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Unit 19:

Unit code: Unit reference number: QCF level: Credit value: Guided learning hours:

The principles of Infection Prevention and Control

IC 01 L/501/6737 2 3 30

Unit summary
To introduce the learner to national and local policies in relation to infection control; to explain employer and employee responsibilities in this area; to understand how procedures and risk assessment can help minimise the risk of an outbreak of infection. Learners will also gain an understanding of how to use PPE correctly and the importance of good personal hygiene.

Assessment requirements
No further guidance has been supplied for this unit.

Assessment methodology
Learners can enter the types of evidence they are presenting for assessment and the submission date against each assessment criterion. Alternatively, centre documentation should be used to record this information.

Learning outcomes and assessment criteria

Learning outcomes 1. Understand roles and responsibilities in the prevention and control of infections

Assessment criteria 1.1 Explain employees roles and responsibilities in relation to the prevention and control of infection

Infection is a major cause of human suffering. Even relatively minor infections can become more serious, leading to major infection and can, in some cases, lead to patient death. In addition to patient suffering, infection causes distress to family and friends. The costs to the health care system of providing care for those with infections are huge. In addition to concerns over the growing costs to health care, the use of antibiotics to treat these infections is thought to be contributing towards the problems surrounding antibiotic resistance. All employees are responsible for taking action to prevent the spread of infection, in accordance with legislation and local and organisational policies and procedures. They also have a personal and moral responsibility, as members of a caring society and profession. There are many roles where infection control is important, these include: Employees who work in communal living environments Employees who work with hazardous substances Employees whose work activities may expose them to infection

Employees have responsibilities to: Self Colleagues Employer Clients/Customers Visitors

Learning outcomes

Assessment criteria 1.2

Employees working with individuals who may be vulnerable to infection Explain employers responsibilities in relation to the prevention and control of infection

Legal responsibilities Organisational responsibilities Personal/moral responsibilities. Employers are responsible for: Assessing risks Putting procedures in place Ensuring procedures are followed Ensuring employees are appropriately trained in relation to infection control Making sure employees are aware of the health and safety aspects of their work - Posting information on notice boards - Keeping an information file such as Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) - Providing supervision Keeping records Ensuring that the relevant standards, policies and guidelines are available within the workplace. Must ensure they adhere to the following regulations: The Health and Social Care Act (2001) Health and Safety at Work Act (HSAWA) (COSHH) The Control of Substances Hazardous to health Regulations (COSHH) The GSCC code of practice Employers should also ensure they: Issue the correct PPE Allow for the correct disposal of waste materials Ensure all employees are trained accordingly Report all major indents to the HSE

Learning outcomes 2 Understand legislation and policies relating to prevention and control of infections

Assessment criteria 2.1 Outline current legislation and regulatory body standards which are relevant to the prevention and control of infection
Both employers and employees are responsible for their own actions in the workplace. All reasonable steps should be taken when carrying out your work duties and all staff should have adequate health and safety training, and measures should be taken to ensure that policies and procedures are in place and adhered to. For example, it is the employers responsibility to provide adequate protective equipment and the employees responsibility to use it appropriately. The Public Health (Control of Diseases) Act 1984 - Provides information on the legal requirements for the reporting of contagious or infectious diseases, for example, Tuberculosis, Hepatitis, HIV and Legionella. Food Safety Act 1990 The requirements of this act apply to any area where food is prepared, stored or eaten. Control is required to ensure that the risks of any infection, as a result of bad handling of food, are minimised. Local and central government employ staff to inspect premises without any advance notice. (Environmental Health Officers). Food hygiene In many health care environments there may be infection control responsibilities under the Food Safety Act 1990 and the Food Safety Act (General Food Hygiene) Regulations 1995. Under this legislation, care workers who handle food must: Keep themselves and their workplace clean Wear suitable clean, washable or disposable, protective clothing Protect food from any possible contamination Abide by regulations setting out safe temperature controls for storage, preparation and display of food Inform their employer of any illness which may affect their safe handling of

Learning outcomes

Assessment criteria
food N.B. These regulations also require that employees who handle food as part of their normal duties should also undertake specific food hygiene training. Reporting Injuries Diseases and Dangerous Occurrence Regulations (RIDDOR) 1995 The employer or manager in control of work premises has a responsibility under RIDDOR to report any work related accidents or disease which result in serious injury or an employee being off sick due to injury for more than three working days. The Public Health (Infectious Diseases) Regulations 1998 Describe the reporting systems and the types of disease which must be reported. Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 Requires all staff to be provided with adequate and appropriate training and a set of working instructions demonstrating safe working practices' for work related activities. Controls Assurance Standards HSC 2000/02 This standard provides a framework to control and manage infection. It provides a time table for senior managers and infection control teams to work to. The documents key action areas are: Strengthen prevention and control of infection Secure appropriate health care services for patients with infection Improve surveillance of infection Monitor and optimise antimicrobial prescribing. Medicines and Health care Regulatory Agency (MHRA) This regulatory body ensures the medicines and products available in the health care sector are safe to use. The MHRA issue SAFETY BULLETINS if they receive reports of faulty products or products which may be harmful to health. It is the responsibility of the health care facility to report untoward incidents or products that are faulty to the MRHA. Standards for Better Health 2006 The standards were published by the Department of Health (DoH) and will achieve two important things. First they will set the foundations for a common high quality of health care throughout England. Second, they will clarify what the NHS can and should be reaching for in its ambitions, both for the public and for the people who work within it.

2.2 Describe local and organisational policies relevant to the prevention and

Learning outcomes

Assessment criteria control of infection

You need to obtain a copy of your settings organisational policy and attached to your folder

3. Understand systems and procedures relating to the prevention and control of infections

3.1 Describe procedures and systems relevant to the prevention and control of infection The Health and Social Care Act (2001) Health and Safety at Work Act (HSAWA) (COSHH) The Control of Substances Hazardous to health Regulations (COSHH) The GSCC code of practice The Management of Health at Work Regulations RIDDOR Control of disease act 1984 PPE regulations 1992 Hazardous waste regulations N.I.C.E Work policy & procedure

3.2 Explain the potential impact of an outbreak of infection on the individual and the organisation The common occurrence and dire consequences of infectious disease outbreaks in nursing homes often go unrecognized and unappreciated. Nevertheless, these facilities provide an ideal environment for acquisition and spread of infection: susceptible residents who share sources of air, food, water, and health care in a crowded institutional setting. Moreover, visitors, staff, and residents constantly come and go, bringing in pathogens from both the hospital and the community. Outbreaks of respiratory and gastrointestinal infection predominate in this setting, but outbreaks of skin and soft-tissue infection and infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria also occur with some frequency.

Learning outcomes

Assessment criteria
nursing homes provide the requisite ingredients for outbreaks of infectious diseases [3]. As a rule, elderly nursing home residents have multiple chronic diseases and functional impairments that predispose them to infection. Residents share sources of air, food, water, and medical care, which facilitates both the introduction and subsequent transmission of certain infectious agents among vulnerable residents. Prolonged lengths of stay, limited capacities for diagnosis, and ineffectual infection-control programs often allow outbreaks to propagate and persist for many months. Transfer of infected or colonized residents, which is a common occurrence [4], may export outbreaks to other facilities, including hospitals and medical centers. The frequency of outbreaks in nursing homes is not known, but a variety of data suggest that they are common. Outbreak reports constitute one-third of the infectious disease literature emanating from nursing homes [5]. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) responds with some regularity to requests for assistance in managing outbreaks in this setting [6, 7]. Publications from state health departments also periodically attest to the occurrence of outbreaks in nursing homes [8, 9]. Finally, surveillance studies of nursing homes have occasionally detected clusters of various infections

4. Understand the importance of risk assessment in relation to the prevention and control of infections

4.1 Define the term risk Risk is the potential that a chosen action or activity (including the choice of inaction) will lead to a loss (an undesirable outcome). The notion implies that a choice having an influence on the outcome exists (or existed). Potential losses themselves may also be called "risks". Almost any human endeavor carries some risk, but some are much more risky than others. 4.2 Outline potential risks of infection within the workplace Risk of infection First aid personnel and workers may be at risk of exposure to infectious diseases or biological hazards if they receive: a skin penetrating injury such as a needle stick injury if blood or body substances come into contact with broken skin, open wounds,

Learning outcomes

Assessment criteria
eyes or mouth contaminated first aid equipment or materials are used

Infectious diseases which may be transmitted by blood and some body substances include: hepatitis B hepatitis C human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS

All workplaces should undertake a review of their first aid practices to remove the risks of infection or exposure to biological hazards. Infection is caused by pathogens ('bugs') such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa or fungi getting into or onto the body. It can take some time before the microbes multiply enough to trigger symptoms of illness, which means an infected person may unwittingly be spreading the disease during this incubation period. Infection control in the workplace aims to prevent pathogens from coming into contact with a person in the first place. Employers are obliged under the Occupational Health and Safety Act (2004) to provide a safe workplace for their employees, including the provision of adequate infection control procedures and the right equipment and training. Transmission of infection Infectious agents can be spread in a variety of ways, including: Airborne - coughs or sneezes release airborne pathogens, which are then inhaled by others. Contaminated objects or food - the pathogens in a person's faeces may be spread to food or other objects, if their hands are dirty. Skin-to-skin contact - the transfer of some pathogens can occur through touch, or by sharing personal items, clothing or objects. Contact with body fluids - pathogens in saliva, urine, faeces or blood can be passed to another person's body via cuts or abrasions, or through the mucus

Learning outcomes

Assessment criteria
membranes of the mouth and eyes. Assumption of risk The basis of good infection control in the workplace is to assume that everyone is potentially infectious. Proper procedures have to be followed at all times. Every workplace should have an appropriate first aid kit, with at least one staff member trained in first aid. Equipment such as gloves, gowns, eye goggles and face shields should be provided if necessary. Personal hygiene practices Infection control procedures relating to good personal hygiene include: Hand washing - the spread of many pathogens can be prevented with regular hand washing. You should thoroughly wash your hands with water and soap for at least 15 seconds after visiting the toilet, before preparing food, and after touching clients or equipment. Dry your hands with disposable paper towels. Unbroken skin - intact and healthy skin is a major barrier to pathogens. Any cuts or abrasions should be covered with a waterproof dressing. Gloves - wear gloves if you are handling body fluids or equipment containing body fluids, if you are touching someone else's broken skin or mucus membrane, or performing any other invasive procedure. Wash your hands between each client and use fresh gloves for each client where necessary. Personal items - don't share towels, clothing, razors, toothbrushes, shavers or other personal items.

Food preparation When preparing food, you should: Wash your hands before and after handling food. Avoid touching your hair, nose or mouth. Keep hot food hot and cold food cold. Use separate storage, utensils and preparation surfaces for cooked and uncooked foods. Wash all utensils and preparation surfaces thoroughly with hot water and

Learning outcomes

Assessment criteria
detergent after use. Cleanliness in the workplace Infection control procedures relating to cleanliness in the workplace include: Regularly wash the floors, bathrooms and surfaces - such as tables and bench tops - with hot water and detergent. Wash - walls and ceilings periodically. Mops, brushes and cloths should be thoroughly washed and dried after every use. Drying mops and cloths is particularly important, since many pathogens rely on moisture to thrive. Use disinfectants to clean up blood and other spills of bodily fluids. When using disinfectants - always wear gloves, clean the surfaces before using the disinfectant, and always follow the manufacturer's instructions exactly. Spot clean when necessary.

Dealing with spills of body fluids Examples of body fluids include blood, saliva, urine and faeces. When dealing with spills of body fluids, infection control procedures should be followed carefully. You should always: Isolate the area. Wear gloves, a plastic apron and eye protection, such as goggles. Soak up the fluid with disposable paper towels, or cover the spill with a granular chlorine releasing agent for a minimum of 10 minutes. Scoop up granules and waste using a piece of cardboard (or similar), place in a plastic bag and dispose of appropriately. Mix one part bleach to10 parts water and apply to the area for 10 minutes. Wash with hot water and detergent. Dry the area. Dispose of paper towelling and gloves appropriately. Wash your hands. Rinse any contaminated clothing in cold running water, soak in bleach solution for half an hour, then wash separately from other clothing or linen with hot water

Learning outcomes

Assessment criteria
and detergent. Infectious waste To dispose of infectious waste that has been contaminated with blood or other body fluids, you should: Wear heavy duty gloves Place waste in plastic bags marked 'infectious waste' Dispose of waste in accordance with EPA regulations.

Handling needles and other sharp contaminated objects Infection control procedures when handling needles and other sharp contaminated objects include: Never attempt to re-cap or bend used needles. Handle by the barrel. Place in an appropriate puncture-proof container, which is yellow and labelled 'Danger contaminated sharps' and marked with a black biohazard symbol.

Occupational exposure If you come in contact with blood or body fluids, you should: Flush the area with running water. Wash the area with plenty of warm water and soap. Report the incident to the appropriate staff member. Record the incident via the Disease/injury/near miss/accident (DINMA) reporting procedure. Seek medical advice.

Employers and occupational health and safety representatives should investigate all incidents involving contact with blood or body fluids, and take action to prevent a similar incident from happening again. Where to get help

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Assessment criteria
Your doctor Your local council's health department Occupational health and safety officer at your workplace Communicable Disease Prevention and Control Unit, Department of Health Victoria Tel. (03) 9096 0000 WorkCover Advisory Service Tel. (03) 9641 1444 or Freecall 1800 136 089

Things to remember Infection control in the workplace aims to prevent pathogens being passed from one person to another. The foundation of good infection control is to assume that everyone is potentially infectious. Basic infection control procedures include hand washing and keeping the workplace clean.

4.3 Describe the process of carrying out a risk assessment 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Identify the hazards Decide who might be harmed and how Evaluate the risks and decide on precaution Record your findings and implement them Review your assessment and update if necessary

4.4 Explain the importance of carrying out a risk assessment The law requires your employer to assess and manage health and safety in your workplace and in order to abide by the law part of the process is to carry out a risk assessment A risk assessment is an important step in protecting your workers and your business, as well as complying with the law. It helps you focus on the risks that really

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Assessment criteria
matter in your workplace the ones with the potential to cause harm. In many instances, straightforward measures can readily control risks, for example, ensuring spillages are cleaned up promptly so people do not slip or cupboard drawers kept closed to ensure people do not trip. For most, that means simple, cheap and effective measures to ensure your most valuable asset your workforce is protected. A risk assessment is simply a careful examination of what, in your work, could cause harm to people, so that you can weigh up whether you have taken enough precautions or should do more to prevent harm. Workers and others have a right to be protected from harm caused by a failure to take reasonable control measures. The law does not expect you to eliminate all risk, but you are required to protect people as far as is reasonably practicable. This guide tells you how to achieve that with minimum fuss.

5 Understand the importance of using Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in the prevention and control of infections

5.1 Demonstrate correct use of PPE

Your assessor will expect you to demonstrate how you use the PPE relevant to your job role. Remember to ensure the PPE you are using has been stored correctly and that you put it on correctly and finally that you dispose of the PPE correctly aftwards.

5.2 Describe different types of PPE Types of PPE Hand Protection Protective gloves are supplied in order to protect against: Open cuts being exposed to germs & bacteria To prevent germs & bacteria getting under nails To stop Germs and bacteria being transferred to clothing Disposable Aprons

Learning outcomes

Assessment criteria Protective aprons are used to protect clothing To stop germs & bacteria being transferred.

Eye Wear/Goggles To protect the eyes against splashes & spills

Other PPE that is worth noting

Hearing protection There are three main types of hearing protection: earmuffs/defenders, which completely cover the ear earplugs, which are inserted into the ear canal semi-inserts (also called canal-caps), which cover the entrance to the ear canal. Hearing protection must be worn by anyone who is likely to be exposed to noise at or above the Exposure Action Level set by The Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005. Head protection There are three widely used types of head protection: industrial safety helmets (hard hats), which are designed to protect against materials falling from height and swinging objects industrial scalp protectors (bump caps), which are designed to protect from knocking against stationary objects caps/hair nets, which protect against entanglement Tasks where head protection may be required include: construction building repair work in excavations and tunnels work with bolt driving tools driving motorcycles and all-terrain vehicles, etc.

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Assessment criteria

Turban-wearing Sikhs are exempt from the requirement to wear hard hats on construction sites by virtue of The Employment Act 1989. Eye protection There are several types of eye protection: safety spectacles: these are similar to regular glasses but have a tougher lens. They can include side shields for additional protection. eye shields: a frame-less one piece moulded lens, often worn over normal prescription glasses safety goggles: these are made with flexible plastic frames and an elastic headband face shields: heavier and bulkier than other type of eye protector, face shields protect the face, but do not fully enclose the eyes so do not protect against dusts, mists or gases. Tasks where eye protection may be required include: handling hazardous substances where there is a risk of splashing work with power driven tools where materials are likely to be propelled welding operations work with lasers using any gas or vapour under pressure. Foot protection There are a number of types of safety footwear: safety boots or shoes. Normally have steel toe-caps but can have other safety features (e.g. steel mid-soles, slip resistant soles, insulation against heat and cold) Wellington boots, which can be supplied with steel toe-caps anti-static and conductive footwear. These protect against the build-up of static electricity. Tasks where foot protection may be required include: construction, demolition, building repair, manual handling where there is a risk of heavy objects falling on the feet, work in extremely hot or cold environments, work with chemicals and forestry. Where there is a risk of slipping that cannot be avoided or controlled by other measures,

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Assessment criteria

attention must be given to the slip resistance of soles and replacement before the tread pattern is overly worn.
5.3 Explain the reasons for use of PPE PPE must always be regarded as a last resort to protect against risks to safety and health. For example, it may be possible to do the job using methods that will not require the use of PPE. If this is not possible, more effective safeguards should be put in place. For example, fixed screens could be provided rather than individual eye protection. There are a number of reasons why PPE must be considered as a last resort: PPE only protects the person wearing it, whereas measures controlling the risk at source protect everyone in the workplace theoretical maximum levels of protection are difficult to achieve and the actual level of protection is difficult to assess. Effective protection is only achieved by selecting suitable PPE and if it is correctly fitted, maintained and used PPE may restrict the wearer to some extent by limiting mobility or visibility, or by requiring additional weight to be carried. Thus creating additional hazards. 5.4 State current relevant regulations and legislation relating to PPE The Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 These regulations lay down the requirements for employers with regard to the provision, use and maintenance of person protective equipment (PPE) in the workplace. PPE may be eye, head and foot protection, high visibility clothing, life jackets etc. PPE should only be used as a last resort. When it is used, employers must consider the following: PPE must be effective and protect the worker PPE must be provided and maintained free of charge employees should be involved in the selection of PPE employees must have adequate information, instruction and training to enable them to use the PPE effectively, employees must take reasonable steps to ensure that any PPE provided is used properly

Learning outcomes

Assessment criteria 5.5 Describe employees responsibilities regarding the use of PPE
Your responsibility regarding the use of PPE are:

An employee's duties are to:

take reasonable care of the health and safety of themselves and of others who may be affected by what they do or do not do cooperate with the employer on health and safety matters not misuse any equipment that is provided for safety purposes (eg fire extinguishers or safety goggles) follow instructions from the employer on health and safety matters and attend relevant health and safety training report hazards and defects observed in the workplace.

5.6 Describe employers responsibilities regarding the use of PPE

Your employer should carefully choose the correct types of safety equipment by considering the different hazards in your particular workplace. Eyes: Safety spectacles, goggles, faceshields, or visors should be provided to protect from chemical or metal splashes, dust, projectiles, radiation, gas and vapour. Head: An appropriate range of helmets and bump caps need to be available to provide protection from falling or flying objects, risk of head bumping, and hair entanglement. Breathing: Depending on the environment disposable filtering facepieces, respirators, half- or full-face respirators, air-fed helmets and breathing apparatus are required to enable adequate respiratory protection from dust, vapour, gas and oxygen-deficient atmospheres. Body: Suitable overalls (conventional or disposable), boiler suits, specialist protective clothing such as chain mail aprons or high visibility clothing should be provided to protect against extremes of temperature, adverse weather, chemical or metal splash, spray from pressure leaks or spray guns, impact or penetration, contaminated dust, excessive wear or entanglement of own clothing.

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Assessment criteria

Hands and Arms: Gloves, gauntlets, mitts, wristcuffs and armlets are necessary to provide protection from abrasion, temperature extremes, cuts and punctures, impact, chemicals, electric shock, skin infection, disease or contamination. Feet and Legs: Safety boots and shoes with protective toe caps and penetration resistant mid-sole, gaiters, leggings and spats should protect from wet, electrostatic build-up, slipping, cuts, punctures, falling objects, abrasion, metal and chemical splash.

5.7 Describe the correct practice in the application and removal of PPE

Select and obtain proper size package of sterile gloves Inspect the glove package for signs of contamination. Discard if you find any of the following: Water spots or moisture Tears Any other evidence of damage or contamination Perform a handwash Open the sterile package Place the package on a flat, clean, dry surface in the area where the gloves are to be worn Peel the outer wrapper open to completely expose the inner package Position inner package Remove the inner package touching only the folded side of the wrapper Position the package so that the cuff end is nearest to you Unfold the inner package - Open the package to a fully flat position without touching the gloves Expose both gloves Grasp the lower inside corners or designated areas on the folder

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Assessment criteria

Pull gently to the side without touching the gloves Put on the first glove Grasp the cuff at the folded edge and remove it from the wrapper with one hand Step away from the table or tray Keeping the hands above the waist, insert the fingers of the other hand into the glove Pull the glove on touching only the exposed inner surface of the glove NOTE: If there is difficulty in getting the fingers fully fitted into the glove fingers, make the adjustments after both gloves are on. Put on the second glove Insert the fingertips of the gloved hand under the edge of the folded over cuff Keeping the hands above the waist, insert the fingers of the ungloved hand into the glove Pull the glove on
5.8 Describe the correct procedure for disposal of used PPE
Your company policy will have details on how you should correctly dispose of PPE within your environment. Include a copy of this policy in your folder. You could also show your assessor how you dispose of PPE.

Understand the importance of good personal hygiene in the prevention and control of infections

6.1 Describe the key principles of good personal hygiene

Parents, caregivers and peers can influence the way in which children approach personal hygiene, which will stay with them for life. Educating children on good hygiene is the best way to avoid the spread of infection and disorders and not just for childhood complaints; teaching the principles of correct hygiene at an early age can help keep individuals healthy in later life, and be taught to future generations. Principles of hygiene should be made part of everyday life and the best way for parents to teach their children about good hygiene is to lead by example.

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Assessment criteria

The incidence of illness relating to areas of personal hygiene is more apparent in children and venerable people as they are learning to take care of themselves and are exposed to many germs whilst in the school environment or in a play area. Important Considerations Oral Hygiene It goes without saying that the teaching of good oral hygiene is essential for the young and vulnerable. Along with brushing technique, the importance of dietary influences should be explained and alternatives to sweets, biscuits and fizzy drinks should be made available. Hand Washing Hand-washing is the single most important factor relating to the spread of infection, not just for children but for adults of all ages. Children should be encouraged to wash their hands before eating, after using the toilet, after handling animals, if they are ill or if they are spending time with a newborn. Washing is essential to avoid developing threadworms which cause itching around the anus and genitals, and are contracted from poor toilet hygiene or from animals. When a child is ready to go to school or nursery, they are expected to be able to use the toilet themselves and wash their own hands; parents and carers must make sure this is happening or infections and diseases can spread. Fungal Infections Athletes foot and ringworms are also less likely to spread if correct hand washing is achieved. Children should be taught how to effectively wash their hands, including between the fingers and under the nails; employ the use of a nail brush if needed. Drying properly is also important to prevent fungal infections from becoming worse. Children should understand the importance of these actions also, as well as using an individual towel if they have an infectious complaint. Nails Nail biting should be discouraged, particularly if the nails are being swallowed. The nails and nail beds offer a perfect environment for germs to live and breed. Nail biting permits the

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Assessment criteria

transfer of these bugs to the mouth which can then lead to the digestive tract causing many problems. An incidence of diarrhoea can badly affect a child and they can become quite ill from electrolyte imbalance and dehydration; this can happen very quickly in the young. Even if correct hand washing takes place, there will continue to be some germs under and around the nail, if left they will not normally cause any harm, but transfer to the mouth can induce problems. Keeping nails short will help to reduce the amount of germs under the nail. Hair Care A suitable hair length and style such as a bun, is a very easy way of minimising the risk of nits. These creatures are spread by contact so by reducing the amount of hair available to have contact with others will decrease the chance of transmission. Hair does not have to be washed daily as this can induce flaking of the scalp, itching and removal of the natural oils.There is no harm in bathing every day, but it is more sensible to wash the hair every other day, using a frequent use shampoo.

6.2 Demonstrate good hand washing technique

Your assessor will carry out an observation which will alow you to show your hand washing technique.

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Assessment criteria

6.3 Describe the correct sequence for hand washing

1. Wet your hands using warm, running water. Add soap. 2. During the hand washing process, rub your hands vigorously for a minimum of 20 seconds, paying special attention to the backs of your hands, wrists, in between your fingers and underneath your fingernails. 3. Rinse well while leaving the water running. 4. With the water continuing to run, use a single-use towel and pat your hands dry. 5. Turn off the water faucet using the paper towel covering your clean hands to prevent recontamination.

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Assessment criteria

6.4 Explain when and why hand washing should be carried out

Hand washing is vital in preventing contamination of food by food handlers. Harmful bacteria such as E. coli, Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus and viruses (e.g. norovirus) present on the hands of food workers are removed by proper hand washing techniques. Before starting work Before handling cooked or ready-to-eat food After handling or preparing raw food After handling waste After cleaning duties After using the toilet After blowing nose, sneezing or coughing After eating drinking or smoking After handling money
6.5 Describe the types of products that should be used for hand washing
Liquid soap Alcohol- based handrub Paper towels

6.6 Describe correct procedures that relate to skincare

An intact skin is a natural barrier to infection consequently all care workers need to be aware of the potentially damaging effects of frequent hand washing and the use of alcohol hand rubs. Care workers should protect and maintain their skin integrity and minimise the risk of skin irritation by observing the following:- Always wet hands before

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Assessment criteria
applying soap. Rinse hands thoroughly after washing to remove all traces of soap. Use good quality paper towels to dry hands thoroughly, including the area between the fingers. Regularly use aqueous based hand creams to keep the skin moist and supple. Do not wear gloves for any longer than is necessary for the task. Always wash hands thoroughly after removing gloves. Always wear gloves when handling blood, body fluids, secretions and excretions, or chemicals. Use a moisturising hand cream regularly to prevent dry hands. Any care worker who develops a skin irritation or allergy that may be due to the use of hand hygiene products or any soft tissue and other infections, that may be transmittable to service users, should report this to the care home manager, their occupational health advisor and their GP.

Learner name: __________________________________________ Learner signature: _______________________________________ Assessor signature: ______________________________________ Internal verifier signature: _________________________________
(if sampled)

Date: __________________________ Date: __________________________ Date: __________________________ Date: __________________________