This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
org/wiki/Bookbinding#T hermally_activated_binding Bookbinding
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search
A traditional bookbinder at work
Old leather bookbindings
1 Hardcover binding 4.1.1 Paperback binding 8 Spine orientation 9 Spine titling 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links  History This section needs additional citations for verification.2 Punch and bind o 4.1 Origins of the book 2 Early book formats 3 History of bookbinding o 3.3 Historical forms of binding 4 Modern commercial binding o 4. Contents [hide] • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1 History o 1.1 Methods of hardcover binding o 4. Unsourced material may be challenged .3 Thermally activated binding o 4.1 Introduction of paper o 3.4 Stitched or sewn binding 5 Modern hand binding 6 Conservation and restoration 7 Terms and techniques o 7.2 Development o 3. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.Bookbinders type holder Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book from a number of folded or unfolded sheets of paper or other material. It usually involves attaching a book cover to the resulting text-block.
the text can be accessed from both beginning and end. Roman works were often longer. Afghanistan. similar to a modern roll of paper towels. Buddhist monks took the idea through Persia. editions of the Jewish holy book. The word volume. it was an evolving art encompassing techniques from a variety of cultures and civilizations. from the Latin word volvere ("to roll"). Similar techniques can also be found in ancient Egypt where priestly texts were compiled on scrolls and books of papyrus. This is partially overcome in the second method. comes from these scrolls. . as many early Greek texts—scrolls—were thirty pages long. The finished leaves were given numbers. which would form a stain in the wound. were also held in special holders when read. as in a Torah. meaning "to cut". running to hundreds of pages. while important documents were written on papyrus or parchment. With a double scroll. making a palm-leaf book. the entire scroll must be unwound. and two long twines were threaded through each end through wooden boards. When the book was closed. similar to a modern winerack. the excess twine would be wrapped around the boards to protect the manuscript leaves. one generally has to unroll and reroll many other pages.and removed. and Iran. The Greeks used to comically call their books tome. The leaf was then dried and rubbed with ink. a single core scroll has a major disadvantage: in order to read text at the end of the scroll. Writers in the Hellenistic-Roman culture wrote longer texts as scrolls. these were stored in shelving with small cubbyholes. The modern English word book comes from the Proto-Germanic *bokiz. only four are known to have survived the Spanish invasion of Latin America. and the portions of the scroll not being read can remain wound. referring to the beechwood on which early written works were recorded. Scrolls can be rolled in one of two ways. where religious sutras were copied on to palm leaves (cut into two. which were customarily folded accordion-fashion to fit into the hand. Court records and notes were written on wax tablets. The first method is to wrap the scroll around a single core. The Egyptian Book of the Dead was a massive 200 pages long and was used in funerary services for the deceased. which is to wrap the scroll around two cores. The craft of bookbinding may have originated in India. The book was not needed in ancient times. Another version of bookmaking can be seen through the ancient Mayan codex. lengthwise) with a metal stylus. (September 2007)  Origins of the book There is no way to be certain where book crafting originated. Torah scrolls. This still leaves the scroll a sequential-access medium: to reach a given page. While simple to construct. to China in the first century BC.
codices)—from the Latin word caudex. and while many are singlequire. Codices were a significant improvement over papyrus or vellum scrolls in that they were easier to handle. According to T. excavated at Herculaneum employed a unique connecting system that presages later sewing on thongs or cords. c. meaning 'the trunk' of a tree. However. At the turn of the first century. the books were mostly written on papyrus. as well as a folding concertina format. a kind of folded parchment notebook called pugillares membranei in Latin. Eric Turner seems to challenge Skeat's notion when stating "…its mere existence is evidence that this book form had a prehistory" and that "early experiments with this book form may well have taken place outside of Egypt. This term was used by both the pagan poet Martial and Christian apostle Paul the Apostle. Martial used the term with reference to gifts of literature exchanged by Romans during the festival of Saturnalia. Two ancient polyptychs. C. a pentaptych and octoptych. The idea of . Byblos. Diptychs and later polyptych formats were often hinged together along one edge. around the first century AD. in the form of codices" and he theorized that this form of notebook was invented in Rome and then "… must have spread rapidly to the Near East…" In his discussion of one of the earliest pagan parchment codices to survive from Oxyrhynchus in Egypt. like the Indian books. "…in at least three cases and probably in all. and the word Bible comes from the town where the Byzantine monks established their first scriptorium. 700. Consisting of primarily Gnostic texts in Coptic. Such a set of simple wooden boards sewn together was called by the Romans a codex (pl. The idea spread quickly through the early churches. despite allowing writing on both sides of the leaves. in the British Library. is the earliest surviving Western binding  Early book formats In addition to the scroll. Skeat.The original tooled red goatskin binding of the St Cuthbert Gospel. wax tablets were commonly used in Antiquity as a writing surface. analogous to the spine of modern books." Early intact codices were discovered at Nag Hammadi in Egypt. a few are multi-quire. became commonly used for writing in the Roman Empire. they were still foliated—numbered on the leaves. in modern Lebanon.
and it was not until the fifteenth century that books began to have the rounded spines associated with hardcovers today. as they were hard to recycle. are collectively known as furniture. blind stamps. Early and medieval codices were bound with flat spines. as they have been broken up for their precious materials. New York) have their original cover from around 800. . often studded with gems and incorporating ivory relief panels or enamel elements. causing the book to take on a characteristic wedge shape. often all over. "to fasten"—appeared when the text of the individual testaments of the Bible were combined and text had to be searched through more quickly. the wooden covers of medieval books were often secured with straps or clasps. with pages made from parchment folded and sewn on to strong cords or ligaments that were attached to wooden boards and covered with leather. These straps. in red goatskin. sizes and styles varied considerably. but a fair number of the ivory panels have survived. Very grand manuscripts for liturgical rather than library use had covers in metalwork. Since early books were exclusively handwritten on handmade materials. now in the British Library. along with metal bosses on the book's covers to keep it raised off the surface that it rests on. Because the vellum of early books would react to humidity by swelling.  Luxury medieval books for the library had leather covers decorated. whose decoration includes raised patterns and coloured tooled designs. and there was no standard of uniformity. and often small metal pieces of furniture. with tooling (incised lines or patterns). This book format became the preferred way of preserving manuscript or printed material. The 8th century Vienna Coronation Gospels were given a new gold relief cover in about 1500.  History of bookbinding Western books from the fifth century onwards were bound between hard covers. Gothic blind-stamped leather cover The earliest surviving European bookbinding is the St Cuthbert Gospel of about 700. the divided panels from the Codex Aureus of Lorsch are among the most notable.numbering each side of the page—Latin pagina. Very few of these have survived intact. and the Lindau Gospels (now Morgan Library.
miniatures and bookbinding.Medieval stamps showed animals and figures as well as the vegetal and geometric designs that would later dominate book cover decoration. it did not in itself change the various styles of binding used. Morocco. had a street named Kutubiyyin or book sellers. except that vellum became much less used. 50 AD – 121) improved the first significant improvement and standardization of papermaking by adding essential new materials into its composition. Particular skills were developed for Arabic calligraphy. Techniques for fixing gold leaf under the tooling and stamps were imported from the Islamic world in the 15th century. The production of books became a real industry and cities like Marrakech. The people who worked in making books were called Warraqin or paper professionals. or not at all. and thereafter the gold-tooled leather binding has remained the conventional choice for high quality bindings for collectors. . As paper was less reactive to humidity. Because the Qur'an itself was considered a sacred object. Marbled book board from a book published in London in 1872  Introduction of paper Cai Lun (ca. they had a flap that wrapped the book up when not in use. the famous Koutoubia Mosque is named so because of its location on this street. were always more common. in order to beautify the book containing the holy scripture. which contained more than 100 bookshops in the 12th century. and had a brief title hand-written on the spine. a culture of calligraphy and lavish bookbinding developed. The Arabs made books lighter— sewn with silk and bound with leather covered paste boards. though cheaper bindings that only used gold for the title on the spine. Although the arrival of the printed book vastly increased the number of books produced in Europe. The most functional books were bound in plain white vellum over boards. Until the end of the period books were not usually stood up on shelves in the modern way. the heavy boards were not needed. In the 8th century Arabs learned the arts of papermaking from the Chinese and were then the first to bind paper into books at the start of the Islamic Golden Age.
 Historical forms of binding Historical forms of binding include the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Coptic binding Ethiopian binding Long-stitch bookbinding Islamic bookcover with a distinctive flap on the back cover that wraps around to the front when the book is closed. enabling missionaries to take portable books with them around the world. made from tissue-thin oxford paper. that resembled the early Arabic Qurans.The binding of a Chinese bamboo book (Sun Tzu's The Art of War)  Development With the arrival (from the East) of rag paper manufacturing in Europe in the late Middle Ages and the use of the printing press beginning in the mid-15th century. bookbinding began to standardize somewhat. Clasps were removed. and titles were added to the spine. with floppy covers. The reduced cost of books facilitated cheap lightweight Bibles. the books became more accessible and were stored on their side on long shelves for the first time. With printing. Wooden board Limp vellum Calf-binding ("leather-bound") Paper case In-board cloth Cased cloth binding Bradel Binding Secret Belgian binding Traditional Chinese bookbinding and Japanese stab binding Girdle binding . and modern wood glues enabled paperback covers to be added to simple glue bindings. but page sizes still varied considerably.
".  Modern commercial binding There are various commercial techniques in use today.Some books have even been bound in human skin. Until the mid-20th century. resulting in longer life for the material. cloth. from them: 1. When the book is opened in the middle of a signature. quarto. simply. Small vertical holes are punched through the far left-hand edge of each signature. Case binding is the most common type of hardcover binding for books. Today. leather bound. A variation of the hardcover which is more durable is the calf-binding. This is also known as perfect binding. but from that period onwards. a kind of textured paper which vaguely resembles cloth but is easily differentiated on close inspection. and are much sought after for both aesthetic and practical reasons. vinyl or leather. though they may also be folio.  Methods of hardcover binding There are a number of methods used to bind hardcover books. The covers of modern hardback books are made of thick cardboard. Copies of such books stitched together in their original format are often difficult to find. most publishers adopted clothette. Unusually large and heavy books are sometimes bound with wire. a practice known as anthropodermic bibliopegy. the binding threads are visible. and then the signatures are sewn together with lock-stitches to form the . the book can be seen to consist of a number of signatures bound together. Oversewing. hardbound book has rigid covers and is stitched in the spine. where the signatures of the book start off as loose pages which are then clamped together. Some books that appeared in the mid-20th century signature-bound appear in reprinted editions in glued-together editions. 2. The pages are arranged in signatures and glued together into a "textblock. covers of mass-produced books were laid with cloth. most commercially produced books belong to one of four categories:  Hardcover binding A hardcover. usually from a calf. Signatures of hardcover books are typically octavo (a single sheet folded three times). the cover has a paper overlap. where the cover is either half or fully clad in leather. cloth binding. This is also called full-bound or. Library binding refers to the hardcover binding of serials and paperback books intended for the rigors of library use. or 16mo (see Book size). many libraries elect to purchase paperbacks and have them rebound as hardcover books. Though many publishers have started to provide "library binding" editions. Most cloth-bound books are now half-and-half covers with cloth covering only the spine. In that case. The textblock is then attached to the cover or "case" which is made of cardboard covered with paper. or edition binding. Looking from the top of the spine.
and glue edges of the text block are attached to a piece of cloth lining to form the spine. This binding is great for annual reports. the back cover is then placed on to the front cover ready for the wire binding . Many varieties of sewing stitches exist. The three to one hole pattern is used for smaller books that are up to 9/16" in diameter while the 2:1 pattern is normally used for thicker books as the holes are slightly bigger to accommodate slightly thicker. which can cause some signatures to come loose over time. In contrast to oversewing. such as the Retchoso or Butterfly Stitch of Japan. and. Wire bound books are made of individual sheets. use small slits instead of punched holes. through-the-fold books have wide margins and can open completely flat. owners manuals and software manuals. or Wire-O binding is a type of binding that is used for books that will be viewed or read in an office or home type environment. certain types of paper do not hold adhesive well. each punched with a line of round or square holes on the binding edge. Double-fan adhesive bound books can open completely flat and have a wide margin.text block. where the signatures of the book are folded and stitched through the fold. Sewing through the fold (also called Smyth sewn). 4. 3. Double wire binding allows books to have smooth crossover and is affordable in many colors. from basic links to complex decorative stitches. the pages can come loose. twin loop. which are run over a roller—"fanning" the pages—to apply a thin layer of glue to each page edge. While Western books are generally sewn through holes punched along the fold. Once punched. with wear and tear. However. The signatures are then sewn or glued together at the spine to form a text block. Double wire. some Asian bindings. the margins of oversewn books are reduced and the pages will not lie flat when opened. the text block of a sewn-through-the-fold book is not very secure. Oversewing is a very strong method of binding and can be done on books up to five inches thick. Modern paperback spines  Punch and bind Different types of the punch and bind binding include: 1. The binding involves the use of a "C" shaped wire spine that is squeezed into a round shape using a wire closing device. However. Double-fan adhesive binding starts off with two signatures of loose pages. stronger wire. This type of binding uses either a 3:1 pitch hole pattern with three holes per inch or a 2:1 pitch hole pattern with two holes per inch. Then the two signatures are perfectly aligned to form a text block. However.
In the United States. A series of pins attached to a plastic strip called a Comb feeds through the holes to the other side and then goes through another plastic strip called the receiving strip. comb binding is often referred to as 19-ring binding because it uses a total of 19 holes along the 11-inch side of a sheet of paper. Comb binding allows a book to be disassembled and reassembled by hand without damage. The excess portion of the pins is cut off and the plastic heat-sealed to create a relatively flat bind method. Like Proclick.  Thermally activated binding Some of the different types of thermally activated binding include: 1. Proclick is manufactured exclusively by the General Binding Corporation. ZipBind is also manufactured by the General Binding Corporation and offers easy editing. However. elements (double loop wire) to be inserted. A curled plastic "comb" is fed through the slits to hold the sheets together. Thus the addition and deletion of pages is a simple process provided that the pages have already been punched. Proclick (GBC) is a relatively new binding style that was originally designed for use with a 3:1 pitch wire binding hole pattern. Spiral coil binding uses a number of different hole patterns for binding documents. The next step involves the binder holding the book by its pages and inserting the wire into a "closer" which is basically a vise that crimps the wire closed and into its round shape. The sections are rough-cut in the back to make them absorb the hot glue. the binding spines for this style are designed to work with the 9/16" plastic comb binding hole pattern.2. VeloBind provides a more permanent bind than comb-binding. 3. This type of binding uses an element that snaps shut and can be easily opened for editing purposes. The other three sides are then face trimmed. Paperback or soft cover books are also normally bound using perfect binding. spiral coil spines are also available for use with 3:1 pitch. There are several types but basically it is made by punching holes along the entire length of the spine of the page and winding a wire helix (like a spring) through the holes to provide a fully flexible hinge at the spine. They usually consist of various sections with a cover made from heavier paper. Sheets for the document are punched with a line of holes near the bound edge. The supplies themselves can be re-used or recycled. glued together at the spine with a strong flexible glue. This is what allows the magazine or paperback book . but is primarily used for business and legal presentations and small publications. The most common hole pattern used with this style is 4:1 pitch (4 holes per inch). It is commonly used for atlases and other publications where it is necessary or desirable to be able to open the publication back on itself without breaking the spine. 5. The wire is then placed through the holes. 6. 4. VeloBind is used to permanently rivet pages together using a plastic strip on the front and back of the document. However. The editing abilities of this style make it popular with direct sales organizations and mobile offices. The back page can then be turned back to its correct position. Comb binding uses a 9/16" pitch rectangular hole pattern punched near the bound edge. and gives a result similar to paperback books. Comb supplies are typically available in a wide range of colors and diameters. National Geographic is one example of this type. Spiral binding is the most economical form of mechanical binding when using plastic or metal. 5:1 pitch and 0.400-hole patterns. Zipbind spines can easily be opened and closed without the need for a binding machine. thus hiding the spine of the book. Perfect binding is often used.
joins a set of nested folios into a single magazine issue. 3. however. 5. usually larger. heated in a machine (basically a griddle). Unibind can be used to bind soft covered documents with a look that is similar to perfect binding. and when the glue cools. The binding is as durable as that of a hardbound book. also called saddle-stitching. Individuals usually purchase "thermal covers" or "therm-a-bind covers" which are usually made to fit a standard size sheet of paper and come with a glue channel down the spine. except that it lacks the hard covers. Most magazines are stapled or saddle-stitched. some are bound with perfect binding and use thermally activated adhesive. to be opened. unibind usually requires you to purchase a one piece coverset to bind your documents. but it is really a paperback with hard covers. Many books that are sold as hardcover are actually of this type. Thermal glue strips can also be purchased separately for individuals that wish to use customized/original covers. some users also refer to Tape Binding as the process of adding a colored tape to the edge of a mechanically fastened (stapled or stitched) document. Like Thermal Binding. However. and less durable means of binding them are usual. A cardboard article looks like a hardbound book at first sight. Magazines are considered more ephemeral than books. In general. This type of document is usually bound with thermal adhesive glue using a perfect binding machine. Trade paperbacks are more sturdily made. creating documents using thermal binding glue strips can be a tedious process which requires a scoring device and a large format printer. these are likely to fall apart or lose sheets after much handling or several years. The Modern Library series is an example. Mass market paperbacks (pulp paperbacks) are small (16mo size). The paper is placed in the cover. 3. most American comic books are well-known examples of this type. The difference between the two can usually easily be seen by looking for the sections in the top or bottom sides of the book. The majority of Unibinds covers can be printed on as well to give documents a unique finish. Unibind is a variety of thermal binding that uses a special steel channel with resin rather than glue inside of it to give it a more sturdy bind to hold the pages in place. It can also be used for binding hardcover books and photo books. 2.2. However. cheaply made with each sheet fully cut and glued at the spine. . it adheres the paper to the spine. Stapling through the centerfold. 4. with traditional gatherings or sections of bifolios. A tape binding machine such as the Powis Parker Fastback or Standard Accubind system will usually be used to complete the binding process and to activate the thermal adhesive on the glue strip. the cover papers of magazines will be the same as the inner pages (self-cover) or only slightly heavier (soft cover). Tape binding refers to a system that wraps and glues a piece of tape around the base of the document. A sewn book is constructed in the same way as a hardbound book. (Unibind is also the name of a International binding company)  Stitched or sewn binding Types of stitched or sewn bindings: 1. However. and more expensive. Thermal binding uses a one piece cover with glue down the spine to quickly and easily bind documents without the need for punching. Unibind also offers SteelBack spines that allow you to use your own covers in the binding process.
Modern bookbinding by hand can be seen as two closely allied fields: the creation of new bindings. Traditionally sewn book opened flat. and the repair of existing bindings. Hand bookbinders use a variety of specialized hand tools. Repairs or restorations are often done to emulate the style of the original binding. . but often an existing commercially-bound book is pulled. Bookbinders may bind several copies of the same text. some publishers print unbound manuscripts which a binder can collate and bind. or taken apart. in order to be given a new binding. a modern suspense novel. by taking classes in the course of university studies. the most emblematic of which is the bonefolder. Once the textblock of the book has been pulled. from minimally invasive conservation of a historic book to the full restoration and rebinding of a text. and from basic cloth-case bindings to valuable full-leather fine bindings. it can be rebound in almost any structure. or by a combination of those methods. Bookbinders are often active in both fields. by attending specialized trade schools. Bookbinders can learn the craft through apprenticeship. polished piece of bone used to crease paper and apply pressure. for instance. tapered. Hand bookbinders create new bindings that run the gamut from historical book structures made with traditional materials to modern structures made with 21st century materials. Modern hand binding Hardbound book spine stitching. Some European countries offer a Master Bookbinder certification. Though almost any existing book can be repaired to some extent.' (hand paper-making. Halfbound book with leather and marble paper. could be rebound to look like a 16th-century manuscript. only books that were originally sewn can be rebound by resewing. Repairs to existing books also encompass a broad range of techniques. a flat. though no such certification exists in the United States. giving each copy a unique appearance. printmaking and bookbinding) are available through certain colleges and universities. For new works. MFA programs that specialize in the 'Book Arts.
" That is. and the handling of these pages has to be undertaken with great care and a delicate hand. their goals differ. the pages and book covers are often hundreds of years old. as well as brass tools used during finishing. set forth in the AIC's Code of Ethics. showing one volume finished and one untouched Books requiring conservation treatment run the gamut from the very earliest of texts to books with modern bindings that have undergone heavy usage. Some of the more common materials for covers are leather. the goal of restoration. whose guidelines. and that are made of particularly high-quality materials (especially full leather bindings). When creating new work. Bookbinders echo the physicians' creed. While they share methods. are known as fine or extra bindings. is to return the book to a previous state as envisioned by the restorer. however. The goal of conservation is to slow the book's decay and restore it to a usable state while altering its physical properties as little as possible. do no harm. "First. the conservator must choose a course of treatment that takes into account the book's value. the provenance. Books can be bound in many different materials.  Conservation and restoration Conservation and restoration are practices intended to repair damage to an existing book. In either case. the text. Many professional book and paper conservators in the United States are members of the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (AIC). are generally considered to outline an appropriate approach to the treatment of rare or valuable materials. Those bindings that are made with exceptionally high craftsmanship. modern hand binders often work on commission. For each book. often imagined as the original state of the book. Additional tools common to hand bookbinding include a variety of knives and hammers. the modern standard for conservation and restoration is "reversibility. decorative paper." Rebacking saving original spine. creating bindings for specific books or collections. The . or some combination of the three. In restoration hand binding. and cloth (see also: buckram). whether it comes from the binding. any repair should be done in such a way that it can be un-done if and when a better technique is developed in the future.
o The verso side of a leaf faces right when the leaf is held straight up from the spine (or an even-numbered page). symbols. each section is sewn through its fold. vegetable tanned leather. All page restoration is done at this point.binding archival process can extend a book’s life for many decades and is necessary to preserve books that sometimes are limited to a small handful of remaining copies worldwide. The text need to be separated from the covers and. is a group of bifolios nested together as a single unit. Various techniques are employed to repair the various types of page damage that might have occurred during the life of the book. in a finished book. rebound in the style of Elizabeth I's bookbinder.  Terms and techniques Most of the following applies only in respect of American practices: • • • A leaf or folio is a single complete page. page tears. In a completed book. dyed with natural dyes. The design of the book cover involves such hand-tooling. A section. o The recto side of a leaf faces left when the leaf is held straight up from the spine (that is. The next step is the creation of the book cover. Each half of the bifolio is a folio. and hand-marbled papers can be used. o ternion – three bifolios. Geneva Bible. or floral designs. be it the removal of foxing. 1603. sometimes called a gathering. depending on the nature of any particular project. especially if unprinted. where an extremely thin layer of gold is applied to the cover. This is done as delicately as possible. or. A bifolio is a single sheet folded in half to make two leaves. the stitching removed. an odd-numbered page). . producing four leaves. ink stains. The sections are then hand-sewn in the style of its period into book form. The first step in saving and preserving a book is its deconstruction. Such designs can be lettering. it could be called: o duernion – two bifolios. though the terms are often used interchangeably. a quire. Finally the cover is hand-tooled in gold leaf. Depending of how many bifolios a section is made of. only if necessary. front and back. producing six leaves. etc. The preparation of the "foundations" of the book could mean the difference between a beautiful work of art and a useless stack of paper and leather.
 Spine orientation In languages written from left to right. Also called: 32-page signature. sextern or sexternion – six bifolios. o A folio volume is typically 15 in (38 cm) or more in height. Modern paper mills can produce very large sheets. 24mo. A codex is a series of one or more sections sewn through their folds. so a modern printer will often print 64 or 128 pages on a single sheet. 32mo. and may be of special interest to book collectors. roughly the size of most modern magazines. quarto. traditionally a letter or number printed on the first leaf of a section in order to facilitate collation. A signature is a section that contains text. Folio. holds the book together. A signature folded in octavo or greater may also require that the other two sides be trimmed. o o o  Paperback binding Though books are sold as hardcover or paperback. but may be several nested signatures. so the top folds must be trimmed away before the leaves can be turned. o Duodecimo or 12mo. books are bound on the left side of the cover. o An octavo volume is typically about 5 to 6 in (13 to 15 cm) by 8 to 9 in (20 to 23 cm). and so on may also refer to the size of the finished book. the size of most mass market paperbacks. quinternion – five bifolios. The quires for a single book are arranged in order and then stitched together as a set. based on the size of sheet that an early paper maker could conveniently turn out with a manual press. The pages are aligned or cut together and glued. In the case of a paper back. A sheet folded in sextodecimo (also 16mo or 16º) is folded in half 4 times to make 16 leaves. A strong and flexible layer. producing twelve leaves. Trimming allows the leaves of the bound book to be turned. Most paperbacks and some hard cover books have a "perfect binding". Also called: sixteen-page signature. In right-to-left languages. A sheet folded in quarto (also 4to or 4º) is folded in half twice at right angles to make four leaves. A sheet folded in quarto will have folds at the spine and also across the top. which may or may not be the glue itself. A quire is a set of leaves which are stitched together. o A quarto volume is typically about 9 in (23 cm) by 12 in (30 cm). so the sizes given are rough values only. or Uncut books are untrimmed or incompletely trimmed. the actual binding of the pages is important to durability. Also called: eight-page signature. and even 64mo are other possible sizes. This is most often a single signature. the largest sort of regular book. producing eight leaves. the distinction is rarely made today. producing ten leaves. and linked together by the sewing thread. the flexible cover is part of this flexible layer. Deckle Edge. o A sextodecimo volume is about 41⁄2 in (11 cm) by 63⁄4 in (17 cm). the pages increase counter-clockwise. Though the term signature technically refers to the signature mark. and the finished size was also affected by how the pages were trimmed. Paper sizes could vary considerably. looking from on top.• • • • • quaternion – four bifolios. the size of most modern digest magazines or trade paperbacks. . such as English. A sheet folded in octavo (also 8vo or 8º) is folded in half 3 times to make 8 leaves.
conventions differ about the direction in which the title on the spine is rotated: • • In the United States.books are bound on the right. titles are conventionally printed bottom-to-top on the spine so. When the books are stacked up or stored in a shelf. all books have changed to be written and bound like left to right languages in the mid-20th century. and titles written with ink along their fore edges. literary books are written top-to-bottom. especially in cover design. In both cases. This practice is reflected in the industry standards ANSI/NISO Z39. In a book store. top-to-bottom. to be published without mirror-imaging it. and thus are bound on the left. In languages written horizontally. In languages with Chinese-influenced writing systems. the title can be read by tilting the head to the left.  See also • • • • • Bindery Bookbindings in the British Library Book design Book folding Ethiopian binding . the Commonwealth and in Scandinavia. while text books are written leftto-right. Many translations of Japanese comic books retain the binding on the right. Early books did not have titles on their spines. the details on the spine are what initially attract attention.41 and ISO 6357. Modern books display their titles on their spines. Japan. right-to-left. this is so the end of a page coincides with where it is turned. titles are usually written top-to-bottom on the spine. as is the language in general. In China (only areas using Traditional Chinese). rather they were shelved flat with their spines inward. the title is written top-to-bottom. In mainland China. In most of continental Europe. when the books are placed vertically on shelves. This means that when the book is placed on a table with the front cover upwards. and Taiwan.  Spine titling The spine of the book is an important aspect in book design. which allows the art. and thus are bound on the right. what's on the spine is the only visible information about the book. the title is correctly oriented left-to-right on the spine. laid out to be read right-to-left.
Dictionary—section". 15. Japan. US Government Printing Office. The Camberwell College of Arts. Colin H. New Castle. (1983). ^ Harthan. 38. C. 11. ISBN 9004139206. Dictionary—signature".. 16. ISBN 1-884718-41-8. ^ Harthan. – Nova Scotia College of Art and Design and the University of the Arts in Philadelphia. ^ "Etherington & Roberts. "1001 Inventions. 22.. ISBN 0197260616. at p. DE: Oak Knoll Press. 6. Paul (February 1994). 5. 45. ^ "A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology: self-cover". US Government Printing Office. Ahlan Wasahlan. pp. 15–22. ^ "Printing and Book Designs". ^ Greenfield. Brill. US Government Printing Office. 4. reprinted 2007. 15. Skeat. Retrieved 2009-06-07. The Collected Biblical Writings of T. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Dictionary—folder"..13 12. and The North Bennet Street School 18. 19. Dictionary—quire". Skeat. Jane (2002). Eric (1977).218–219. ^ Turner. Retrieved 2008-10-23. 8-9 9. 166–178. Retrieved 2009-06-07. ^ "Etherington & Roberts. ^ "Etherington & Roberts. "Methods of Affixing Leaves: Options and Implications". National Diet Library. Retrieved 2008-10-22. New Library Scene 13 (1): 8–11. pp. Jeddah). Pompeiana: raccolta di studi per il secondo centenario degli di Pompei. Don. US Government Printing Office. ISBN 10: 0812276965. The Birth of the Codex. Retrieved 200906-07. Leiden: E. 23. spread out example from the Brooklyn Museum 14. 3. The London College of Communication. 1984.C. T. London: British Academy. ^ Skeat. ^ Historical Bindings Teaching Set 13. Philadelhpia: University of Pennsylvania Press=. 7. 17. . 2. ^ "Etherington & Roberts. 20. pp. pp. (Public Relations Div. Retrieved 2007-07-17. "The golden age of Islamic bookbinding". Dictionary—sexternion". Retrieved 2007-07-20. Woodcock and Saoud. 21. pp. ^ Parisi. the University of Alabama. ^ Such as: Columbia College Chicago. T. FSTC Publishing. Retrieved 15 January 2010. ^ Harthan. 2006. ^ Such as the: Centro del bel Libro. US Government Printing Office. (2004). ^ Baker. C. Giovanni (1950). ^ Yale University library exhibition "Islamic Books and Bookbinding". ^ Pugliese Carratelli. ABC of Bookbinding. The Typology of the Early Codex. "L'Instrumentum Scriptorium nei Monumenti Pompeiani ed Ercolanesi".• • • Japanese books Prebound Secret Belgian binding  Notes 1.J. 8 8. pp. Stanford University Libraries and Academic Information Resources. ^ Roberts. ^ Al-Hassani. Muslim heritage in Our World". 24. Saudi Arabian Airlines. ^ "Unibind homepage". 13–15. Retrieved 2007-07-17. 8-11 10. 79–117. ^ "Etherington & Roberts. pp.
New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. (Originally published by B. New York: Dover Publications. 1982. Batsford.  References • Harthan. Boxes and Portfolios: Binding Construction. by Cyril James Humphries Davenport.. 1985. New York: Weatherhill. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. The Practical Guide to Craft Bookbinding. 1815–1930: The Art of Books .. "Linksdrehende Bücher". Edith. Non-adhesive Binding: Books Without Paste or Glue. ISBN 0-48620169-4. ^ ANSI/NISO Z39. Japanese Bookbinding: Instructions from a Master Craftsman / adapted by Barbara Stephan. Franz. 1985. New York: Design Press. Manual of Bookbinding. Henry. 1961. Simplified Bookbinding. John P. NY: Sigma Foundation. 1957. A. ISBN 0-486-24020-7. Gilding.41 – Printed Information on Spines NISO Standards – National Information Standards Organization. ISBN 0-500-27360-X Lewis. ^ Spine titles on books and other publications. Bookbinding: A Guide to the Literature. Kojiro. Basic Bookbinding. 1830–1910 from the University of Rochester English Embroidered Bookbindings. 1992. 26. ISBN 0-927159-04-X Zeier. ISBN 0-684-15332-7 Johnson.) Johnson. Section 6. 1946 in two volumes. Fairport. 1952) Smith. Box construction Online exhibit of publishers' bookbinding. Arthur W. HMSO (for the Victoria and Albert Museum)  Further reading • • • • • • • • • Brenni. ISBN 0-8306-3483-5  External links Wikibooks has more on the topic of Bookbinding Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Bookbinding • • • • • • • Book bindings through the ages on Flickr by the National Library of Sweden Several free books on Bookbinding. Vito J.W. Retrieved 9 April 2011.25. Keith A. Books. and Design Step-byStep. 1986. ^ Drösser. 27. Westport. ISBN 0442-22898-8 Ikegami. Bookbinding. ISBN 0-313-23718-2 Diehl. London: Thames and Hudson. Die Zeit. Arthur W.) Gross. Christoph (9 April 2011). 1990. (Originally published as Hon no tsukuriikata. from Project Gutenberg The Pierre Ouvrard Collection and Archive British Library Database of Bookbindings Publishers Bindings Online. Bookbinding: Its Background and Technique. ISBN 0-8348-019896-5. CT: Greenwood. compiler.T. (Originally published by Rinehart & Company. New York: Dover Publications. 1978. 1980.
o Cyril J. The Art of Bookbinding. . 1893 o T. H. which has a complete set of bookbinding tools at the Funk Heritage Center at Reinhardt College UNCG Digital Collections: American Publishers' Trade Bindings Texts on Wikisource: o Joseph William Zaehnsdorf.). "Bookbinding: Its Processes and Ideal". 1890 o T.• • • • University of Iowa Libraries Bookbinding Models Digital Collection Sellars Gallery of Historic Hand Tools. “Bookbinding” in Arts and Crafts Essays. J. Cobden-Sanderson. Davenport (1911). Cobden-Sanderson (March 1895). "Bookbinding". Popular Science Monthly 46. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed. J.