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SPE-165044-MS Optimizing the Efficiency of Artificial Lifting Systems in the Production of Heavy Crude, by the Use of Electrical

Heating in Surface Facilities
M. G. Jaimes, SPE, J. Durán, SPE, and F. E. Sanabria, Ecopetrol S.A; and R. Dorado, Corporación Natfrac.

Copyright 2013, Society of Petroleum Engineers This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Artificial Lift Conference-Americas held in Cartagena, Colombia 21-22 May 2013. This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE program committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must con tain conspicuous acknowledgment of SPE copyright.

Abstract Until recent years, heavy oil was rejected as an energy resource for the inconvenience and costs associated with its production, but today, with the gradual depletion of deposits of light oil, its reserves have attracted the interest of oil companies and governments around the world. Estimated reserves of heavy oil in the world equal to three times the combined reserves of conventional oil and gas exist and are the safest source of energy in the immediate future of humanity. One of the major drawbacks in the production of heavy oil in mature fields, is the low efficiency of artificial lifting systems, which is presented by the high frictional pressure losses that are handled by the system (subsurface equipment and recollection facilities), which occurs as a result of the high viscosity and / or direct emulsions (water in oil) of the produced fluids (viscosities above 500 cp.). As an alternative to improve the efficiency of artificial lifting systems in the production of heavy oil in Colombia, from reducing viscosity of the produced fluids, was visualized the selection, evaluation and application in surface facilities of the technology of electrical heating., to ensure adequate conditions of extraction and recollection that will maintain optimal levels of production and release of lower-producing areas with higher API gravity. This study presents a detailed technical and economic evaluation of the application of electric heating in surface facilities to optimize the efficiency of artificial lift systems in the production of heavy oil in fields operated by Ecopetrol in Colombia, including: nodal analysis to determine incremental production, evaluation of technical and economic benefits (net present value). This paper presents the application results in the Tisquirama field. Finally, the main findings, conclusions, recommendations and field results obtained in this study are presented and among which are: 1. Increased of the efficiency of the artificial lifting system in 100%. 2. Increased of oil production in 100%. 3. Unlock and producing of lower zones of high API gravity. Introduction With the decreasing of the global supply of light and medium oil, heavy oil deposits become important, and the oil companies will inevitably begin to consider the costs and logistics to develop these fields. The oil industry has felt the great need to develop the fields of heavy and extra heavy oil, and that 66% of oil reserves in the world corresponds to this type of deposits (USGS, 2009). The Andean countries have a major portion of the world's heavy oil deposits. They already operate successfully in the Orinoco Belt of Venezuela, and Colombia in particular is actively promoting the opportunity. In heavy oil production come some challenges, and one of them is mainly the low efficiency of artificial lift systems by high viscosities and therefore higher friction losses that are handled in the system, which does not allow extraction capabilities commensurate with the volumes of contribution from the reservoir to the wellbore. Another disadvantage is present in the transportation of production from the wells, due to the increase in the viscosity of the oil (C. Curtis et al, 2002) given by the

Refining.S. chemical for reduction of viscosity and the electrical heating in the down hole and surface Facilities(E. safe and environmentally compatible. a specific case in Colombia.H.F Long Lines Heating Downhole Heating Figure 1.S.H.2 SPE-165044-MS-MS decrease of temperature. etc. it is easy to implement and is a technological alternative clean.S. Carrying oil. Typical components of E.F. Transportation. This paper presents the technical and economic advantages of implementing the EHSF in the Tisquirama-Z Well.F) among others.H. Vessel & Tank Heating System Trac Loc E. insulation and mechanical protection element. electrical conductor. Control Panel. The first applications typical of electrical heating tracing system were for lines of pipeline (> 200 ft).S. Conceptual Study The major use of electrical heating tracing on the surface began to take hold in the full development of the oil industry in the early 50 'when the need arises to find a technically and economically viable tool in situations where steam could not be use or was impractical.F. thermocouples. asphalt and waxes (Stanberg C. Control Panel transformer Heat Tube Thermo-couple Electrical Conductor External Proteccion Pipeline Insulation Figure 2.H.H. .S. In Figure 2 can see the components of an E.Typical Components of E. The main components are: Transformer. The tracing system of electric heating has been developed over time and there are several patents and applications in different areas of the oil industry (See Figure 1): Production. Petrochemical.F. Cryogenic base tank Ramp Heating Tank Heating System Conventional Heat Tracing Heat Tracing Power Distribution System Pipe.F) Is an Electric Heating System used in pipes for transporting viscous fluids sensitive to temperature changes such as heavy crude oils and / or paraffinic.S. the dilution using naphtha.F. making was viewed as a special tool to implement in wells with high fluid and low efficiency of artificial lift system.H. has shown excellent results worldwide. it is a relatively inexpensive technology (with an average incremental cost of between 1-2 U. et al).S. E.Electric heating tracing applications in the petroleum industry Electrical Heating in Surface Facilities (E. with more than 600 applications. tube heat generator. These are some proven technologies which have been developed to solve this problem: the injection of steam.H.S. $ / barrel). which can be used as a reference point to implement this alternative technology in other heavy oil fields with similar problems.

which shows the advantages of E. Technology has a monitoring system that includes temperature sensors. there is no need to stop the well.F. and by eddy currents and hysteresis in the heating pipe. E.F. Increase of capacities of extraction of artificial lift systems.SPE-165044-MS-MS 3 The E. Deferred production is not generated. 6. Operating Principle Technical Benefits of E. Technical Advantages of E. 4. Implementation. Viscosity decrease in the flow lines. and an AC voltage source is connected between the heating pipe and the insulated wire at the point of electrical connection. These phenomena are responsible that the current flowing in the heating pipe is concentrated in the inner surface. Average cost per incremental barrel of 1 to 2 U.H. installed inside a ferromagnetic heating pipe connected to the pipeline.F. 1. Current concentration is so complete that virtually there is no measurable voltage on the external wall of the heating pipe.F.H. and Other Methods. returning by the inner surface of the pipe. 2.H. AC voltage generates a current in the conductor which returns through the inner surface of the heat pipe. Increased of efficiency and reliability of artificial lift systems.S.E. The E. Differences between E. 7.H. 1.F.H. 8.H. $ / barrel. . Prevention and remediation of hydrate formation and paraffin. Increase of volumes of heavy oil production. Virtually there is no measurable voltage on the outer surface of the heat pipe. Clean and Safe Technology. AC current flows through the wire. which is same as decrease pressure loss in system. Circuit length of up to 25 kilometers with an electric supply point single. Reducing costs associated with transportation of crude oil. 2.H. heat is efficiently transmitted to the process pipe ( Figure 3). 7. 5. Reduction and / or elimination of the chemical injection or circulation of hot oil and the respective infrastructure. implementation.S.S.S. Table 1 shows the differences between the electric heating and other similar methods used to reduce the viscosity of heavy oil both in the downhole and surface. 3. 2.F. System consists of an insulated electric cable. The heat is also generated due to the resistance heater tube and the electrical cable.S. allowing that the pipe system can be grounded.F compared to other technologies. System is electrically safe and produces heat in the ferromagnetic pipe thanks the effect of two electrical phenomena very known: Skin Effect and Proximity Effect. The insulated wire is connected to the heating pipe at the far end. 6. 4.H.S.S. Installation Quick and Easy (10 days).F Limitations. It requires a special transformer.S. Figure 3. The circuit is encapsulated within resistant heating pipes and steel boxes. 1. From the moment the heating pipe is secured to the process pipe and fully integrated within the thermal insulation.S. High Temperature Exposure (up to 500 ˚ F). It is not practical in pipe fittings such as valves and flanges. 3. 5.

.H.F vs Hole Heating No production decrease due to increased gas phase No multiple oil tretment Conventional operating and maintenance procedures No steam lines to the Low er pow er consumption production w ells No f reezing problems during Low er cost shutdow n No saf ety issues w ith f rom leaks No production interrumption by installation Benchmarching In literature are reported more than 300 applications in wells (Downhole Heater) and more than 600 applications of E.H.E.S. vs.S. Figure 6 presents the results of increased production by the application of E.F Application Statistics.SF vs Chemical Additives No Negative ef f ect on ref ining catalyts No toxic No injection equipment required No increase pressure due f lammable materials E. Other Methods.H.F Figure 5.F.S.S. Comparison of E.Historical Cases of application of E.S.F.H.4 SPE-165044-MS-MS Table 1.S.H.S.H. in heavy oil producer wells.H.F vs Steam Injection No steam boiler requiered E.H.S.H S.F vs Naphtha Dilution No compatibility test requiered low er cost No adittional injection f low lines required E. Figure 4.H.F vs Hot Oil Eliminates or reduces paraf f in dow ntime No f ormation damage E. Figure 4 and 5. E.F.

Location of Tisquirama Oil Field.F. to avoid reduction in the volume of crude. which were fractured. Tisquirama Oil Field is located in the Basin Middle Magdalena Valley.H. The Lisama A formation. Case Studies: Tisquirama-Z Well Base Case.S. between the Eastern and Central Cordilleras of the Colombian Andes (See Figure 7). the well remained in mechanical pumping with initial production of 140 BPD and a water cut of 35%. reservoir pressure: 3311 psi.2%. 1. 4.F. Lower efficiency of artificial lift system in heavy oil wells (high level of fluid).S. Top: 7660 ft.South. Zone producer with minimum water saturation or open intervals far enough of the water-Oil Contact. Figure 7. . and the 14 October of that year changed the artificial lift system to Electric Submersible Pumping (ESP) with a production of BPD 160 and water cut of 0. 2. Selection Criteria for application of E.H. Wells with paraffin precipitation in the subsurface equipment and recollection system. 3.Results of application of E. 2008. On June 26. The Tisquirama-Z well was drilled on June 11.SPE-165044-MS-MS 5 25 700 600 20 500 BEFORE AFTER 10 15 BOP/D 400 BEFORE 300 200 AFTER BOP/D 5 0 100 0 Colombia 1 USA Colombia 2 Venezuela 1 Venezuela 2 Figure 6. 2008 and initially completed on 20 June of that year in the sands Lisama B and Lisama C. an elongated region in a North . Wells producer of oil with gravity less than 24 ˚ API. Later on July 18 of that year was completed in the sand Lisama A. Lisama B and Lisama C have the following characteristics:  Lisama A: heavy oil (12 ˚ API).

average). This situation occurred for the low efficiency of artificial lift system. The Y axis shows the depth and the production.F.F technology was selected as the best option. Top: 7874 ft. thus ensuring the transport of this heavy fluid to the recollection and treatment plant. shows stable water flow and a significant decrease of oil flow. 2012.001 0.S.H.000 cp at 122 ° F) were generated high pressure losses from downhole to the recollection and treatment station (THP of 215 psi. Water Oil Ratio 100 10 WOR.6 SPE-165044-MS-MS   Lisama B: heavy oil (17 ˚ API).S. According to the conceptual level study and the evaluation matrix on technologies for reducing viscosity. See Figure 8. becoming the first implementation of this technology at the level of surface facilities of a heavy oil well in Colombia.H. by the high viscosity of the oil produced (12. from Lisama A formation and Lisama B. Tizquirama-Z Well. reservoir pressure: 1780 psi. in the Tisquirama-Z well. Diagnostic Events Diagram. which forced the adequacy of wellhead facilities to mix the oil with other neighboring wells with higher API gravity. After the implementation of E. but results in decreased pressure losses in the system were not significant. WOR Derivative 1 0.0000001 1E-08 WOR WOR' TRACING 50 per.S. media móvil (WOR) 50 per. in the Tisquirama-Z well is present an increase of production of Total fluid and water.S. Before the implementation of E.S. average. which did not allow increasing the extraction capacity to reduce the high levels of fluid present in the well.S.000 cp to 2000 cp. reservoir pressure: 1341 psi.F. media móvil (WOR) 2 per. which in turn decreased the loss of pressure in the system (THP of 31 psi. due to blockage of Lisama B formation and Lisama C by high levels of fluid that were maintained at the well (reservoir pressure less than the flowing bottomhole pressure. the E. The increase of water was produced possibly by a coning caused by the proximity of the oil-water contact at producers intervals of the Lisama A formation. Lisama C: medium crude (23 ˚ API). This heating generated a decrease in viscosity of >12. thus improving the efficiency of Artificial Lifting System.000001 0.H.S. Figure 9 shows the Diagnostic Events Diagram occurred during the history of the Tisquirama-Z well. Pwf). Implementation of E.0001 0.H. and the X axis shows the corresponding event date.S.F of is present a marked increase in total fluid production in response to the electrical heating of flow lines from the wellhead Tisquirama Z to the recollection station (82 ° F increased to 171 ° F). from 165 to 335 BFPD and 25 to 60 BWPD respectively. after the implementation E. Added to above. On June 23. the Tisquirama-Z well produced only of the Lisama A formation (165 BFPD with a cut of 15%. media móvil (WOR') Lineal (WOR') Posible Conificación Time (days) Figure 8.F implementation in the Tisquirama-Z Well Implementation of E.F. which creates high expectations for other wells Tisquirama field and other fields with similar problems.Chan’s Graphic. Top: 8140 ft. Technical analysis of E. 2011.F technology.H.H.H. .F. oil 12 ° API). The coning effect is evident when performing the analysis of graph Chan. where you can observe a decrease in the line of the derivative of the water-oil ratio (WOR) and the respective increase of WOR. As can be seen.H.01 0. was held on November 8.1 0.00001 0.). from the initial completion until after the implementation of E.

before and after implementation of E. Consideration was given to two cases to analyze the behavior of IPR curve in time:  Case 1: Initial condition before implementing the system E.0 325 3900.0 25 8900.H.X TRACING Figure 9.SPE-165044-MS-MS 7 DIAGNOSTIC DIAGRAM TISQUIRAMA Z 3000. Assumptions.0 325 5000. the assumptions were made: following .0 75 50 8500.0 450 425 3500.0 ROAD PUMP→ BES R.0 2900. On June 23 of 2012 and due to increasing water cut.H.S.0 25 9000.0 4900.0 400 4000.M→ BES 5400.0 Jun-08 0 Dec-08 Jul-09 Jan-10 Aug-10 Feb-11 Sep-11 Apr-12 Oct-12 MIX Z.Diagnostic Event Diagram of Tizquirama-Z Well. Figure 10 shows the Behavior of the fluid level and THP pressure in the Tisquirama-Z well.S.0 MIX Z.H.0 3400.0 175 6400. For stabilize the bsw. It can be seen as immediately after the implementation is presented a drastic decrease of the friction pressure loss due to decrease of the viscosity by heating of the fluid.Behavior of the Fluid Level and THP. resulting in an increase in fluid level and the blocking again Lisama B zone ((Pwf reaches value of 2130 psi to pmp).W 150 125 100 MIX Z.0 7400.X TRACING 75 50 FLUID LEVEL Figure 10.0 8400.  Case 2: Condition one month after implementing the system E.Y 100 8000. THP & FLUID LEVEL BEHAVOIR VS TIME TISQUIRAMA Z 2400.P.0 4400.0 6900.F. it was decided to decrease the extraction capacity.0 375 350 4500.S.0 HIDRAULIC FRAC PUMP EXCHANGE FLUID PRODUCER GUNS WATER OIL PRODUCTION <BPD> DEPTH ft 5500. Tisquirama-Z well.F technology.0 300 275 250 225 200 5900.F.0 175 7000. → BES MIX Z.0 300 275 250 6000. To make the production modeling of the “Lisama A” formation.0 225 200 6500.0 150 MIX Z.0 7900. Nodal analysis-IPR. "Lisama B" and "Lisama C”.W 125 7500.Y MIX Z.0 6/1/2008 12/18/2008 7/6/2009 1/22/2010 8/10/2010 2/26/2011 9/14/2011 4/1/2012 10/18/2012 0 400 375 350 THP' PRODUCER GUNS FRAC PUMP REPLACEMENT EXCHANGE ROAD PUMP→ BES THP <psi> FLUID LEVEL ft B.

psi Figure 11. psi •Pwf (Lis C)= 1890.S.1135 250. LISAMA A P 3311. GOR 211.Lisama-A Modeling before E. psi •Reservoir Pressure= 1341.41 Downhole Flowing Pressure (psia) 2700 1800 1768 900 0 0 70 140 165 210 280 Total Production Rate (STB/day) Production Index AOF C-coefficient n-coefficient (STB/day/psi) (STB/day) (STB/day/psi2n) 0.F. 2. Pwf 1768.H. Production modeling for each of the zones separately. API 12.H.8 SPE-165044-MS-MS 1.Initial condition before E. . Lisama A.H. Ko 513 3600 S = 1. is to say.S. (see Figure 11 and Figure 12).F). TISQUIRAMA Z. •Fluid Level •Initial Condition without Tracing •Lisama A •Lisama B •Lisama C •Pwf (Lis A) = 1768. psi •lisama •Pwf (Lis B) =1852. BSW 15. psi •Reservoir Pressure = 3311. Cross flow not presented due to the high viscosity of oil of the “Lisama A" formation.S. psi •Reservoir Pressure = 1780.4 Vogel Figure 12.F. modeling was performed only in the area that provides fluid. For the initial condition (before installing E. Case 1.

F.SPE-165044-MS-MS 9 Case 2.H. For the condition after installing E.4 70 C-coefficient (STB/day/psi2n) 165 140 Total Production Rate (STB/day) n-coefficient Vogel 196 210 280 Figure 14.H.S. LIS A P 3311. •Final Condition with Tracing •Fluid Level •Lisama A •Pwf (Lis A) = 1372 psi •lisama •Pwf (Lis B) = 1437 psi •Pwf (Lis C) = 1446 psi •Reservoir Pressure= 3311.2.(See Figure 13. Figure 14 and Figure 15).F. . BSW 25. psi •Reservoir Pressure = 1780.Final condition after E.S.H.5. psi •Lisama B •Lisama C •Presión del yacimiento = 1341 Figure 13.41 Downhole Flowing Pressure (psia) 2700 1800 1768 1372 900 0 0 Production Index (STB/day/psi) 0.1135 AOF (STB/day) 250. modeling is performed separately for each of the areas contributing fluid to the well. is to say. API 12. Ko 513 3600 S=1.S. Pwf 1372. Lisama A and Lisama B. GOR 211. TSQ 9.F.Lisama-A Modeling after E. psi •Reservoir Pressure = 1341.

3.F technology (Figure 16) .F Technology. after E.H.S.Modeling Lisama B after E.S.9 Figure 15. LIS B P 1780. T) less severe.H. .47 Downhole Flowing Pressure (psia) 1800 1437 1200 600 0 0 125 137 250 375 500 Production Index AOF C-coefficient (STB/day/psi) (STB/day) (STB/day/psi2n) 0.F technology was implemented to date in that was writing this article.H. 2. This scenario considers an increase in real production by accelerating the same during fifteen months. but are equally important to underline: 1.S. The fifteen months correspond to the time since E.S. Pwf 1437. and expenditures are associated with the cost of implementing of the tool and the monthly energy expenditure generated by E. taking into account working at conditions of operation (P.H.H. with total cumulative production (basic + incremental) of 81. Scenario 1.179 BOPD. and allow fluid input from the "Lisama B" formation. Under this condition.14% per month. by decreasing the flowing bottomhole pressure.4373 428.F: 171 ° F).7. revenues are linked to oil production and energy savings of the Artificial Lifting System.S. BSW 0.H. API 17.73 2400 S=0.F: 82 ° F. Decline production rate before the implementation of E.F.10 SPE-165044-MS-MS TSQ 9. Ko 89. GOR 263.H. taking into account that oil enters at much higher temperature to the recollection and treatment station. (Before E.S. Some premises have been considered in order to perform the economic evaluation of the implementation of E. Increasing the useful life of Artificial Lifting System.F was a 1. Implementation of E.H. The following are additional benefits which have not quantified in the economic model.F in "Lisama A" and Lisama B formations:   Revenues gained by production increase are due to production acceleration during 15 months equivalent 81 179 BOPD. Reduced transportation costs and improving the conditions of treatment. Pwf. Production of crude of better quality API. Total Production Rate (STB/day) n-coefficient Vogel Economic Analysis Economic Evaluation Scenarios.S.S.

F: 82 ° F.F tool installed in the Tisquirama-Z well.S. given a forecast of production at a rate of decline of the basic curve of 1.S.034.  Implementing E. after E.F system.  For the case of fouling water production. given the temperature increase of the fluid (Before E.F in the recollection and treatment station of Tisquirama field would have a significant impact in reducing chemical treatment and transportation costs because it could eliminate the current dehydration process constrains presented in this station.S.H.287.F.14% per month and initial water cut of 15%.F technology does not require turning off the wells.S.  A greater extraction capacity of Artificial Lifting System.S$ 70. the NPV is U.F technology . allowed reducing flowing bottomhole pressure. For scenario 1.H.H.H. Economic Anaysis of Scenario with E.H.H.S.H.179 BOPD). Case 2: Without ELECTRICL HEATING Production Foerecast 26 Months to recover 81179 BOPD 0 Months Figure 17. which generates a reduction in frictional pressure losses throughout the system (downhole to the recollection and treatment station).H. Base Case: without implementation of E. which make it compatible with the environment and suitable to accomplish HSEQ regulations.S.F tool is clean and safe technology.H. .S. Conclusions. Economic Evaluation Results.H. Incomes are associated with this production forecast of the basic curve of the Tisquirama-Z well (Figure 17).  E.S. making the release of the "Lisama B" formation.F: 171 ° F). which gave rise to production of better quality API.F.S.F technology implementation resulted in greater efficiency and reliability of artificial lifting system.F technology made possible reducing transportation costs and improving treatment and dehydration of crude oil. creating less severe operating conditions of pressure and temperature during production. $ 2.H.104.S. 26 months delay to recover the same oil production (81.S. the NPV is U. (Decreased pump operating temperature of 380 ˚ F to 269 ˚ F and decreased THP of 215 psi to 31 psi). thus deferred production is not generated.  Implementation of E.S.S.  E.  Implementation of E.F technology. has generated profits of U. $2. This scenario includes the well production under conditions without implementing E.  A greater efficiency and reliability of Artificial Lifting System. having a lower operating temperature of the pump may generate less favorable environments for the precipitation of inorganic deposits.  Implementation of E. Economic Analysis Scenario without E. evidenced a of fluid viscosity decrease in surface. allowed increasing capacity of extraction and therefore total fluid volume produced. Pwf. Scenario 2.165. This indicates that E.S.SPE-165044-MS-MS 11 Caso 1 : ELECTRICAL HEATING IMPLEMENTATION PRODUCTION REVENUE Bnfc $$ (ENERGY SAVING) 15 MONTHS TO RECOVER 81179 BOPD 0 MONTHS ENERGY COSTS $$ (ENERGY OF ELECTRICAL HEATING) TRACINGCOST Figure 16.H.H.S.452 while for scenario 2.

SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. m. Elphick. T. 12. 24.S. not only in other wells in the field Tisquirama but also in other heavy oil fields with similar problems. C. 4..S.F GOR Ko NPV OR VNA Pwf THP USGS WOR WOR’ API = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Alternating Current Barrels of Fuid Per Day Barrels of Oil Per Day Barrels Per Day Barrels of Water Per Day Basic Sediment and Water Electrical Heat in Surface Facilities Gas/Oil Ratio Oil Relative Permeability Net Present Value Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure Tubing Head Pressure United States Geological Survey Water/Oil Ratio Time-Derivative of the WOR American petroleum institute References 1.F tool into the Tisquirama. 31.S.H. Pp..G. Pp. Romano... In the case of producing intervals with proximity to the oil-water contact. Crabtree. Heavy-Oil Reservoirs. R. 1978.H. October 1980. Issue 3. can justify or enable their use. Pipe Heat Tracing With Electric Impedance Heating. j.. Vol. September. 113 –116. Curtis. pp. Ando. is recommended to do an integral technical and economic evaluation (wellstation). Plant Engineering.F technology implementation. Volume 14. Et Al. And Takki. M. 3... Kuchuk. October 2011. 2002.. b. Application of the Sect Electric Heating System to Long Distance Pipelines. No. 22-25 October 1995. is recommended to do an evaluation before the E. Fisher. Technical and economic advantages found with the implementation of the E. J.. j..32-38. 1.F system. Dallas. Tyrie. Water Control Diagnostic Plots. Oilfield Review. Joseph.S. Chan. .Z well. November 1994. Bailey. And Erickson.. Issue 1. 2000. 6. Sandberg. November 23. Acknowledgement Thanks to Ecopetrol S. K. to observe and quantify additional benefits. Comité Francais Electrothermie. Koester. Texas. 7.H. 242-251. f.R.S. Water Control. Nomenclature AC BFPD BOPD BPD BWPD BS&W E. c. 9th International Congress..Guide to Uses and Benefits. pp. Direct Electrical Heating of Flowelines .A for allowing us to publish these results and each of the professionals who contributed in one way or another and made possible the completion of this article. Roodhart. Heat Tracing of Piping Systems. C.12 SPE-165044-MS-MS    Before implementing E. SPE 30775 M-S. pp.. pp. Volume 32. l.H. March. OTC 22631. Chapter B6. H. to determine optimal production rates and thus avoid early water coning... Oilfield Review. 5.1-10. 2.

G.. . Szemat. Misenta. P.. 1-3. and Secco. Downhole Electrical Heating System Feasibility of Heavy Oil Implementation in Offshore Congo. Pp. I.SPE-165044-MS-MS 13 8. Sandberg.E. SPE 136857. November 2010. W.