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Effect of Work Material Hardness and Machining Parameters on Burr-formation and Surface Finish in Micro-Milling of AISI D2 Steel

Suyog Jhavar1, Neelesh K Jain2@, C P Paul3 and L M Kukreja3


PhD Scholar, Email: suyog@iiti.ac.in Associate Professor, Email: nkjain@iiti.ac.in @ corresponding author Mechanical Engineering Discipline, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, MP 453 441, India 3 Scientific Officer, Laser Material Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology Indore, MP, 452 013 India
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Email: paulcp@rrcat.gov.in

Abstract :- This paper presents a study on influence of work material hardness and the micro-milling parameters on the burr-formation and surface finish in the micro-milling of AISI D2 tool steel, which is used for making various dies, using flat end solid (i.e. without bit) carbide micro-milling cutter of 500 m dia. Two levels of work material hardness (50 and 60 HRC), three micro-milling parameters namely cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut have been varied. The experiments have been designed using Box-Behnken approach of response surface methodology to establish the optimum values of micro-milling parameters for minimizing burr-formation and surface roughness. Lower burr formation was observed at higher values of the work material hardness, lower cutting speed, and higher feed rate. The effect of depth of cut on burr-formation was found insignificant. Better surface finish was observed for lower value of the work material hardness, higher cutting speed, lower feed rate, and lower depth of cut. Keywords: Burrs, Die steel, Micro-milling, Response Surface, Surface finish

1. INTRODUCTION Economic and efficient manufacturing of the miniaturized parts necessitates micro-machining as topic of extensive research because micro-machining processes are economical and flexible alternatives to manufacture the miniaturized parts used in various optical, bio-medical, communication, avionics, dies and molds, micro-fluidics, filters for the food-processing, fuel cells, and micro/nano-electronics applications [1]. It is essential to produce accurate and burr-free micro-machined surface for these applications. AISI D2 is a high-carbon, high-chromium tool steel alloyed with molybdenum and vanadium which is widely used in manufacturing of various moulds and dies due to its high wear resistance and high compressive strength. AISI D2

is generally supplied in the annealed condition with a hardness of 20-25 HRC which can be increased up to 30-65 HRC through proper heat treatment. Very few references are available on the micro-milling of the hardened tool and die steels. Bissaco et al [2, 3] have reported problems like higher tool deflection, higher tool wear and higher tool breakage were observed particularly in micro-milling of higher hardness work materials. All these result in burr-formation and poor surface finish. Since, micro-milled components are very small in size therefore it is very difficult to use any secondary operation for burr-removal and improving the surface finish. Work material properties, micro-machining parameters, and cutting tool geometry mainly affect generation of burrs and quality of surface finish produced [4]. Some researchers [1, 4, 5] have developed the

mechanics of the micro-material removal mainly focusing on the cutting tool geometry. They have reported that small change in tool geometry parameters such as rake angle, side cutting edge angle, tapering the cutting edges, etc. influences burr-formation. Since, micro-milling tools are difficult to manufacture therefore changing the tool geometry frequently make micro-milling more costly. In this context, parametric study plays an important role for confirmation of process accuracy and surface finish. The present work aims to fill this gap by establishing the optimum values of micro-milling parameters for minimizing burr-formation and surface roughness for different work material hardness through response surface methodology (RSM). 2. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 2.1 Sample Preparation In the present work, samples in the form of small slits of size 30 mm x 8 mm x 2.5 mm have been cut using CNC wire electro discharge machine (ECOCUT model) of Electronica make. These samples were then heat treated to get hardness values of 50 and 60 HRC using the procedure described in [6]. The samples were then properly polished and tested for hardness using a universal hardness tester of AAFRI make. Three readings for each sample were taken and an average value was calculated to minimize errors in the measurement of hardness of the prepared samples. To ensure parallel alignment of the samples so as to avoid variation in depth of cut during micro-milling operation, the samples were machined on a CNC micro-machining center (HYPER 15 model from Synergy Nano Systems) using carbide end milling cutter of 6 mm diameter. 2.2 Equipments Used in the Experiments Experiments have been performed on 3-Axis high-precision CNC micro-machining center (Fig. 1) that has a resolution of 0.1 m and an accuracy of 1 m. Slots of 0.5 mm width and 5.0 mm length were cut for different experimental runs using flat end micro-milling solid carbide cutter (i.e. without bit) of 500 m diameter and having two flutes. The surface roughness of the machined samples was measured using optical surface profiler (model NT 9080 from Bruker Inc. USA). The average height of burr-formed was measured using Toolmakers Microscope (TM 550 from Mitutoyo, Japan) having a resolution of 5 m.

Fig.1: Photographs of CNC micro-machining center used during the experiments. 2.3 Experimental Plan Total of 15 experiments have been designed using Box-Behnken approach of response surface methodology to study the effect of input parameters (cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut) on the responses by varying each parameter on three levels. Same set of experiments have been conducted for two values of work material hardness. The ranges of input parameters have been selected on the basis of the preliminary investigations and literature, and they are mentioned in table 1. Table 2 presents the values of the responses (Ra value for surface roughness and average height of the burrs) for different experimental runs for two values of the work material hardness for AISI D2 material. Table1: Levels of the input parameters used in the experiments. Parameter Speed Feed Rate Depth of (rpm) (mm/min) cut (m) 1500 4 50 Low (-1) 6 75 Medium (0) 2250 3000 8 100 High (1) MINITAB software has been used for statistical analysis of the experimental results and to get the mathematical equations of the response surfaces. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION It is evident from the experimental results presented in the Table 2 that the higher burr height and better surface finish (i.e. lower Ra value) are obtained in the lower hardness material as compared to that of higher hardness material. This is because it is relatively easier to plastically deform a lower hardness material and recovery of some of this plastic deformation is relatively more in lower hardness materials as compared that of higher hardness material. This results in waviness in the plastic deformation and higher burr height in lower hardness materials.

Table 2: Values of the input parameters and responses for different experimental runs. Experiment Speed, Feed Rate, Depth of Hardness-50 HRC Hardness-60 HRC No. s f Cut, d Surface Average Surface Average (RPM) (mm/min.) (m) Roughness Burr Roughness Burr Ra ( m) Height, h Ra ( m) Height, (mm) h (mm) 1 1500 4 75 0.13 0.700 1.20 0.065 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 3000 1500 3000 1500 3000 1500 3000 2250 2250 2250 2250 2250 2250 2250 4 8 8 6 6 6 6 4 8 4 8 6 6 6 75 75 75 50 50 100 100 50 50 100 100 75 75 75

1.290 1.600 1.320 0.783 1.210 1.610 1.400 0.800 1.550 1.300 1.370 1.300 1.300 1.250

0.25 0.09 0.1 0.08 0.16 0.14 0.22 0.18 0.085 0.23 0.12 0.15 0.15 0.16

1.35 1.50 1.70 1.30 1.50 1.40 1.50 1.30 1.50 1.30 1.60 1.40 1.40 1.40

0.080 0.050 0.080 0.055 0.085 0.070 0.075 0.060 0.080 0.100 0.050 0.080 0.075 0.080

Hardness and homogeneity are prerequisite for micro-cutting of steels with tungsten carbide tools to achieve minimisation of burrs and good surface quality [2]. But, machining of the harder material requires higher cutting force which leads to increased tool vibration thereby increasing the surface roughness produced. As depicted in the Table 2, for the 50 HRC hardness material, minimum values of both Ra and average burr height were obtained for cutting speed of 1500 RPM, depth of cut 50 m and 6 mm/min. feed rate (experiment No. 5). But, for 60 HRC material, minimum Ra value was observed for the cutting speed of 1500 RPM, 75 m depth of cut and 4 mm/min. feed rate (experiment No. 1). While, minimum average burr height was seen for a cutting speed of 1500 rpm, feed rate of 8 mm/min and a depth of cut of 75 m (Experiment No. 3). Tables 3 and 4 present ANOVA results for surface roughness values for 50 and 60 HRC material respectvely. Similarly, Tables 5 and 6 present ANOVA results for the average burr height. ANOVA results show low P value ( 0.05) which indicates that the obtained models are statistically significant.

3.1 Comparison between Surface Roughnesses From the Table 3 it can be interpreted that for 50 HRC material, feed rate and depth of cut are the most significant factors affecting the Ra values contributing 34.25% and 20% respectively while contribution of the cutting speed was found only 3.1%. The contribution of interaction effects are: cutting speed with feed rate 16.93%; feed rate with depth of cut 10.34%; and depth of cut with cutting speed 9.07%. This can be explained as follows: increase in depth of cut and feed rate increases area of contact between tool and the workpiece increasing the shear force and tending the cutting action to be more unstable which produces higher value of the surface roughness. It can be seen from the Table 4 that for the 60 HRC material, feed rate and cutting speed contributed 71% and 22% respectively and the contribution of depth of cut and interaction effects is insignificant. Equations (1) and (2) express the mathematical relationship, obtained from the regression analysis of the experimental results, between the surface roughness Ra value and the three machining variables (in terms of actual factors) for the hardness of 50 HRC and 60 HRC.

Surface Plot of Ra vs Speed (RPM), Feed (mm/min.)

Ra (50 HRC) = -5.0238 + 0.00159483 s + 0.690625 f + 0.046195 d -0.000145 s*f -0.0034 f*d - 8.49333e-006 d*s (1) Ra (60 HRC) = -0.126083 + 2.33333e-005 s + 0.0178125 f + 0.002925 d (2)

Figures 2 and 3 illustrate surface plots of surface roughness. These figures were drawn according to their regression models and results of ANOVA. FromPlot these itSpeed is clear that poor surface finish Surface ofplots Ra vs (RPM), Feed (mm/min.) is obtained at higher feed rate and lower cutting speed for both the hardness values.

1.5 1.2 0.9 0.6 4 6 Feed (mm/min.) 8 3000 2500 Speed (RPM) 2000 1500
Ra

1.65 1.50 1.35 1.20 4 2000 6 Feed (mm/min.) 8 1500 2500 Speed (RPM) 3000

Ra

Surface Plot of h (mm) vs Speed (RPM), Feed (mm/min.) Surface Plot of h (mm) vs Speed (RPM), Feed (mm/min.)

Fig. 2: Surface plot for surface roughness Ra for 50 HRC work material.

Fig. 3: Surface plot for surface roughness Ra for 60 HRC work material.

0.25 0.20 h (mm) 0.15 3000 0.10 4 2000 6 Feed (mm/min.) 8 1500 2500 Speed (RPM)
h (mm)

0.125 0.100 0.075 3000 0.050 4 2000 6 Feed (mm/min.) 8 1500 2500 Speed (RPM)

Fig. 4: Surface plot for average burr height for 50 HRC work material. 3.2 Comparison between Average Burr Heights It can be concluded from the Tables 5 and 6 that cutting speed and feed rate are the most important factors affecting average burr height. The pecentage contributions of cutting speed and feed rate are 26.94% and 49.98% in 50 HRC work material and 34.88% each for 60 HRC work material. Hence, it can be concluded that the depth of cut does not play a vital role in burr formation and hence can be ignored. Interaction among the variables also seem to be insignificant and ignored in forming the mathematical relationships based on the regression analysis. Equstions (3) and (4) express the mathematical relationships for the average burr height using the results of ANOVA. h = -0.169083 + 0.000158333 s + 0.0221875 f + 0.001475 d (3) h = -0.149667 + 9.33333e-005 s + 0.0175 f + 0.00135 d (4)

Fig. 5: Surface plot for average burr height for 60 HRC work material. Figures 4 and 5 illustrate surface plots for average burr height. These figures were drawn according to their regression models and results of ANOVA. From these figures it can be inferred that lower burr formation is obtained at higher feed rate and lower cutting speed for both the hardness values. 4. CONCLUSIONS This paper presented an experimental investigation on surface finish and burr-formation during micro-milling to obtain optimum machining parameters using RSM. Comparative study was also done for different hardness values of the work material by heat treating the same material in-house so as to deduce an ideal set of machining parameters for hardened tool steel providing valuable insight for various mould making and other significant applications. General conclusions from the current study can be summarized as follows: Higher hardness of the work material results

in lower burr height and higher value of the surface roughness i.e. poor surface finish as compared to that obtained for the lower hardness work material. Lower burr formation was observed at higher feed rate and lower cutting speed for both the hardness values. At higher feed rates shearing mechanism become vital which causes less burr formation as compared to ploughing action. Poor surface finish was obtained at higher feed rate and lower cutting speed for both the hardness values. For higher feed rates, surface roughness increases due to increase in supremacy of geometric effect. The order of influence of the machining parameters for both the surface roughness and burr formation is feed rate, cutting speed, and depth of cut. The minimization of burr-formation in micro-machining is very important because micro-milled components are very small in size and so it is very difficult to use any secondary operation for burr-removal and improving surface finish.

at Indian Institute of Technology Indore for their support and cooperation in carrying out this work. 6. REFRENCES 1. Saptaji K., Subbiah S., Dhupia J. S., Effect of side edge angle and Effective rake angle on top burrs in micro-millling, Micro-milling, Precision Engineering, 36(3), 444450, 2012. Bissacco G., Hansen H. N., Chiffre L. De., Micro-milling of hardened tool steel for mould making applications, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 167, 201-207, 2005. Bissacco G., Hansen H. N., Chiffre L. De., Size effect on surface generation in micro-milling of hardened tool steel, Annals of CIRP, 55(1), 593-596, 2006. Lekkala R., Bajpai V., Singh R. K., Joshi S.S., Characterization and modeling of burr formation in micro end milling, Precision Engineering, 35, 625-637, 2011. Takacs M., Vero B., Meszaros I., Micro-milling of metallic materials, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 138, 152-155, 2003. Romesh C. Sharma, Principles of Heat Treatment of Steels, New Age International Publishers, New Delhi, 2008, ISBN: 81-224-0869-9.

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5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors wish to thank the authorities of Raja Ramanna Centre for Advance Technology Indore, and that of Central Workshop, Advanced Manufacturing Processes Lab, and Metrology Lab