the philosophical roots of American Democracy: a. moral and ethical ideals from Judeo-Christian tradition b. John Locke and social contract 3: Functions of Government Laws and policies are developed to govern, protect, and promote the wellbeing of the people. Explanation and Examples: Students will write an essay constructing meaning for the world around them by developing a critical lens. Students will examine and apply critical praxis as the students’ primary method of analysis, evaluation and the construction of new ideas and thoughts. Students will critically analyze and evaluate the concepts a democracy vs. a republic. Students will construct an argument articulating which form of government best meets the needs of Mexican Americans and America’s historically underserved populations. Common Core: 11-12.RH.6. Evaluate authors’ differing points of view on the same historical event or issue by assessing the authors’ claims, reasoning, and evidence. 11-12.RH.8. Evaluate an author’s premises, claims, and evidence by corroborating or challenging them with other information. 11-12.WHST.1Write arguments focused on disciplinespecific content. a. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.

Students will evaluate Locke's Social Contract theory, and write an analysis regarding its historical, presentday and futuristic implications for Mexican Americans and other historically underserved populations, such as women, LGBT, etc.

2.

Declaration of Independence

Enduring Understanding: TUCSON UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT 2|Page

US GOVERNMENT – CULTURALLY RELEVANT MEXICAN AMERICAN VIEWPOINT: GRADE 12

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The Declaration of Independence is one of the United States’ paramount documents. It establishes the understanding that our government exists for the benefit of its people, and it clearly articulates the notion that “all men are created equal.” Not only did the authors proclaim their freedom, but they named the acts of tyranny that led to this declaration. State Standards: Concept 1: Foundations of Government: The United States democracy is based on principles and ideals that are embodied by symbols, people, and documents. PO 3. Describe the philosophical roots of American Democracy: a. moral and ethical ideals from Judeo-Christian tradition b. John Locke and social contract PO 4. Examine the fundamental principles (e.g., equality, natural rights of man, rule of law) in the Declaration of Independence. Explanation and Examples: Students will create a position paper and debate their understanding of governmental policies and law and how they have been shaped by the traditional perspectives, philosophies, and practices Students will critically examine the Declaration of Independence, analyzing, evaluating, and constructing meaning through reading, writing, illustrations, and dramatization. Students will analyze the philosophical roots of the Declaration of Independence with a focus on the protection (or lack thereof) of individual rights. Students will analyze certain paramount legal decisions, such as Article 27 of the Constitution that have impacted the lives of historically underserved populations (e.g. Johnson v. McIntosh; Cherokee Nation v. Georgia; the 19th Amendment, Hernandez v. Texas; Three-Fifths Compromise). Students will evaluate the impact of these legal doctrines on Mexican Americans and other historically underserved groups. Common Core: 11-12.RH.2. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas. 11-12.RH.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including analyzing how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term over the course of a text. 11-12.RH.6. Evaluate authors’ differing points of view on the same historical event or issue by assessing the authors’ claims, reasoning, and evidence. 11-12.RH.8. Evaluate an author’s premises, claims, and evidence by corroborating or challenging them with other information. 11-12.WHST.4 . Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. 11-12.WHST.1Write arguments focused on disciplinespecific content. a. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

3.

US Constitution 3|Page

TUCSON UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT

US GOVERNMENT – CULTURALLY RELEVANT MEXICAN AMERICAN VIEWPOINT: GRADE 12

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Enduring Understanding: The United States Constitution is one of the most significant documents in United States and world history. It has helped establish the foundation of the United States by outlining all of our rights as citizens, protecting us from each other and most importantly from the government. The Constitution maintains its relevance because of its ability to remain a living document that has the capacity to embody the present-day conditions regardless of the era or the time. State Standards: Concept 2: Structure of Government The United States structure of government is characterized by the separation and balance of powers. PO 2. Analyze the creation of United States Constitution: Concept 3: Functions of Government Laws and policies are developed to govern, protect, and promote the wellbeing of the people. PO 2. Examine how the Constitution guarantees due process of law through Constitutional mandates and Amendments.
a. Constitutional mandates (e.g., the

Explanation and Examples: Students will study, label and evaluate the four key components of the U.S. Constitution: The Preamble, The Articles, the Bill of Rights, and the Amendments. Students evaluate and interpret the purposes of government as articulated within the Preamble of the U.S. Constitution.

Common Core: 11-12.RH.2. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas. 11-12.RH.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including analyzing how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term over the course of a text. 11-12.RH.5. Analyze in detail how a complex primary source is structured, including how key sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text contribute to the whole. 11-12.RH.6. Evaluate authors’ differing points of view on the same historical event or issue by assessing the authors’ claims, reasoning, and evidence. 11-12.RH.8. Evaluate an author’s premises, claims, and evidence by corroborating or challenging them with other information. 11-12.WHST.4 . Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. 11-12.WHST.1Write arguments focused on disciplinespecific content.

Students will assess and evaluate the level of Preamble realization that has been experienced by their families, by their peers, their community and themselves as well as by Mexican Americans and America’s other historically underserved groups. Students will create a plan to ensure greater realization of the Preamble’s tenets for those who have been historically excluded. Students will create a legal brief articulating the history of, the legal precedent(s) established in, and the modern and future implications of Marbury v. Madison.

right of habeas corpus, no bill of attainder, and the prohibition of ex post facto laws) Concept 4: Rights, Responsibilities, and Roles of Citizenship The rights, responsibilities and practices of United States citizenship are founded in

Students will analyze and evaluate how the different articles of the U.S. Constitution and the different Amendments to the U.S. Constitution have historically and presently impacted the lives of Mexican Americans and historically underserved groups.

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the Constitution and the nation’s history. PO 1. Analyze basic individual rights and freedoms guaranteed by Amendments and laws: c. Ninth Amendment and guarantee of people’s unspecified rights d. civil rights in the Thirteenth, and Fourteenth Amendments PO 3. Examine the basic political, social responsibilities of citizenship: a. connections between self-interest, the common good, and the essential element of civic virtue (e.g., George Washington’s Farewell Speech), volunteerism b. obligations of upholding the Constitution PO 4. Demonstrate the skills and knowledge (e.g., group problem solving, public speaking, petitioning and protesting) needed to accomplish public purposes Students will examine the Great Law of Peace. Students will create and defend a position regarding the influence of the Iroquois on the Founding Father's framing of the U. S. Constitution. Students will evaluate and explain the historical, present-day and future importance of the Bill of Rights and the Amendments from the perspective of those who have been historically underserved. .

a. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.

e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented. 11-12.WHST.4 . Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. 11-12.WHST.8. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.

4. Separation of Powers Enduring Understanding: The role of the U.S. government is to protect individual rights. It is critical that we acknowledge that our government has historically championed individual rights and at other times has been a major violator of these rights. A number of Checks and Balances have been implemented to further protect individual rights. TUCSON UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT 5|Page

US GOVERNMENT – CULTURALLY RELEVANT MEXICAN AMERICAN VIEWPOINT: GRADE 12

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State Standards: Concept 2: Structure of Government The United States structure of government is characterized by the separation and balance of powers. PO 3. Examine the United States federal system of government: a. powers of the national government b. powers of the state governments c. powers of the people PO 5. Analyze the structure, powers, and roles of the legislative branch of the United States government: a. specific powers delegated in Article I of the Constitution b. role of competing factions and development of political parties d. different roles of Senate and House e. election process and types of representation State Standards: PO 6. Analyze the structure, powers, and roles of the executive branch of the United States government: a. specific powers delegated in Article II of the Constitution PO 7. Analyze the structure, powers, and roles of the judicial branch of the United States TUCSON UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT

Explanation and Examples: Students will define, illustrate and differentiate the key functions and various powers of the three branches of the U.S. Government as articulated within the U.S. Constitution. Students will examine historical and contemporary legal disputes over Constitutional powers that were decided by the Supreme Court. They will examine the role of tension and conflict in a shared powers system, and they will evaluate the key elements that are required to make the Constitution operational. Students will formulate a position articulating the historical and present-day impact of the separation of powers on the lives of Mexican Americans and historically underserved populations in the United States. Students will debate whether the separation of powers is merely idealistic or a realistically effective construct. Given the current social and political climate, students will design a plan that promotes greater social and political justice today and in the future through the separations of power doctrine.

Common Core: 11-12.RH.2. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas. 11-12.RH.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including analyzing how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term over the course of a text. 11-12.RH.6. Evaluate authors’ differing points of view on the same historical event or issue by assessing the authors’ claims, reasoning, and evidence. 11-12.WHST.1Write arguments focused on disciplinespecific content.

a. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases. e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented. 6|Page

US GOVERNMENT – CULTURALLY RELEVANT MEXICAN AMERICAN VIEWPOINT: GRADE 12

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government, including landmark United States Supreme Court decisions: a. specific powers delegated by the Constitution in Article III Concept 3: Functions of Government Laws and policies are developed to govern, protect, and promote the well-being of the people. PO 2. Examine how the Constitution guarantees due process of law through Constitutional mandates and Amendments

11-12.WHST.4 . Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. 11-12.WHST.8. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation

5. Supreme Court Enduring Understanding: The influences of the United States Supreme Court and the lower federal courts or Article III courts have helped establish the legal, political, economical, social and racial trajectory of the United States. The Court and its lower courts at times have been world examples of equality and justice, and other times they have perpetuated inequality and injustice. State Standards: Concept 2: Structure of Government The United States structure of government is characterized by the separation and balance of powers. PO 4. Describe the steps leading to the adoption of the Constitution: a. Bill of Rights PO 7. Analyze the structure, powers, and roles of the judicial branch of the United States government, including landmark United States Supreme Court decisions: TUCSON UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT Explanation and Examples: Students will create a legal brief articulating the history of the legal precedent established by Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland, and Gibbons v. Ogden. Students will discuss current and future implications of these cases. Students will analyze and evaluate the different articles of the U.S. Constitution and its amendments. Students will then develop a rationale wherein they establish a hierarchy for the articles and amendments. The hierarchy should start with Common Core: 11-12.RH.2. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas. 11-12.RH.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including analyzing how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term over the course of a text. 11-12.RH.5. Analyze in detail how a complex primary source is structured, including how key sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text contribute to the whole. 7|Page

US GOVERNMENT – CULTURALLY RELEVANT MEXICAN AMERICAN VIEWPOINT: GRADE 12

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a. specific powers delegated by the Constitution in Article III b. judicial review developed in Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland, and Gibbons v. Ogden c. dual court system of state and federal courts Concept 3: Functions of Government Laws and policies are developed to govern, protect, and promote the well-being of the people. Standards: Concept 3: Functions of Government PO 2. Examine how the Constitution guarantees due process of law through Constitutional mandates and Amendments. b. Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Amendments c. protections provided by the Fourteenth Amendment Concept 4: Rights, Responsibilities, and Roles of Citizenship The rights, responsibilities and practices of United States citizenship are founded in the Constitution and the nation’s history. Standards: PO 1. Analyze basic individual rights and freedoms guaranteed by Amendments and laws:

articles or amendments of greatest importance. Students will draft an argument for each of their decisions.

11-12.RH.6. Evaluate authors’ differing points of view on the same historical event or issue by assessing the authors’ claims, reasoning, and evidence.

Given the notion that the Framers wanted to 11-12.WHST.1Write arguments focused on disciplinecreate a document that benefitted the people, specific content. students will analyze and evaluate how each of the amendments has impacted the lives of Mexican Americans. Students will analyze how at this time the Framers defined “the people,” and how this impacted the lives of those outside this definition. Explanation and Examples: Students will compare, contrast and articulate the similarities and differences that exist within the U.S. Bill of Rights and Amendments and their augmented Bill of Rights and Amendments. Students will develop an argument explaining how their augmentations facilitate greater levels of economic, political, racial, gender, and social justice for all Americans, particularly Mexican Americans and those who have been historically underserved in the United States. Given the history of the Supreme Court and its lower courts, students will construct a case that illuminates the essence of Law v. Justice, and how this understanding has either hindered or promoted the economic, political and social advancement of the historically underserved in the United States. Through the lens created by the case above students will appraise the historic and present-day 8|Page

TUCSON UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT

US GOVERNMENT – CULTURALLY RELEVANT MEXICAN AMERICAN VIEWPOINT: GRADE 12

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a. freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition in the First Amendment b. right to bear arms in the Second Amendment c. Ninth Amendment and guarantee of people’s unspecified rights d. civil rights in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments e. voting rights in the Fifteenth, Nineteenth, Twenty-third, Twenty-fourth, and Twenty-sixth Amendments; Native American citizenship 1924 and voting rights (Arizona, 1948); Voting Rights Act of 1965 press, and between majority rule and individual rights) g. right to work laws PO 2. Define citizenship according to the Fourteenth Amendment.

impact of these landmark Supreme Court decisions on Mexican Americans and the historically underserved populations in the United States Explanation and Examples: Through the same lens student will predict the future implications of the following landmark cases on Mexican Americans and the United States’ historically underserved groups: 1. Marbury v. Madison 2. McCulloch v. Maryland 3. Cherokee v. Georgia 4. Dred Scott v. Sanford 5. Plessy v. Ferguson (Holmes’ dissent) 4. Hernández vs. Texas 5. Romo v. Laird 6. Westminster v. Mendez 7. Miranda v. Arizona 8. Tinker v. Des Moines 9. Brown v. Board of Education 10. Serrano v. Priest 11. Lemon Grove Incident 12. Roe v. Wade 13. Fisher v. Mendoza 14. Hopwood v. Texas 15. Salvatierra v. ISD 16. Milliken v. Bradley 17. University of Michigan a. Gratz v. Bollinger b. Grutter v. Bollinger c. Lochner v. New York 18. Regents of the University of California v. Bakke Explanation and Examples: 9|Page a. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases. e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented. Common Core: 11-12.WHST.6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information. 11-12.RH.8. Evaluate an author’s premises, claims, and evidence by corroborating or challenging them with other information. 11-12.WHST.9. Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

Standards: PO 3. Examine the basic political, social responsibilities of citizenship: a. connections between self-interest, the common good, and the essential element of civic virtue (e.g., George Washington’s Farewell Speech), volunteerism b. obligations of upholding the Constitution PO 4. Demonstrate the skills and knowledge (e.g., group problem solving, public speaking, petitioning and protesting) needed to TUCSON UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT

US GOVERNMENT – CULTURALLY RELEVANT MEXICAN AMERICAN VIEWPOINT: GRADE 12

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accomplish public purposes. Through the analysis of amendments and Supreme Court decisions Students will map out how historically underserved groups have reshaped the U.S Constitution in a way that ensures justice for Mexican Americans and America’s historically underserved groups. Students will draft a revised Constitution, Bill of Rights, Amendments and propose new Amendments that have been augmented in order to better facilitate a greater level of economic, political, racial, gender, and social justice for Mexican Americans and those who have been historically underserved in the United States.

6. Presidency Enduring Understanding: The presidency of the United States is uniquely critical given its symbolic power as the face of the people and the head of government, its responsibility for implementing the laws that are created by the legislative branch (the Senate and House of Representatives); its role as the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces; its power to appoint the different heads of the executive departments; and its power to nominate federal judges including members of U.S. Courts of Appeals and the U.S. Supreme Court. Standards: Concept 2: Structure of Government The United States structure of government is characterized by the separation and balance of powers. PO 6. Analyze the structure, powers, and roles of the executive branch of the United States government: b. roles and duties of the president Explanation and Examples: Students will evaluate and analyze the structure, powers, and roles of the executive branch of the United States government. Students will create an analysis regarding the historic, present-day and future impact of the President of the United States on the legal, social, political, and economic trajectory of the United States. Common Core: 11-12.RH.2. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas. 11-12.RH.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including analyzing how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term over the course of a text. 11-12.WHST.1Write arguments focused on disciplineTUCSON UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT 10 | P a g e

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c. development and function of the executive branch, including the cabinet and federal bureaucracy d. election of the president through the nomination process, national conventions, and electoral college.

Students will create an analysis regarding the historic, present-day and future impact the President of the United States has on the legal, social, political, racial and economic well-being of Mexican Americans and the United States’ historically underserved populations. Students will examine, create a position paper and debate the implications that the election of the first African American president has on race relations for in the United States and the reality of a “post-racial society.”

specific content. a. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.

7. Comparative Politics Enduring Understanding: The study of comparative politics is critical because it provides students with the opportunity to understand how different types of governments work. Being more knowledgeable about other political systems will helps students better understand the strengths and weakness of the U.S. system and allow them to be more active citizens and more aware of our systems complex interactions with other nations. . Standards: Concept 5: Government Systems of the World Different governmental systems exist throughout the world. The United States influences and is influenced by global interactions. PO 1. Compare the United States system of politics and government to other systems of the world (e.g., monarchies, dictatorship, theocracy, oligarchy, parliamentary, unitary, proportional elections). Explanation and Examples: Students will analyze, evaluate and create an argument that articulates the role of the Declaration of Independence in the construction of U.S. Foreign Policy. Through this lens students will create and defend a position that argues whether U.S. foreign policy is constructed as a means of maintaining national power or as a means of enhancing the welfare of all of its citizens, or a combination of the two. Students will analyze and evaluate the historic TUCSON UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT Common Core: 11-12.RH.1. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, connecting insights gained from specific details to an understanding of the text as a whole. 11-12.RH.3. Evaluate various explanations for actions or events and determine which explanation best accords with textual evidence, acknowledging where the text leaves matters uncertain. 11-12.RH.7. Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in 11 | P a g e

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PO 2. Describe factors (e.g., trade, political tensions, sanctions, terrorism) that influence United States foreign policy. PO 3. Describe world governmental and nongovernmental organizations (e.g., the United Nations and its agencies, NATO, the European Union, the International Red Cross).

and present-day impact of U.S. Foreign Policy on the lives of the United States' Mexican Americans and the other historically underserved populations in the United States. Students will analyze and evaluate the U.S. Supreme Court precedent in United States v. Curtiss-Wright Export Corp. in order to examine the role of the U.S. President in the setting of U.S. foreign policy. Students will compare, contrast, and evaluate the different political and government systems. Students will construct an argument regarding which system ensures the greatest levels of equality and justice for all U.S citizens in general, but more specifically to its Mexican American populations.

order to address a question or solve a problem. 11-12.WHST.1Write arguments focused on disciplinespecific content. a. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases. 11-12.WHST.9. Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

8. The Injustice of Constitutional Law Enduring Understanding: Historically the U.S. Government through its legal system, including the U.S. Constitutional Law, has at times perpetuated injustice in order to establish and maintain the privileges established within the United States racial and social order. At other times it has championed the civil rights of its historically underserved populations. Standards: Concept 2: Structure of Government The United States structure of government is characterized by the separation and balance of powers PO 7. Analyze the structure, powers, and roles of the judicial branch of the United States TUCSON UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT Explanation and Examples: Students will analyze and evaluate the impact of epic U.S. Supreme Court decisions on historically underserved populations e.g. Dred Scott v. Sanford; Plessy v. Ferguson; Bradwell v. The State of Illinois; Korematsu v. United States; Roe v. Wade; Bowers v. Hardwick, 11-12.RH.1. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, connecting insights gained from specific details to an understanding of the text as a whole. 11-12.RH.2. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas.

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government, including landmark United States Supreme Court decisions: Concept 3: Functions of Government Laws and policies are developed to govern, protect, and promote the well-being of the people. PO 2. Examine how the Constitution guarantees due process of law through Constitutional mandates and Amendments.
b. Constitutional mandates (e.g., the right of

Students will create a position regarding the impact of the Declaration of Independence on the legal precedents established by the U.S. Supreme Court and how the lives of Mexican Americans and the other historically underserved in the United States have been, are and will be impacted by this view. Students will construct an argument for the U.S. Supreme Court articulating how the Declaration of Independence and the 14th Amendment should be used as fundamental lenses through which all of their decisions should be made.

11-12.WHST.1Write arguments focused on disciplinespecific content. a. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases. 11-12.WHST.4 . Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

habeas corpus, no bill of attainder, and the prohibition of ex post facto laws) c Protection provided by the Fourteenth Amendment

Concept 4: Rights, Responsibilities, and Roles of Citizenship The rights, responsibilities and practices of United States citizenship are founded in the Constitution and the nation’s history PO 3. Examine the basic political, social responsibilities of citizenship: a. connections between self-interest, the common good, and the essential element of civic virtue (e.g., George Washington’s Farewell Speech), volunteerism. b. obligations of upholding the Constitution. PO 4. Demonstrate the skills and knowledge TUCSON UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT

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(e.g., group problem solving, public speaking, petitioning and protesting) needed to accomplish public purposes.

9. Transformative Intellectualism Enduring Understanding: As a civic virtue, transformative intellectualism and its disruption of the status quo is critical to the betterment of any society. Enduring Understanding: The identification and naming of socio-political and ecological challenges in the lives of students provides them with the opportunity to construct a just perspective in order to create a world filled with equity and justice. Standards: Concept 3: Functions of Government Laws and policies are developed to govern, protect, and promote the well-being of the people. PO 2. Examine how the Constitution guarantees due process of law through Constitutional mandates and Amendments. a. Constitutional mandates (e.g., the right of habeas corpus, no bill of attainder, and the prohibition of ex post facto laws). b. protections provided by the Fourteenth Amendment. Concept 4: Rights, Responsibilities, and Roles of Citizenship The rights, responsibilities and practices of United States citizenship are founded in the Constitution and the nation’s history. TUCSON UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT Explanation and Examples: Students will research and evaluate the organic and traditional intellectual.iii Students will create a research paper on the history and meaning of organic intellectualism as it connects to the U.S. system of government. Students will create their own description of what it means to be an organic intellectual in their present-day world by using examples from the media. Students will develop and articulate a position regarding which form of intellectualism is best suited to transform our society into one that is truly just for all groups and individuals. Through the lens of their chosen form of intellectualism and the critical praxis methodology, students will identify a problem in their community, research the problem and develop a plan of action to address the problem. Common Core: 11-12.RH.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including analyzing how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term over the course of a text. 11-12.RH.8. Evaluate an author’s premises, claims, and evidence by corroborating or challenging them with other information. 11-12.RH.9. Integrate information from diverse sources, both primary and secondary, into a coherent understanding of an idea or event, noting discrepancies among sources. 11-12.WHST.1Write arguments focused on disciplinespecific content. a. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and 14 | P a g e

US GOVERNMENT – CULTURALLY RELEVANT MEXICAN AMERICAN VIEWPOINT: GRADE 12

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PO 1. Analyze basic individual rights and freedoms guaranteed by Amendments and laws: c. Ninth Amendment and guarantee of people’s unspecified rights d. civil rights in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments PO 3. Examine the basic political, social responsibilities of citizenship: c. connections between self-interest, the common good, and the essential element of civic virtue (e.g., George Washington’s Farewell Speech), volunteerism d. obligations of upholding the Constitution (Lincoln’s second inaugural) PO 4. Demonstrate the skills and knowledge (e.g., group problem solving, public speaking, petitioning and protesting, and community organizing) needed to accomplish public purposes

Students will create a presentation based on their research for key stakeholders within the community as a means of facilitating support and the implementation of their plan.

thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases. 11-12.WHST.7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a selfgenerated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. 11-12.WHST.8. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. 11-12.WHST.9. Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

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Ukpokodu, O. N. (2003). Teaching multicultural education from a critical perspective: Challenges and dilemmas. Multicultural Perspectives, 5(4), 17-23.

It is not simply action based on reflection. It is action which embodies certain qualities. These include a commitment to human well being and the search for truth, and respect for others. It is the action of people who are free, who are able to act for themselves. (Carr, W. and Kemmis, S. (1986.) Becoming Critical: Education, Knowledge and Action Research. Basingstoke: Falmer Press.) Traditional intellectuals consider themselves as “freefloating thinkers, but are in fact “the dominant group’s ‘deputies’ exercising the subaltern functions of social hegemony and political government. The organic intellectual, in contrast, is situated within a certain structure and can help from within by turning attention to the relations of dominationin a society (Berling, T. & Bueger, C. (2013). Practical Reflexivity and Political Science: Strategies for Relating Scholarship and Political Practice. Political Science & Politics 46(01), 115-119.
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TUCSON UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT

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