Electronic Devices and Circuits

Dr. K. Lal Kishore
Ph.D, MIEEE, FIETE, MISTE, MISHM.

Registrar and Professor of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kukatpally, Hyderabad - 500 072.

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CONTENTS

Contents ............... .......................... ..... .... .................................................. ....... ..... . Symbols ............................................... ........... ....................................................... . BriefHistory ofElectronics ................................................................................... .

Chapter 1 Electron Dynamics and CRO ............................................................. 1-39
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Electron Dynamics ................................................................................................ 2 Motion of Charged Particles in Electric and Magnetic Fields ............................... 2 Simple Problems Involving Electric and Magnetic Fields Only .......................... 24 Principles of CRT ................................................................................................ 26 Deflection Sensitivity ........................................................................................... 29 Applications ofCRO ............................................................................................ 36 Summary .............................................................................................................. 36 Objective Type Questions .................................................................................... 37 Essay Type Questions .......................................................................................... 38 Multiple Choice Questions ................................................................................... 38

Chapter2 Junction Diode Characteristics .................................................... 39-134
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Review of Semiconductor Physics ..................................................................... 40 Energy Band Structures ....................................................................................... 61 Conduction in Semiconductors ........................................................................... 62 Conductivity of an Intrinsic Semiconductor ....................................................... 66

2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2. i 4 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.27 2.28 2.29 2.30 2.31

Donor Type or n-Type Semiconductors ............................................................. 67 Acceptor Type or p-Type Semiconductors ......................................................... 68 Ionization Energy ................................................................................................. 68 Holes and Electrons ............................................................................................. 68 Mass Action Law ................................................................................................. 70 Law of Electrical Neutrality ................................................................................. 70 The Fermi Dirac Function ................................................................................... 75 Total Current in a Semiconductor ....................................................................... 84 Einstein Relationship ............................................................................................ 90 Continuity Equation .............................................................................................. 90 The Hall Effect ..................................................................................................... 92 Semiconductor Diode Characteristics ................................................................. 96 The p-n Junction Diode in Reverse Bias ............................................................. 98 The p-n Junction Diode in Forward Bias ............................................................ 98 Band Structure of an Open Circuit p-n Junction ................................................ 99 The Current Components in a p-n Junction Diode ........................................... 102 Law of the Junction ........................................................................................... 103 Diode Current equation ...................................................................................... 104 Volt-Ampere Characteristics of a p-n Junction diode ....................................... 105 Temperature Dependance ofp-n Junction Diode Characteristics .................... 107 Space Charge or Transition Capacitance CT Diffusion Capacitance, CD 108 111

Diode Switching Times ..................................................................................... 113 Break Down Mechanism ................................................................................... 118 Zener Diode ........................................................................................................ 119 The Tunnel Diode ........................................................................... :..
0' •••••••••••••••

120

Varactor Diode ....................................................................... .'........................... 123 Summary ............................................................... :............................................ 129 Objective Type Questions .................................................................................. 130 Essay Type Questions ........................................................................................ 13 1 Multiple Choice Questions ................................................................................. 132

Chapter 3
Rectifiers, Filters and Regulators .............................................. 135-184
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 Rectifiers ............................................................................................................ 136 Half-Wave Rectifier ............................................................................................ 136 Full Wave Rectifier ( FWR ) .............................................................................. 146 Bridge Rectifiers ................................................................................................ 150 Comparison of Rectifier Circuits ....................................................................... 151 Voltage Doubler Circuit ...................................................................................... 152 Inductor Filter Circuits ...................................................................................... 152 Capacitor Filter .................................................................................................. 157 LC Filter ............................................................................................................. 161 CLC or 1t Filter ................................................................................................... 165 Multiple LC Filters ............................................................................................. 169 Introduction to Regulators ................................................................................. 173 Terminology ....................................................................................................... 182 Summary ............................................................................................................ 183 Objective Type Questions .................................................................................. 183 Essay Type Questions ........................................................................................ 184 Multiple Choice Questions ................................................................................. 184

Chapter 4
Transistor Characteristics ........................................................... 185-266
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 Bipolar Junction Transistors ( BJT's ) .............................................................. 186 Transistor Construction ..................................................................................... 190 The Ebers-Moll Equation ................................................................................... 191 Types of Transistor Configurations .................................................................. 192 Convention for Transistors and Diodes ............................................................ 202 Field Effect Transistor (FET) ........................................................................... 213 FET Structure .................................................................................................... 215 FET Operation ................................................................................................... 219 JFET Volt-Ampere Characteristics .................................................................... 222

4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19

Transfer Characteristics of FET ....................................................................... 224 FET Small Signal Model .................................................................................... 228 FET Tree ............................................................................................................ 233 The Depletion MOSFET .................................................................................... 240 CMOS Structure (Complementary MOS) ......................................................... 243 Silicon Controlled Rectifier ................................................................................ 246 Unijunction Transistor (UJT) ............................................................................. 251 LED's ................................................................................................................. 255 Photo Diodes ...................................................................................................... 255 Photo Transistors .............................................................................................. 256 Summary ............................................................................................................ 257 Objective Type Questions .................................................................................. 258 Essay Type Questions ........................................................................................ 259 Multiple Choice Questions ................................................................................. 260

Chapter 5
Transistor Biasing and Stabilization .......................................... 261-312
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 Transistor Biasing .............................................................................................. 268 Fixed Bias Circuit or (Base Bias Circuit) .......................................................... 270 Bias Stability ....................................................................................................... 271 Thermal Instability ............................................................................................. 271 Stability Factor'S' for Fixed Bias Circuit ......................................................... 272 Collector to Base Bias Circuit ............................................................................ 273 Self Bias or Emitter Bias Circuit ........................................................................ 276 Stability Factor'S' for Self Bias Circuit.. .......................................................... 277 Stability Factor S
I ....................................................

278

Stability Factor S" for Self Bias Circuit ........................................................... 280 Practical Considerations ..................................................................................... 280 Bias Compensation ............................................................................................. 281 Biasing Circuits For Linear Integrated Circuits ................................................. 284

5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18

Thermistor and Sensistor Compensation .......................................................... 285 Thermal Runaway .............................................................................................. 286 Stability Factor S" for Self Bias Circuit ........................................................... 292 FETBiasing ....................................................................... _ ............................. 298 Basic FET Circuits ............................................................................................. 302 Summary ............................................................................................................ 309 Objective Type Questions .................................................................................. 310 Essay Type Questions ........................................................................................ 310 Multiple Choice Questions ................................................................................. 311

Chapter 6 Amplifiers ..................................................................................... 313-380
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 314 Black Box Theory .............................................................................................. 314 Transistor Hybrid Model .................................................................................... 318 Transistor in Common Emitter Configuration ................................................... 318 Determination of h-Parameters From the Characteristics of a Transistor ....... 319 Common Collector Configuration ( CC ) .......................................................... 321 Hybrid Parameter Variations ............................................................................... 322 Conversion of Parameters From C.B. to C.E ................................................... 323 Measurement of h-Parameters ........................................................................... 325 General Amplifier Characteristics ...................................................................... 327 Analysis of Transistor Amplifier Circuit Using h-Parameters ........................... 330 Comparison of the CE, CB, CC Configurations ................................................ 334 Small Signal Analysis of Junction Transistor .................................................... 337 High Input Resistance Transistor Circuits ........................................................ 354 Boot Strapped Darlington Circuit ...................................................................... 358 The Cascode Transistor Configuration ............................................................. 361 The JFET Low frequency Equivalent Circuits .................................................. 365 Comparison of FET and BJT Characteristics ................................................... 369

6.19 6.20

R. C. Coupled Amplifier ..................................................................................... 370

Concept of fa' fp and fT

..... 373

Summary ............................................................................................................ 375 Objective Type Questions .................................................................................. 376 Essay Type Questions ........................................................................................ 377 Multiple Choice Questions ................................................................................. 378

Chapter 7
FeedbackAmplifiers .................................................................... 381-428
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 FeedbackAmplifiers .......................................................................................... 382 Classification ofAmplifiers ................................................................................ 382 Feedback Concept ............................................................................................. 385 Types of Feedback ............................................................................................ 387 Effect of Negative Feedback on Transfer Gain ................................................ 387 Transfer Gain with Feedback ............................................................................ 392 Classifaction of Feedback Amplifiers ................................................................ 396 Effect of Feedback on Input Resistance ........................................................... 397 Effect of Negative Feedback on Ro ... ..400

Analysis of Feedback Amplifiers ....................................................................... 406 Summary ............................................................................................................ 424 Objective Type Questions .................................................................................. 425 Essay Type Questions ........................................................................................ 426 Multiple Choice Questions ................................................................................. 427

Chapter 8
Oscillators .................................................................................... 429-453
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Oscillators .......................................................................................................... 430 Sinusoidal Oscillators ......................................................................................... 433 Barkhausen Criterion .... :..................................................................................... 433 R - C Phase-Shift Oscillator (Using JFET) ...................................................... 434 Transistor RC Phase-Shift Oscillator ................................................................ 437

8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15 8.16 8.17 8.18

The General form of LC Oscillator Circuit ....................................................... 440 Loop Gain ........................................................................................................... 440 Wien Bridge Oscillator ....................................................................................... 443 Expression for f. ..................................................... ........................................... 444 Thermistor ......................................................................................................... 445 Sensistor ............................................................................................................. 445 Amplitude Stabilization ................................................... :................................... 445 Applications ........................................................................................................ 446 Resonant Circuit Oscillators .............................................................................. 446 Crystal Oscillators .............................................................................................. 447 Frequency Stability ............................................................................................ 448 Frequency of Oscillations for Parallel Resonance Circuit.. ............................... 449 I-MHz FET Crystals Oscillator Circuit ............................................................. 449 Summary ............................................................................................................ 450 Objective Type Questions .................................................................................. 451 Essay Type Questions ........................................................................................ 452 Multiple Choice Questions ................................................................................. 452

Additional Objective Type Questions (Chapter 1-8) ...................................................... 454 Answers to Additional Objective Type Questions ........................................................... 455 Appendices .................................................................................................................... ... 457 Appendix-I Colour Codes for Electronic Components ....................................... 458 Appendix-II Resistor and Capacitor Values ........................................................ 461 Appendix-III Capacitors .... ................................................................................. 464 Appendix-IV Inductors .......................................................................................... 470 Appendix-V Miscellaneous .................................................................................. 474 Appendix- VI Circuit Symbols ............................................................... ................. 484 Appendix-VII Unit Conversion Factors ................................................................. 486 Appendix- VIII American Wire Gauge Sizes and Metric Equivalents ...................... 489 Answers to Objective Type and Multiple Choice Questions ............. ............................. 491 Index ... ............................................................................................................ ................. 501

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/m3 or No. D./cm3) . Distance between the plates in a CRT Distance between the centre of the deflecting. Distortion in output waveform E = Electric field intensity (V/m or V/cm) D D f F h frequency (Hzs/KHzs/MHzs) Force experienced by an electron in Newtons Plank's constant = 6. Diffusion constant. current (rnA or IlA) A.C.62 x 10-34 J-sec. plates and screen.C current (rnA or IlA) Current density (A/m 2 or mA/cm2) Boltzman's constant Boltzman's constant = = J K K 8.62 1.38 x x 10-5 eV /OK 10-23 J / OK I L L m M n Length of deflecting plates of CRT (cms) Distance between the centre of the field and screen (cm or rn) Diffusion length Mass of electron (kgs) Mutual conductance free electron concentration (No.SYMBOLS a B C Acceleration of electrons (m/sec or cm/sec) Magnetic field Intensity (Wb/m2 or Tesla) Charge of electrons (Coulombs) Velocity of light = c d D 3 x 108 m/sec.

secs) Accelerating potential or voltage (volts) Velocity (m/sec or cm/sec) Work function or Energy (eV) Displacement of electron on the CRT screen (cms or mms) Admittance (in mhos U). f I E Small signal common emitter forward current gain DoC large signal current gain of BJT = f I B (3* o IpC TransportatIon factor of BJT = -IPE = -II nE I InC nE I Emitter efficiency of BJT = Ripple factor in filter circuits iE = E E Conductivity of p-type semiconductor in (U /cm or siemens) .lcm 3 ) Donor Atom Concentration (No/m 3 or No/cm 3) Hole concentration (No./cm 3) Q = Charge of an electron in coulombs = 1.Acceptor Atom Concentration (No. Impedanc~ v W Y Y Z K.6 s S T V x 10-19 C Spacing between the deflecting plates of CRT (in cms) Stability factor Period of rotation (secs or 1.E (ohms Q) Kinetic Energy (eV) Potential Energy (e V) Inductor Capacitor Resistor DoC large signal current gain of BJT = PoE L C R a.1.lcm 3 or No.lm 3 or No.

cm) Thermal resistance (in W/cm 2) Angle of deflection Volt equivalent of work function (volts) Incremental value Resistance (ohms) Conductance (mhos) Efficiency (%) Perrnitivity of free space (F/m) = 8.85 x e e ~ Ll n U 11 03 10.12 F/m Il Ilo Mobility of electrons or holes (m 2/V-sec) Permiability offree space (Him) = 1.25 Wavelength (A 0) Input resistance or input impedance (n) Reverse voltage gain Output admittance (U) Forward short circuit current gain x 10-6 Him a hI hr ho ~- = (xxi) .an p Conductivity of n-type semiconductor in (U Icm or siemens) Resistivity (n .

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semiconductor technology met with premature death and vacuum tubes flourished. a semiconductor diode was fabricated but they could not succeed. In 1906. So. it is KHzs. Electrical engineering mainly deals with motion of electrons in metals only. in electrical engineering. In the same year. we study the applications of these laws to human needs.Thomson proved the same experimentally in 1897. when H. semiconductors and also in vacuum. based on the motion of electrons. Electronics is the science and technology of the passage of charged particles in a gas or vacuum or semiconductor. Two years later.A. Fleming invented the Vacuum diode called 'valve'.was made in 1895. electrical engineering flourished.Brief History of Electronics In science we study about the laws of nature and its verification and in technology. Before electronic engineering came into existence. whereas Electronic engineering deals with motion of charged particles (electrons and holes) in metals. Braun built the first tube.. and called it Cathode ray tube (CRT).J. in making it work. GHzs. In 1904. Yet another difference is. J. . whereas in electronics. The beginning for Electronics. whereas in electronic engineering one deals with few volts and rnA. and Amperes. in electrical engineering the voltages and currents are of very high-kilovolts. Lorentz postulated the existence of discrete charges called electrons. Another difference is. the frequencies of operation are 50 Hertzs/60 Hertzs. (high frequency). MHz.

wireless.1000 components/chip was developed. so that electron emission takes place. with more than 1000 but < 10. A In 1912 Institute of Radio Engineering (IRE) was set up in USA to take care of the technical interests of electronic engineers. The filaments get burnt and tubes occupy large space. landline communications Industrial electronics.Postulated existance of Electrons 1897: J.000 components per chip. The filaments get heated to > 2000° k. IC . Solid State Physics group was formed to invent semiconductor devices in Bell Labs. Thomson . The first radio broadcasting station was built in 1920 in USA. L. A. In 1950.Complimentary High Metal Oxide Semiconductor ICs were announced by INTEL group. De Forest put a third electrode into Fleming's diode and he called it Triode. 1969: SSI 10 . USA. it generated lot of heat. device was announced. 1975: MSI (Multiplenum. Colour television broadcasting was started. (BJT) 1950: Colour Television Transmission started in USA. 1947: Shockley . The electronics Industry can be divided into 4 categories: Components Communications Control Computation Transistors. ICs. ICs were made. control systems Computers Vacuum Tubes ruled the electronic field till the invention of transistors. 1975: VLSI: Very large scale integration> 10. small change in grid voltage produces large change in plate voltage in this device. C components Radio. 1969: LSI. FFs were developed. Television.J. 1959: Integrated circuit concept was announced by Kilby at an IRE convention.invented the junction transistor. Lorentz .100 components/chip. black and white television transmission started in USA. Before that.In 1906 itself. 1970: INTEL group announced. R. Major milestones in development of Electronics: 1895: H. . LOGIC GATES. Telephone .Proved the same 1904: Fleming invented Vacuum Diode 1906: De Forest developed Triode 1920: Radio Broadcasting in USA 1930: Black and White Television Transmission in USA. chip with 1000 Transistors (4004m) 1971: 4 bit Microprocessor was made by INTEL group. The difficulty with vacuum tubes was. In 1930. in 1884 Institute of Electrical Engineers was formed and in 1963 both institutes merged into one association called IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers). 1975: CHMOS . So in 1945.000 components per chip (integrated or joined together). Address) 100 .Large Scale Integration.

000. 0. (Pentium series) 2 Million Gates/Die 5 Million Gates / Die 1 Gigabit Memory Chips 10 nanometer patterns. 0.000 Transistors.000 components/chip VLSI 16 bit fl P > 1.50. Ex : 16 bit and 32 bit flPS > 1.12 fl Technology ASICS (Application Specific Integrated Circuits) HYBRIDICs BICMOS MCMs (Multi Chip Modules) 3-D packages . (80286) was developed CHMOS 32 bit fl P 64 bit fl P MMICS > 2. Ultra Large Scale Integration GSI > 1. There are 10' cells/cm3 in human brain Development ofVLSI Technology : 3 fl Technology J.1978 : 1980 : 1981 : 1982: 1984 : 1985 : 1986 : 1987 : 1989: 1990s: 1992 : 1998 : 2001 : 2002 : 2003 : 2004 : 2010 : LSI 8 bit microprocessors (flP). . ROM.00.000 components/chip.000 components/chip Ex: 16 bit and 32 bit flPS Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits i860 Intel's 64 bit CPU developed ULSI > 500.000 components/chip Ex : 16 bit and 32 bit flPS > 10. Flip Flops developed.000 components/chip.000 Transistors.000 Transistors.5 fl Technology . RAM 1000 .J. Ex : 16 bit and 32 bit flPS 100. line width Commercial Super Compter lOT.00.00.000 components/chip Ex : 16 bit and 32 bit flPS > 4.00.Computer Using Logic Structure Based on Human Brain likely Still Nature is superior. Neuro . Giant Scale Integration 3 million Transistors..10.

1 20M 16G 4G -400 40-200 1. Frequency MHz 64 M 16M 200 15 3.5 500 (xxvi) . V. Gates/Die: No.5 350 2007 0.2 250 2004 0.25 2M 256 64 N 200-400 30 2.2 175 2001 O.12 10 M 4G IG -400 40-120 1. Bits/Die Dram Sram Wafer Dia (mm) Power (/-lW/Die) Power Supply.3 100 0.IS 5M IG 256 M -400 40 2.35 SOOK 1998 0.Table showing predictions made in 1995 on VLSI Technology 1995 Lithography (/-l) No.

• • . The Practical Application of this study in a Cathode Ray Oscilloscope is also given.. Magnetic Fields and combined Electric and Magnetic Fields are given.namlCS • In this Chapter. • The path or trajectories of electrons under the influence of Electric Fields. The Mathematical Equations describing the Motion are derived.

. The radius of an electron is estimated as 10-15 metres and that of an atom as 10-10 metre. The assumption that electron is a tiny particle possessing definite mass and charge. such as. Its units are V1m For unit pusitive charge..2.1 THE FORCE ON CHARGED PARTICLES IN AN ELECTRIC FIELD The force experienced by a unit positive charge at any point in an electric field is the electric field intensity 'E' at trat point. the trajectory of the electron in the electric field can be found out. we study the motion of electrons in electric fields and magnetic fields. and E in V1m But by Newton's Second Law of Motion.. classical theory results do not agree with experimental results. electron behavior in a crystal or in an atom.1 There are two different types of Electron Models.1tes that force is opposite to the direction of E.. :.. 1. q is in coulombs. F = q x E Newtons where F is in Newton's. For large scale phenomena. 1. We shall now consider the trajectories of electrons under different conditions.6 x 10.11 x 10-31 Kgs. F=-eXE In this case negative signindic. force = 1 x E Newtons. parallel electric and magnetic fields and then perpendicular electric and magnetic fields. electron transaction in a vacuum tube Classical Model gives satisfactory results. The mass of an Electron is 9. it traverses a path and falls under gravity. .. Wave-Mechanical Model satisfactorly explains those phenomena. These are very small and hence all charges are considered as Points of Mass. Classical Model satisfactorily explains the behavior of electrons in electric and magnetic fields. Wave-Mechanical Model. the force. considering electron charge as e. 1.2 Electronic Devices and Circuits ELECTRON DYNAMICS The term Electron Dynamics refers to the analogy between an electron under electric and magnetic fields. The charge of an electron is 1. a=dt dv By solving this equation. If a shell is fired from a cannon.1 ) For accelerating potential. Classical Model 2.. in the subatomic systems. while the assumption that electrons travel in the form of waves is called the Wave-Mechanical Model. such as. is the Classical Model. For a positive charge 'q'. .2 MOTION OF CHARGED PARTICLES IN ELETRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS 1. First we consider only uniform electric fields and then uniform magnetic fields.. F = m x a and F = q x E mx dt dv = qXE . and a body falling under gravity.19 Coulombs. In this chapter. The motion of an electron is similar to the trajectory of a shell. ( 1... But.

at t = 0.. dv dt Integrating.. . Let V be the applied potential. 2 at 2 This is the expression for x or the trajectory of the electron at any instant of time 't'. Let the initial velocity = vox and displacement = Xo i.1.. So in this case it is acting downwards and is E = V/d. E = Electric field intensity a is constant... v = Vo Vo Therefore. separated by distance 'd' as shown in Fig 1...... At a= dv . x At v = Vo + at. Vx = vax' x = xo' According to Newton's law.e. x = Xo = constant.....3 ) = xo+vot+-.£1 e. expression for constant v v m Vo + at x t + va Vo + at dx dt By Integrating again.: + ---l:'- !£ Fig 1.... 2 t=o.: dt' v is velocity in m/sec ) v t + constant. at' + Xo Vo t + 2 x I .2 ) m m x (. The electric field will be uniform if'V' is the same. The direction of electric field is always from positive to negative.Electron Dynamics and CRO Let A and B are two horizontal plates. Suppose an electron is present in the electric field and it is desired to investigate its trajectory : A B _______ 3 . t = 0.1 Direction of electric field.( 1.. at 2 Vo t + + constant. ( 1. m and by assumption E are constant. F = m x ax and F = e x E e x E = m x ax<considering only magnitude negative sign is omitted) la =e..

whose plates are 5 cm apart.76 x lOll) (2 x 109) = 3.76 x 1020 (9.2 For problem 1. 3. E = Fig 1.4 Electronic Devices and Circuits E This is under the assumption that acceleration is constant or electric field (uniform electric field). 1.732 cm. Problem 1.sec. x = 5. is constant Some solved numerical problems are given here. To find the speed with which the electron strikes the positive plate. v = 4.. the time that it takes to reach the positive plate is. It is increasing linearly At any instant. v = velocity t = 5 x 10-8 sec.= (1.1 m sec.76 x 1020 t 2 = 1. .87 x 10 19 t 3 m t x )~ = ( . 't' voltage applied = T Vxt (Fig.76 x lOll C/Kg eXt: a Velocity At v t x At = .76 x 1020 x t 2 m 2/sec = 50n. and it increases linearly from oto 10v in 0.87x10 19 v = 1.52 x 1020 x t m/sec 2 m = fa dt = t 3.46 x 10-8 sec =( 5. which will explain the trajectory of the electrons in terms of mathematical equations.4 x 105 m/sec = J v dt = t 2. = V xT d t lOt ---=x --7 5x 10-2 10- 109 t Vim - e m = 1. With what speed will the electron strike the positive plate? Solution 1. 1.1 An electron starts at rest on one plate of a plane parallel capacitor. Where will it be at the end of this time? 3. x = 7.2 ) o 2 x T Electric field intensity at 50 nsec is. what is the speed that the electron obtains in 50 n sec? 2.46 x 1O-8f = 1. The applied voltage is zero at the instant the electron is released.87 x 10 19 t 3m.87xl019 5.76x1020t3 o 3 = 5. 1.58 Xo 106 m/sec. If the opposite plate is positive.32 x 10-3 m = 0. 0 05 )~ = 9.52x10 20t 2 o 2 = 1. The voltage applied is a ramp voltage.1.

. m -- dv dt -- eXE m dx = v x dt Multiplying the above expression with dx and then integrating on both sides. E = Electric Field Strength in V1m E . we get f.Electron Dynamics and CRO 1. (C I) . Xo JE dx represents the work done by the field in carrying unit positive charge x :.2. is defined as the work done in taking unit positive charge from A to B. against the electric field.- x J E m Xo dx __ v dv v x v dt = Jv dv J Vo dt Vo x The integral from Xo to x. Force experienced by the electron F=exE mXa=exE The Equation of Motion is.e x E m dx e = -- m JE e dx = . a = Acceleration.2 POTENTIAL 5 A potential of V volts at point B with respect to point A.. a = -ex -consl'd' enng negatIve sIgn lor an e Iectron. d 2y m x dt 2 = ex E dy __ dt eXE m x t + constant.. V= - Xo JE dx eV = (~) x m x ( v 2 . By definition.v~ ) The energy eV is expressed in Joules.

v = 0 constant = 0 dy eXE -=v=--xt dt m y=--x-+C m ex E t2 2 2 C2 is also zero y= eXEX t 2 2m .. d = e XEX "[2 2m "[= ~2xmXd eXE 2xmxd 2 exV E = V/d where V is the voltage. Average Velocity = vinitial =0 v ..6 ) What is the K. "[= "[= J¥v xm -- exV xd . .....E of the electron when it reaches plate A ? K. Y = 0..) v final + vinitial 2 "[ = Distance / Average Velocity. ( 1...6 At t= Electronic Devices and Circuits 0.. At t = "[.. = d'Istance / ve IOClty .2 - v final = 2 x V~ re....4 ) This is the Equation of Motion. Y = d. we get the same result...- . SInce time (Even if we use v = u + at expression....... What is the Transit Time't? It is the time taken by the electron to travel a distance 'd' between the plates.v.Y{hl = ~--.. final Average VelocIty = .5 ) · = Average ve IOClty V~ re......E = = (~) mv 2 E E= v (e m x t) ' V d . ( 1.. ( 1..

m/sec Thus if an electron falls through 1V. 1 watt = I J/sec In electronics. dx =- E (x . with initial velocity = 0.t m K. = ( Yz ) x m ex V = ( Yz ) mv 2 y. the displacement in the y-direction. K. = ~2Xmexv x 2xexV = e x V Electron Volts.E.3 ELECTRON VOLTS Joule is the unit of energy in MKS systems.6 x 10.93 x 105 m/sec. 'eV' electron volt is defined.-t E But the expression for y. Joule and even Erg is a large unit. 1. 19 _ (2xexV)Y' _ (2X1.E when = ( Yz) m x =exEx ex E x t 2 2xm y=d.Electron Dynamics and CRO 7 K.2.E..6 x 10.E = 1. m Ifthe electron starts at rest.xo) . its energy is I eV = (1. its final speed is 5.19 Joules I 1.E = ( Yz ) mv 2 vfinal K. If an electron falls through a potential of one volt. E = K.19 C) x ( IV) II eV = 1. then the final velocity v is given by.lxI0-31 .93 x \05 Vy. = ( :12) x m x EX [ dxm V xt ]2 = ( :12) m x [e x ]2 -.4 RELATION BETWEEN E AND V: (FIELD INTENSITY AND POTENTIAL) The definition of potential is the work done in moving unit positive charge from Xo to x. To put this in mathematical form. x V=- Xo f E.E = e x d d V V x d = e x V Electron Volts when or V = 1 volts.jY' V - m - 9. So another unit of energy. eXE 2 y= .19 x IV = 1.6 x 10.6 X IO.6 x 10-19 Joules K..V V= 5.2.

and y m = V d .: There is no electric field along the x-direction. For electrons the electric field E = + V/d Butthis is true when V and 'd' are small and V is uniform.. The acceleration along x direction is also zero. there is no force in the z direction.. incremental change is to be considered.__ 8 d =0 Fig 1. Let an electron enter the plates at point 0. against the field. vy=ayxt dy =v= xt dt y ay Y= But f a y tdt = ay x 2 E y t2 eEy a = . The integral gives the work done. with initial velocity vox ( Fig.... . x = fvox.. 0 ____. so the component of velocity in that direction remains constant.. If V is not uniform. E= dv dx 1.7) As the field is acting downwards.3 ) So what is the motion of the particle? v x = velocity in the x direction The initial conditions Vx = vox' Vy = 0. .dt dt dx = vox x=voxxt .A ~. Let 'd' be the distance between the plates.2.8 Electronic Devices and Circuits Negative sign is to indicate that the work is done against the field. z x=O} y= 0 at t z=0 v--------zt-... So velocity along the x direction is constant vox = V x . Ex = -v (X-Xo) - -v x Negative sign is for work done on a positive charge. Since.. 1.5 Two DIMENSIONAL MOTION LetA and B be two parallel plates. acceleration in that direction is zero.direction. there is constant acceleration along y .3 Two Dimensional motion.A is at a positive potential + Va with respect to B. + . V = 0. (1..

.5 9. An electron is emitted from one plate when the voltage of the other is becoming positive.75 x 105 m/sec.31 x21tx60x10 6 x8xlO.5 Sin rot.2 x 1. Find the maximum speed acquired by the electron and position of the appliedA.19 x 1..Electron Dynamics and CRO eV ~= dm 9 eV 2 y=V:!x .t dm But x t=Vox lI.lxlO. . voltage point when this occurs? Solution d 2x -eE -e Vrnax Sin rot dt 2 = -.= -.. d E= 1. A sinusoidal voltage V = 1. . -dt = 0 and Cos rot = 1 ~ m Vmax ~ =-k d ro Cos rot ro e Vmax dx ~ Vmax dt rn d By inspection. with a frequency of 60 MHz is applied between the plates.2 Two plane parallel plates are kept 8mm apart.5 Sin rot d Cos rot =+k ro dx e Vrnax .3 = 1. this is maximum when The maximum value of velocity is dx dt = -2~ Vrnax m dro rn dro Cos rot = -lor rot + 1t.6 X 10.dt rn d At dx t = 0 .C. x 2 eV x ---2 [ d m V ox 2] Problem 1.

How far has the electron.1 X 10-31 x3xlO-2 x 2 =0. dt .6 x 1O-19C m = 9.V /cm. How long has the electron been travelling when it acquires a speed of 10 7 mlsec? 2.x m 2 At t = 8. 1. 1.1 x 1O-31 kg vxm 107 x9. What potential has the electron fallen through when it acquire this speed? Solution 1. The distance between the plates is 3 cm.E 1.. when the initial velocity is making an angle e with the field Plate A is at negative potential with respect to plate B as shown in Fig.1xlO.42195 cms 2000) Potential drop = ( -3.42195cm 3.5 x 10-10 sec...3 An electron starts at the negative plate of a plane parallel plate capacitor across which a voltage of 2000 V is applied.42195 cm = 281. with the field.= v = 107 m/sec.= 8. So it is retarding potential.6 x 10-19 x 2000 x 1 x (8:5 x 10-10 )2 y=(d)= 9. travelled before it acquires this speed? 3. dy __ eXE dt 3 m xt 2000 E= .V/cm dy .3 Volts.10 Electronic Devices and Circuits Problem 1. t =? e = 1. 1.4.6xlO-19 x 2000 2. 2000 Electric Field Intensity = -3. 2 ex E t y= .5 x 10-10 sec e.= ---------:--:::-----. . An Electron with initial velocity Vo is making an angle e.31 x3xlO.2 t = .x 0. The electron has travelled a distance ofy cm = 0. Motion of an electron in uniform retarding electric field.

x t + v Cos 8 dt m 0 ex € t2 Y = ..8 ) y= + Vo t Cos 8 d 2x mx . eXcxt The expression for Vy is Vy = Let at t = t" Y = Ym· tI = m + Vo Cos e But... + ve Fig 1... it goes up because ofthe initial velocity. C 2 = 0 . E y=o.. J ~ ~ A~--------------------~r-------~i-ve d xm __________.. Initial Conditions: At t = 0..+ v Cos e t + C2 m 2 0 But. ( 1. However..EI.Electron Dynamics and CRO 11 B ~v. = -d ( because V V dy = eXt dt m xt + C1 dy eXE . since the electron is not moving in 'x' direction..2 =0 dt Force along the x direction is zero. .4 Retarding electric field. x=votSin8 To find Ym the maximum displacement in the 'y' direction.x + v 0 t. ex € t2 Y = -..= . dt dx =vx=C1=v o Sine At y = Ym' Vy = O... is -ve ) x=O. Vy = Vo Cos e .. Cos e 2 .x .

.Sm e.... 2 m Let the initial velocity v 0 be due to some accelerating potential Vo v = o ~2evo m ....12 Electronic Devices and Circuits Substitute this value oft1 Ym-- _ ~ 2 Vo Cos e eXE ..ve ····t . Sine e.V.d.. Y ill ==4t=t Fig 1.... To find xm At x = Vo t Sin e t1 = -vo cose (e~E ) ~ 2 Vo = _ Vo [-vocose]. 2e .5 Parabolic path.m ..m ......E m rf the velocity v 0 is due to an accelerating potential of Vo' ~2~o and E = - ~ x m = 2e Vo .....

9 ) I The trajectory ofthe electron is as shown in Fig.. If an electron takes a time T sec to travel a distance of L m in the conductor. It is defined as the current per unit area of the conducting medium..5.. V0 = 10 volts.. 1.2.. ( 1.6 For problem 1. V.Electron Dynamics and CRO 13 ~= 2Vo d . Problem 1. ----------'-. Sm20 . J C. Ne where N is the total number of electrons contained in a conductor of length L.. the total number of electrons passing through any cross section of wire in unit time is : Total Number of electrons in a conductor = N ..p -4-5-0-r--:l"'---2-c-m__ ~ so IO~v --rI--r. P and Q are conducting plates. Assuming a uniform current distribution. which will cause the electron to reach point B.l. But 1= = A ' where J is amp/m 2 and A is the I T.6 CURRENT DENSITY It is denoted by J. V= ? V ~ = 2 cm d=? 2= 2xlO xdxxSin900 V = 10d Volts 1..A (m 2).S. Find the potential V to be placed on electrodes P and Q. directed as shown. Solution ~= 2V0 V x d x Sin 28 Since.4 The electron shown in Fig.Q B A 1 T e = 45 0 Fig 1. energy is IOev.4. Ym is the maximum displacement in the 'y' direction and ~ is the maximum displacement in 'x' direction.6 has an initial velocity due to an energy of 10 eV..

.. n= LA IJ=nevl But n x e = charge density in Coulombs/m3 = p p the charge density is the electric charge in coulombs per unit volume ( m3 ) v is velocity in m/sec J:--=-p-v----.... electrons/m3.. SO.. '-:1 I J= A I=T Ne Ne A = Cross sectional Area of the conductor J= AxT L T= v /J= / A x L = volume ofthe conductor A x L = Electron Concentration per unit volume 'n' .. containing N electrons..10) Ne I J= But ~~ I Distance L . L: gives the electron concentration = n Nim3 Total Number of electrons in a conductor = N i.14 Electronic Devices and Circuits Ne The charge per second passing through any point = But rate of change of charge is current. N Thus. ::~ N ...e. (1. But L x Nev J= AL A is the volume of the conductor. =VelocIty v v J is the Current Density in Amp / m2 Time = L T can be replaced by -. I = T T' .

of free electrons in a conductor L = length of the conductor in meters T = The time taken by the electron to travel a distance ofL meters Total no.. Electron velocity making an angle '9' with the field: Motion is helix. carrying current I is situated in a magnetic field of intensity B wb/m 2 or tesla. J = Current Density in Amp/m2. L in meters and F is in Newtons. F=BIL= But BxNe xL T Ne L T = v velocity in m/sec.....· . assume that I and B are perpendicular to each other. (1.. Force experienced by each electron due to magnetic field......2.8. the force F acting on the conductor is IF m = B x I x L Newtons 1. B and v should be perpendicular to each other. of electron passing through conductor in unit time = NIT Rate of flow of charge = Ne T This by definition is current I.Electron Dynamics and CRO J=nxexv=pxv n x e = Charge Density p in Coulombs I v = Velocity in m/sec. F = Bev v = 0 m ' Fm=O ~ will be there.11) 1.. B is the magnetic field strength in Webers per unit area ( m2 ) In the above equation 1. m3 15 .. I in amps.. ( Where B is in wb/m2.8 MOTION IN A MAGNETIC FIELD Case (i) Electron at rest: No effect . only when B and v are perpendicular to each other.7 FORCE IN A MAGNETIC FIELD If a conductor of length L. Let N = No..12 ) I .. Case (ii) Case (iii) Case (iv) Electron-moving parallel to the field: No effect. I=T· Force due to magnetic field is... Electron moving perpendicular to the field: Motion is a circle.2.. Fm = Bev Newtons 1.

force acting on the particle or electron in the y-axis.=eBv R R= mv Be v = J2e v o m R= =F ~J2evo B.. Then. direction being along the neutral axis (z .axis. has an acceleration toward the center of the circle of magnitude v 2/R where R is the radius ofthe path in meters. The path described is a circle since it is analogous to a mass tied to a rope.axis) perpendicular to paper.. Distance --Velocity T = period of rotation. 7 Motion.16 Electronic Devices and Circuits A particle whose initial velocity has no component perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field will continue to move with constant speed along the lines of the flux. velocity of the electron along x . a particle moving in a circular path with a constant speed v.in magnetic field. v and B are constant in magnitude since fm is constant in magnitude and perpendicular to the direction of motion of the particle.37 X lO-6 RB If v Vo rv . Let.J2m Vo B e _ 3. mv 2 . B v f flux density wb/m2 . y ~ I I B' Fig 1. twisted and related the motion of the mass. To find the radius ofthe circle. R T=21tv Circumference Velocity . This type offorce resolution is motion in a circuluar path with constant speed. m.!.e m = .

v cos 8 is along the axis ofB.. B .v Be' IT = ¥ x 10-12 sec. force due to v Cos 8 = 0. I The time period is independent of speed or radius..7 . f= Be v Sin8 = m v Sin 2 2 v=v Sin 8 mv 2 f=R R e mvSin e Be= .... This means that fast moving particles describe large circles and slow moving particles describe small circles. m and e.. Substituting vaues of n.Electron Dynamics and CRO mv 17 out R= Ik 2nmv 2nm T = . 'B' is in z plane...R R = m v Sin 8 / B e If the initial velocity v is due to potential V.. y v I<) co'" ..e (v Sin 8) ..--m- ~ .:0. Ifwe resolve v along horizontal and perpendicular axis. v the initial velocity is making an angle '8' with B. Be. v = Velocity.\ x z Fig 1... But the time taken by them to describe those circle is same. Initial velocity is making an angle '8' with the field: P = pitch of the helix....= ._ .. f due to Sin8 impact is v Cos 8 force = B. v sin 8 is perpendicular to B.8 Initial Velocity making an angle 8. v = V--.

37 x 10B 16 l-v vain e rrv]s· T = Period of rotation 21tR T=-vSine mvSine R=--Be 21tm vSin e 21tm T=----=-Bev Sine Be T = B 35. Determine the distance between this initial path axis and the point at which the electron leaves the field region assuming that all the trajectory is within a vacuum. p = v Cos e.5 picoseconds (p. it will describe a circle. .18 Electronic Devices and Circuits R~ : .03 wb / m2 is maintained.. T The distance covered along the B direction in one revolution is called the pitch of the helix.) IfP is the pitch of the helix.. ~[~2~VO 1 SinS R = -1 B ~m e " S.= . the motion is helix because of v Cos e electron moves in that direction in a straight line.5 An electron initially at rest is accelerated through a 2 KV and then enters into a region in which a magnetic field of flux density 0. 3 cm apart perpendicularly to the initial path.2 x 10-6 v va· C os e B Therefore. and because ofv Sin e.In -V'Va e -_ 3. T= R= 21tR vSin e m v Sin e eB 21tm T=eB P= ~2e Vo 21tm . v Cos e m eB 21. The field region is confirmed betwen two parallel planes. _ - rv Problem 1.sec..

.~ t = 0 0.Electron Dynamics and CRO 19 Solution E is the point where the electron enters the magnetic field.Therefore the centre cannot lie any where else except along OE. Fig 1.l see Fig 1. EA is the arc of the circle of radius OA..10 For Problem 1..9 For Problem 1.:.. .01 f. If the distance between A and B is 5 cm.11 For Problem 1.5. 1.... OA = 5 em. A 100 V 'so B oCIi<..11 of amplitude 100 volts and direction of 0.4 cm = I cm The centre should lie along the OE only since E is a part on the circle and A is also a point of the circle. EA is the path of electorn because of the effect of magnetic field. and the plates could be assumed to have a geometry starting from the fundamentals. calculate the transit time of the electron .6. . OC = 3 cm AC =4 em CD = OE = Radius of the circle OA But CD = 5 cm AD = 5 cm . OAC is right angled triangle OC = 3 cm. . AD ? v E.03 Fig 1. Problem 1. OA= B o 1. ..lxI0-31 x2x103 v eB Radius of the circle.~ m e 2x9..1 O.----s"'witeh-----il /11---..= B ev R mv 2 or mv R=- .6xlO19 I x-0.6 An electron finds itself at rest at electrode B as shown in Fig.6.5 em ----.I.---... R=5 cm . OAC is a right angled triangle. ___ _~~ . A voltage pulse as shown in Fig. --. eB v= R= ~2:V ~~2ev =~2mv . ..01 x 10-6 sec is applied so that electrode A becomes positive with reference to B.

t 2 y=~ E-.1.. If a direct voltage of 1000 v is applied how long will it take the electron to reach the positive plate? Solution e. when the pulse is applied. 1.24 x 10-2 m Velocity ofthe electron atthe end of the time tl = 0. It will move a distance of d2 . i. eE . e V v = -x-xt1 111 d = 1. d be the distance travelled in 0.20 Electronic Devices and Circuits Solution The electron will move to a distance d. An electron starts at rest at the negative plate.758 x 1O-2m d = (5 .01 ~l sec.758 x lOll x e V t2 V d 100 5xl0-2 X l 100 5 x 10. After the pulse is removed.9 x 10 - 19 n.9 x 10-8 sec 8 Total transit time 't = = t1 + t2 1. l dl = d = m·d x "2.758) 10-2 2 = 3.0 1 ~ Sec. 758 x 10 II x =3. t = ~2m~.0 I x 10-6 Sec. 0.- V 1000 =v/m .7 The distance between the plates of a plane parallel capacitor is 1 cm.2 (102 8 L = 1.52x 10 = = 0. I d + d = 5 cm I 2 Let. the electron will continue to move with the velocity it has acquired at the end of time t .1 x 10-2 b=? y = d = 1 cm.E. Sec Problem 1.e.d .24 X 10-2 ----63.52xl0 6 m t =2 V 100 1 x 10-8 5 x 10- d2 3.

1.8 An electron is emitted from a thermionic cathode with zero initial velocity and at a potential onoo v. Vx and v" are the velocities acquired by the electron due to electric and magnetic .6 x 10 1~ 1.= 18.19 x 1000 --9-.19 x 1000 JII. 2x 1.2.- ~V V 1000 V.75 x 106 m/Sec.6 X 10. = ~351.11 x I x 1O-~ x I x 1O-~ 1.x z :..12.Electron Dynamics and CRO 2x9. An electron at point P is placed in combined Electric and Magnetic Fields as shown in Fig 1. F2 = Force due to Magnetic Field..-Ix-I-0--31.65 x 10-<) Sec.2.19 3.fields.37 J1(iI9 lO.6x 10. . eE /-------.375 = X 21 10.9 MOTION OF AN ELECTRCN IN COMBINED ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS Assumption: Both fields are perpendicular to each other.-"'8 Fig 1. Problem 1.10 EQUATION OF MOTION m (~~] = dt 2 F I F~~ F I = Force due to Electric Field. Initial velocity is ::ero. Calculate the final velocity.lxlO.12 Combined electric and magnetic fields. Solution v tinal = = V---.

ro 2 y y= aa -2 ffi solvipg this Second Order Differential Equation y= (I . +exV Be.( 1.... - x = roy + C] C] =0. ( 1.. ( 1..17 ) x = roy :...16 ) Be Be = ro and v = y = - m y m Integrating..... (1. ( 1..ro x ro = Angular Frequency..18) ....... eV m.. --x mxd m .....21tm Eq...22 d 2y 2 Electronic Devices and Circuits mx dt 2 m =-exE-Bev x Vy ..ro 2y ro( ro y ) = a ..- Bev x . v d . y = a .Cos rot) .... ..:. 21t f = Period of rotation T = T 21t 1 f= T Be ' Be m 21tm 21t x Be ro= ..... ""=• c..13) • x d2 x = B xe x dt .....14 ) d y 2 e.....15 ) where a is constant.. (1.E dt 2 = . (3) y=a-rox .... y = a .-. Substitute this value ofx in eq. 14) can be written as x=roy .... +exV Be y=----v mxd m x - d y 2 dt 2 = y =-- .. d is constant .. (1.--.

. dy dt = Voy ... 1. ..0) = 21ta 00 2 1. vy=voy-at Where 'a' is the acceleration of the electron and 'a' = E.2. when rot = 21t ~ax = a 00 2 (21t . x is max. then also the effect of magnetic fieldis nil (Since.Cos rot) 00 Integrating to get x. the magnetic field exherts no force on the electron.Cos rot) a x = .. So resultant motion is due to e only. x= ~(t-~) . y is max. 13 Parallel electric and magnetic fields. m ( Negative sign is due to the direction of acceleration which is opposite to that of electric field ).(1 ..e & y f o ~B x Fig 1... (cot-Sin cot) I Hence the motion is cycloidal.. when Cos rot = -1 2a Ymax = 002 at ~ax= ~ .19) Ix=. voy is parallel to 8). The resulting motion solely depends upon 'e' ( Fig.. Then the equation of motion of the electron is. If the electron is possessing initial velocity v0 and is along the magnetic field. (1.11 PARALLEL ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS If e and B are parallel to each other and initial velocity ofthe electron is zero..Electron Dynamics and eRO 23 But x = roy x = ro [:2 ] (1 . x is max when Sin rot = 0 x is max where Sin rot is 0 and ro is max.13 ).at .

14 For Problem 1. . i.. will have again zero velocity at B (FigI.9. e.l: m a=If initially a component of velocity vox is perpendicular to B.3 SIMPLE PROBLEMS INVOLVING ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS ONLY Problem 1.Y2 at2 .2. the distance travelled by the electron is ( See Section 1. the distance travelled along y-axis increases with each revolution.· 24 Electronic Devices and Circuits Integrating. the velocity along the field changes with time. Determine the minimum distance from the source at which an electron with zero velocity will again have zero velocity. So the resulting motion is helical with a pitch that changes with time. And. Solution When the electron is under the influence of perpendicular magnetic and electric fields.d m eV e. The expression for x.-[oot .19). A •c Fig 1._ . From Eg.9 A point source of electrons is situated in mutually perpendicular uniform magnetic and electric fields.=t ro a=-=m. ( 1. Therefore.14).e. The 'Radius' of the circle is independent of E.:.10 )..0 I wb/m 2 and the electric field strength is 104 V1m.l: . x = -. An electron emitted with zero velocity at A. 1. AB is the minimum distance from the source of electrons (A) where the electrons will have again zero velocity. because of the effect of electric field E. y = v oy t . its motion is cycloid. The magnetic flux density is 0. the electron will describe r'rcular motion.Sin wt] 00 AB = Be = Xmax ro a The expression for Xmax = 2 x 27t 27t .

:----.11 X x 2n: .9848 .15.93 x 105 x Eo = 4.9397) v I .v2 ) T = velocity x time = 0. the path of the electrons will be helical.0451(4...93987) = Vo (0. Velocity.9848) v2 = v 02 Cos 20° = Vo (0.0.2 x 106 )(1..exm 2 x2n: em 2n:x10 4 x10.785 x 10-8 sec Components of velocities along Bare vI =v OI Cos 10°= Vo (0.10 Two 50-e V electrons enter a magnetic field of 2.Electron Dynamics and CRO Be (j)= m 2n: 2n:m 25 (.5xlO.76 x lOll C/Kg III Problem 1. one at 10° and the other at 20°. Energy = 50 eV Accelerating potentia! V0= 50 volts.12 2x 103 ~ Fa = 5. and 8 2 with the field. I e = 1. T= Be ) e.0451) Distance = (VI .: : .76 )' mxB 2 e2 . How far apart are these electrons when they have travelled one revolution in their hel ical paths? V 02 ~~--~~-----------------+B Fig 1.15 For Problem 1.01-x1.93 x 105 35.~ax = . Solution Since the electron velocities are making angle 8 1.B2 e -----.( 0..338 cm ..0-- . Vo = V~ = 5.v2 = Vo (0.10.: (j) = Angular frequency = T.2 x 106 m/s Period of rotation 't' = = 1..785 x 10-8 ) = 0.0 m wb/m 2 as shown in Fig 1..

16. Double Beam/ Dual Beam 3.axis or horizontal input is an internally generated linear ramp voltage or time base signal. When the input voltage is repetitive at fast rate.4 PRINCIPLES OF CRT Electronic Devices and Circuits 1. The voltage under examination is applied to the y-axis or as vertical input of the eRO.1 BASIC CRO CIRCUITRY: A eRO consists of 1. Dual trace 4.4.2 TYPES CRO's OF 1. 2. Ext. Single Beam 2. .y plotters. Cathode Ray Tube The block schematic is shown in Fig. eRO is an extremely useful and versatile laboratory instrument used for the measurement and analysis of waveforms and other phenomena in electronic circuits. 3. These are basically very fast x . 1. In the usual eRO application. the x . 4. Vertical amplifier Horizontal amplifier Time base Circuit Power supplies 5. 1.26 1. the display appears as a stationary pattern on the eRG.4. Horizontal Output II ~--------~11l Fig 1. Storage oscilloscope. Block schematic of Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO).16.

4. CRT is the heart ofCRO. in both the grid and anode. x-y co-ordinates position Beam Target Region Display Screen. In a CRT. The Intensity of the beam on the screen can be easily controlled by varying the grid voltage. c--------------------------------------/ T .17 ) : 1. Graticules J--:-- Cathode Nickel Cylinder with a l. . Grid Focusing Anode Final Apperture 1 """". Beam Generating Area The electron beam is generated by Thermionic Emission 2.ayer of Barium and Strantium coated on it Anode Accelerating Anodes (2000 v -10 Kv ) Vertical Plate Ilorizontal Plate ~ay Fig 1. Beam Focus Section The beam is focused Space potential controls the beam Beam Post Acceleration Region 3... electrons are liberated with considerable energy. The operation of CRT may be described by the five regions mentioned below ( Fig. with respect to anode so that. to enable electrons to reach screen.17 Cathode 1.4. 1.3 BEAM GENERATION Tube (CRT). permitting a narrow beam to emerge from the anode. Focus control electrode adjusts the beam to be concentrated as a dot. 1. and an anode collecting them. The cathode potential is several thousand volts negative. velocity. Beam Deflection Region The beam is positioned to the desired 4. solid state light emitting arrays ofGaAs diode and plasma cells. where as astigmatism control is used to make the dot as round as possible.4 BEAM Focus It contains the beam focusing electrodes which change the beam pattern as a small round dot. there is a small hole or aperture. 5. a grid controlling their rate of emission. The two electrodes are focus and astigmatism electrodes. This is analogous to a Vacuum Device Triode: a cathode supplying electrons.Electron Dynamics and CRO 27 CRO nowadays is being replaced by electro luminescent panels.

7 CRT DISPLAY SCREEN Phosphor is the usual read out material on the target. the voltage between cathode and plate is approximately 4 KY. The grid is biased negative with respect to cathode. Internal Graticule 3.8 GR\TICliLES These are the scale markings on the CRT Screen.4. Intensity knob controls the negative voltage of the grid. It has the capability of converting electrical energy into light energy.Calcium Tungstate gives blue colour. This is done by changing current levels in an inductor. For this a resistance spiral is used inside the tube envelope on which is impressed an accelerating voltage of 10 KY. Electromagnetic Deflection System has a substantial cost advantage. Projected Graticule External Graticule is screened outside the CRT screen. The original accelerating field is the potential between cathode and deflection plates.e. i. human eye tends to peak in ~ 55000 AO. Fluorescent screen material is Zinc Orthosilicate ( P-1 phosphor) P . Cathode in CRTs is a nickel cylinder with a layer of barium and strontium oxide deposited over it.5 BEAM DEFLECTIO"l Electronic Devices and Circuits Many CRTs differ only in this method.4. The accelerating field bends the beam towards the axis and thus changes the waveform display or decreases deflection sensitivity. When the beam hits the phosphor. Projected Graticule is provided with some covers and allow greater flexibility in graticule pattern.5 screen . The phosphor is classified as (1) Short persistence (decay in less than 1m sec) (2) Medium persistence (2 sec) (3) Long persistence (minutes). a fluoresence or light emission is observed.RATION This is important for writing speed.4. . to obtain high electron emission at moderate temperatures. At high frequencies inductors with few turns are necessary to obtain fast current changes. The Internal Graticule is screened inside the CRT screen. 1. They are of three kinds 1.4. Voltages applied to the acceleration anode vary from 250V to 10.28 1. than does electrostatic deflection. Inductive reactance increases with frequency. 1. Magnetic Deflection is accomplished by changing magnetic field. Magnetic deflection allows a wider beam deflection angle..6 BEAM POST ACCEL~. In electrostatic CRTs. 1. Two phenomena occur when a phosphor is bombarded with a high energy electron beam. Iffull screen beam deflection bandwidth desired is less than 20 KHz.OOOY. External Graticule 2. It controls the density of electrons being emitted from the cathode. Thus TV sets and medical monitor use Electromagnetic Deflection. yellow to green region. When the excitation beam is removed phosphorescence remains for sometime and indicates where the phosphor had been stimulated into light emission.

18.and so appears as a line. A typical case is. and accelerating anode is at 2000V.D of 800V will produce strong cb:trostatic field. ith high velocity and there will be secondary emission. The sweep action is achieved by a saw tooth wave form. 1. Switching can be done at a faster rate when electronic devices are used as switches. In CRO focussing is done by varying the focusing electric voltage since the electrons arrive at the screen v. It consists of a single beam ('RT.5.le time base generator and t\\O identical vertical amplifiers. to represent time varying functions. . The end result is that all electrons entering the lens area tend to come together at a point called the focal point. 1. Acqudag coating is a Graphite coating. When S is closed.Electrol1 DYIl(lmic. An electron passing through these anodes has two forces acting on it.4. JFET or any other electronic switching device.18 ( b) Time base wave form. the beam moves slov. These electrons are attracted 0) the acqudag coating and returned to the cathode.18 (a) R . 1. after each sweep. So it is an essential feature.C Network. ELECTROSTATIC DEFLECTION SENSITIVITY Electrostatic deflection sensitivity of a pair of deflection plates of a Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO) is defined as the amount of deflection of electron spot produced when a voltage of I V DC is applied between the corresponding plates. with an electronic switch. Thus a P.l). a ~ing. The left to right or forward movement of the beam is called trace interval or forward trace. v ~t Fig 1.\' (lilt! eRO 29 The rocu~ing anode and accelerating anode form electrostatic lens. Time bases generate an output voltage which is used to move the beam across CRT screen in a straight horizontallme. producing a saw tooth wave form.>itive potential and returns secondary electrons to the cathode. and return the beam quickly back to its starting point.5 1. The high accelerating voltage attracts the electrons and speeds it up in a forward direction. Time Base Circuit A typical circuit to deflect electron beam along x-direction on the screen is as shown in Fig. CI hi~ switch alternati\ el)' connects each vertical channel of CRT. It returns rapidly from right to left and so cannot be perceived. It is at a po. focusing .lI1ode is at 1200V. From left to right. The switch can be a BJT. Many AC signals are functions of time. 1. and the electrostatic lield between the t\\'o electrodes tends to deflect the electron. When the switch S is open C gets charged.9 TI!\IE BASE This permits an operator to display voltage or current variations in time.1 DEFLECTION SENSITIVITY Fig. C discharges. Dual trace CRO enable the portrayal of two vertical beams.

I = length of deflecting Plates s = Spacing between Deflecting Plates D = Distance between screen and Centre of Deflecting Plates Then. The time taken by the electron to the traverse in the field ofthe plates is is vy ' I iv sec.-1 D Fig 1.-:'.19).m/sec y v v sm The ratiQ of upward velocity to the forward velocity at the instant electron leaves the field is Vy _ Vd xexl ~ . 1.x . 12 x mv 2 = e x V v= Where Vd e m I~ ~2~d voltage of fixed anode in volts charge of an electron in coulomb = mass of an electron in kgs.30 Electronic Devices and Circuits Let two plates of length 'I' and spacing's' are kept at a distance D from the screen.. d.x a = . the electrons are attracted Vd xe towards the positive plate by a force equal to . F=ma F a= m Vd xe a=-sm The forward motion however continues at velocity v. v . t t d. I The upward velocity attained by the electron in Vd x e iv sec = .--+I . Letthe voltage applied between the plates be V d volts and v the velocity of an electron on entering the field of the deflection plates (Fig.sxme xv 2 Then. As the beam passes through the field of the deflection plates.-:-: ••-:•• : : • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• tA --------1+-I~ C G D.s Vd xe F=exE=-s The force produces an acceleration of 'a' m/sec 2 and is equal to force divided by mass me of an electron.19 Electrostatic deflection sensitivity. f S _ _-r-:.

.. but then the electron may hit the plates..s x me x y2 y2 = 2xex Va m V 10 d=-fl x Va 2s for a given CRT. We can increase D. Then Tan e= - yy y = - or d = D x 2 2 y yy d = Vd x ex 1x O2 2 s x m xv 2 Total deflection. Even after decreasing s... and s are fixed.20 ) IxD Deflection Sensitivity SE ( with Electrostatic Field) can be increased by increasing /.: upward velocity at t = 0 Vd x e x 12 YS x --"----. the point of leaving the field. .:sx m X y2 If e is the angle with the axis that the electron beam makes after emerging out from the field of the deflection plates. /. Va SE = Deflection Sensitivity = v. Then d I = ut + YSat2 d I = Y2 = X ax ( ~ r d2 O2 ut = 0 1 t= Y . to get optimum value of deflection sensitivity.Electron Dynamics and CRO 31 The electron follows a parabolic path from A the point of entrance. ( 1..... Let the vertical displacement. during this period be d I . So the only alternative left is by reducing Va' So a compromise has to be made in the design of CRT. to point B. D. the same problem will be there. Therefore deflection 'd' of the spot can be changed by changing the ratio Vd ... Let Then But D = D2 + 2" 1 Vd xexl xD d = ---"------. but the size of CRT becomes large..= ~ d 10 cmN ..

.... If the magnetic field points out of the paper.. The velocity of the particle.. Cathode IA I °· • ·1· ...-_ _ _ _ _---'_. since 8 is small..2 ELECTROMAGNETIC DEFLECTION SENSITIVITY Electronic Devices and Circuits Magnetic Deflection in a Cathode Ray Tube Electron will get deflected in magnetic field also..20 Magnetic deflection sensitivity.. In the region of the uniform magnetic field. Let. the beam is deflected upward. p' Q • p' Jr'------c .( 1 L :~/~I Fig 1.. where R is the radius of the circle. the electron experience a force ofmagnitude e B Vo where Vo is velocity.5.32 1. So a Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO) can employ magnetic field as well to get deflective on the screen... OM = R8... v = o ~2evo m I = length of the magnetic field L = Distance between circle of the field and the screen y = Total y deflection B = flux density in wb/m 2 Vo = initial velocity V 0 = accelerating voltage SM = Deflection sensitivity due to magnetic field = m/wblm2 = m 3 /wb The path OM will be the arc of a circle whose centre is at Q. f-Z--p 8 :0' 1 1 1 • 1 X .-0 .... The electron moves in a straight line from the cathode to the boundaries '0' of the magnetic field.. The path OM will be the arc of a circle whose centre is at Q. Let us derive the expression for the deflection sensitivity Sm in a magnetic field. If we assume a small angle of deflection OM::::: I 8= - I R ......

SMB Advantages I I Compared to electrostatic deflection SM is high. tubes. y = L8 I l. Ie y=L V. s = 0. ~2Vo ~2. Va = 1500 V. Calculate the deflection sensitivity in m/volt if the final anode voltage is (a) 500 V (b) 1000 V (c) 1500 V Solution ID Deflection sensitivity = 2sVa 1=2 cm D= 18 cm.B V. Disadvantages For high frequency this is not used because of the high reactance produced by the coils. y=L tan 8 when 8 is small. it is used in radars and T.036 cmN.e. Ion spot formation creates a black spot at the centre of the screen.= . SE = 0. Ie Deflection sensitivity -1.~~8500 = 0.072 cmN Va = 1000 V.Electron Dynamics and CRO 33 But radius of the circle is mv R=eB In all practical cases. to produce B.B But 8= . the spacing ofthe plates is 0.= .eB l. it will pass through the centre 0' of the region of the magnetic field. . therefore if MP' is projected backwards. L » I...Y.024 cmN. SE = 0. o "Vo Because of high deflection sensitivity. and since SE a -V whereas SM a ~.11 In a CRT.= = R mv m~2emVo 8= . Radial deflection can be accomplished easily by rotating coils placed outside. the length of the deflecting plates in the direction of the beam is 2 cm..5 cm (a) For Va = 500 V Deflection Sensitivity SE= (b) (c) For For 2x~.5 cm and the distance of the fluorescent screen from the centre of the plate is 18 cm.Vo I. Problem 1.B I...

= = 0... (c) e = 3 26' v Tan e =..22 x 10-5 wb/m2 .. L. a pair of deflecting plates are 2.. Calculate (a) The displacement produced by deflecting voltage of 30V.21 ) v v =-R cose v = Fig 1.. 1= 1.rn-.98 = 2.:. 1. The distance from the center of the plates to the screen is 24 cm. (b) The angle which the beam makes with the axis of the tube on emerging from the field (c) Velocity of the beam on emerging from the field.5 (b) Tan e = -D 0 .9982 Problem 1. The final anode voltage is 1000 V. d = -.sVa 2 x 0. What must be the magnitude of a transverse magnetic field acting over the whole length of the tube in order to produce the same deflection as that produced by a deflecting potential of30 V? Solution 2.1~ hr" = 5.78x106 0.27cm.B=? Vo=400V B = 6.= = 0.475cm.0 cm long and are spaced 0. .27 x 19.4 x 10-2 SE = . v Resultant Velocity V R' (Fig.65 mm/v..5 cm apart. Solution (a) Deflection produced d= Vd..94 x 105 x V Va = 5.JlOOO ve = -co-s-e = .75 x 106 m/sec V ~2eVa -- X .67 cm .44cm Vd l 2sVa 30x2 2x1000xO.'--------+ V .-1.4cm.5xlOOO = 1.B Y = 2. 2Vo 1. .27 cm and d = 0.D 1..475 x 400 30 V will produce deflection 000 x 0.I=1.12 In a CRT.94 x 105 me = 18.l D 2sVa = vy 30x2x24 2xO. The essential dimensions are L = 19.4 cm.34 Electronic Devices and Circuits Problem 1.06 -t'-L.= 18.l. Determine SE.67 cm = r. ~ m L=19.87 x 106 mlsec 18.13 The electrons emitted from the thermionic cathode of a Cathode Ray Tube gun are accelerated by a potential of 400 V.21 For Problem 1.

6 G == 0.224 Y + 400 == 0 or y = 1.. The Anode . Now initial velocity. whose strength is 0.6 6 c~ f2eV:: x 10-4 wb/m2 Radius of the circle described by the electron due to earth magnetic field R = 3. Earth's magnetic field = 0.22 Deflection in CRT due to Earth's magnetic field. o o~----------~ ~======:::::::::--:::--------------- ---lry B D DA=20~A R Fig 1.y)2 + 202 = 1122 y2 . Solution The electron starts at 0 ( Fig. 1./400 6xlO.J 2 m = 112 cm AC = 112 cm CO = Radius of the circle =AC == 112 cm CD = (112 . Because of the effect of earth's magnetic field.x .22) and is accelerated by anode potential of 400 V. whose radius == AC.Electro!. AB is the deflection of the electron on the screen (y).y) (112 . v' o = V~ = 1. Dynamics and CRO 3S Problem 1.37 x 10.19 x 107 m/sec.6 G.8 cm . it will describe a circle of arc OA.14 Calculate the deflection of a cathode ray beam caused by the earth's magnetic field.screen distance is 20cm. Assume the tube axis is so oriented that it is normal to the field.5 6 = I.37 X 10- ry " Yo B = 3. The anode potential is 400 V.

.t sec) / Div.36 1.6 x 10. on the timescale. y= ex E x t 2 2m Transit Time "t = ~ exV 2m x d • • • 1 eV = 1.6.6.. etc. 1. (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) 1. 2Vo X = x d x Sin 28· m V ' Force experienced by electron in magnetic field f = B x I x L Newtons • • y SE = -. Time 'T' is determined by mUltiplying No. the number of divisions are measured. v= ~2X:V . The current'!' through the resistor can be determined using the formula I = V / R. Frequency f = T 1 SUMMARY • E = _. V d ' F = e x E·. of divisions with m.6 APPLICATION OF CRO (1) Electronic Devices and Circuits Voltage Measurements Frequency Measurements Phase Measurements T.19 Joules The trajectory of an electron in uniform retarding electric field. when the initial velocity is making an angle 8 with the field is parabola.sec (or ). IxD = Electrostatic Deflection Sensitivity. signal waveform on CRO.2 FREQlJENCY MEASllREMENT By observing the A.1 CURRENT MEASUREMENT USING CRO The voltage drop (V) across a resistor 'P' is measured using CRO. SE = 2s Va SM= Electromagnetic Deflection Sensitivity.C.VDisplay Indicators Diagrams Computer Monitors.

.................... Electric Field Intensity E = ........ 13............... 24....... 5.......... Electrostatic deflection sensitivity is defined as .. Expression for electrostatic deflection sensitivity SE = .......... 17............... deflection sensitivity is inversely proportional to the square of accelerating potential............... 14.......... Relativistic correction should be applied if an electron falls through a potential of above . ....... .......... 12. . deflection is independent of specific charge (elm).................... the magnetic force results in ...................... .............. The . ......... the force experienced by the conductor is F m = .. 21........ 22....... ..... Newtons............ volts.. .... 11.Electron Dynamics and CRO 37 OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS 1........................................ An electron takes T seconds to travel the distance L... 8.. ..... ................. .......... ............................ 6............ .. Expression for the velocity of electron v in terms of acclerating potential V = ...... The ..... 3....... ...... 2......... 16...... 7......... When a current carrying conductor oflength L is placed in a magnetic field of strength B................... 9..... 25..... 20... The mass of a particle moving with a velocity v in terms of its rest mass mo is given by m = ............................. The trajectory of an electron in two dimensional motion subjected to an electric field between two plates of a capacitor is ...... . Its units are .......................... The acceleration of an electron placed in an electric field of intensity & is a = . The nature of signal ( wave shape) of Time Base in a CRO is ........ .... Expression for electromagnetic deflection sensitivity SM = .... When an electron enters the magnetic field with a velocity v in a direction perpendicular to the magnetic field...... is T = . The total number of electrons passing through any cross section in unit times is .. Graduated scales on the CRO Screen are called as . Expression for the radius of an electron placed in a magnetic field of intensity B... motion of the electron................... 15.................................... fm = . The energy acquired by an electron in rising through a potential of one volt is A Conductor of length L consists of N electrons. 4.. figures are obtained on the screen.. ....... Electromagnetic deflection sensitivity is defined as .. 19........... and moving with velocity v is r = .......... When suitable alternating voltages are impressed against two pairs of deflecting p!ates in a CRO........................ ..... 18...... 10.......................................... 23........... the famous ... Force experienced by an electron in a magnetic field of Intensity B........... The trajectory of an electron moving with velocity v in a magnetic field B is The time taken T for one revolution of an electron in a magnetic field.. Coating which provides the return path for electrons after striking the CRO Screen Cathode Material used in Cathode Ray Tube .......

with initial velocity zero m/sec.6 x 10 19 Joules 2.9 105 5 3..7 x 10-9 (c) 6.6 x 10. If the electron starts at rest with initial velocity potential +V. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. the path of the electron is (a) (c) Common parabola Prolate parabola (b) (d) Curtate parabola Trochoid 6. Derive the expression for the velocity acquired by an electron. Derive the expression for radius 'R' and time period 'T' in the case of an electron placed in a magnetic field of intensity B tesla.. 2. 8. With the help of a neat sketch.38 Electronic Devices and Circuits ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS 1. CRT screens with medium persistance will have visible glow on the screen for a period of (a) 1 minute (b) 2 secs (c) 1 m sec (d) few minutes . when placed in an accelerating field &.19 1.JV mlsec 5. is 1= Ne (a) -t- (b) (c) Ne tA (d) NA et 4. Give the constructional details of Cathode Ray Tube.JV Km/sec Ne tL (b) (d) . £ (c) B rrt (d) 5. 7.19 (d) 1. 4.. Joules (b) 1. 3.. Derive the expression for electrostatic deflection sensitivity Derive the expression for electromagnetic deflection sensitivity. of charge e.93)( 105 9. The force experienced by an electron in parallel electric field field 'B' wb/m1. in time t secs. is . 5. The expression for current I passing through a conductor of cross sectional area 'A'm1.59 x 10 . If aL electron is placed in combined '&' and 'B' fields and if '&' and 'B' are perpe ldicular to each other. Zero '&' vim and magnetic B£ em (b) Be m e..JV mlsec 5 10 . (a) 5.1 x 10. 1 ev (a) = . Compare Electrostatic and Electromagnetic deflection mechanisms What are the applications of CRO? Give the block schematic of CRO and explain. describe principle and working of Cathode Ray Tube. volts the final velocity is. and if the initial velocity is perpendicular to magnetic field IS.. with electron density N per mJ .53 x =0 x m/Sec and is accelerated by (c) .JV cmlsec 3. 6.

Configurations. tunnel diode and so on. After p-type and n-type semiconductors. we shall study semiconductor devices formed using these two types of semiconductors. Atomic Structure. and applications of semiconductor diodes. Intrinsic.In this Chapter. Concept of Hole. Extrinsic. • • • . zener diode. and Semiconductors are introduced. • The basic aspects connected with Semiconductor Physics and the terms like Effective Mass. We shall also study the physical phenomena such as corniuction. Conductivity inp-type and n-type semiconductors are given . transport mechanism. electrical characteristics. This forms the basis to study Semiconductor Devices in the following chapters.

The electron will be moving around it in a closed orbit. Its value is . In hydrogen atom. The charge on particle is positive and is equal to that of electron. 2. Energy Band Theory. then the force of attraction given by the above expression F should be equal to the 2 centripetal force mv r (according to Newton's Second Law of Motion) ( F = m.40 Electronic Devices and Circuits In this chapter.1 REVIEW OF SEMICONDUCTOR PHYSICS ENERGY LEVELS AND ENERGY BANDS To explain the phenomenon associated with conduction in metals and semiconductors and the emission of electrons from the surface of a metal. {directly proportional to product of charges and inversely proportional to (distance )2}. The force of attraction between the electron and the nucleus is : F a e2 . The force of attraction between electron and proton follows Coulombs Law. so it is immobile. Assume that the orbit of the electron around nucleus is a circle.F/m. Semiconductor Device Physics. The proton in the nucleus carries the charge of the atom. and with velocity v. there is one positively charged nucleus ( a proton) and a single electron. Electronic structure of Silicon and Germanium elements. a = .) r v2 . 361t As the electron is moving around the nucleus in a circular orbit with radius r.1.. We want to calculate the radius of this circle. It consist of protons which are positively charged. we shall first study the basic aspects of Atomic Theory. The mass of the atom is concentrated in the nucleus.1 2. m is the mass of electron and acceleration. and then conduction in Semiconductors. the nucleus has the proton with electron charge equal to 'e') F a 1 ~ ( r is the radius of the orbit) where Eo 10-9 is the permitivity of free space. we have to assume that atoms have loosely bound electrons which can be removed from it. Rutherford found that atom consists of a nucleus with electrons rotating around it. in terms of total energy oW' of the electron. (Therefore. So hydrogen atom is neutral in charge.a.

(Any quantity less than 0 is negative). Only for Hydrogen atom W will also be the energy of atom since it has only one electron. Therefore this r 2 electron should also radiate energy. Potential Energy is zero.41tEor = -2 mv --4-1tEor I 2 e2 reduces to e2 e2 e2 W= .= . The negative sign arises because the Potential Energy of the electron is 81tEor As radius r increases. the energy should be less.Junction Diode Characteristics e2 e2 --4-1tEor 41 The Potential Energy of the electron = ---2 41tEor X r = ( -ve sign is because Potential Energy is by definition work done against the field) Kinetic Energy = ~ mv 2 Total Energy W possessed by the electron But e2 mv 2 = . r should decrease. The above equation is derived from the classical model of the electron. So. Hence the frequency of the radiated energy from the electron should be equal to the frequency with the electron orbiting round the nucleus. . then its total energy OW' must decrease by the amount equal to the radiation energy. e2 W=--81tE o r . When r is infinity. But if the electron is radiating energy. Electron is having charge = e... then the frequency of the radiated energy should also be the same.-8-1tEor e2 W is the energy ofthe electron. an accelerated charge must radiate energy... the electron should describe smaller and smaller orbit and should finally fall into nucleous. It is moving with velocity v or acceleration ~ around the nucleus.81tEor 41tEor 81tE or Energy possessed by the electron W = . But according to classical laws of electromagnetism. e2 If W decreases. So classical model of atom is not fairly satisfactory.. Therefore. If the charge is performing oscillations with a frequency 'f'. If r is < 00. this quantity 81tEor should become more negative. Potential Energy decreases. r should also decrease.should decrease. Therefore the energy of the electron is negative. Smce If . .. So OW' should go on decreasing to satisfy the equation..

. h = 6. Only during transition. will some energy be radiated. E = Kinetic Energy of the Free Electron p=Momentum v=Velocity m = Mass p=mv m* = Effective mass of electron p2 E=2m Electrons in a solid are not free. A stationary state is determined by the condition that the angular momentum of the electron in this state must be an integral multiple of h127r. electron does not emit radiation in stationary state. The atom remains in the new state corresponding to WI. when the atom is in stationary state. Vg = O. responds to applied field as if it were of mass m*. other than zero.2 THE BOHR ATOM Electronic Devices and Circuits The above difficulty was resolved by Bohr in 1913. When its energy changes from W2 to WI then the atom is said to have moved from one stationary state to the other.626 x 10-34 J .3 EFFECTIVE MAss An electron mass 'm' when placed in a crystal lattice. 2.e.e. When the energy of the electron is changingfrom W2 to WI then radiation will be emitted The frequency of radiation is given by f= W2 -W\ where 'h' is Plank s Constant. 1. They move under the combined influence of an external field plus that of a periodic potential of atom cores in the lattice. it does not emit any radiation. i. An electron moving through the I~ttice can be represented by a wave packet of plane waves grouped around the same value of K which is a wave vector. He postulated three fundamental laws.42 2. While in states corresponding to these discrete energy levels.. This is because the electron wave further )ecomes standing wave at the top and bottom ofa band i. The atom can possess only discrete energies.1..1. Electron velocity falls to zero at each band edge. nh 2tr where n is an integer. So mvr =- h 3.sec. The reason for this is the interaction of the electron even within lattice. 2.

..1 ) dt But this is not the case for the electron in a solid because the externally applied force is not the only force acting on the electrons.Junction Diode Characteristics 43 Now consider an electronic wave packet moving in a crystal lattice under the influence of an externally applied uniform electric field. we can write.. Acceleration of an electronic wave packet in a solid is equal to the rate of change of its velocity. where m* = 1i 2 x d2 E [ dp2 ] -1 anda= dv -g dt dv g F=m* x dV where m* is the effective mass. where 5E = F x 5x = F x Vg x 5t F oE 5E= . dK F .x x 5t h ok Vg = oE hok Within the limit of small increments in K. Forces associated with the periodic lattice are also present. ( 2. it acquires energy dE.. ( 2... . in time dt.F = rna.1') d 2E F dp2 = ~ dt or ) = (d P dt t1 . d E = (d P)(d t) Vg = dE dp F h dk dt r But = h dk xdt F Ii dk dt from Eq.. Acceleration of an electron in a solid = 2 df = dt dP dv d (d E ) . from Newton's Laws of Motion.. Ifthe electron has an instantaneous velocity Vg and moves a distance dx in the direction of an accelerating force F.. d2 E dp2 This is of the form.

( 2.r e2 2 41t Eo r Equating these two forces in an atom. So the electron is said to have negative mass.5). .2 ) h = Plank's Constant. e2 2 =-- mv 2 r v = velocity.44 ......... ( 2. when the field is applied.3 ) Substituting the value ofv in Equation ( 2.. On the other hand. (2......... then W = . nh mvr= 21t nh v = 21tmr .------:::--::-2 2 81tE o n h E0 .. Coulombs force of attraction = mv 2 Centripetal Force = ..4 ) . Hence the electron is said to have positive mass....5 ) Substituting the value ofr in Eq. the electron will accelerate and its velocity and energy will increase. Energy possessed by the atom in the stable state is W= e2 81t Eo r e 2 x 1tme2 .... Electronic Devices and Circuits If an electric field E is impressed...... r E n h ---'<-0 = __ 2 2 1tme 2 This is the expression for radii of stable states.. its energy will increase and its velocity decreases. ( 2. n = Principle Quantum Number.. if an electron is at the upper end of a band.... r = radius of Orbit e mv 2 --=--x 41t Eo r e2 r = 41tEo mv 2 But . In an atom..2 )..( 2.

1. critical or resonance levels. h = Plank's Constant = 6.1 Determine the radius of the lowest state of Ground State.19 6. The lowest energy state is called the normal level or ground level.WI J h f= A C = Velocity of Light = 3 x 10 10 cm / sec.< 1. radiating.626 x 10-34 . Eo = r= 1O-9/361t Substituting the values and simplifYing. This is the characteristic of the given elem'ent. f= Frequency of Radiation A = Wavelength of emitted radiation W I and W 2 are the energy levels in Joules. Generally.6 x 10.Junction Diode Characteristics 45 Thus energy W corresponds to only the coulombs force due to attraction between ground electron (negative charge) and proton (positive charge). Other stationary states are called excited. r = 0.} 0-34 J-sec Permitivity.6xIO-19 A. the energy of different states is expressed in eV rather than in Joules.58 A O 2.sec. the value of the free electron concentration will be different. Solution n=I n h EO 2 2 1tme 2 Plank's Constant.626 x . F= W2 C . h = 6. and the emitted radiation is expressed by its wavelength A rather than by its frequency. By spectroscopic analysis we can determine the energy level of an element at different wavelengths. This is only for convenience since Joule is a larger unit and the energy is small and is in electron volts.6 x 10-19 Joules I C = (E2-EdxI.626 x 10-34 J .E I )>. II eV = 1.4 ATOMIC ENERGY LEVELS For different elements. Problem 2. h (E2 .

E\) h . In the given problem.EI ). E\ and E2 are the energy levels in eY. 2. and E2 and EI in eV.537 AO.1..88 eV/photon 0.10 m.. .. of this wavelength emitted by the lamp.EI)x 1. When such a transition occurs. 0. (E2 .34 A = . 0. is positive. I.e. (E2 . A = 2. appears in the ultraviolet line 2.400 (E2 .E\). Problem 2. This is explained with a numercial example given below.E\) = 2. the number of photons liberated is very large..E\) is the energy passed by each photon in eV of wavelength A.. Solution A= 12. This loss of energy of the atom results in radiation of light.05 W = 0. Radiation of energy in the form of photons takes place only when the transition of electrons will take place from higher energy state to lower energy state.5 PHOTON NATURE OF LIGHT An electron can be in the excited state for a small period of 10-7 to 10. According to dassical theory it was believed that atoms continuously radiate energy.1 100 x 50 = 0.E\) A = Wavelength of the emitted radiation.1 % of the electric energy supplied to the lamp. or 3x1010 x6. Afterwards it returns back to the original state.. This will not occur if the transition is from lower energy state to higher energy state.537 = 4.. lAo = 10-8 cm = 10.05 J/Sec 1W = 1 J/sec Converting thi.2 For a given 50 W energy vapour lamp. the electrons will loose energy equal to the difference of energy levels (E2 ..6 x 10- where A is in Armstrong.E\) = ? ' 12.626x10. But this is not true. When such photon radiation takes place.537 AO. Calculate the number of photons per second.. The frequency of the emitted radiation is given by f = (E2 .400 (E2 . i ·to the electron Volts.19 (E2 .1 % of SOW energy supplied to the lamp is>. so that ( E2 .46 Electronic Devices and Circuits EI and E2 are energy levels in eY.10 sec.

energy has to be supplied to it. If the energy supplied to the loosely bound electron is enough large. its direction changes. it gets deflected. Ionization Potential ofNa is 5.3 Argon resonance radiation. Its velocity v = 6. If this electron is moving slowly with less energy. .537 A0. to move it away completely from the influence of the parent nucleus. Consider the case when an electron is accelerated and collides with an atom.48 eV or Potential.93 = 1. then this electron transfers its energy to the loosely bound electron of the atom and may remove the electron from the atom itself. If a photon ionizes an unexcited sodium atom. the excess energy will be shared by the bombarding and liberated electrons. 6 .5.51 x 10 m/sec.7 COLLISIONS OF ELECTRONS WITH ATOMS If a loosely bound electron has to be liberated.19 J/eV = 3. it moves to stable state (since it is loosely bound.e. corresponding to an energy of 11. 2. i. and collides with an atom. 12 x 10 17 ev / sec The lamp emits 6. If the electron is having much energy. If the bombarding electron is having energy greater than that required to liberate a loosely bound electron from atom. Electrons orbiting closer to the nucleus have stable state. Solution Ionization potential is the minimum potential required to liberate an electron from its parent atom. This is called Elastic Collision.4 x 4. But the stable state acquired by the electron is away from the nucleus ofthe atom.: 1eV energy. The energy possessed by the electron which is ejected is 11.48 volts v= ( .1.12 eY.Junction Diode Characteristics 0.. with what speed is the dectron ejected? The ionization potential of sodium is 5.6 eY.6 . and electron orbiting in the outermost shells are loosely bound to the nucleus).j6.6 x 10. 2.12 eY. total energy energy / photon 3.6 e V falls upon sodium vapor. potential is 1V) x 10 .05 J /sec 17 1.88ev / photon 16 = 6. So another free electron results.12 x 10 eV/sec This is the total energy of all the photons liberated in the A Number of photons emitted per sec 47 = Wavelength of2. its tendency is to acquire a stable state.12 = 6.6 IONIZATION POTENTIAL If the most loosely bound electron ( free electron) of an atom is given more and more energy.4 x 10 photon/sec 16 10 photons / sec of wavelength A = 2. But no considerable change occurs in energy. The energy required to detach an electron is called Ionization Potential.48 5 ~~V = 5.537 A0. it becomes detached from it.1. Argon energy is 11. Problem 2.

Total number of quanta per sec.893 - ( Corresponding to evergy of 2.626 x 10-34 Joules / sec E = 6. v = ~~V = 5.6 (a) x 1022 per cycle (b) What is the minimum speed with which an electron must be travelling in order that a collision between it and an unexcited Neon atom may resuit in ionization of this atom? The Ionization Potential of Neon is 21.48 Problem 2. (a) What is the energy of each radiated quantum in ev ? (b) (c) How many quanta are emitted per second? How many quanta are emitted in each period of oscillation of the electromagnetic field? Solution (a) Energy of each radiated quantum = E = hf f= 10 MHz = 107 Hz. Solution 12.14 x 10-8 eV / Quantum (b) 1W = 1 Joule/sec 1000 W = 1000 Joules/sec = Total Energy Energy possessed by each quantum = 6.400 Be> .893 A0.51 Problem 2. What is the minimum frequency that a photon can have and still be abl~ to cause Photo-Ionization of a Neon atom? .61 x 105 m/sec.11 eV.626 x 10-27 Joules / Quantum -----::-.11 Volts) V = 2.626x 10- = 1.626 x 10-27.= 1. h = 6.6x10.11 Volts Velocity.11 eV - 5.4 Electronic Devices and Circuits With what speed must an electron be travelling in a sodium vapor lamp in order to excite the yellow line whose wavelength is 5.93 x 10 5 .5 A radio transmitter radiates 1000 Wat a frequency of 10 MHz. N = 1000 27 6.J2T1 = 8.51 x 10 29 = 1.626 x 10-34 107 = 6. Problem 2.626 x 10-27 4.5 x 10 /sec 29 (c) One cycle = 10-7 sec Number of quanta emitted per cycle = 10-7 x 1.5 V.19 6. the potential is 2.Joules/Quantum..>2.

Junction Diode Characteristics Solution (a) 49 Ionization Potential is 21.15 . ~2:V = 5..= 12.8 A photon of wavelength 1.EI ) 12.:. Solution v.J2 Eo (_ w)t .400 A0 is absorbed by cold mercury vapor and two other photons are emitted.400 j - i - C - 3x 108 15 = 5.15 e Y. If one of these is the 1.-.71 eY.400 12. e e r 2nrt(4nm e Eo )'12 Prohlem 2.1E = 2. .71 eV to 0 eY..EI 21.75 x 106 m/sec (b) 12. what is the wavelength A of the second photon? Solution 12. The second photon must be from 8.93 x 10 5 ~ = 2.86 eV 1850° AO line is from 6. .'e o ' T = 2m = 2 2m(4mTI Eo r v But radius.5 V Velocity = Wavelength ofradiation.=577 A E2 . A= 12.850 A0 line.5 Frequency of radiation.EI ) = -1. So..= 1400 = 8.400 (E2 . :.400 0 = .~ 4.IO Prohlem 2.400 A= .86 to 6.= 5767Ao 2.400 ( E2 ..2 x 10 Hz 577xlO. 1.7 Show that the time for one revolution of the electron in the hydrogen atom in a circular path around the nucleus is T = 4.

but is also exhibited by particles such as electrons. Such levels are called metastable states.9 WAVE PROPERTIES OF MATTER An atom may absorb a photon of frequency f and move from the energy level W I to the higher energy level W 2 where W 2 = WI + hf Since a photon is absorbed by only one atom. where 'p' is the momentum of the particle. Then if an atom is in metastable state how will it come to the normal state? It cannot release a photon to come to normal state since this is forbidden. 2.8 An atom may be elevated to an excited energy state by absorbing a photon of frequency 'f and thereby move from the level of energy WI to the higher energy level W 2 where W 2 = WI + hf But certain states may exist which can be excited by electron bombardment but not by photo excitation (absorbing photons and raising to the excited state). dual character of wave and particle is not limited to radiation alone. mvr=27t h 2. Therefore an atom in the metastable state can come to normal state only by colliding with another molecule and giving up its energy to the other molecule. the photon acts as if it were concentrated in one point in space. 27t r = nA r = radius of orbit. Wave properties of moving electrons can be made use to explain Bohr's postulates. n = Principle Quantum Number. A=mv nh 27tr = mv nh This equation is identical with Bohr's condition. He calculated that a particle of mass 'm' travelling with a velocity v has a wavelength A given by A= ~ = ~ ( A is the wavelength of waves consisting of these mv p particles ). A branch of physics called Wave Mechanics or Quantum Mechanics was developed by him. A stable orbit is one whose circumference is exactly equal to the wavelength A or nA where n is an integer other than zero. Another possibility is the atom in the metastable state may receive additional energy by some means and hence may be elevated to a higher energy state from where a transition to normal state can occur.1. Therefore according to 'deBroglie' hypothesis. This is the mean life of a metastable state. Thus But according to DeBroglie. Metastable state has a long lifetime because they cannot come to the normal state by emitting a photon. An-electron can be in the metastable state for about 10-2 to 10-4 sec.1. atoms. and molecules. A transition from a metastable level to a normal state with the emission of radiation has a very low probability of occurence.50 Electronic Devices and Circuits METASTABLE STATES 2. So wave properties can not be attributed to such atoms and they behave like particles. If deBroglie's concept of .1. Transition from higher level to a metastable state are permitted.10 SCHRODINGER EQllATION Schrodinger carried the implications of the wave nature of electrons. and several of these will occur.

= -. z)eJwt 2 8 <1> 8t 2 = . z)e This represents the position of a particle at 't' in 3-D Motion... (2.. while differentiating.1) 82 82 82 8x 8y2 8z <I> can be a component of electric field or displacement or pressure..ro 2 \jJ(x. z. and 't' is the time.2) \7 \jJ+-\jJ = ° ').. . '). y.. The variable can be eliminated in the equation by assuming a solution.. It is \7 2<1> __ 1 .+--+-2 2 2 at = jro\jJ(x..lCl)t 8<1> co = 27Tf But 2 co = 41t2j So. <I> is a function of x.. then it should be possible to deduce the properties of an electron system from a mathematical relationship called the Wave Equation or Schrodinger Equation. co = Angular Frequency = 2 1tf co is regarded as constant. v is the velocity of the wave. t) = \jJ (x.2 But ').. (2. y.Junction Diode Characteristics 51 wave nature of electrons is correct. e iwt {\7 2\jJ + v12 x 41t2f2\jJ} = ° v But ')..6.. \jJ is a function of x. y... 2 f ' Wavelength = 41t2 Velocity Frequency .8 v2 2 <I> _ 8t 2 - 0. y and z only....6. Substituting th is in the original Schrodinger's Equation. y. ....=-=- h h v = Velocity.y.. jwt <I> (x.. But To get the independent Schrodinger Equation where \7 = ..z)e. z and t..2 mv p p=mv This is deBrogile's Relationship. = h2 p2 .

I\{' 12( dx x dy x dz) is proportional to the probability of finding an electron in volume dx.2) we get.11 WAVE FliNCTION \{' is called as the wave function..... ±2 . It is same as the quantum number 'n' of Bohr atom. ± I.. ± I.U) \{' = 0. This number gives the orientation of the classical orbit with respect to an applied magnetic field. 2.Potential Energy (U) p2 = 2 ( W . \{' is a quantity whose square gives the probability offinding an electron. m h2 = h2 ( W V2 \{' p2 2m U) . 3. in addition to orbiting round the nucleus. Four quantum numbers are required to define the wave function. They are: 1. 1.. h This is the Time Independent Schrodinger Equation \{' is a function of't' But this equation as such is not containing the term 't'. This number determines the total energy associated with a state.. y. the spin axis will orbit itself either parallel or anti-parallel to the direction of the field.1... Tile Principal Quantum Number 'n' : It is an integer 1. Electron Spin: It was found is 1925 that in addition to assuming that electron orbits round the nucleus. (2. (2. (2. .3) in Eq... -2- + 87t m 2 2. Tile orbital magnetic number m.6..U ) . z).52 But Electronic Devices and Circuits p2 = m2 v 2 = 2 ( Kinetic Energy )m .2. I... The magnitude of the Angular Momentum along the direction of magnetic field = mr(. (n -1) The magnitude of this angular momentum is ..3. 27t It indicates the shape of the classical orbit.: This will have values 0. (2:) where the spin quantum ms number . . dy and dz at point P(x. 4.~). When an electron system is subjected to a magnetic field.7. which describes the behavior of the particle..: K.J(iXI + 1) x J:. 2. (W . = Y2mv2 Kinetic Energy = Total Energy (W) . it is also necessary to assume that electron also spins around itself. The electron angular momentum is given by ms may have values +Y2 or -Y2.. Tile Orbital Angular Momentum Quantum Number I: It takes values 0. This intrinsic electronic angular momentum is called Electron Spin.E...3) Substituting Eq.7.

I) if n = I..1. M. mt and ms.... d.... ELECTRONIC SHELLS ( PRINCIPLE QUANTLIM NllMBER ) All the electrons which have the same value of on' in an atom are said to belong to the same electron shell. 2. This is shown in Table 2... K shell will have 2 electrons. it is 'p' sub shell Number of electron in's' sub shell ( i.2.... L. n .3.. 3 . Table 2. subshell . (n . it is's' sub shell If 1= I.. g. n = I. h. I.. it is 'I' shell If 1= 0. for 1= 0. of electron K 1 0 0 S L M N 4 2 0 1 2 I I 3 1 0 1 2 d 3 f s I P 8 s P d s P 32 2 2 2 I6 2 I 6 18 I 10 2 I 6 I 10 J 14 ELECTRON SHELLS AND SllBSHELLS Number of Electrons in a sub shell = 2(21 + I) n = I corresponds to K shell 1= corresponds to s sub shell 1 = 0. . Therefore. s is the sub shell corresponds to 1= number of electron is 2. I s2 ) If n = 2.12 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION 53 PAlIU'S EXCUISION PRINCIPLE No two electrons in an electron system can have the same set of four quantum numbers n. Electrons "..e... No. Total number of electron in 1shell = 2 + 6 = 8 This can be represented as 2s2 2p6 ° 1= ° ° .vill occupy the lower most quantum state.1 Shell .. p. A shell is subdivided into sub shells corresponding to values of 1and identified as s.e....1.. I. is the only possibility Number of electrons in K shell = 2(21 + I) = 2(0 + I) = 2 electrons.. sand p. 1= I) = 2[ (I x 2) + I)] = 6 In 1 shell there are two sub shells. 1 . These shells are identified by letters K. . 1= 0) = 2 x (21 + I) = 2(0 + I) = 2 Number of electron is 'p' sub shell (i.. This is written as I s2 pronounced as "one s two" ( I corresponds to K shell... respectively. N corresponding to n = 1. f.Junctil}n Diode Characteristics 2.4 .

d.s and then p are to be filled and so on. Is2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2 2. It is the atomic number represented as Z. The electron configuration is I s2 2s2 2p2 For the Ge Z = 32. the metal is in the form of a filament and is heated by passing a current through it. First . Is2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d 1o 4s 2 4p2 For the Si Z = 14. In 'L' shell there are two sub shells and p.. corresponding to 1= 0. Z = 6. For Carbon.13 TVPES OF ELECTRON EMISSION Electrons at absolute zero possess energy ranging from 0 to EF the fermi level. Then I shell ( n = 2 ) and so on. In 'k' shell there is one sub shell (s) (/= 0). Total number of electrons in M shell = 10+ 6 + 2 = 18 This can be represented as 3s2 3p6 3d 1o Is2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d 1o 4s 2 4p6 4d lO ELECTRONIC CONFIGllRATION Atomic number 'z' gives the number of electrons orbitin§ round the nucleus. i. Secondary Emission Photoelectric Emission High field Emission.54 If n = 3. First k shell (n = 1 ) is to be filled. .. the Atomic Number is 6. it is M shell Electronic Devices and Circuits It has 3 sub shell s.1.. So the electronic configuration of Silicon is. p. So the electronic configuration of Germanium is. the electron energy distribution starts in the metal changes.e. 1= 0) 2(21 + 1) In 'p' sub shell number of electrons (/ = 1) = 2(2 + 1) = 6 In 'd' sub shell number of electrons (l =2) = 2(2 x 2 + 1)= 10 . This has to be filled. electron configuration can be given as 1s2 2s2 2p 3s I. The sum of subscripts 2 + 2 + 6 + I = 11. . 1. 2 In's' sub shell number of electrons (l =0) = 2( :. EB Barrier's Energy EF = Fermi Level Ew = Work Function. . So from the above analysis. But this energy is not sufficient for electrons to escape from the surface. THERMIONIC EMISSION Suppose. Different types of Emission by which electrons can emit are (1) Thermionic Emission (2) (3) (4) 1. It is the characteristic of the substance. As the temperature is increased. Some electrons may acquire energy greater than EB sufficient to escape from the metal.. They must posses energy EB = EF + Ew where Ew is the work function in e V..

. Ew = 4. The contact difference of potential is defined as the Potential Difference V AB between a point A. ( .. It is possible to calculate the number of electrons striking the surface of the metal per second with sufficient energy to be able to surmount the surface barriers and hence escape.0..434 (~. It represents the amount of energy that must be given for the electron to be able to escape from the metal.2 log T) V s Ew 2 (~...EF electrons of lower work function means Ew is small or EF is large).Junction Diode Characteristics 55 Ew : Work function of a metal... Ew is also called as latent heat of evaporation of electrons similar to evaporation of molecules log Ith = log (S Ao) . Taking logarithms This equation is called Thermionic Emission Current or Richardson . when two metals are joined. the thermionic current is.434 So if a graph is plotted between (log Ith . = J = AoT2 e S = AT2 e T where where A=Ao S = Ao= T = K = and B= Ew k Area of the filament in m 2 ( Surface Area) Constant whose dimensions are A/m 2 oK Temperature in oK Boltzman's constant eV/oK Work function in e V Ew = from a liquid.. The reason for the difference of potential is. Ith and T can be determined experimentally.E" IKT ~-8 kT . Ith is a very strong function ofT. the T result will be a straight line having a slope = .kT log e + log T log Ith .. Ith It is alsb written as I = S x Ao T2 e..0.7 ) . For Tungsten... say 1 to the metal of higher Work Function say 2. ) from which Ew can be determined.!h.1 .52 eY.2 log T = log S Ao . ( 2.Dushman Equation. electrons will flow from the metal of lower Work Function. CONTACT POTENTIAL Consider two metals in contact with each other formingjunction at C as in Fig 2. just out side metal 1 and a point B just outside metal2. ) ~.' Ew = EB .434 log e = 0. . Flow of electrons from metal I to 2 will continue till metal 2 has acquired . Based upon that..

. Suppose the voltage applied to the cathode is lower. But EF differs significantly. then there must be abrupt drop of current to zero. Ifmetals I and 2 are similar then contact potential is zero.. But it doesn't happen This shows that electrons are emitted from surface of the emitter with different velocities. If electrons are being emitted from cathode with 2eV energy.8) Temperature in OK Boltzman's Constant in JfK If a cathode is heated..e-Vt where V t is the retarding potential applied to the collector and V T is Volt equivalent of temperature. that is. But the electrons can acquire energy greater than EB to escape from the surface. the electrons are possessing at room temperature. the metal with lower work function becomes positive.. . VT T K SCHOTTKY EFFECT = --. electrons will be collected by the collector.1 Contact Potential In order that the fermi levels of both the metals are at the same level.. but not abruptly. the contact difference of potential energy between two metals is equal to the difference between their work functions.. This depends upon the initial energy..56 Electronic Devices and Circuits sufficient negative charge to repel extra new electrons. (2. since it looses electrons..Ew]. EB value will be almost same for all metals. It can be shown that under the condition of accelerating field E is I = Itlt e +0. If the voltage of cathode is lower... As collector is at a potential less than 2V. then there will be electron emission due to thermionic emission.= 11. There is accelerating field. So the electrons liberated from the metal surface will also have different energies. and anode is given a positive potential. The minimum energy required is the barrier potential to escape from the metal surface.44 &l/2/T where Ith is the zero field thermionic current and T is cathode temperature in 0 OK. If they are dissimilar.600 = = kT T . and the anode is indirectly heated. since anode is at a positive potential. The effect that thermionic current continues to increase as E is increased ( even though T is kept constant) is known as Schottky Effect. below 2V. A B 2 c Fig 2. The decrease of current is given by I = hh. Suppose the minimum energy required to escape from the metal surface is 2 eY. This accelerating field tends to lower the Work Function of the cathode material. Consider a case where anode and cathode are plane parallel. ENERGIES OF EMITTED ELECTRONS At absolute zero. and the voltage is reduced below 2V. then the current also decreases exponentially. the electrons will have energies ranging from zero to EF . the potential energy difference EAB = EW2 .

the energy of the photon must at least be equal to the work function of the metal. ( 2. (hen additional energy appears as kinetic energy of the emitted electron hf= $e + ~ m v2 $ is the Volt equivalent of Work Function. 3.5 to 2.e. The minimumfrequency that can cause photo-electric emission is called threshold frequency and is given by /r=The wavelength corresponding to threshold frequency is called the Threshold Wavelength.. For photoelectric emission to take places. SECONDARY EMISSION 57 This emission results from a material (metal or dielectric) when subjected to electron bombardment.Junction Diode Characteristics 2. For each photo sensitive material. the value being 1. It depends upon. e<l> h A t =~=~ ft <l>e If the frequency ot"radiation is less than/r.. The amount of photo electric emission (current) is proportional to intensity. it can be improved to 10 or 15. I. PHOTO ELECTRIC EMISSION Photo-Electric Emission consists of liberation of electrons by the incidence of light. there is a threshold frequency below which emission does not take place. Yield or secondary emission ratio S is defined as the ratio of the number of secondary electrons to primary electrons. By contamination or giving a coating of alkali metal on the surface. whether surface is smooth or rough. (i. Such electrons gain energy. . The energy of the primary electrons. 1111= =$e + eV 1 LAWS OF PHOTO ELECTRIC EMISSION 1. The type of material. The physical condition of surface.... 2. The angle of incidence. When such a photon impinges upon the metal surface. v= ~2:V .. The energy possessed by photons is hfwhere h is Plank's Constant andfis frequency of incident light. 2.. Work Function expressed in Volts). on certain surfaces. It is small for pure metals.. 4. this energy lif gets transferred to the electrons close to the metal surface whose energy i~. to overcome the barrier potential and escape from the surface of the metal resulting in photo electric emission. 3. That is hf ~ e$ where $ is the voltage equivalent Work Function. very near to the barrier potential..9 ) v is the Velocity of electrons in m/sec.

63 x 10-34 J sec.35Yo Problem 2.19 (<I> + 0.10 <I> = 1.10 A photoelectric cell has a cesium cathode. = 5500 10 x 10.58 3. Ao = 60. Percentage Increase = 1261-1142 xl 00 0 1142 . For fields of the order of 109 V1m.55 volts <I> = Work Function (WF) = ? f= A.55 V.m.55V to anode the emitted electrons are repelled. 4. for which photo cell can function. h = 6.71 Volts = 1. then the Potential Energy is reduced. by applying -0.19 C Velocity of Light. This emission is called as High Field Emission or Auto Electronic Emission.C =e(<I>+V) A.10.9 Estimate the percentage increase in emission from a tungsten filament when its temperature is raised from 2400 to 2410 oK.6 x 10.63 x 10-34 x 3 x 108 5500x10.55) . Photo electric current in amps/watt of incident light depends upon 1'. Problem 2.400 oK A and B are constants tn the equation for current density J Solution JS I =AT I2 = 1142A/m2 JS 2 = ATl e -8/T = 1261 A 1m2 . Calculate ( a) The work function of cesium ( b) The longest A.e = 1. C = 3 x 10 8 m/sec 6. Plank's Constant. When the cathode is illuminated with light of A. So the current can be inhibited Solution (a) 11/= e<l> + eV C V = 0. 4. the barrier may be as thin as 100 A 0. Electronic Devices and Circuits Photo electric emission is instantaneous. So the electron will travel through the barrier. (But the time lag is in nano-sec ). the minimum anode voltage required to inhibit built anode current is 0.6 x 10. HIGH FIELD EMISSION Suppose a cathode is placed inside a very intense electric field.2 x 104 Alm2/°K2 B = 52. Charge of Electron. h.

In S Ao . by what percentage will the emission change? To what temperature must the filament be raised in order to double its energy at 2300 OK. In Ith .T This is solved by Trail and Error Method to get T = 23700 K .T .Ao T2 e-Ew/kT E".kT Taking Logarithms.62xlO-5 Ratio of these two equation is T )2 _ 52.400 +22 8 2 = ( 2300 e T Taking log to the base 10.52 ) ~ _ 0 kT T (8.11 If the temperature of a tungsten filament is raised from 2300 to 2320 OK.22.800 9.00 + 22.x 0.62 x 105 eV 10 K.8 )lOge T} 52400 log 2 = 2 log ( 2300 .62xI0-5~31O 2310 .6 + 2 log ( 2300 = .434 T) 22.400 = 12 400 -f:71 = 7. Ew for Tungsten = 4. Solution (a) Ith = S.8 x 0.2 log T Ew)dT 2 ( T + KT2 T2 di th Ith _ - = Differentiating.52 eY.21. (2 + Ew) dT _ (2 + 4.Junction Diode Characteristics (b) 59 Threshold Wavelength : Ao = ~ Ao = Ch -<1>- 12..250 A O Problem 2.4% --452 --452 21th = S Ao (T)2 e8.434 . log 2 = 2 log (2~0) - (52. Boltzman's Constant K = 8.

the particle passes through the gap twice.36 x 10-4 m 6 Problem 2.8 x 104 W/m 2 . the potential is increased by 40. If in each passage through the gap. Assume that the heat loss due to conductor is 10% of the radiation loss.000 = 1. Accelerating potential Vo = 49 x 40.51-l sec B = 35.35.8 cm 2 K Solution = Boltzman's Constant in eV I oK = = 8.62 x 10. determine the frequency of the R.37xlO.000 volts how many passages are required to produce a 2 million volts particle? What is the diameter of the last semicircle? Solution B = 1 Tesla = 1Wb/m 2 Time taken by the particle to describe one circle is T = T 35.T . Calculate the total emission current and the cathode efficiency 11 in ma/w.F voltage should be the same.8 x 104 W/m 2 .F.37x 10-6 ~ RadIUs of the last semIcIrcle = R = "" Yo B R= 3. the magnetic field applied is 1 Tesla. Ao = 100 A/m2 I °K2 S = 1.000 volts.5 X 10-6 1 sec. The frequency of the R. Diameter = 2R = 94.~1960x103 =4718 x 10-4 m 1 . 3.0 eV. To gain 2 million electron volts = = 2.Y 1 = 50 Diameter of last semicircle: The initial velocity for the 50th revolution is the velocity gained after 49 th revolution.5eV I oK Power Density 5.13 The radiated power density necessary to maintain an oxide coated filament at 1lOoK is found to be 5.60 Electronic Devices and Circuits Problem 2. Take Ew = 1. .5 X 10-6 Number of passages required: In each passage it gains 40. If the ions (electrons) cross the gap between the 0 shaped discs dees twice in each cycle. .960 KV 49 th revolution . voltage.82 x 10 10 Hz 2x 106 y 40x 10. 1 _ 1 j . when it describes one circle.12 In a cyclotron.

Si. B) K ~K ~K Insulator Semiconductor Fig 2. Ge.3 8 W/ = l.5 W. EG = 0 Semiconductor is a substance whose conductivity lies between these two.18 x 10 e. Ag. Ith = 0.5 = 50 rnA / oK 0. Ex: AI.8 x 104 = 6.B) ~ (Wave Vector) ~ Valence Band (Y.2 Energy band structures. B) i :> Q) Forbidden Band (F.B) E Conduction Band i (C. Ex: C. Ex: Diamond Resistivity.cm Free electron concentration. n:: 107 electrons/m3 Energy Gap.2 ENERGY BAND STRUCTURES Insulator is a very poor conductor of electricity.. p > 109 n . GaAs etc.575 2.8 x 10--4) = 11.38 x 104 x Area (1.Junction Diode Characteristics If 10% is lost by conductor.B) Valence Band (Y.B overlap .1 m2 and the total input power is 6. 11 = 862xlO.B and V. Ith = SAo T2 e-Ew/kT 61 x 5.cm Free electron Concentration. then the total input power density is 1.xllOO s l1. EG» 1e V Metal is an excellent conductor of electricity.575 A Cathode Efficiency. n = 1028 electrons/m3 Energy Gap. E r E Conduction Band (C. Copper p < 10-3 n ..8 x 10--4 x 100 x (1100)2 e 4 10 55 Ith = 2. Metal (Conductor) C.

which can be supplied to an electron from an applied field.21. For Silicon ( Si ) &0 decreases at the rate of 3. 2. There is no forbidden band. In the energy band diagram. Is2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3 p6 3d lO 4s2 4p2 The two electrons in the s sub shell and 2 in the p sub shell are the 4 electrons in the outermost 4th shell. Electron can not acquire this much Energy to travel from valence band to conduction band.21 eV at OOK. the vacancy so created in the valence band can not act as a hole.2. This large forbidden band separates the filled valence band region from the vacant conduction band. Hence the conductivity of Copper is high. Since these mobile electrons constitute a current.2. 2.2 SEMICONDUCTOR For Semiconducting materials. the value of energy gap Eg is 6eY. The Germanium has a crystalline structure such that these 4 electrons are shared by 4 other Germanium atoms. The x-axis is wave vector K. Eo decreases. the electron will acquire additional energy and move into higher states.3 CONDUCTION IN SEMICONDUCTORS Conductors will have Resistivity p < 10-3 O-cm. conduction is impossible and hence diamond is an insulator. the valence electrons are loosely bound to parent atom. Eo = 0.6 x 10-4 eVfK For Germanium Eo decreases at the rate of 2. the y-axis is energy. this substance is a conductor. For semiconductors value lies between these two. is too small to carry the particle from the filled valence band into the vacant conduction band. The Ge has structure of. When an electron moves from valence band into conduction band in a metal. the value of energy gap Eg will be about 1eY.2. Since the electron can not acquire externally applied energy.785 eV. Eo = 1. For insulators the valence shell is completely filled.3 METAL (CONDUCTOR) In a metal. The absence of an electron in the semiconductor is represented as hole. the valence band may extend into the Conduction Band itself.3.785 . Since. But Eo is a function of temperature T. and Silicon is 1. since the energy levels of different electrons are being compared.23 x 10-4 x T. So there are no fr~e electrons available in the outermost shell. Light emitting diode.23 x 10-4 eVfK For Si.6 x 10-4 x T For Ge. n = 1028 electrons/m3 9 n = 10 7 electrons/m3 Insulators will have Resistivity P 2: 10 O-cm. 2. Varactor Diode Silicon Controlled Rectifier .1 INSULATOR Electronic Devices and Circuits For diamond. Germanium ( Ge ) has Eo = 0. Semiconductor Diode SCR Zener diode. Hence conduction will not take place. there is one electron 10 the outermost shell which is loosely bound to the parent atom.2. As T increases. The energy. Some of The different types of solid state devices are : 1. the atom can pull another electron to fill its place.62 2. When they are also in conduction. For conductors say Copper. under the influence of an applied field. in the case of metals. Tunnel diode. 2.

the outer or valence electrons of an atom are as much associated with one ion (or parent atom) as with another. 4. 3. 4. so that the electron attachment to any individual atom is almost zero. Noise is more ( because of recombination between holes and electrons ). They have long life. on an average there will be as many electrons passing through unit area in the metal in any directions as in the opposite directions. Each of the valence electrons of a germanium atom is shared by one of its four nearest neighbours. the electrons are in continuous motion. 2. Germanium semiconductor has four valence electrons. the crystal has low conductivity. Disadvantages 1. . Depending upon the metals at least one and sometimes two or three electrons per atom are free to move throughout the interior of the metal under the action of applied fields. 4. Hence the average current is zero. 2. Advantages 0/ Semiconductor Devices 1. According to the electron gas theory of a metal. Transistor ( BJT) FET MOSFET UJT Pltoto Transistors IMPATT TRAPATT BARRITT 5. 7. Hence in spite of the availability of four valence electrons. The direction of flight being changed at each collision with the impinging (almost stationary) ions. 9. In metals the binding force is not strong. Smaller in size. In a metal. Low permissible ambient temperature. in a given time. NPN Field Effect Transistors Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors Unijunction Transistor Impact Ionisation Avalanche Transit Time Device Trapped Plasma Avalanche Transit Time Device Barrier Injected Avalanche Transit Time Device • 3.Junction Diode Characteristics 63 PNp. Tlte average distance between collisions is called tlte mean/ree path. Frequency range of operation is low. The valence electrons serve to bind one atom to the next also result in the valence electron being tightly bound to the nucleus. Requires no cathode heating power (warm up time compared to Vacuum Tubes ). (Tubes will pop up frequently). when no electric field is applied. Smaller power output. Since the motion is random. 3. So free electrons are easily available. They operate on low DC power. In other words. 8. band occupied by the valence electrons may not be completely filled and that these are forbidden levels at higher energies. So covalent bonds result. 5. 6.

the electrons would be accelerated and the velocity would increase indefinitely with time if the electron will not collides with any other particle. This is analogous to large number of people in a small room. the number of free electrons.. the motion of electrons is in random nature.. but they are trapped between two adjacent ions. v Il::. when the electron loses its energy.. When an electric field is applied.. Germanium has a total of 32 electrons in its atomic structure. cr is proportional Electron to on'. So because of this. The units are m 2lv-sec..3 ).10 ) But velocity IV=/lE J = ne /lE But ne Il = cr (sigma) cr is the conductivity of the metal in (O-mr' or mhos/m. For a semiconductor the value of 'n' lies between these two. -lri8 electronslm3 . The valance electrons in a \ Q AI A. arranged in shells. So finally a steady state condition is reached where an infinite value of drift velocity 'v' is attained.. .O· 0 0 0 . as a result of the electrostatic force. But actually the electron collides with number of ions and it loses energy. Because of the thermal energy. Such a directed flow of electrons constitute a current. Electron e. of atom A. If the concentration of free electrons is On' (electrons/m 3 ) the current density is J. For a good conductor 'n' mxm Secx Volts = m / volts-sec 2 is very laTlle. ( 2. as a result of collisions is given to the lattice ions.. semiconductor are not free to move like in a metal. E is in vim. Because of these collisions. ( 2.. its velocity will also decrease. The movement of each person is restricted. 2. Electron e2 of atom A2 is bond by the atom AI. From the above expression for conductivity. when no electric field is applied. The electrons acquire from the applied field. the fact is that each of the valence electrons of a germanium atom is shared by one of its four nearest neighbours. steady state drift velocity is superimposed upon the random thermal motion of the electrons. (amps/m2) J = ne v .3 Electronic structure... If less number of persons are there the movement is large or mobility is large... where Il is called the mobility of electrons. 0 ~t-------------~--" - 0/ ·' Nucleus ----------------~--.. Hence inspite of having four valence electrons. E = Mobility is defined as the velocity per unit electric field. is bound by atom A2. the crystal has low conductivity ( Fig... Each atom in a Germanium crystal contribute four valence electrons. The fact that valence electrons serve to bound atom to the next also results in the valence electrons being bound to the nucleus. For an insulator n is very small-107 electronslm3 . if a constant electric field 'I>' V /m is applied to the metal. Hence power is dissipated in the metal. Thus velocity is proportional to E or v = IlE... This drift velocity is in the direction opposite to that of the electric field and its magnitude is proportional to the electric field E. v ex: I> or v = IlE V is in m/sec. Fig 2..64 Electronic Devices and Circuits Now. covalent bonds result.11 ) IJ=crxEI So As temperature increases mobility decreases. The boundry forces between neighbours attains result from.

The explanation is given below: When a bond is incomplete so that hole exists. . :)'01' I. 0 0 The energy Eg required to break such a covalent bond is about 0. 2. This is the concept of hole. 2.2. An electron moving from a bond to fill a hole leaves a hole in its initial position.. bonding the electron are broken. the ideal structure is achieved and the semiconductor behaves as an insulator. the current is due to the holes moving in the opposite direction to that of electrons. _ :_ 0 0 .1 eV for silicon (at room temperature).5.72 eV for Germanium and 1.)0 ® broken to create innumerable free electrons.3. Except for 6. 1. So the empty place denotes a hole. Its significance lies in this characteristics. 0@ Ifr. because of the thermal energy and so the covalent bonds o • _ ••• ' .5 Current flow by the movement of holes In row (a) there are 10 ions in Fig. o 2.Junction Diode Characteristics 65 At very low temperatures say 0° K.: . . Now imagine that an electron from ion 7 moves into the hole at ion 6. In other words. • . all the covalent bonds of the ions are intact.. since it has lost one of its valence electrons. Thus hole in its new position may now be filled by an electron from another covalent bond and the hole will correspondingly move one more step in the direction opposite to the motion ofthe electron. : . Hence the hole effectively moves in the direction opposite to that of the electron. However at room temperature. These four valence electrons of each atom are shared by other atoms and so bounded by covalent bonds. . An electron which for the greater period of time forms part of a covalent bond.. and 4.4). :. The absence of the electron in the covalent : • bond is represented by a hole. 0'. .4 Covalent bonds 0000000000 (b) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10. . Only the electrons are exchanging their position and there by current is flowing. There is no -broken covalent bond. . : . is shown as being dislodged and so free to wander in a random fashion throughout the crystal. . But ion 7 has a vacancy now. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 (a) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fig 2. some of the covalent bonds will be broken because of the thermal energy supplied to the crystal. .. and conduction is made possible. electron to wander anywhere in the material ti II it collides with o@ : • :Q) ® some other atom. The electron of Ge atom I is dislodged from its original : 0.. are Ge atoms with 4 valance electrons (Fig. To explain this further. except for atom : • '... since no free carriers of electricity are available. it is relatively easy for a valence electron in a neighbouring atom to leave its covalent bond to fill this hole. Here we have a mechanism for the conduction of electricity which does not involve free electrons. A hole can serve as a carrier of electricity.. So this electron is now a free o (J. The ion 6 has a broken covalent bond or one of its valence electrons got dislodged. Then the configuration is as shown in row (b). Ion 6 in the row is completely filled. The energy required to break different covalent bonds will be different. :•: ' ~ So at a time at room temperature all the covalent bonds are not o \:. Fig.( Electron position.

The charge of both holes and electrons are same 'e'. Though they are of opposite sign. Bus is the semiconducting material. Holes are positively charged. This hole is filled by a free electron that is a standing passenger. Instrinsic Semiconductor D = p.. p > D. Ifthere are many seats vacant without any standing passenger it is like a p-type semiconductor.lp. as the temperature increases. So n l increases. A current is constituted by these electrons. The charge of free electrons is negative and its mobility is J.4 CONDUCTIVITY OF AN INTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR When valence electrons are exchanging theIr posItions... in accordance with the relationship. The hole behaves like a positive charge equal in magnitude to the electron charge.ln.ln + peJ. So at any instant.. we say holes are moving. If there are many standing passengers.lp A pure or intrinsic semiconductor is one in which n = p = nj where nl is intrinsic concentration.. p-type Semiconductor Hole concentration 'p' is greater than free electron concentration. Thermal agitation continues to produce new electron hole pairs whereas some other hole electron pairs disappear as a result of recombination. the total current density is summation of the current densities due to holes and electrons. Because of the positive charge movement. and these wiIl be moving in random directions. This is analogous to passengers travelling in a bus. So the semiconductros are classified as : n-type Sefiliconductor Free electron concentration 'n' is greater than hole concentration. Standing passenger are free electron. So the movement of holes is opposite to that of electrons. Current Density. In a pure Germanium at room temperature. As the temperature increases. Current is contributed by these holes current is nothing but rate of flow of charge. the current due to each ion is in the same direction. a hole is created. it is analogous to n-type semiconductor. This process goes on as the bus is moving from stage to stage. there is about one hole-electron pair for every 2 x 109 Germanium atoms.. .lp) x ex E = (J x E n = Magnitude of Free Electron Concentration p = Magnitude of Hole Concentration (J = Conductivity n / cm or Seimens (J = (n J. When a sitting passenger gets down. the direction of hole current is same as that of conventional current.66 Electronic Devices and Circuits Effectively the hole has moved from ion 6 to ion 7. In a pure semiconductor the number of holes is equal to the number offree electrons. The hole is positive. A hole can move from one ion to the nearest where as an electron is free to move anywhere till it collides with another ion or free electron. and its mobility is J.. Electrons and holes move in opposite directions in an electric field E.. Suppose to start with. without any vacant seat. J = (JE J = (n J. D > p. So hole movement contributes for flow of current.lp) e = neJ. there are many free electrons. 2.ln + P J.ln + pJ. covalent bonds are broken and so more free electrons and holes are created.

Since an excess electron is available for each impurity atom. the semiconductor may become n-type. .1 e V T = Temperature in 0 oK k = Boltzman 's Constant. or Arsenic are added to it.01 eV to 0.. where electrons are the majority carriers or donor type. But since the concentration of impurity atoms is very small (about I atom per million ofGe atoms).. the resistivity decreases with temperature for semiconductor. impurity atoms such as Phosphorus (P).72 eV for S i = 1. This free electron is in excess to the free electrons that will be generated because of breaking of covalent bonds due to thermal agitation. So one electron of the impurity atom is left free. That is. e = Charge of an Electron or hole A = Constant for a semiconductor. the impurity atom dislodges one from its normal position in the crystal lattices takes up that position.. On the other hand if the majority carriers are holes. 2.'= AxT2 e-EGo/2kT I . with temperature for semiconductor.Junction Diode Characteristics 3 67 n. Because of the energy supplied while doping. As n l increases with T. it has 5 electrons in the outermost orbit (5 valence electrons).. The impurity atom is pentavalent. for Ge = 0. If a pUie semiconductor is doped with impurity it becomes extrinsic. or it can denote an electron it is called n-type. or donor type semiconductor. Depending upon impurity doped.. On the other hand resistance increases with temperature for metals.21 eV at 0 oK EG at room temperature. Germanium atom with its electrons arranged in shells will have configuration as Is2 2s2 2p2 3s 2 3p6 3d 1o 4s 2 4p2 Ge is tetravalent (4). the conductivity also increases. for Ge EG = 0... Now 4 of these are shared by Ge atoms.12) EG = Energy Gap in ev. 'Ge' becomes n-type if a pentavalent (5). This results in decrease of the mobility of free electrons and so decrease in conductivity or increase in resistivity for metals. surrounding the impurity atom and they form covalent bonds. for Ge A = 9.TYPE SEMICONDUCTORS Intrinsic or pure semiconductor is of no use since its conductivity is less and it can not be charged much. (2. the impurity atom is surrounded by Ge atoms. The energy required to dislodge this fifth electron from its parent impurity atom is very little of the order of 0.785 eV at 0 oK forSi EcJ= 1. it is p-type or acceptor type semiconductor.64 x 10 21 . because it accepts an electron to complete the broken covalent bond..5 DONOR TYPE OR n. This is because. In other words. The impurity atoms have size of the same order as that ofGe atoms. since it donates an electron.05 eY. an increase in temperature for metals results in greater thermal motion of ions and hence decrease in the mean free path of the free electrons..

aJl(ith-is·probability is much larger since n» p.6 ACCEPTOR TYPE OR P . As p » OJ. The value of ionization energy for Germanium is 0. It has been observed practically that the net concentration of the electrons and holes follows the realtion n x p = n7.044 eY. it can be either. The doping level is low.p-rype or n-rype depending upon their individual concentration.. The number of electrons combine contributed by In intrinsic semiconductors. The impurity atom (and not just 3) since all the other Ge atoms have 4 covalent bonds and the structure ofGe semiconductor is crystalline and symmetrical. 2. as a result of recombination. This is an approximate formula but still valid. Because of the energy supplied while doping. suppose donor atoms concentration is 100 nl . So hole moves. The energy required for the impurity atom to steal one Ge electron is 0. the impurity atom dislodges ane Ge atom from the crystal lattice. at room temperature. 0» OJ. we assume that all the impurity atoms are ionized. In the case ofp-type semiconductor the concentration of acceptor atoms Na» nl . the net result will be. some energy is to be supplied.8 HOLES AND ELECTRONS \ •. i. n decreases in acceptor type semiconductor.7 IONIZATION ENERGY Ifintrinsic semiconductor is doped with phosphorus. Or the product n x p = ny.eated :and '0' increases.e. As a result holes. in Silicon and Gennanium. So the covalent bond is not filled or a hole exists.012 eV. So the hole density 'p' decreases and also that of electron density' n' but still 0 » OJ. There will be a natural tendency in the crystal to form 4 covalent bonds. If impurities of both donor type and acceptor type are simultaneously doped in intrinsic semiconductor.08 e Y. becomes p-type or acceptor type. The impurity atom tries to steal one electron from the neighboring Ge atoms and it does so when sufficient energy is supplied to it. by holes only and the current due to electrons is negligibly small. In extrinsic semiconductor say n-type semiconductor practically the electron concentration.. n . Aluminium etc. the current is contributed almost all. and in Silicon. minority carrier in n type. The 4 electrons in the outer orbit of Phosphorus are shared by the 4 Germanium atoms and the fifth electron of Phosphorus in the outer orbit is a free electron. Though 'p' decreases in n-type semiconductor with recombination. As this energy is small. Assuming that all the acceptor atoms are ionized. but 0 » OJ and because of breaking of covalent bonds. But in order that this electron is completely detached from the parent Phosphorus atom. The fourth Ge atom has no electron to share with the impurity atom.. Holes are the majority carriers and the electrons minority carriers. it becomes n-type as Phosphorus is pentavalent. these values will be different. encounter with free el~~tmns. This is also true in the case of p-type semiconductor p » OJ.68 Electronic Devices and Circuits 2. This energy required to separate the fifth electron is called Ionization Energy. J • = p = ni. To give a specific example.TYPE SEMICONDUCTORS An intrinsic semiconductor when doped with trivalent (3) impurity atoms like Boron. both electrons and holes recombine and the place of hole is occupied by the free electrons and this probability is much lager since 0 »p. So p » OJ. This hole is in excess to the hole created by thermal agitation.1 N I . 2. Now the three valence electrons of impurity atom are shared by 3 atoms. The result is that both free electron and hole are lost. there is one impurity atom for one million Ge atoms. So when a hole encounter a freeelectrc)\:. more free electrons may be cr.. Gallium Indium. and acceptor atoms concentration in 10 nl" Then No = 0. For different impurity materials. each acceptor atom contribute at least one hole.0 I e V to 0. the impurity atom is surrounded by Ge atom. '0' also decreases. 'p' also decreases but p >>OJ. it is 0.

Commonly found such undesirable impurities are Lithium. Since the covalent bonds are broken. pure Phosphorous. 2. holes and electrons are treated as imaginary particles with effective masses mp and mn respectively. i. in each crystal. The atom is neutral when no electric field is applied. resulting in electrical conduction. So the valency electron of one atom are as much associated with the other atoms as with the parent atom.S. the ion is having a charge ~+4 (circles) with 4 electrons around it. So conductivity of metals is large. These impurities themselves will contain some impurities. . If NA = ND the semiconductor remains intrinsic. . On the other hand. But these binding forces are very strong. The electron so released is calledfree electron or excess electron since it is not required to complete any covalent bond in its immediate neighborhood. Most metals and semiconductors are crystalline in structure. Number of electrons is equal to number of Fig 2. the covalent bonds binding the valance electrons are broken and electrons made . Arsenic.2 EFFECTIVE MASS When quantum mechanism is used to specify the motion of electrons or holes within a crystal. Now the ion which has lost electron will seek another new electron to fill the .9 No = 90 Ni.e. Valence Electrons are the outer most electrons orbiting around the nucleus. Zinc. Such electrons are free to move within the body of the metal under the influence of applied electric field. The covalent bonds are shown by Iines Iinking one electron of one atom to the nucleus of other atom (Fig.+4 (+~ • free to move. . the valance electrons are loosely bound to the parent atom and the valanc~ electrons of one atom are shared by another atom. Hence conductivity is less. they consist of space array of atoms in a regular tetrahedral or any other fashion. So the net free electrons will be equal to 0.Junction Diode Characteristics 69 ND combine with number of holes contributed by Na.6). So the valence electrons are very much less mobile. Germanium has 4 valence electrons. the atoms are very close to each other. In the adjacent figure. Copper. . In other words. 2. Such atoms are called as interstitial atoms. for a semiconductor also. Sometimes they also act as donor or ac:::eptor atoms. In the case of metals.S. can be regarded as n type semiconductor.S. except Copper and Nickle other impurities do not affect much. While doping a semiconductor with impurities. 2. Boron or Aluminium may not be available. 2. rile regular pattern of atom arrangement is called lattice. an electron is released and a hole is created in the structure of that particular atom. the valence electrons f\ of one atom are shared by the other atoms.1 INTERSTITIAL ATOMS Intrinsic or pure semiconductor is practically not available.6 Covalent bonds protons. Such a semiconductor. This is valid when the external applied field is smaller than the internal periodic fields produced by the lattice structure. Free electrons are those valence electrons which are separated \J from the parent atom. Nickel etc.. . So every such valence electron has almost zero affinity with any individual atom.3 HOLES AND EXCESS ELECTRONS When a covalent bond is broken due to thermal agitation. As the temperature is increased.

( 2. to fill its vacancy. the magnitude of positive charge density must equal that of negative charge density. it becomes negatively charged.. the product is always constant. it becomes positively charged ion.. In n-type semiconductor the electron density nil = No. The ion which has lost the electron will immediately steal an electron from the closest ion.. But when electric field is applied. since it has lost an electron. The holes move from the first ion to the second ion.. nlPI = n~. of holes p = PI Since the crystal is electrically neutral. an electron of another ion may come very close to the ion which has lost the electron. Consider n-type material with acceptor ion density NA = O. When no electric field is applied.14 ) . No + P = Total negative charge (NA + n ) N o + p=NA + n This is known as Law of Electrical Neutrality. 2. The life period of a free electron may be lp-sec to 1 millisecond after which it is absorbed by another ion. ( Since every Donor Atom contributes one free electron.. number of electrons is» number ofholes.. So when these donor atoms donate an electron.9 MASS ACTION LAW In an intrinsic Semiconductor number of free electrons n = n l = No.. 2.. nn ::: No. So 'p' can be neglected in comparison with n.. all the free electrons are lined up and they move towards the positive electrode.. Since the Semiconductor is electrically neutral. If 'p' is the hole density then total positive charge density is No + p. (say Boron which is trivalent. Total positive charge... the motion of free electron is random in nature. ion. np= n~ 3 -EGO nj = AT2 e 2KT . So positive charge density contributed by them is No.... the free electron concentration is approximately equal to the density of donor atoms.13 ) This is called Mass Action Law. Since it is n-type.10 LAW OF ELECTRICAL NEUTRALITY Let No is equal to the concentration of donor atoms in a doped semiconductor. nn x pn = n2 But I Pn = The hole density in n-type semiconductor = N~ 2 nI n2 PI1 = No . Similarly if NA is the concentration of acceptor ions. Subscript n indicates that it is n-type semiconductor. So because of the thermal agitation of the crystal lattice. ( 2. So the acceptor ions contribute charge = ( NA + n ).. accepts an electron. ) In n-type material. Regardless of individual magnitudes ofn and p.70 Electronic Devices and Circuits vacancy. when no voltage is applied... so that 4 electrons in the outer shell are shared by the Ge atoms ).

039 O-cm Problem 2.12xlO-6 =195. ) of pure silicon.. ( 2. So the conductivity will not appreciably change..4 x 1022/cm 3 .4 x 10 22 I cm 3. 71 Pp::::: N A · _ 2 np x Pp .... Solution 0'1 = = (Iln + /lp) e n l = 1.sec an = 4.16 Determine the concentration of free electrons and holes in a sample ofGe at 300 oK which has a concentration of donor atoms equal to 2 x 10 14 atoms Icm 3 and a concentration of acceptor atoms 14 3 = 3 x 10 atom lem Is this p-type or n-type Germanium? Solution n x p = nr -Ego n = AT3/2 e 2kT I .. Solution The effect of minority carriers (impurity atoms) is negligible..12 x 10-6 u/cm Pi= 5.37 = 0. I Pn = 25..6 x 10..5 x 1013/cm3 is doped with impurity atoms of one for every million germanium atoms.37 mhos I cm Resistivity.15 Determine the conductivity ( a ) and resistivitd: ( p. Assuming that all the impurity atoms are ionised and that the concentration of Ge atoms is 4.nl nI n =p 2 NA .Junction Diode Characteristics Similarly Hole concentration in p-type semiconductor.15 ) Problem 2.6 x 10.4 x 10 16 x 3600 x 1.6 x 10 1 Icm 3 for Si and mobilities as Iln = 1500 cm N-sec.3000-cm Problem 2.14 A specimen of intrinsic Germanium at 300 oK having a concentratiun of carriers of2. ( Iln for Ge = 3600 cm /volt-sec). Conductivity. 2 /lp = 500 cm N-sec. find the 2 resistivity of doped material. at 3000 K assuming that the 2 concentration of carriers at 300 oK is 1.19 x 1.19 Iln = = 25.6 x 10 10 x (1500 + 500) 5.4 x 10 22 106 Icm 3 3600 cm 2 I Volt . No = 4. an = nelln ( neglecting Hole Concentration) n = 4.

25 ev n~ = 6.1 u/cm.25 x 1026 or n = 5.19 x 1800 = 3.6xlO-19 x1800 = 3. if the conductivity is 100 n . 0" = peup cr 100 p= ell p = 1.47 x 10 17 holes/cm3 nxp=n. if 0" = 100 u/cm.-:_=_ 17 n= (2. if 0" = 0. ( a) Solution As it is p-type semiconductor.5 x 10 13 /cm 3 13 ---.17 Find the concentration of holes and electrons in a p type germanium at 300 oK.6 x 10.. IIp Mobility of holes in Germanium = 1800 cm 2 I V .n = NA .8 x 10 12 electrons. ___ 3. p» n. 100 = P e IIp 0" Pp = ell p = 1.Sx 10 .64 x 10 14 EG = 0. Problem 2.No = (3 .8 x 10 electrons/cm 9 3 Problem 2.2) x 10 14 = 10 14 or p = n + 10 14 Then n( n + 10 14 ) = 6.cm. /cm 3 and p = n + 10 14 = 1.sec. this is p-type semiconductor..06 x 10 14 holes/cm 3 As p> n. ( b) Repeat part ( a ) for n-type Si.47 x 10 17 holes/cm 3 n x p = n7 ni = 2.47x 10 f = 1. Solution It is p-type p » O"p n.l.25 x 1026/cm 3 NA + n = No + P Total negative charge = Total positive charge or p .5 x 1013/cm 3 .72 Electronic Devices and Circuits A = 9. 3 EGO ni = AT2 e--2kT = 2..18 Find the concentration of holes and electrons in p-type Germanium at 300oK.

I11 . p = 0. e ( J. J.. = 1. n = p = nj O"j L = n.ln ) 1 = 60 u/cm.3 mA/cm 3 .88)( 3800) + (0.lp ).... the resistivity of pure Ge is 60 O-cm.ln + PJ.86 x 10 13 )2 NA + n =N o + P NA = 7 x 1013/cm 3 No = 10 14/ cm 3 ( p .81 x 10 14 Pwblem 2..86 x 1013 electron/cm 3 p x n= nr = ( 1.5 x 10 10 .5 x 1013 L = 3. find total conduction current density.6 x 10. If the applied electric field is 2 V/cm.8 x 109 electron/m3 n0.47 x 1017/cm 3 n= (b) 0" = 73 p ne f..n ) = NA .81 . eE = {( 3. ( 1) . cr I I nj= e(llp+lln) 60{1.68 x 1011 hole/m3 n 4...1 = 4.81 x 1014/cm 3 n..lp + J.....1300x 1...19 A sample of Ge is doped to the extent of 10 14 donor atoms/cm 3 and 7 x 10 13 acceptor atoms/ cm 3. Solution For intrinsic Semiconductor. J... (2. n~ = (2.Junction Diode Chara'cteristics p = 3.. eE .5x10 =4. lO P = nf = (1.6xIO-19)(3800+1800) = 1.lp for Ge is 1800 cm 21V-sec .No = -3 x 10 13 Solving (I) and (2) simultaneously to get p and n. x 1013.88 x 10 13 J = ( nJ.19 = x 1014/cm 3 4.88 x 1013 n = 3. At room temperature..88)( 1800)} = 52..ln = 3800 cm 21V-sec..47xl0 17 1.

74 Problem 2. NA = 3 x 1014/cm 30 No = 2 x 1014/cm 3 nj at 3000 K = 2.n = NA .n? = 0 This is in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 n = (NA . is the conductivity due primarily to holes or electrons? Solution n x p = n~ NA + n = P + No Solving ( a ) and ( b ) to get nand p.No) .ND? -4n~ = 0 n > 0 and p> O.20 Electronic Devices and Circuits Determine the concentration of free electrons and holes in a sample of Germanium at 300 0 K which has a concentration of donor atoms = 2 x 10 14 atoms /cm 3 and a concentration of acceptor atoms = 3 x 10 14 atoms/cm 3 . n 2 or n 2 _n 2 • n.25 x 1026/cm 3 n can be calculated. 2 . Is this p-type or n-type Ge? In other words.No) + i(N A .No) x =_~±~b2 -4ac 2 2a 2 V 2 Negative sign is not taken into consideration since electron or hole concentration cannot be negative.No ) 2 or n + n ( NA .No n p=_. n =_ (N A .8 x IOIS/cm 3 p = 10.n2 = n x ( NA . p . Similarly p is also calculated. n = 5.58 x 1019/m 3 as p > n. it is p-type semiconductor.72eV n? = 6. . = AT 2 e 2KT E=O.5 x 10 13 / cm 3 l -EG n.

n = p = n l.ln + f. Also calculate the intrinsic conductivity given that the mobilities of electrons and holes in pure germanium are 0.85 x 10 19 (0.17 m I V . 17) = 5..19 x 6.sec O"j 2 = 1. I 7 m21 volt-sec respectively.e.36m2 I V .374 x I 0-23 J 10 K. f. The number of states per ev per cubic meter ( number of statesleV 1m3 ) The expression for Y where y is a constant.ln + f.797 u/m Problem 2.lp) = 1.17) = 2.75 eY.36 and O.21 Calculate the intrinic concentration of Germanium in carries/m 3 at a temperature of320oK given that ionization energy is 0. x320 nl = 6.6 x 10.36 + O.Junction Diode Characteristics 75 Problem 2.lp = 0. In intrinsic semiconductor.85 x 10 19 electrons (or holes)/m3.13 u/m p= - = enj( f.5 x 10 19 (0.sec f.64xI0 21 E = 0.6 x 10. 0"1 = enj (f.5 x 10 19 electrons (or holes) 1m 3 .11 THE FERMI DIRAC FUNCTION N( E ) = Density of states..19 xO 75 -21 = 9.47 O-m (J 2.lp ) 1 1 2. 3 -EGO nl = AT 2e ~ = 2.13 = .64 x 1021 x (320)3/2. e 2xl 37xl0 .22 Determine the resistivity of intrinsic Germanium at room temperature Solution T = 300 oK A=9.19 x 2.35 + 0.= 0.ln = 0. i.75 eV and Boltzman's Constant K = 1. N(E) = Y E ' . Solution ~ -e EGO nl=AT2e 2KT K = Boltzman's Constant in J I oK K = Boltzman's Constant in eV I oK _16)(10.

. 2. From Quantum Statistics.EF ) and. it is found that.6 x 10. eVfK T= Temp oK EF = Fermi Level or Characteristic Energy The momentum of the electron can be uncertain. there is no probability of finding an electron having energy> EF at T = 0° K.. IfE = E6 ./(E) = l+e (E-E F ) . and the product of these two uncertainities is of the order of magnitude of Planck's constant 'h'./{ E).16 ) kT where k = Boltzmann Constant. . . By considering this effective mass. If a graph is plotted between ( E . energy possessed by the electrons at Oak ./(E) varies with temperature as shown in Fig.17 ) .11. ( 2.. it is shown in Fig. 2./{E) = o.1 EFFECTIVE MASS When an external field is applied to a crystal. If ~p is the Uncertainty in the Momentum of a particle.( 2./{ E ) is called the Fermi Dirac Probability Function.7 At T = OaK. 2.. It specifies the fraction of all states at energy E (eV) occupied under conditions of thermal equilibrium. the free electron or hole in the crystal responds. Heisenberg postulated that there is always uncertainty in the position and momentum of a particle.19 )3/2 = 6. at OaK..11.7.76 47t h3 Electronic Devices and Circuits Y= (2m)3/2 (1. it is the mass energy level of the electrons. as if its mass is different from the true mass..2 FERMI LEVEL Named after Fermi../(E) =~ From Eq. it is the Energy State. of a particle ~p ~n is the uncertainty in the position x ~x ~ h. The equation for. That is. if E > EF then.82 x 1027 m = Mass of Electron in Kgs h = Planck's Constant is Joule-sees.. This allows us to use Newton's law of motion to determine the effect of external forces on the electrons and holes within the crystal. This mass is called the Effective Mass of the electron or the hole. it will be possible to remove the quantum features of the problem. 2.. In other words. with 50% probability of being filled if no forbidden band exists. Since fermi level is the max.

. 2..:=_-. ( 2..4 THE INTRINSIC CONCENTRATION I j( E ) = 1+ e(E-E F )/KT e(E-EF)/KT I-j(E)= l+e(e-EF)/KT :::e-(Ef-E)/KT e(E-E F )/KT[l +e(E-Er)/KT .:::: Ev the number of holes per m3 in the Valence Band is.11. = AT3 e-E"/KT .. 2.11. ( EF ....Junction Diode Characteristics f( E) 77 + _____--1.0 Fig.3 UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE This was proposed by Heisenberg..) +1..-E)/KT Fermi function for a hole = I ..j( E )...7 Fermi level variation with temperature.. Ev p= = Nv f Y{Ev ._.E... The measurement of a physical quantity is characterized in an essential way by lack of precision. n x p= n..Er2e-(EI-E)/~ xdE x e-(EF-Ey)/KT 3 -00 where Similarly NY=2[21t:~KTt n = N e-(Ec-EF)fKT e n x p = Ny x Ne e-E"/KT Substituting the values ofNe and N v ._ _ -1.0 eV ( E.E ) » KT for E . 2.17 ) l' : : e-(E..

is constant. )/KT I 00 e(E-E r )/KT » n= fY(E. J(E) = e-(E-E.11. 1 1+ e(E-E F )/KT The concentration of electrons in the conduction band is n= for fN{E)x j{E)x dE Ec E~Ec (E .78 Electronic Devices and Circuits CARRIER CONCENTRATIONS IN A SEMICONDUCTOR 2. we get. . where mn = effective mass of the electron. n = Nc x e-(EcEF)/KT 3 where N = C 2(21tlnh 2 KTJ2 n K = Boltzman's Constant in J/oK N. dE Er Simplifying this integral.2 _ [21tm p h 2 KxTJ2 Fermi Level is the maximum energy level that can be occupied by the electrons at 0 oK.Ed l/2 x e-{E-EF)KT .Es) is» KT. Density of States. Fermi Level or characteristic energy represents the energy state with 50% probability of being filled ifno forbidden bond exists. Similarly the number of holes / m3 in the Valence Band p = Ny e-(EF-Ey)/KT 3 where Ny . J( E) is the probability that a quantum state with energy E is occupied by the electron. thenJ( E) = Y2 for any value of temperature.5 dll dn J( E ) N(E) J(E) 00 = = N( E ) x J( E ) x dE number of conduction electrons per cubic meter whose energy lies between E and E + dE The probability that a quantum state with energy E is occupied by the electron. If E = EF.

... Nc In Ny = Ec+Ev-2EF KT KT In Nc 2 Nv 3 n KTJ2 NC =2(21tm h2 ..0 ~f(E) Fig. ( Ec +Ev 2 2... Fermi Level in Intrinsic Semiconductor lies in the middle of Energy gap E G • ....s 1. ( 2..6 FERMI LEVEL IN INTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR 79 n = p = nj Conduction Band . Nc=N y In Nc Ny .Junction Diode Characteristics 2..N nc e-(ECEF )/KT e-(EF-Ev)/KT EF p- -N V n =p or Nc e-(EcEF)/KT = N r -------------~ e Valence Band Eo v e-(EF-Ev)/KT Electrons in the valence bond occupy energy levels up to 'EF'..8. EF is defined that way. Then the additional energy that has to bo supplied so that free electron will move from valence band to the conduction band is Ec N -C = e Ny -(EF-EV) (Ec+EF) KT + KT o o. ( 2...20 ) The graphical representation is as shown in Fig.KT)2 Ny 2 h .8 Energy band diagram.... 2..... If we assume that mn = m p' ( though not valid ).19 ) where mnand mp are effective masses of holes and electrons... 2....11..18 ) 3 _ 2 [21tm p . =e Taking logarithms on both sides. EF = =0 ..

026 In (2) = 13. find the distance in electron volts (ev) of fermi level in as intrunsic semiconductor from the centre of the forbidden bond at room temperature. If mp=mn then Nc=N v · Hence EF will be at the centre of the forbidden band. Solution For Intrunsic Semiconductor. for what doping concentration will the fermi level coincide with the edge of the valence bond? Assume J.EF will be away from the centre of the forbidden band by 2 KT Nc kT mn In.33 10 18 atoms/cm3.82 x x 10 \0. Ifthe effective mass of an electron is equal to twice the effective mass of a hole.4)3/2(300)3/2 1 = 6.5 m.33 Problem 2.82 x 101S( ' : Y A 3 x T 3/2 = 4.23 Electronic Devices and Circuits In p-type Ge at room temperature of 300 oK.)3/2 3 2 / N v =2 3 ( 21tmpkT n 2 -J = 4" x 0.lnmp v Nc=2 ( 21tmnKT n 2 .24 10 18 .!p = 0.80 Problem 2.4 m. Solution when N v = 4. Doping concentration N x = 6. But if mp =I' mn. eV . N = % T.

-1_ 2 -~ KT = e -~ KT NcxNv Taking logarithms. Fermi level is an indiction of the probability of occupancy of the energy states. EF is in the middle of the energy gap. Since Because of doping.. or or ..Junction Diode Characteristics 2. e -(EF-Ey) KT -{EcEy} But and n x p = Nc x N v x e (Ec... the fermi level will move towards the Conduction Band. So the first ND states in the conduction band will be filled. If donor type impurity is added to the intrinsic semiconductor it becomes n-type. So assuming that all the atoms are ionized. The electrons and holes.21 ) .7 FERMI LEVEL IN A DOPED SEMICONDUCTOR 81 cr = ()lnn + )lpp )e. With impurity concentration. only EF will change.. The expression for n = Nc e -{E -E )/KT C F and the expression for p = Nv e -(E -E )/KT F Y These are valid for both intrinsic and extrinsic materials. ( 2. indicating equal concentration of holes and electrons.. thermally generated at that temperature will be decreased.. each impurity atom contributes at least one free electron.. EXPRESSION FOR EG -(ECEF) n = Nc x e KT p=N v .6m) and not om'.11. respond to an external field as if their mass is m*( m* = O.Ev) =EG x p= KT n nr nj = Nc x N v x e n2 _--. So the electrical characteristics of a semiconductor depends upon 'n' and 'p'. So this m* is known as Effective Mass. In the case of intrinsic semiconductors.. more energy states in the ConductionBand are filled. the concentration of holes and electrons. Then it will be more difficult for the electrons to reach Conduction Band. bridging the gap between Covalent Bond and Valence Bond. So tbe number of electron hole pairs.

c: r... No In -N = r -(E C -E F ) KT or K T x { In ~} = .0 o 0. .9.C(E) For n-type semiconductor For p-type semiconductor Fig. Similarly in p-type semiconductors.82 The position of Fermi Level is as shown in Fig.9 Similarly. 2.22 ) or EF=Ec-KTx{ln~:} P=NA So Fermi Level EF is close to Conduction Band Ec in n-type semiconductor. 2..>-. the number of free electrons has increased. R I• . .C(E) ---. n::::N o But n = Nc x e-(Ec-EF )/KT No = Nc x e-(EcEF)/KT e or Taking logarithms. the Fermi level moves towards the valence band since the number of holes has increased. Electronic Devices and Circuits Conduction Band 1<:. In the case ofn-type semiconductor.. To calculate the exact position of the Fermi Level in n-type Semiconductor: In n-type semiconductor. Fermi Level moves to wards conduction band.0 ---.5 1.Ed ..5 1. fermi Level moves towards Valence Band. So energy in Covalent Bond has increased..9 Conduction Band 1<:... 2. ( 2.~ E. So it is as shown in Fig. in the case of p-type materials.l e!l 0 1<: •• t Ev t + 0 t ~. Similarly for p-type material... Ev 0...( Ec .

Concentration of Silicon = 5 x 1022 atom! cm3. K = Boltzman Constant mn the effective mass of electrons to be taken as = mE 3 e = 2{2 X3.5 x 10 14 / cm 3. the fermi level will coincide with the edge of the conduction band. 83 NA = e-(EF-Ev)/KT N v Taking Logarithms.EF Ny N or E F = EY+KTXlnR I . find the value of temperature at which. ( 2... In NA Nv = _(EF-E v ) KT KTx In---A. Assuming that the effective mass of the electron equals true mass...Junction Diode Characteristics But . No = 5 x 10 22 2xl0 8 = I atom per 2 x 108 Si atom. Solution Donor atom concentration Silicon atom concentration .. EF = Ee . the donor concentration is I atom per 2 x 108 silicon atoms.25 In n type silicon.5 x 10 14 /cm 3 .. Problem 2..IO. 5 x 1022 atoms/cm 3 2.= Ev ..KT In ( Ne ) No If EF were to coincide with Ee ...31 xKXT}2 h2 3 15 = 4.KT}' N 3 h = Plank's Constant.IX.23 ) NA=N y Fermi Level is close to Valance Band E v in p-type semiconductor.14 X9. For n-type.28 x 10 T2 . Semiconductor. then Ne = No' No = 2.. Nc ~ 2{ 2X:.

.I 0) +: n . average movement is zero or net current is zero..type semi conductor 0 ~ - r-1 - . 2. The average velocity of motion v = which is » '1'. the number of free electrons and holes is same as before the application of field. The voltage applied results in voltage drop across semiconductor. all the free electrons move towards the positive electrode and enter the metal of the positive electrode Fig.-. Let the semiconductors be 'n' type.28 x 10 15 T2 T=O. Now using a battery. under the influence of the electric field. If the battery is removed.12 2. - 0) "-. Therefore it will pull one more electron from the positive electrode and hence the number of free electrons in the semiconductors remains the same. covalent bonds are broken and electrons ar. Such a random motion is defined as mean free pat" length 'I'. exactly equal in number to the free electrons which have entered the electrode.10. These collide with lattices. because of the thermal energy.12. Fig. The resulting current is called Drift Current.5 x 10 14 TOTAL CURRENT IN A SEMICONDUCTOR DRIFT CURRENT IN AN N-TvPE SEMICONDllCTOR Within a semiconductor. So the donor atoms !lear the positive electrode pull electrons from the electrode. t.1 = 2.. But when electric field is applied all the electrons are aligned in a particular direction and move towards the positive electrode and holes in the opposite direction. 2.10 Drift current in n-type semiconductor. the donor atom loses one electron.84 Electronic Devices and Circuits 3 4.14°K 2.. get deflected and move in a different direction. since semiconductor has taken equal number of electrons from the positive electrode.d holes move in random directions. till they collide with another carrier. So the semiconductors remains electrically neutral. intrinsic or impure. electric field is applied. I Over a period oftime + . . The donor atoms have thus lost their free electrons.. When the free electron contributed by phosphorus donor atom goes into the positive electrode. . the distance a carrier travels between collisions and the average time between collisions 't'.

17 x 10 19/cm 3 v EF .26 85 In p-type Silicon.26 ev or EF .6m.26ev EF is above Ev' .026 In . Assume that m = 0. K = Boltzman constant in J// oK. At room temperature.38 x 10-23 J/oK = 4.6 x 300)3/2 = 1. ( 5 x 1014 =0.((27tmh KT)% 1 K = Boltzman's Constant in eVfK. Solution Concentration of Silicon atoms = 5 x 10 22 /cm 3c . N A = 5 x 1022 108 =5 p 2 x 10 14/cm 3 Nv . Because doping is done at 1 atom per 10 8 Silicon Atoms.6 m (given) T=300oK N = 4.17 X 10 = 0.Junction Diode Characteristics Problem 2.Ev = 0.026 x 10 = 0. h = Planck's Constant = 6.82 x 10 15(0.62 x 10-34 J-sec K = 1.82 x 10 15 x where p (mp~ m 3 x T3/2 m = 0.2 . the acceptor concentration corresponds to 1 atom per 108 Silicon atoms.Ev = K T In (~:) 19 ) 1. how far from the edge of the valence band is the Fermi level?" Is EF above or below Ev? The concentration of Silicon atoms is 5 x 1022 atoms/cm 3.

28 x 10 18 • A Doping concentration N = 6. find the distance in·electron volts (ev) offermi level in as intrunsic semiconductor from the centre of the forbidden bond at room temperature. But if m "t: m . Solution For Intrunsic Semiconductor.33 x 10 18 atoms/cm 3• If the effective mass of an electron is equal to thrice the effective mass of a hole. for what doping concentration will the fermi level coincide with the edge of the valence bond? Assume ~p = 0. Solution when 3 N v =4. If then Hence EF will be at the centre of the fo~ bidden band.4)3/2(300)312 = 6.82 x 10 15 (0. N v 2 = ~ 2.86 Problem 2.026 In (3) = 21.33 Problem 2.27 Electronic Devices and Circuits In p-type Ge at room temperature of 300 oK.1n mp kT mn NC = 2 ( -]3/2 21tmnKT n .4 meV .82 x 1015(:YXT312 =4.4 m.J3/2 21tmpkT N =2 ( V n 2 = "4 3 x 0. EF will be away from P n the centre of the forbidden band by 2 KT Nc In.

Therefore number of carriers in area Al is greater than the number of carriers in A2.12 Diffusion current. So the electrons where the concentration gradient is more move from that region to the place where the electrons are lesser in number.3 DIFFlJSION CllRRENT This current results due to difference in the concentration gradients of charge carriers. Distance of ( along the Semiconductor) Fig. x. x. i.12. 2. Area A2 is a measure of the number of carriers between X2 and X3. 2. the hole has moved ~----------~:I I~----------------~ away. pulling out one electron from the negative electrode from the acceptor '--' '-" atoms ( Fig.11 ). This is true with holes also. The holes in the acceptor type semiconductor moves towards the negative electrode and enter !-p-Type into it. That is. In one particular area. the number of free electrons may be more.2 DRIFT CURRENT IN P-TVPE SEMICONDliCTOR 87 The mechanism is the same to as explained above. Therefore they will move from Al to A2.e. and in some other adjoining region. These free electrons enter the positive electrode. . Area A I is a measure of the number of carriers between XI and X2. Let the concentration of some carriers be as shown in the Fig 2.Junction Diode Characteristics 2. If these x. 2.12.11 Drift current in p-type semiconductor electrons from the acceptor atom being pulled away. their number may be less. free electrons and holes are not uniformly distributed all over the semiconductor. Area Al is greater than Area A2. The new holes created thus drift towards negative electrode. 2. This results in a Fig. Area A. it has acquired an electron.12. The concentration of carriers is not uniform and varies as shown along the semiconductor length. So electrical neutrality or of its original condition is disturbed. The acceptor atoms having lost one electron steal another electron from the adjoining atom resulting in a new hole.

If diffusion current is caused by holes. It is independent of any applied field. If these are holes then current direction is from A to C. the carriers in areas AI and A2 have equal probability to move from left to right or from right to left. the equation of diffusion current is . Ip dp dx = Q x Dp x For Ge.88 Electronic Devices and Circuits charge carriers are free electrons. then electron current directions is from C to A (.5 X(lx ::)XdX ((lx)2 X :: )( t: ) I x X Vn X Hence Diffusion Current = 1/ /2 ex dn dx where V x is the Average Velocity = tx X Ix and e = charge of an electron. . Because of the thermal agitation.e. half the electrons from AI move to A2 and half the electrons from A2 move to AI' The net current is due to the difference of number of electrons from AI to A2 =0. But because the number of carrier in AI is greater than in A 2. So in semiconductors. I x is the mean free path. it results in net diffusion current. though no electric field is applied.. at room temperature On = 93 x 10-4 m2/sec Dp = 44 x 10-4 m2/sec. Let tx secs be the corresponding time taken. Hence Diffusion Current per Sq. there will be very small current flowing through. Diffusion electrons density I n is given by the expression J n = + e On x - dn dx positive sign is lIsed since :: is negative and direction of current is opposite to the movement of electrons.: Electrons move from A to C). if the device is connected in a circuit. This current is called diffusion current. i. which is cal1ed Diffusion Current. at room temperature itself. During time tx. meter of cross section is in =e x dn On dx On = Diffusion current constant in m2/sec Vx = Y:! Ix :: is concentration gradient of electrons in Number of carriers / m. Let Ix be the distance travel1ed by each electron between two successive col1isions.

2. Dn . So the resulting Diffusion Current Density J p is written as dp Jp = . dx Drift Current Diffusion Current ellppE dp eDp dx dn Similarly the net electron current is In Sin~e = e Iln nE + e Dn dx Diffusion hole current is J p dp J p = --eDp dx p decreases with increase in x. -ve.4 TOTAL CURRENT Both Potential Gradient and Concentration Gradient can exist simultaneously within a Semiconductor... of temperature. J p will be positive in the positive x direction. It is in m2/sec. it results in Diffusion Current. For electrons dn I n = + e . ( 2... fior Jp..is the sum of Drift Current and Diffusion Current.= \\. WIt dx IS IS use d·In t he expressIon . S 0 -ve sIgn . where On ~n = - Op ~p =V T KT T V T = -. Negative sign is used for J p.600 . If you consider p-type semiconductor holes are the majority carriers. :: is concentration gradient. D and 11 are interrelated. 11 = 39D. . dp . dp J p = e IIp p.. dx since the electron current is opposite to the directions of conventional current. At room temperature.Junction Diode Characteristics 89 where Dn is called Diffusion Constant for electrons.. The thermal energy due to temperature T is expressed as electrical energy in the form ofVoIts.e x Dp x dx where Dp is called diffusion constant for holes. So :~ is negative.. Since in such a case the total current. There exists a concentration gradient in a semiconductor. I1 x. It is given as. E -e Dp ..24 ) where V T is volt equivalent. Since p the hole concentration is decreasing . On account of this...12. so that.

Electron .....=39D D D Vr 0.600 19 JfK K = 8.. J n = dn) +exD dn n dx ( e. This is called Continuity Equation.dx . So the concentration of holes and electrons will be changing continuously and this varies with time as well as distance along the semiconductor. ( 2..27 ) Problem 2... Vr KT =~ = T 11. ~p .. Dn = ~ x Vr = 3. the Diffusion Coefficient and ~ are inter related as ..62 x 10.. ( 2.026 = 47 cm 2/sec Dn = 1300 x 0.026 = 13 cm 2/sec 2..026 = 99 cm2/sec pp = ~p x Vr = 1800 x 0.14 CONTINUITY EQUATION Thus Continuity Equation describes how the carrier density in a given elemental volume of crystal varies with time..29 Determine the values ofDp and Dn for Silicon and Germanium at room temperature.. equation which is based on the fact that charge is neither created nor destroyed.026 = 34 cm2/sec For Silicon. Dp = 500 x 0..evfK K = 1.. . ( 2.25 ) I ~ ~ ~ ~VTI where Vr is volt equivalent of temperature.D n xdx 2. Solution For Germanium at room temperature.800 x 0.026 p .hole recombination will be taking place continuously due to thermal agitation.26 ) = 39Dp ~ = 39Dn ~= 39D or Therefore values ofDp and Dn for Si and Ge can be determined..90 Electronic Devices and Circuits dn Similarly for electrons also the expression is similar and the slope is . If an intrinsic semiconductor is doped with n-type material..6 x 10- ~p= -p = -p.. We now derive the differential. But since the electron current is opposite to the conventional current..381 x 10-23 JfK 5 K = 1..... electrons are the majority carriers....13 EINSTEIN RELATIONSHIP D.

p g=Lp Therefore. 2. If dIp is rate of change of total charge that is dIp = d( n:q) 91 x'--_-. we can say that more holes are leaving than the no. So when only Ip colombs is entering. then.( the steady state value reached after recombination ). the increase per second. length dx (x +. Let Ep is a factor ofx. and (Ip + dIp) is the current leaving the volume at (x + dx ) at the same instant of time '1'. since more hole current is leaving than what is entering. The decrease . ( Ip + dIp) colombs are leaving. more number of holes will be created. Let the average hole concentration be 'p'. If Po is the thermal equilibrium concentration ofholes. q But because ofthermal agitation.& 'p But because of recombination of holes and electrons there will be decrease in hole concentration. Or in other words. Therefore effectively there is a decrease of ( Ip + dIp .Ip ) = dIp colombs per second within the volume.13 Charge flow in semiconductor dI _P gives the decrease in the number of holes per second with in the volume A x dx. increase per second per unit volume due to thermal generation. of holes entering the semiconductor at 'x'. per unit volume due to thermal generation is.l3. Fig 2. Decrease q in holes per unit volume ( hole concentration) per second due to Ip is dIp 1 ---x Axdx q dI But :.Junction Diode Characteristics Consider a semiconductor of area A. dx .x = dx) as shown in Fig. = Current Density 1 dJ p xdx . Let Ip is the current entering the volume at x at time t. g= . that is hole current due to concentration is varying with distance along the semiconductor.

so that current is carried by electrons. In the Fig.15 THE HALL EFFECT current I is placed in a perpendicular magnetic field B.Pno . In other word Pno is the thermal equilibrium minority density. the mobility !1 can be calculated using Hall Effect.14 current I is in the positive X-direction and B is in the positive Z-direction. If a metal or semiconductor carrying a . Similarly for a p-type semiconductors. Because of thermal generation. -=----x't p ap at P" . So a force will be exerted in the negative V-direction. an electric field E is induced in the direction perpendicular to both I and B. Because of concentration gradient there is decrease in the number of holes. Hence a potential V H called the Hall Voltage appears between the surface 1 and 2.P 1. Ifpno is equilibrium density. So side 1 becomes negatively charged with respect to side 2. density in the equilibrium condition when number of electron = holes ). aJ p q ax dp Partial derivatives are used since p and Jp are functions of both time t and distance x. Because of recombination. By measuring conductivity 0. The recombination rate is given as Pn .natIOn rate = dt Life time of holes in n-type semiconductors AP Pn-Pno 't P =. 2. these electrons will be forced downward toward side 1. the life time of electrons dp 't n - _ np -n po dxl dt 2. dt gives the variation of concentration of carriers with respect to time 't'.92 Electronic Devices and Circuits Charge can be neither created nor destroyed. If we consider unit volume of a semiconductor ( n-type ) having a hole density Pn. there is increase in the number of holes. So the net increase in hole concentration is the algebraic sum of all the above.e.= R dp/dt or = [pn -PnoJ dt 't p where Pn is the original concentration of holes in n-type semiconductors and Pno is the concentration after holes and electron recombination takes place at the given temperature. It is used to determine whether a semiconductor is p-type or n-type. If the semiconductor is n-type. " R dp Recom b .. The expression/or the time rate 0/ change 't in carriers density is called the Continuity Equation. there is decrease in the number of holes. some holes are lost due to recombination. (i. This phenomenon is known as the Hall Effect.

.... z Fig 2. ( a ) But where E = VH/d = Hall Voltage = VH d J Thickness of semiconductors.... In the equilibrium condition. because of Hall effect should be just balanced by the magnetic force or eE = B ev v Drift Velocity of carriers in m / sec B = Magnetic Field Intensity in Tesla ( wb/m 2 ) or E = Bv ..... Current Density ( Amp / m2 I = nev ) or J=ro.....d ro = width of the semiconductor..14 Hall effect. .. the force due to electric field intensity 'E'.... rod = cross sectional area I = current J E = Current Density = = VH/d = Ed I rod or VH .. .. P J or J = pv = charge density..Junction Diode Characteristics 93 2 .

28 ) If the semiconductor is n-type..pro B. 1 But - P =RH cr=--X/J. If on the other hand terminal 1 becomes charged positive then the semiconductor is p-type.. cr = ne/J.type semiconductor) p = p x e ( for p-type semiconductor) p = Charge density. 1 RH or VH·ro /J.e = p = charge density. = RH x cr = .. n. I Units of RH are m3 I coulombs Ifthe conductivity is due primarily to the majority carriers conductivity.....ro.29 ) The Hall Coefficient.I VH =--=p..ro . ( 2.I......d I = . ( 2. P = VH.d B.But J = p rod B. in n-type semiconductors. B.....I VH =pro or and p = n x e ( For n .d pro ~ . cr=pX/J.I .94 But E Electronic Devices and Circuits = Bv . side 2 becomes positive and side 1 negative. From Equation { a ) But v = J/p VH= B x v x d BJ...I .defined as RH = p.. RH is..x cr B..I V H....... electrons the majority carriers under the influence of electric field will move towards side 1..

cm . 2. d = w = 3mm = 3 x 10-3 meters B..30 ) 8 Multiply RH by 31t. Thus mobility of carriers ( electrons or holes) can be determined experimentally using Hall Effect.667. Hence a correction has to be 1 31t made and it has been found that satisfactory results will be obtained if R H is taken as 8p .1 x lOx 10-3 1 50xlO-2 x3xl0.. So for all particles v will not be the same. their velocity increases and also collision with other atoms increases.1 Wb I m2 (or Tesla) V H = 50 mv. Find IIp mobility of holes. Then it becomes Modified Hall Coefficient.3 = 150 =0.. But since there is no electric field applied in that particulars direction.1 Wblm and d = w = 3mm.667 x 2000 = 750 cm 1 V .. we can experimentally detemline 1. The product Bev is the Lorentz Force.. 1= 10 rnA.. Solution B = 0.000 O-an.30 The mobility of Electrons or Holes. ( 2. Assume the bar resistivity is 200..I RH VH·w 0. The measured values of the current and Hall voltage are 1OmA and 50 mv respectively.. But actually it will not be so.Junction Diode Characteristics 95 We have assumed that the drift velocity 'v' of all the carriers is same. p = 2 x 10 5 0 . Due to the thermal agitation they gain energy.sec 2 . there will develop a Hall voltage or field which just opposes the Lorentz field. So the majority carriers in the semiconductors. I J-lp = 0. Problem 2. So with the help of Hall Effect. because of the applied magnetic field B and the drift velocity v. .. Conductivity = J-l = cr x RH p= 1 1 2 x 105 x I 0-2 - 2000 mhos I meter. Whether a given semiconductor is p-type or n-type (from the polarity of Hall voltage VH) The Hall Effect is used to determine the mobility of holes in a f-type Silicon bar. will tend to move in a direction perpendicular to B. the magnetic field Bz = 0.

Similarly electrons will diffuse to the right side because of concentration gradient. So they loose electrons and become positively charged. there are only p-type carriers to the left of the junction and only n-type carriers to the right of the junction. The donor atoms will donate electrons. But because ofthe concentration gradient across the junction. I'D . a p-njunction is formed.15. (a) Holes-~o eee e® ® Free Electrons e o:e e ® $ (t4"'r-®. holes and negative ions are shown and on the n-side free electrons and positive ions are shown.16 SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE CHARACTERISTICS If ajunction is formed usingp-lype and n-type semiconductors. o . holes are in large number on the left side and they diffuse from left side to right side. In this chapter... . Therefore in the p-njunction on the pside. and become negatively charged. e ® <±I. To start with.x dV dx (c) ~ectrostatic W . electronhole currents as a function of distance from the junction and junction capacitances will be studied.. 2.. a-diode is realised and it has the properties of a rectifier.1 THEORY OF p-n JUNCTION Take an intrinsic Silicon or Germanium crystal.16. acceptor atoms accept an electron. the volt ampere characteristics of the diodes. Potential distribution in p-n junctioh diode. If donor ( n-type ) impurIties are diffused from one point and acceptors impurities from the other. -+x Fig 2.---- (d) Potential Barrier for: Holes ! x (e) -l\j iii Potential Barrier Cor Electron.'~. . p-type I In-type ~ tp ~ Charge Density (b) ~ I -.96 Electronic Devices and Circuits 2. . Similarly.

So the region near the junction is depleted of mobile charges. 2. K is the cathode. 2. This is called depletion region. The thickness of this region will be of the order offew microns 1 micron = 10-6 m = 10-4cm. that is not connected in any circuit. since before all the holes from p-side move to n-side. Positive charge on n-side becomes large enough to prevent the movement of holes from the p-side.15 ( b). When the diode is open circuited. 2.15 ( d ). that region (p-region ) becomes negative.+ ( a ) Forward bias ( b ) Reverse bias ( c ) p-n junction forward bias Fig 2. But at a particular stage the negative field on p-side becomes large enough to prevent the flow of electrons from n-side. it is called Forward Bias. space charge region or transition region. It has two leads or electrodes and hence the name Diode. concentration gradient should be nullified by drift current due to potential barrier. Now these holes have combined with free electrons and disappeared leaving the acceptor atom negative. This curve is the integral of the density function p. This should result in large hole current flowing even when diode is not connected in the circuit. The electric field intensity near the junction is shown in Fig. So. A K A K + - . Acceptor atoms near the junction have lost the holes. So to counteract the diffusion current. But for this they would have been electrically neutral. electric field will appear across the junction. (Fig. positive electric field exists on the n side. If the anode is connected to positive voltage terminal of a battery with respect to cathode.16 (b». A potential gradient is set up across the junction such that drift current flows in opposite direction to the diffusion current. it is called Reverse Bias. Since p-side looses holes. all the holes from p-side should move towards n-side. holes from the p-side move towards n-side. ( Fig. Donor atoms on n-side have lost free electrons.01 V ). Its symbol is A ~I K. the barrier potential is developed. Since n-side looses electrons. The electro static potential variation in the depletion region is shown in Fig. Because of the movement of holes from p-side to n-side. A is anode. Its magnitude is a few tenths of a volt ( 0. 2. The charge density far away from the junction is zero. 2.16 . 2. E = - f dx' This variation constitutes a potential energy barrier against dV further diffusion of holes across the barrier.2 p-n JlINCTION AS A DIODE The p-n Junction shown here forms a semiconductor device called DIODE.16. So the net hole current is zero when the diode is open circuited. 'fthe anode is connected to negative voltage terminal ofa battery with respect to cathode.16 (a». negative field exists near the junction towards left.15 ( c). These free electrons have combined with holes and disappeared. The potential which exists to cause drift is called contact potential or diffusion potential.Junction Diode Characteristics 97 Because ofthe displacement of these charges. the hole current must be zero. The charge distribution is as shown in Fig. Because of the concentration gradient. But this will not happen.

But some electron hole pairs are generated because of thermal agitation. A K + - Fig 2. So these must be contact potentials across the metal-semiconductor junctions. reverse resistance is 00. When the diode is open circuited. 2. But n-side has few holes. the barrier potential height increases by a magnitude depending upon the reverse bias voltage. external battery is connected to the diode. So there results some small current called Reverse Saturation Current. But this barrier doesn't apply to the minority carriers on the p-sides and n-sides.16 (b)) p-rype and electrons in nrype will move away from the junction.98 Electronic Devices and Circuits OHMIC CONTACT 2. because to have continuous flow of holes from right to left. Majority carriers from p-side and n-side flow across the junction. But this process cannot continue indefinitely. Jfthe diode is reverse biased. is reduced. So metal contacts are to be provided for p-region and n-region.16. 2. "the forward resistance Rf = O. Positive charge density spreads towards right.17 Ohmic contacts. Electrons created on the p-side will move towards the junction. 10 is of the order of a few ~A.17 THE P-N JUNCTION DIODE IN REVERSE BIAS Because of the battery connected as shown. It is denoted by 1 0. holes in ( Fig. So the flow of holes from p-side to n-side and electrons from n-side to p-side is restricted. . For ideal diode. I he same thing can be explained in a different way. the potential barrier that exists when the diode is open circuited.18 THE P-N JUNCTION DIODE IN FORWARD BIAS When a diode is forward biased. So the reverse resistance or back resistance decreases with temperature. A Metal-Semiconductor Junction is introduced on both sides of p-n junction. the holes must come from the n-side. But this is minimized by fabrication techniques and the contact resistance is almost zero. So very less current results. 10 will increase with the temperature. Such a contact is called ohmic contact. 2. As the holes near the junction in p-region they will move away from the junction and negative charge spreads towards the left of the junction.3 In tpe above circuits. The forward current If' will be of the order ofmA (milli-amperes). So a large current results. The flow ofthe minority carriers across the junction results in some current. So the entire voltage appears across the junction of the diode. The reverse resistance of a diode will be of the order of Mil For ideal diode. But directly external supply cannot be given to a semiconductor. The newly generated holes on the n-side will move towards junction. there exists a barrier potential.

Conduction Band energy level on the p-side. 2. Valence Band energy level on the n-side. But this is not practically possible since the bulk resistance of the crystal and the contact resistance together will limit the current._'--J V K Fig 2. EG Energy gap in eV EF Eo Een Ecp Eyn Eyp Fermi energy level Contact difference of potential Conduction Band energy level on the n-side. If the applied voltage is too large junction breakdown will occur.19 Forward biasing. . Then the fermi level must be constant throughout the specimen. electrons on one side will have higher energy than on the other side. I '--_ _ A-7"i+:r-__---.Junction Diode Characteristics 99 A K + - Fig 2. 2. If it is not so.19 BAND STRUCTURE OF AN OPEN CIRCUIT p-D JUNCTION Whenp-rype and n-rype semiconductors are brought into intimate contactp-njunction is formed. Valence Band energy level on the p-side. 2. Ifthe barrier potential across the junction is made zero.18 Diode in forward bias.1 FORWARD ClJRRENT Ifa large forward voltage is applied (Fig. EF is close to conduction band Een and it is close to valence band edge Ey on p-side. infinite amount of current should flow. We may see in the other sections that when the diode is conducting. as shown. But we have already seen that in n-type semiconductors.19). So the conduction band edge of n-type semiconductor cannot be at the same level as that of p-rype semiconductor Hence. the voltage across it remains constant at Vy cut in voltage. the current must increase.1S. the energy band diagram for a p-n junction is where a shift in energy levels Eo is indicated. So the transfer of energy from higher energy electrons to lower energy electrons will take place till fermi level on both sides comes to the same level.

20 Band structure of open circuited diode.... If a central line central lines EG 2 is taken.. the shift in energy levels is the difference between the two EG 2 of the two semiconductors..Evp EI + E2 = Eep .Evn· Evp) EF) EG 2(EF - E2 = But EG 2 . Eo EI = = Eep . '~---------------------i-"2 EG 1 . The contact difference of potential .Evp ..Een = Evp .Een + Evp· But Eep .P region ----_~I region I..Een = Eo E} + E2 = Eo· This energy Eo represents the potential energy barrier for electrons.2 1 Fig 2.EG :_~ -~ .n region -----~ I .100 Electronic Devices and Circuits I I I Space charge I .EF + Evp . (1 ) .~----..(Een - EI + E2 = EG .~----..Een + EF EG = Eep .

62 x 10-5 eV I oK Therefore.Junction Diode Characteristics 101 and Adding (1) and (2)..EF ) .E2 . In the case of n-type semiconductors.. (Subscript 'n' indicates electron concentration in n-type semiconductor) 2 =n xp =N xp n1 n nOn nn=N o n1 = Intrinsic Concentration np = Electron Concentration in p-type semiconductor nn = Electron Concentration in n-type semiconductor Pp = Hole Concentration in p-type semiconductor Pn = Hole Concentration in n-type semiconductor p =_1 n No n = p _I n2 and and N=~ o Pn n N =_1 2 p 2 n2 NA A n n12 = nn x pn .. or Een . Eo is in eV and Vo is the contact difference potential in volts Vo is numerically equal to Eo.Evp) = KT In(~) Eo = KT In[NC"~v x ~D x ~A)= KT In[NA..32) The energy is expressed in electron volts eV.. (2...E) ..EF ) = EG .. .( EF . (2) ( EF ...( Een .Evp) + ( Een ....2 ( EG ) . K is Botlzman's Constant in eV 10 K = 8.E2 = [E~ ) . nn = No..Evp ) (E) + E2 ) = Eo (E en .. c v n.EF = 1.~D) n.E2 ( E) + E2 ) = EG . = Acceptor Atom Concentration NJm 3 • No NA ( EF .E ) = KT In[Nc) F No = Donor Atom Concentration NJm 3 ...

......20 THE CURRENT COMPONENTS IN A p-n JUNCTION DIODE ['.. Total Current I x =0 Distance Fig 2.li l l l-I I I ~ -1 1 1I I .026 x I n 10 4 = 0.21 Current components in a p-n junction......I I I I ... v 2..I I I ...718 eY.102 Electronic Devices and Circuits Substituting all these value in E o D] = KT In(NA....026 eV 10 16 Eo = 0... ~~ .I~ I I ~I 1I il li .pn] (nn] = KT In ( Pl1"n p = KT In ~ nno] =KTln[ppn) Eo=KTln ( -n pO PnO Taking reasonable values ofnno = 10 16 / em 3 n pO = 104 / em 3 KT = 0.I I ~ Current ~ ...N n2 I nn..

But the thermal equilibrium hole concentration on the p-side Pn (0) e(Vo -V)/VT where Hole concentration on n-side near the junction Applied forward bias voltage.. the current is electron current since electrons are the majority carriers.. holes are injected into the n-side and electrons to the p-side..y.. Electrons crossing from n to p will constitute current in the same direction as holes crossing from p to n.21 LAW OF THE JUNCTION Ppo Pno Ppo Thermal Equilibri't:~m Hole Concentration onp-side Thermal equilibrium hole concentration on n side PnoeVO/VT . So Jpp decreases near the junction and is just equal in magnitude to the diffusion current Jnp... V.. Jpn is small and as hole concentration decreases in the n-region. 2. with distance. Now deep into the p-region ( where x is large) the current is because of the electric field ( since bias is applied) and it is drift current Jpp of holes.. As these currents vary with distance. Pn (0) e(VO-V)/VT = Pno X .... some of them recombine with electrons crossing the junction from n to p. V.Junction Diode Characteristics 103 When a forward bias is applied to the diode. There are two minority currents. Jpn also exponentially decreases with distance.. This current decreases at the junction as the junction approaches and at a point away from the junction.. they are represented as Jpn(. the current enters as hole current and leaves as electron current. one due to electrons in the p-region Jnp. The number of this injected carriers decreases exponentially with distance from the junction. The decrease in Jpn is compensated by increase in Jnp on the p-side. (2) e VO/VT Vo _ Vo + ~ or Pn(O) = Pno X e V. hole current is practically zero. Equating (1) and (2). Thus in a p-n junction diode. What remains of Jpp at the junction enters the n-side and becomes hole diffusion current Jpn in the n-region.. In a forward biased p-n junction diode... at the edge of the diode on p-side. As the holes approach the junction. But at the other edge of the diode. on the n-side.). Therefore. on the n-side. the total current at the junction where x = 0 is 1 = Ipn(O) + Inp(O) The total current remains the same. and due to holes in the n-region Jpn. This relationship is called Boltzman's Relationship. (1) where V 0 is the Electrostatics Barrier Potential that exists on both sides of the Junction. Since holes are minority carriers in the n-side. Since the diffusion current of minority carriers is proportional to the number of carriers.. the current is hole current (majority carriers are holes). Pn(o)=Pnox e V/VT . the minority carriers current decreases exponentially..

. Similarly the electron current due to the diffusion of electrons from n-side to p-side is obtained from the above equation itself. ... So it can be neglected..33 ) or where I = 10 I 10 (e / v1 -1) v I AeOn L x npo Lp n In this analysis we have neglected charge generation and recombination. If the reverse = -- AeDp x Pno+ x (e -v bias voltage is very large... Pn(O) Pn(O) . e -xjLp at x = 0 is 1.. Reverse Saturation Current V VI / 1= 10 -1) This is the expression for current I when the diode is forward biased.Pno Pno e V/VT _ Pno .. ( 2... e VT is very small.26 mY. If the diode is reverse biased. 1 = -10 ..32 ) 2. AexOn (e v/v 1 po ~ The total diode current is the sum of Ipn (0) and Inp(O) = .. the total hole concentration in 'n' region at the junction varies with applied forward bias voltage V as given by the above expression.104 Electronic Devices and Circuits Therefore. Inp(O) Ln x n -1) ..... by interchanging nand p. V T value at room temperature is . This is called the Law of the Junction... V is replaced by -Y..22 DIODE CURRENT EQUATION The hole current in the n-side Ipn(x) is given as Aex Op -xjL L Pn (0) e P p Jpn(x) But Pn(O) = Pno (e v /v r -1) Ipn(O) AexOp (v/v) L x Pno\e 1-1 p Diffusion coefficient of holes Diffusion coefficient of electrons.. ( 2. Only the current that results as a result of the diffusion of the carriers owing to the applied voltage is considered.

temperature dependance of 10 can be written as.23 VOLT-AMPERE CHARACTERISTICS OF A P-N JUNCTION DIODE The general expression for current in the p-njunction diode is given by (l 1=10 le 11VT -lj. np= N A Substituting these values in the expression for 10.Junction Diode Characteristics 10 will have a small value and 10 is called the Reverse Saturation Current.N EGO Jx n7 A 1 nI 2 = A 0 T3 e-EG/KT EG is in electron volts = e. 10 = AeDpPno AeDnnpo L + p 105 In n-type semiconductor. 10 =Ae where [~+ Dn LpN o Ln. the current due to thermal generation of carriers and recombination can be neglected. 11 = 1 for Germanium and 1 or2 for Silicon. n? =Ao T3 e. 10 = K JT2 e-VG/VT For Germanium. I will be less than thatforGermanium. V T = 26 mY. Dp and Dn decrease with temperature and o? increases with T. So the expression for current is modified as I = 10 e 11 V l (l T - \ 1 j \ where n = 2 for small currents and n = 1 forM large currents. Therefore. But for Silicon it cannot be neglected. For Silicon.KT EGo = V G · e But - KT e = Volt equivalent of Temperature V T' For Germanium. 2.12 In p-type semiconductor. .VG' where VG is in Volts. °n=ND But nn x pn = n. Pp=NA n2 1 :.

The difference is that the practical characteristics are plotted at different scales. 2.22 V-I Characteristics of p-n junction diode. It's magnitude is O. If plotted to the same scale.2V for Germanium and O. So I increases exponentially with forward bias voltage Y. In the case of reverse bias. i Silicon ) O. (reverse and forward) they may be similar to the theoretical curves.23 ). if the reverse voltage -V» V T' then e -v /VT can be neglected and so reverse current is -10 and remains constant independent ofY. below which the current is negligible.6V for Silicon ( Fig.23 Forward characteristics of a diode.(mA) ---:-4---~t--+''''----:-- V" (Volts) lillA) Fig 2.22 and not like theoretical characteristics. So the characteristics are as shown in Fig.2V O. . CUT IN VOLTAGE Vy In the case of Silicon and Germanium. in deriving the equations the breakdown mechanism is not considered. diodes there is a Cut In or Threshold or OffSet or Break Point Voltage.6V V F (Volts) Fig 2. So the actual current is more than the theoretical current. As V increases Avalanche multiplication sets in. Another point is.106 Electronic Devices and Circuits If V is much larger than V T' 1 can be neglected. 1. 2.

m = 1. 10 gets doubled. dV ill. This is also not a constant but 2.1 DIODE RESISTANCE 107 The static resistance (R) of a diode is defined as the ratio of I V of the diode. (EG in eV) For Germanium.5 10 = KTm e-VGO/llVT -VGO Taking In.) T 10 m - T value is negligible 7 ~ dl o x10 dT Experimentally it is found that reverse saturation current increases::: 7% /oC for both Silicon and Germanium or for every lOoC rise in temperature. 11 = 2. m = 2 For Silicon..llVT Differentiating with respect to Temperature.Junction Diode Characteristics 2. or 10 a T2 10 = KTm e-VGO/llVT where V G is the energy gap in volts. The reverse saturation current increases if expanded during the increasing portion. Static resistance varies widely with V and I. . 11 = 1. (Natural Logarithms) on both sides.23.24 TEMPERATURE DEPENDANCE OF P-N JUNCTION DIODE CHARACTERISTICS The expression for reverse saturation current 10 10 I = __ D p_+ D n Ae [ L N L N p 0 n· A J X 2 nj n 2 a T3 n 2 I = A 0T3 e-EG0/KT Dp decreases with temperature. The dynamic resistance or incremental resistance is defined as the reciprocal of the slope of the Volt-Ampere Characteristic depends upon V and I. In 10 = ~ 10 x dl o dT dl o xdT 0 + m _ (_ Voo x T 11Vr J. In( K ) + m x In (T) .

24 Reverse characteristics of a p-n junction diode. the new value of 10 is.07)10 = 2. the increase is 7% of(1. Incremental Capacitance.V Therefore. Reverse Saturation Current increases 7% JOC rise in temperature for both Silicon and Germanium. 2. there is some space charge region.07 10). and hole away from the junction.25 SPACE CHARGE OR TRANSITION CAPACITANCE C T When a reverse bias is applied to a p-njunction diode.0710. Therefore for 10 °C rise in temperature. because of concentration gradient.I'-I1---IOflA Fig 2. Before reverse bias is applied. For another degree rise in temperature. Thus for every 10°C rise in temp Iofor Silicon and Germanium gets doubled. It is to be noted that there is negative charge on the p-side and positive charge on n-side. For a rise of IOC in temperature. electrons from the p-side will move to the n-side and vice versa. 10 = (1+ I~O)lo = 1. So space charge Q increases as reverse bias voltage increases. But we must consider only its magnitude. negative charge is developed on the p-side and similarly positive charge on the nside. CT = I:~I where IdQI is the magnitude of charge increase due to voltage dV. When electrons cross the junction into the n-region. dQ Current I = dt .108 ElectrQnic Devices and Circuits 25V+4--- ·0 IJ1A . the increase is (1. Its thickness increases with reverse bias. Q r"' _ _ But '-' .

No is shown in Fig. given by 109 1= CT x dt dV This current exists for A.Junction Diode Characteristics Therefore. Such a junction is called Alloy Junction or Diffusion Junction. ALLOY JVNCTJON Indium is trivalent. So it can be neglected.--t-~) I W Wn Fig 2.. then a current will result. Wn will be very small.. So we can assume that the entire barrier potential appears across the p-region just near the junction. only. and heated to a high temperature. a pnjunction will be formed and for such ajunction there will be abrupt change from acceptor ions on one side to donor ions on the other side.25. 2. For D. ex NA x Wp = e x No x Wn . capacitance is open circuit. ifthe voltage dV is changing in time dt. C T is called Transition region capacitance or space charge capacitance or barrier capacitance. To satisfy the condition of charge neutrality.C. p-type Charge Density r-- n-type +ve r NA -ve • • • • • • • P • • • ~+"-N D I• IE I I I I I I • • -1-. If this is placed against n-type Germanium. There is sudden change in concentration levels. since space charge:.(this doesn't exist). I_ I I I I I I I I ----+ x W !( -----":o:. the acceptor ion concentration NA and donor atom concentration. . indium diffuses into the Germanium crystal. If the diode is forward biased. In practice the width of the region. CT is of the order of 50 pf etc. then Wp» Wn . It will be negligible.:::: O. The knowledge of CT is important in considering diode as a circuit element. or depletion region capacitance. This capacitance is not constant but depends upon the reverse bias voltage V. Voltage is not changing with time. In the figure.25 Abrupt p-n junction.C. IfNA «No.. For D.C.

W also increases and VB increases Wa JVB If A is the area of the junction.E x2 X-.. It is d2V dx 2 = -E- eNA where E is the permitivity of the semiconductor dV eNA -=--x dx E e.. IV = ~ x W2 1 B .34 ) The value of W depends upon the applied reverse bias V.. ( 2...N A V= ...V where V is the reverse bias voltage with negative sign. the charge in the width W is Q=exNAxWxA where W xA=Volume e x N A = Total charge density Cr = I~I =exNAxAx I~~I JexN A J2E VB xA Q But e.110 Electronic Devices and Circuits Poisson's Equation gives the relation between the charge density and potential. So as V increases.. 2 At x = wP' V = VB the barrier potential. Wp = W.N A 2 V=--x W B 2E or dW dV = y: 2 Rxf E ex NA Y: vB 2 ~VB = W~e~~A . If V0 is the contact potential. VB = V0 ..

The concentration of holes in the n-side decrease exponentially from the junction. So the rate of change of injected charge 'Q' with voltage 'V' is called the Diffusion Capacitance CD' Because of CD total capacitance will be much larger than CT in the case of forward bias. Holes from p-side are injected into the n-side and electrons into the p-side.35 ) This expression is similar to that of the Parallel Plate Capacitor. the p-side is heavily doped compared to n-side. the barrier potential is reduced.. (CD is few mF (2mF.Junction Diode Characteristics dW dV 111 ~~~x ~exNAxW E I ---xexNA W ~ & E . 2. The total charge Q is equal to the area under the curve multiplied by the charge of electrons and the cross sectional area A of the diode.x Fig 2... This injected charge is proportional to the applied forward bias voltage 'V'. x=O ---+.26 Carrier concentration variation... Area is in cm2.. . So we can say that a positive charge is injected into the n-side from p-side. Carrier Concentration 1 p(O) n p(O} n = Hole concetration in n-region at x = 0 = Thermal Equilibrium Concentration of Holes. the junction capacitance will be much larger than the transition capacitance Cr When the diode is forward biased. When the diode is forward biased.26 DIFFUSION CAPACITANCE.. Pn(O) is the Concentration ofholes/cm3.)) C T value will be a few pico farads. the holes that are injected into the n-side are much larger than the electrons injected into the p-side. So we can say that the total diode current is mainly due to holes only. So the excess charge due to minority carriers will exist only on n-side.. x in cm.. CD When a p-n junction diode is forward biased. Holes which are the minority carriers in the n-side are injected into the n-side from the p-region. DERIVATION FOR CD Assume that. ( 2.

' . (2) where g is the conductance of the diode.p Dp where Dp = Diffusion coefficient for holes.) x x x g = L2 i xg Dp The lifetime for holes 't p = 't is given by the eq.. Q = fAePn (O)e....112 Electronic Devices and Circuits 00 .....X/LP Lp or AeDpPn(O) Ipn(O)= 1 = . (1) + exAxDpxPn(O)xe. Substitute equation (2) in (1). D p = cm2/sec CD = 't x g.x/Lp dx 00 0 = Ae Pn(O) Q J e -x/Lp d .... L2 't= ... Lp = Diffusion length for holes...... . x 0 AePn(O) [ .Lp Lp x I / AeD p Lp dl --xAeDp dv Lp AeDp x g .Lp [0-1] ] AeLpPn(O) dQ dPn(O) dv CD = -dv =AeL p x We know that Ipn( x ) ... CD ~ Ae Lp [A~~..

•. Its value ranges from nano-secs to hundreds of micro-seconds. In the above analysis we have assumed that the current is due to holes only.27 DIODE SWITCHING TIMES When the bias of a diode is changed from forward to reverse or viceversa. It is of importance in circuit applications.. CD = 11. The variation of concentration of holes and electrons on n-side and p-side is as shown in Fig. Pno is the thermal equilibrium concentration of holes on n-side. 2. VT I - where 11 = 1 for Germanium 11 = 2 for Silicon I g=11.2 DIODE REVERSE RECOVERY TIME (t rr) When a diode is forward biased.. holes are injected into the 'n' side. . =.26. (3) CD is proportional to 1.1 FORWARD RECOVERY TIME (T FR ) Suppose a voltage of 5V is being applied to the diode.27..Junction Diode Characteristics But diode resistance r--- 113 11. Co xg or r x Co r x CD is called the time constant of the given diode.· • 2. Its value will be around 20pF'. the current takes definite time to reach a steady state value.27. So it can be represented as COP' If the current due to electron is also to be considered then we get corresponding value of COn' The total diffusion capacitance = COP + C Dn .. Pn is the total concentration of holes on 'n '-side.. 2. But usually this is very small and so is not of much importance.VT . Charge control description of a diode: =.. Q = A x e x Lp x Pn(O) AeDpPn(O) 1= ---'--Lp L = A x e x Pn(O) p Q But I=QxD/L2 p p L p2/Dp = • 1= - Q 2. Time taken by the diode to reach from 10% to the 90% of the applied voltage is called as the forward recovery time t fT ..27. This is shown in Fig. 2. VT 1..

Since all the voltage drop is across RL itself. it reverses its direction and ~ V R: (RL is small compared to reverse resistance of the diode). the voltage drop across the diode is small. VF IF = RL This is shown in Fig 2.3 Fig 2. STORAGE AND TRANSITION TIMES Suppose the input given to the circuit is as shown in Fig. the diode current will not fall suddenly. at t = t\.t3) when the diode has normally recovered and the reverse current reaches 10 value is called Transition Time tt.29 (iii) up to t\. Instead. The interval time (t\ -~) for the stored minority charge to become zero is called Storage Time ts.114 Electronic Devices and Circuits i v ) Time i x=o Fig 2. The time (~ .27. the equilibrium level of the carrier density at the junction takes place. the diode is forward biased. 2. At t =~. These values range from few mill i-seconds to a few micro-seconds. because of the Reverse Recovery Time. 2. So the voltage across the diode falls slightly but not reverses and increases to VR after time t3' The current also decreases and reaches a value = reverse saturation current 10 .t\. During 0 . .29 (ii) and voltage across the diode in Fig 2.27 Rise time.28 Carrier concentration in reverse bias. Forward resistance of the diode is small compared to RL . Now when the forward voltage is suddenly reversed.29 (i).

.---.L....I+--I ! 1< tS ~*t ~ I ! Transition intorval t rr .Junction Diode Characteristics liS (i) OI------4-------. calculate the forward currents for a voltage of 0. Problem 2.29 Storage and Transition times...L---.-~·t t... P....'!.1 Fig 2.!!!I!.31 (a) (b) For what voltage will the reverse current in p-njunction Germanium diode reach 90% of its saturation value at room temperature? If the reverse saturation current is 10 JlA..2....:~t ------~----~ v ( iii ) o~==~====~~~t I t..:o. ( ii ) OI---4------4--. and O.....Pno junction r----+------~~==~~t Ir=S R. Minority Forward I B" las II Carrier Storage I I -V R ------.....3V respectively" .

~2L IJ 52 or (b) V =-O.916mA J rDC =I = 0.3. for Germanium Diode.2V =200mV 1.c resistance of a Germanium junction diode.1 VT -1 =0. T is in ~~. T) = I.C resistance and a. VT = -.1 V Solution 1= 10 (eXYr -1) For Germanium. _1)=1.01A Problem 2.9 10 .196 x 10-3 rAC = dI dV I1V = 111 =? .600 = 0.1 = 109.026V 1=20x V 1~ e ( 0.20 0.017V For For V = 0.2.85 rnA V=0.026V at room temperature.600 = 11.32 Find the value of (i) D.116 Electronic Devices and Circuits Solution (a) T V T = 11. if the temperature is 25°C and 10= 20J. T = 273 + 25 = 298°K T) = 1 T (273+25) VT = 11.- KT It is the Thermal Energy expressed in equivalent electrical units of Volts.I=IO(e I 0. Or it is 26mV V T is volt equivalent of temperature. 0.IA with an applied voltage of 0. 1 = 10 (e200/26 -1) = 21.600 = 0.10 [eO.

Junction Diode Characteristics r =-=g ac dv 117 1 dI AC dI Vr rAC = 26. <Jp = 100 mhos I cm.083 x 10 cm -4 . Vo=KT In. n? W= J2E. in the denominators.1 x 10-3 0 Problem 2. it would be N D • V B = Total barrier potential Applied reverse bias voltage + the contact difference of potential (Vo ).001 cm 2 . Applied reverse bias voltage = 1V.N A B In this formula.35+I) 1.6x 10. VB= VR +V So first V0 should be calculated.14 F/cm = 6. E = 16 x 8. lfn-side is heavily doped.85 x 10. N A is used since in the expression we have assumed thatp-side of the p-njunction is heavily doped. fln = 3800 cm 2/sec flp = 1800 cm 2/sec.V e.026 eV W= ----~--'-:-=--~ 2xI6x8.x 3.30 dv = 38.5 x 10 19 17 14 = 0. nn·pp -2nj KT = 0.X(0. Solution Permitivity of Germanium.85 x lO.25 x 1026 T = 3000 K. <In = Imhos I cm.33 Find the width of the depletion layer in a germanium junction diode which has the following specifications Area A = 0.

25V for Germanium Diode. when the applied voltage is 0.28 BREAK DOWN MECHANISM There are three types of breakdown mechanisms in semiconductor devices.25 -eO.25V V r = 0.7 Mn In practice rr is much smaller due to surfac.118 Electronic Devices and Circuits Problem 2. V is positive v I dI 10 v -=-=-eT_O rf (e t) II = I Dynamic Forward Resistance : dV VT 0.25 Dynamic Reverse Resistance : rf = 1. 1.= 2. 2. Avalanche Breakdown 2. 10 = lilA and T = 3000 K.n junction diode.026 1 rf = 0.57xlO-9 =389.57 x 10-9 mhos rr rr = 2.e leakage current. e T Vr 0.578 mhos = I x 10--6 . Thermal Breakdown .026 -0. e0 026 0. Solution 10 = lilA T = 3000 K V f =0.734 n rr dI =-= dV I x 10-6 10 V _I< .0 26 1 . Zener Breakdown 3.25V 1 = 10 YVr For Germanium.34 Calculate the dynamic forward and reverse resistance of a p .

if the temperature is increased. A junction having narrow depletion layer and hence high field intensity will have zener breakdown effect. Zener diode is always used in Reverse Bias. These thermally generated carriers acquire additional energy from the applied bias. When bias is applied. Now keeping the bias voltage as it is. ZENER DIODE This is a p-n junction device. and there will be large number offree electrons.28. Its constructional features are: 2. Due to heavy doping. so that the covalent bonds of all the atoms are broken. more number of carriers will be produced and finally breakdown will occur. They strike the lattice and impart some energy to the valence electrons. due to the thermal energy. 2. .1 AVALANCHE BREAKDOWN 119 When there is no bias applied to the diode. to cause Zener breakdown. 2. But if the field strength is not greater than the critical field. electrons and holes acquire sufficient energy from the applied potential to produce new carriers by removing valence electrons from their bonds. This is Zener Breakdown. So they again strike the lattice and create more number of free electrons and holes. If the doping concentration is high. These newly generated additional carriers acquire more energy from the potential (since bias is applied). normal covalent bond structure will be more or less restored. Since the number of carriers is large. which have weak covalent bonds such as an atom at the surface which is not surrounded on all sides by atoms will be broken. This is Zener Breakdown. only the excess electron. loosely bound to the parent atom will become free electron because of the transfer of energy from the electrons possessing higher energy. in which zener breakdown mechanism dominates. So the valence electrons will break away from their parent atom and become free carriers. compared to normal p-n junction diode.28. Even if thermally generated carriers do not have sufficient energy to break the covalent bonds. In Avalanche Breakdown.3 THERMAL BREAKDOWN If a diode is biased and the bias voltage is well within the breakdown voltage at room temperature.2 ZENER BREAKDOWN Now if the electric field is very strong to disrupt or break the covalent bonds. then normal structure will not be achieved. This is Avalanche Breakdown. avalanche breakdown will occur. there are certain number of thermally generated carriers. But if the field strength is very high. then covalent bonds are directly broken. the depletion region is narrow and will have high field intensity. when the applied voltage is removed. This process goes on as long as bias is increased and the number offree carriers gets multiplied. depletion region width is narrow. But the covalent bonds of all the atoms will not be ruptured. 2.28.Junction Diode Characteristics 2. there will be sudden increase in the number of free carriers and hence large current and consequent breakdown. This is Thermal Breakdown.29 1. Doping concetration is heavy on p and n regions of the diode. the electric field is very high. the covalent bonds are ruptured. (== 106 V 1m). This is known as avalanche multiplication. In zener breakdown. the current flowing through the diode which is proportional to free carriers also increases and when this current is large. there will be certain amount of current which is less than the breakdown current. Only those atoms.

. ) Applications 1. (But if Vi. the current flowing is only the reverse saturation current 10 which is constant like in a reverse biased diode.30 THE TUNNEL DIODE In an ordinary p-n junction diode the doping concentration of impurity atoms is 1 in 108 . electric field intensity E V = . 3. If the concentration of the impurity atoms is increased to say 1 in 103( This corresponds to impurity density of ~ 10 191m3 ).lV..j In Fig 2. since. Covalent bonds are broken and suddenly the number of free electrons increases.1 TUNNELING PHENOMENON Barrier Potential VB : . The device looses Its semiconducting properties and may become a short circuit or open circuit. avalanche breakdown occurs if the applied voltage is very high. When the Zener diode is reverse biased. In Clipping and Clamping Circuits In Wave Shaping Circuits. In Voltage Regulator Circuits 2. = V d " will be high. With this doping. Iz increases through Zener resistance Rz decreases. Due to narrow depletion region width. The reverse characteristic ofa p-njunction diode is shown in Fig. So Iz increases sharply and V z remains constant. 2. the characteristics of the diode will completely change. is increased much beyond Vz' electrical breakdown ofthe device will occur. Zener breakdown occurs.29. 2.. At V = V z' due to high electric field (~ ). So the product V z = Rz . Such a diode is called Tunnel Diode. Iz almost remains constant.30. near the junction. which constitutes barrier potential is 5J. VR~ ~-------"""':::. the Zener diode regains its original structure. So Zener Breakdown mechanism occurs. This is what is meant by device breakdown.120 Electronic Devices and Circuits 3. of the order of J06V/m. If the input voltage is decreasea. 2..29 Reverse characteristic of a Zener diode. This was found by Esaki iri 1958. the depletion layer width. In normal p-n junction diode.

VB e.L. Ip = Peak current Iv = Valley current V F = Peak forward voltage Vp~ 50mV . Therefore.Junction Diode Characteristics 121 or where W= J2E.L. the number of electrons on n-side which occupy the same energy level as that vacant energy state existing on p-side. Therefore. So there are occupie~ states in the conduction band of the n material. Therefore as N A increases W decreases. in tunnel diodes.. W = Width of Depletion Region in J.L to 0. so that potential barrier decreases below E . I Ip F rnA VRE- Volts Fig 2. The n-side levels must shift upward with respect to those on the p-side. If still more forward bias is applied.. by increasing NA' W can be reduced from 5J. As the forward bias is increased further. there is much probability that an electron will penetrate when a forward bias is applied to the diode. So. the energy level of the electrons on the n-side increases.L N A = Impurity Concentration N o /m 3 . to move from one side to the other.. 2.I Characteristics 0/ a Tunnel diode. a particle must possess the potential which is at least equal to. the current again starts beyond V v' The graph is shown in Fig. r .30.01J.0 I J.... which are at the same energy level as allowed empty states in the valence band of the p-side. or greater than. also increases.30 V . The magnitude ofthis current is considerable only beyond a certain value of forward bias voltage. junction barrier varies inversely as the square root of impurity concentration. there is regular p-njunction injection current also. reduces. the width of the. When the barrier width is so thin as 0. So more number of electrons tunnel through the barrier to empty states on the left side giving rise to peak current Ip. So the tunneling current decreases. According to classical mechanics. according to Schrodinge equation.N A . In addition to the Quantum Mechanical Tunneling Current.. the barrier potential. but the empty states existing on the p-side. Hence electrons will tunnel from the n-side to the p-side giving rise to forward current.

2. Its circuit equivalent is shown in Fig.122 2. Low Input Power 6. The symbol for tunnel diode is shown in Fig. Low output voltage swings. the current increases rapidly. forward resistance is small ~ 5n and so dI current is large. At the Peak Current I p' corresponding to voltage VP' dV is zero. Beyond this voltage. Environmental Immunity. For small forward voltage (ie. V v =350 mY. So the swing is limited. Negative resistance Rn = -30n.. 2.31 (a) Symbol of Tunnel Diode Advantages : 1. since it is a two terminal device and there is no isolation between input and output. Vp C -RN (a) (b) ( b ) Equivalent Circuit Fig 2.31(a). Series Ohmic resistance Rs = 1n. . So the diode exhibits Negative Resistance Characteristics between Ip and Iv called the Valley Current. The voltage at 'Yhich the forward current again equals Iv is called as peak forward voltage V v.30. If V is beyond Vp' the current decreases. Low Cost 2. Junction capacitance C= 20 pF. High Speed 5. 2.2 CHARACTERISTICS Electronic Devices and Circuits OF A TUNNEL DIODE ~ 50mV for Ge). Circuit design difficulty. even for small voltage. Typical values ofa tunnel diode are: Vp = 50 mY.31(b). Ls ~ 5 nH. Disadvantages : 1. The series inductance Ls depends upon t~e lead length and the geometry of the diode package. Ip -=8 Iv Ip = 10 rnA. Simplicity 4. while the current goes to large values. Low Noise 3.

Junction Diode Characteristics 123 Applications : 1. The barrier width will be ~ 3Ao.33 Varactor Diode • C a (Vt Y2 In the case oflinearly graded junction. So electrons will tunnel through the barrier from the p side to n side [since when the diode is reverse biased the energy levels on n side will decrease]. As a high frequency oscillator (GHz) 2. the larger the W. As bias voltage is increased the number of electrons tunneling will increase. Diodes made especially for that particular property of variable capacitance with bias are called Varactors. there will be some empty states on n-side corresponding to filled states on the p-side. the probability that electrons will tunnel through the barrier is large. W a (V)1I3 C a (Vy1/3 .-. But if width ~ 3A0. Apart from this.01 Jl electrons will tunnel without the application offield.31 VARACTOR DIODE Barrier of transition capacitance C r varies with the value of reverse bias voltage..33 Varactor diodes are used in high frequency circuits. ExA W So Cr of a p-n junction diode varies with the applied reverse bias voltage. Varicaps or Voltacaps. when impurity doping concentration is::: 1019/cm3. electrons from n-side will increase. The larger the reverse voltage. of the order of 3A° by heavy doping.-. The Symbol is shown in Fig. When the diode is forward biased. The two conditions to be satisfied for tunneling phenomenon to take place are: Necessary Condition : 1. The effective depletion region width near the junction must be small. There must be equivalent empty energy states on the p-side corresponding to energy levels of electrons on the n-side. If the barrier width is ~ 3A0. and tunnel through the barrier to p-side. normal p-n diode current will also be there. Sufficient Condition: 2. Switching time is in nano-seconds. there is no time lag between the application of voltage and consequent current variation. for these electrons to tunnel from n-side to p-side. If width ~ 0. These are used in LC Oscillator Circuits.. very small applied voltage is sufficient for the electron to tunnel.. 2. Since tunneling is a quantum mechanical phenomenon. EA C= W But Wa (vy.J~r Fig 2. This is called quantum mechanical current. In the case of abrupt junction. --. Beyond valley voltage V v' it is normal diode forward current. So it can be used for high frequencies. 2. so forward current increases. As a fast switching device. When the tunnel diode is reverse biased.

Hence C decreases. C= W EA As the reverse bias voltage increases. Therefore. This junction can be obtained by Epitaxial Process. Hyper Abrupt ~ Linearly Graded ~+--Abrupt o w ) Fig 2. Such ajunction is called Hyper Abrupt Junction. Capacitance. FIgureo ment=-C Min RL Fig 2. 2. Yaractors are used in Reverse Bias condition.124 Electronic Devices and Circuits The variation of impurity atom concentration with co for different types ofjunctions is shown in Fig.35 Equivalent circuit of Varactor diode L: Rs: Cj : RL : Lead inductance. width ofthe depletion region increases.34. C Max · f . But 'C' can be made proportional to y2 by changing the doping profile. So Yaractors are used in Reverse Bias condition. . since W is maximum.34 Impurity concentration variation in the junction region. since W is minimum C is minimum under maximum reverse bias. C is maximum under no reverse bias condition. So W increases I C a W. C changes rapidly with voltage. since CT proportional to Y and CD = 't x g No direct relation with Y. Series resistance of the diode due to the semiconductor material Junction Capacitance Leakage resistance of the diode since the capacitor can not be ideal one with out any leakage.

O"e = 45 .. Assume NA «No' If p matenal.ere O"p = conductivity of the p material is (O-cmyl...361txl0 2 O"p 51 where O"p V - is in ( O-cmyl. the breakdown voltage V z = E Ell 2eNA.. . at SY. Compute the value of decrease in capacitance for a 1.0 volt increase in the bias.75 pF. when V = 5V = ..JV.36 The transition capacitance of an abrupt junction diode is 20 pF. Prove that.ls mtnnslc.35 125 For a Zener Diode. Solution CT a 20 ..25 pF Therefore. 1~7~/m :wh. the breakdown voltage for a Ge diode is 51/0"p if Ez = 2 x..J5 . (1) = NA x e x mp e x N A = O"p I Jlp O"p and E 16 F/m 361tx 109 16 4xlO I4 1 x 1800 x x 10-6 x 9 z. 1 For intrinsic Germanium. calculate V z Solution V =--z 2eNA or Substituting for e x N A in eq uation (1 ) E . k is a constant k= 20.J6 = 18.J5 when V = 6V. k 1 CT = 20 pF..J5. decrease in the value of capacitance is 20 .EJl p Vz=~ .25 = 1.Junction Diode Characteristics Problem 2..18. CT = ? CT = 20. V z = 51 x 45 = 2300V Problem 2.

36 ) IfR is set as in part (a) and IL = 25mA.37 (a) (b) The Zener Diode regulates at 50V over a range of diode current from 5 rnA to 40 rnA. Solution The combination is called as tunnel resistor. Supply voltage V = 200V.36 For Problem 2.5V For V max IL + ID = 25 + 40 = 65 rnA = 50 + (65 x 10-3 ) (3750) V max = 293. 1= iD + iR for all V. what are the limits between which V may vary without loss of regulation in. the maximum possible value of IL. Imax = (40mA .37 Solution (a) IfIL = 0. . (b) Imax occurs when 10 = 5mA . The tunnel diode has didi 1 idv max 10 o. 2. Calculate the value ofR to allow voltage regulation from a load current IL = 0 upto Imax.38 A resistor R is placed parallel to aGe tunnel diode. = Find the value ofR so that the combination does not exhibit negative resistance region in its volt ampere characteristic. the slop of the curve I:~I ~O.126 Electronic Devices and Circuits R Problem 2.5mA) = 35 rnA For V min IL + ID= 25 + 5 = 30 rnA V min = 50 + (30 x 10-3 ) (3750) = 162. v V I=i +D R di diD 1 -=-+->0 dv dv R- Fig 2.the circuit? 200-50 R = 40x 10-3 = 3750 0 + sov Fig 2.8V Problem 2.37 For Problem 2.. What is Imax? ( Fig.38. Ifthe V-I characteristics were to exhibit no negative resistance region.

lA on full scale.SkO.OSV to the current for the same magnitude of reverse bias for a Germanium Diode? Solution For Forward Bjas. = + 0.SKO = 20KO Problem 2.147-1 =-6.38 represents a D. The circuit shown in Fig.83.0 R\ R2 = = = 80KO 80KO . or (R\ + ~) x I = 16V 16V R) + Rm = 200x 10. . The meter resistance is S60 0 and R) + R2 = 99. When VI > 20V.Junction Diode Characteristics O > !di ! oR dv 127 ~ 0.soon : : 79.39.OSV = -SOm V. 2. the voltage across R) and Rm must be equal to the Zener voltage V z = 16V.S6) x 103 x I 20V I ~ 100KO = 200 ).O. the Zener Diode conducts and the overload current is shunted away from the meter.. = . !di O ! But It IS gIVen that dv max 1 = 10 mhos Therefore.82-1 0.S + 0.79.50 / 26 _ 1 6. e VT -1 Negative sign IS oecause. R should be as least 10 0. when Vi> 20V. 20V = (R) + R2 + Rm) x I = (99.026V = +26mV = 1 for Germanium Diode.I : 20V Solution Fig 2.OSV = +SOm V. = VT v v TJ e VT -I e50126 -I =-e.SKO . Rm 5600 V. the Zener should not conduct. V + O. V For Reverse Bias.40 What is the ratio of the current for a forward bias ofO. find R) and R2 so that. If the diode is a 16V Zener. Problem 2.C volt meter which reads 20V full scale. When VI = 20V. the direction of current is opposite when the diode is reverse biased.38 For Problem 2. so that there is no negative resistance region in the characteristic.SKO 99.39 The Zener Diode can be used to prevent overloading of sensitive meter movements without affecting meter linearity.

5 KO Problem 2.636 =-- 0. What is the resistance shunting the diode? Solution 1= 10 + IR ~ = dl o dT dT IR the reverse saturation current..636 I.0. + IOV 1 dl o -x10 dT =1 dl 10 -x·~I dT or 10 = 0.11.41 It is predicted for Germanium the reverse saturation current should increase by 0.128 Electronic Devices and Circuits Problem 2.572 10 I = 0. It is found experimentally in a particular diode that at a reverse voltage of 1OV.07.11 0. 10 1= 10 + R For Germanium. will not change with temperature. assuming Rs = 200n and max.39 For Problem 2.41.364 I 0.572(5mA) = 2.07 °C-I. ~ dl o 10 x dT = 0. zener current is 25 rnA Solution 30V IL = 2KO = 15mA Max.11 °C-I. IR = 1-0. Total Current = 25 + 15 = 40mA VI max = 30 V + Rs x 1= 30V + 200(15 + 25) = 38V .68 rnA. Zener Current = 25mA .07 Fig 2. the reverse current is 5 rnA and the temperature dependence is only 0.86mA = 3. -~I . I I Taking the ratio of 1 x dl dT = 0. R = fiR V/ = 10 2.636 0 10 = 5mA IR = 0.42 Over what range of input voltage will the zener regulator circuit maintains 30V across 2KO resistor.

ln + peJ.l decreases with temperature. Secondary Emission 3. Diode is 1~ 10 [e"~' -I] • Forward Resistance Rfof a diode will be small of the order offew O.lA. • When the diode is reverse biased.- 129 81t Eo r • Expression for the radius of orbit. .I . • 10 the reverse saturation current of a diode wi II be of the order of a few J. It decreases with increase in temperature. 1.I 2 2 3/2 = AT e. diffusion capacitance Co is exhibited.Junction Diode Characteristics SUMMARY • Energy possessed by an electron rotating in an orbit with radius r.400 ) . Thermionic Emission 2..2KT eEG • Law of Electrical Neutrality N A + P = ND + n. It increases with temperature.1 V and for Silicon diode it is 0. V H = pro BI • Expression for current through a p-n junction. fior wave Iength 0 f emttte • E xpresslOn tatlOn. iT = h e~ • Energy Gap EG decreases with temperature in semiconductors.. Units are cm /v-sec. Photo electric Emission 4. • Mobility J.. E 2 -E) • Types of Electronic Emissions from the surface.. 10 gets doubled for every 10°C rise in temperature. n.. of the order ofMO • Cut in voltage Vv for Germanium diode is 0. • n p = n. • Fermi Level lies close to Ec in n-type semiconductor • Fermi Level lies close to Ev in p-type semiconductor • cr = neJ. r = n 2h 2 E 1tme 2° .l p • Hall Voltage.5V at room temperature. transition capacitance CT results when the diode is forward biased. Reverse Resistance Ry will be very high. e2 E= . d rad·· ~ = ( 12. High Field Emission • Expression for Threshold FrequencyiT in photoelectric emission.. I\.

............ 13... ........ 3....... In n-type semiconductor............. 18................... doping and this relationship...... Fermi Level lies close to ...... ... ................. 17...... Avalanche Breakdgwn 2........ ° Value of Volt equivalent of Temperature at-25°C is .. The rate at with I changes with temperature in Silicon diode is ................ According to Law of Mass Action In semiconductors..... The equation governing Law of Electrical Neutrality.. 15.. with temperature Depletion region width varies with reverse bias voltages as ........ is .......... Fermi Level lies close to .. 16. ...... ...... . 7. When donor impurities are added allowable energy levels are introduced a little ... 11........... Zener Breakdown 3.. charges and this region depleted of mobile charges is called ............. ............................... 8.. ...................... 6... .......... 10...... A very poor conductor of electricity is called ............. ..................... Einstein's relationship in semiconductors-is ....... ... Expression for J in the case of a semiconductor with concentrations nand p is Value of Eo at room temperature for Silicon is ........ 4.............................. Expression for 'J in terms of E and cr is ..... Thermal Breakdown.................... charge region............... ..................................... Cutin Voltages ... 19.................................130 Electronic Devices and Circuits • The three types of breakdown mechanisms in semiconductor diodes are 1.............. • Zener diode is also operated in reverse bias for voltage regulation....... The unneutralized ions in the neighbourhood of the junction are referred to as .. .... band....... ................... 5.. Under thermal equilibrium..... .... Free electron concentration in semiconductors is of the order of ................... In p-type semiconductor..... Insulators will have resistivity of the order of ......... • Tunnel diode exhibits negative resistance characteristics • Varactor diodes are operated in reverse bias and their j unction capacitance varies with the voltage...... 9.. the .................. .. 14........... 12... the product of the free negative and positive concentration is a constant independent of the amount of ................. 2...... ...... called the mass action low and is given by np = . Intrinsic concentration depends on temperature T as ......................... OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS 1.....

. Derive the expression Transistor Capacitance C T in the case of p-njunction diode. Explain' about Hall Effect......... 6......... 28................ ......................... What are the applications of Hall Effect? Distinguish between Thermistors and Sensistors. . 27...... Expression for VB the barrier potential in terms of depletion region width W is VB = ............ 10............ 22. at room temperature.............. . 2...... 12.. Typical value of Eo = .. 24... Derive the expression for contact difference of potential V in an open circuited p-n o junction.... II... ~ Qualitatively explain the forward and reverse characteristic ofp-njunction diode. 4.......... 131 21...... Expression for Volt equivalent of temperature V T in terms of temperature T is 26. How n-type and p-type semiconductors are formed? Explain...... Compare <Avalanche........ With the help of necessary equations.the expression for Eo in the case of open circuited p-n junction diode............. . Derive the expression for Eo in the case of intrinsic semiconductor.. Zener and Thermal Breakdown Mechanisms... 13..... The expression for the current in a forward biased diode is ... Explain the terms Drift Current and Diffusion Current.... ....... Draw the forward and reverse characteristics of a p-n junction diode and explain them qualitatively..... The value of cut in voltage in the case of Germanium diode ...... Expression for 10 in terms of temperature T and VT is .... Derive the expression for Transistor Capacitance C T i~ the case of an abrupt p-n junction....... N A and nj is ... .... VT = ...... it exhibits ........ 5.... eV The equation governing the law of the junction is ..... Derive the expression for EO in the case of of p-type and n-type semicunductors..... General expression for Eo' the contact difference of potential in an open circuited p-n junction' in terms of N c..... Derive . 30................ Derive the expression for Hall Voltage.. Explain the concept of 'hole'.. Zener breakdown mechanism needs relatively .... .. electric field compared to Avalanche Breakdown........ 29...... Expression for the diffusion capacitance Co in terms ofLp and Dp is ... characteristics... ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS 1....... 25.................... 23. ...Junction Diode Characteristics 20... 3.. 7........ and Silicon Diode .. 8.............................. The salient feature of a Tunnel diode is.............. . 9........

given. W orbitting round the nucleus is. The energy required to detach an electron from its parent atom is called. 17.r (a) (b) (c) 87t Co (d) 3. -e. is (a) n 2 h 2c0 7tme 2 (b) nh Co 7t m e 2 2 2 (c) n 2 h C0 2 7t m e 2 (d) n 2 h 2 C0 2 7t m e 2 5. Electron collision without transfer of energy in collision is called. (a) (b) (c) (d) e r 2. Wave mechanics in electron theory is also known as . (a) p 2m (b) P 2m2 (c) L 2m2 (d) L 2m 4. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1.98 AO (c) (b) (d) (b) (d) (b) (d) 0.626 x (a) (a) (c) (a) (c) (a) (c) 0. Electronic Devices and Circuits How junction capacitances come into existance in p-njunction diode. h 10-34 J .Secs E = lO-9 /361t o = 6. The energy possesed by the electron. The expression for radius of stable state 'e' r.58 AO 6. 15.28 AO (b) 0. proportional to. 8. The force of electron 'F' between nucleus and electron with charge 'e' and radius 'r' is. Ionization potential Kinetic energy Null collision Elastic collision Eienstein theory Bohr mechanics Eletric potential Threshold potential Impact collision Stiff collision Quantum mechanics Classical theory 7. Distinguish between Avalanche. Write notes on Varactor Diode. 16. The value of the radius of the lowest state or ground state is. F a. The expression for the Kinetic Energy E of free electron in terms of momentum of the electron 'p' and mass of the electron mis. Zener and Thermal Breakdown Mechanisms Derive the expression for the diffusion capacitance CD in the case of p-n junction diode.18 AO (d) 0.132 14.

(a) 5% r (b) 1% (d) 7% 16. Fermi level in Intrinsic semiconductor lies 13. with usual notation is. e <j>2 (a) h 10-3 O/cm (b) e<j> h 103 Q/cm (c) eh <j> 10 3 /cm (d) e 2<j>2 h2 10 /m 10. The free electron concentration of a good conductor is of the order of 10 10 electrons/m3 102 electrons/cm3 close to conduction band In the middle 1028 electron/m 3 10 10 electrons/m 3 close to valence band None of the these 12. The equation governing the law of the junction is = (e VNT) nno = Pno + nj (c) pn (0) = p" ( e. The symbol shown (a) LED -4. The rate of increase of reverse saturation current for Germanium diode is. Cut in voltage V of a silicon diode is also called as (a) (c) break over potential critical potential (b) (d) breakdown potential offset voltage 17. The expression for threshold frequency fT to cause photoelectric emission is." -1] 4% (c) 15.is that ora Schottky diode (c) Varactor diode (d) tunnel diode (b) Schottky diode (c) Varactordiode (d) Gunn diode . A diode which is formed by using lightly doped GaAs or silicon witil metal is called (a) Zener diode (b) 18. The potential which exists in a p-n junction to cause drift of charge carriers is called (a) (c) (a) contact potential ionisation potential pn (0) (b) (d) (b) diffusion potential threshold potential n po 14.Junction Diode Characteristics 133 9. The conductivity of a good conductor is typically (a) (a) (c) (a) (c) (b) (c) (b) (d) (b) (d) (d) 11.

5. 1. 7. BY 100 :800V. 50 30 10 - . 1. Parameter Reverse breakdown voltage Static Reverse Current Static Forward voltage (for silicon) Total Capacitance Reverse Recovery Time Continuous Power Dissipation Max. 3.134 Electronic Devices and Circuits Specifications for Silicon Diode SI. Number 127 is owing a type no and has significance. I ~ Single Polar function. 1. 5.lA V pf ns IR VF CT trr P IF 500 50 rnw rnA Some type numbers 1. 2. 6.5 2 4 Units V f. Y ~ Rectifying Diode. 0/ a junction Symbol WN Iu IF diode Typical Value Units V A rnA rnA V nA V Parameter Working Inverse voltage Average Rectifield current Continious forward current Peak repetetive forward current Forward Voltage Reverse current Breakdown voltage ro 100 300 400 0. 7. 6. 4. 2. N ~ Bipolar Device. OA79 2. Denotes Gennanium device.No. 3.No. 4. 4. BYI27 0/ Diodes o~ A ~ Semiconductor Device. 1 N4153 Specifications SI.1 3. I A Silicon Diode. 6. For Ward Current Symbol Vir Typical Value 75 5 0. 5. 7. 3. 2.6 ~ Vf IR BY 500 100 Specifications SI. B ~ Denotes Silicon Device. 0/ a Germanium Tunnel Diode IN 2939 Symbol IF IR Ip Iv Vp Vy Iplly Parameter Forward current Reverse current Peak current Valley current Peak voltage Valley voltage Ratio ofIp to Iy Typical Value 5 Units rnA rnA rnA rnA V V 10 I 0.No. 4.

In this Chapter. L-section and 1t-section filter circuits are explained. • Circuit applications ofp-njunction diode device namely Half Wave Rectifier (HWR). for rectification applications are described. Capacitance. • • . Inductor. Full Wave Rectifier (FWR) and Bridge Rectifier circuits. series and shunt voltage regulator circuits are also explained. Zener voltage regulator circuits.

Hence a rectifier circuit converts A. their efficiency (11) etc. So more or less all electronic A.2 HALF-WAVE RECTIFIER If this signal is given to the rectifier circuit. ~t -Vm e = VmSin wt = A Sin wt Fig 3. 1 Tav = -2 1t 2" 0 J A Sin(wt) dt 3. signal.c.C. D. the output will be as shown in Fig.136 Electronic Devices and Circuits 3.C.C. The input signal can be A. But they will get dried quickly and replacing them every time is a costly affair. If the input to the rectifier is a pure sinusoidal wave.2. .. Filter converts unidirectional flow into pure D.1 A C input wave form. instruments require D. Signal with zero average value to a unidirectional wave form with non zero average value. since there is no negative half.C. batteries can be used.C.C. To get this.c. will be discussed in this Chapter. Rectifier converts sinusoidal signal to unidirectional flow and not pure D. Rectifier is a circuit which offers low resistance to the current in one direction and high resistance in the opposite direction.C. the average value of such a wave is zero. Such circuits. But without biasing with D. the circuit will not work.2 Half wave rectified output (unidirectional flow).C. source of power. Hence it is economical to convert A. 3.1 RECTIFIERS • The electronic circuits require a D.c. ~ rot Fig 3. D. say Half Wave Rectifier Circuit.C. and so the output signal will be amplified A. since the positive half cycle and negative half cycle are exactly equal. supply.C.C supply is required. Now the average value of this waveform is not zero. power. amplifier circuit for biasing. For transistor A. power into D.

average value = .!!!-m Rr+RL a = rot 0 ~ a ~ 1t 1t~a~21t Vm Rr is the forward resistance of the diode. Filters and Regulators 137 The rectifying devices are semiconductor diodes for low voltage signals and vacuum diodes for high voltage circuit.1 MAXIMUM OR PEAK CURRENT The output current waveform for halfwave rectification is shown in Fig. 3.4. 3..3.2 READING OF DC AMMETER RL is the load resistance If a D. or will it indicate average value? The meter is so constructed that it reads the average value. what reading will it indicate? Is it the peak value or will the needle oscillate from 0 to maximum and then to 0 and so on.C.3 Halfwave Rectifier (HWRJ circuit A. Ammeter is connected in the rectifier output circuit. and such a high voltage cannot be applied to the semiconductor diode.Base For Half wave rectified output. ~ i = 1m Sin a between 0 5 a i= 0 7t between 7t 5 a 5 27t -a Fig 3..C.4 Half Wolve rectified output..C.C input is normally the A. Output voltage is taken across the load r~sistor RL ..Rectifiers. i = 1m Sin a i=O I =-.. 3. A basic circuit for rectification is as shown in Fig. 3. . Area of the curve By definition.2.. Since the voltage is 230V. main supply. signal is much larger than Vy' we neglect Vy' for analysIs. Fig 3. voltage is required vacuum tubes should be used.C.2. Since the peak value of A.. base value is 21t for one cycle. If large D. step down transformer should be used.

If some A.c. value which produces the same heating effect as the alternating component.lI 3. DC I = ~[I + I] = ~ 3.3 READING OF A.C. RMS value of a slOe wave x ~2 + 0 ~ = .C.C AMMETER An A. o :S.c. What is the value ofD. The forward resistance of the diode R f wi II be small.7071 m 1m Fonn factor (Ji) ~ 1~ ('.707 1m RMSValue Form Factor = A verage V a Iue 1 For a sine wave. v = 1m RfSin a :s a:s :s a . = 0. = 1m J. the input is A.J (lmSina) 2n 0 I 2n 2 da 1m a 2n 20r {I -c J2 1m os2a }da 2 = =& 1m ili 2 0 +-4 Sin2a 2n 0 . signal.2.C. Effective or RMS value of an A. the diode conducts. The voltage across the diode v = i x R f i = 1m Sin a o 1t.C. By definition Inns = .2.138 Electronic Devices and Circuits I = DC n 1m. is called the RMS or Effective Value of A.fiJ. during positive and negative half cycles. because the signal is zero from 1t to 2n. quantity is the equivalent D. which produces the same heating effects as the A.c. 1 average 1t = 0.C.1t.707I m 0.C. or there is some equivalent power dissipation.4 PEAK INVERSE VOLTAGE For the circuit shown. O. -Cos a O JimSina da = 21t 0 2n I In 21t 1t Upper limit is only 1t. current is passed through a resistor. 6361 m = I. The complete cycle is from 0 to 21t. the resistor gets heated. also because of the current.6361 m = 2 x - 21t f(lm Sina)da 0 Inns = J2 = O. quantity? The magnitude of this equivalent D. Now during the positive half cycle. ammeter is constructed such that the needle deflection indicates the effective or RMS current passing through it.

So the voltage across the diode is not zero but the voltage of the secondary of the transformer VI will appear across the diode (.. and the waveform is as shown. Voltage that is read by a D.1 ) If we connect a CRO across the diode. ( 3. So in the above circuits the diode is being subjected to a maximum voltage of Vm. Therefore.1 [1t PmRf·Sino.. - Fig 3.6 Half Wave Rectifier Circuit Since Rf is small. the diode will not conduct. V". The waveform across the diode is Fig.C. do. It occurs when the diode is not conducting. Filters and Regulators 139 v AC Input -Vm "••• "••• "•••~ -f==""-" --'\----. Voltmeter is the average value...5 Fig 3.sina o 1t --0.C. + 21t JVmSino.) v = Vm Sin a 1t ::: a ::: 21t. Hence it is called the Peak Inverse Voltage ( PIV ) . the current i through the circuit is zero. this is the waveform that we see is as shown in Fig....8.sino Fig 3. v I.7. the voltage across the diode V during positive half cycle will be small..Rectifiers.nR. But during the negative half cycle.: effectively the diode is across the secondary of the transformer. 21t 0 1t 1 Vm = 1m (R f + Rc) IVDC~ -':RLI . do.. 3. 3. V DC = .--\ J____ wt (J.7 Voltage Waveform across the Diode So the D.

. But ..140 Electronic Devices and Circuits REGULATION 3.da =--Dl 2n 1t o -cot Fig 3.YFullLoad YFullLoad 100 % Regulation = x % For an ideal power supply output voltage is independent of the load or the output in voltage remains constant even if the load current varies..5 The variation of D. YNoLoadYoltage .da 0 h I = -flmsina.8).....C load current is called 'regulation'. 3. IDe the average value is: I 21t =- 2n 1 1t Ji.C output voltage as a function of D.. Therefore.8 HWR current output =!nl 1t But RL = Load Resistance Rf = .2 Forward Resistance of the Diode.. EXPRESSION FOR V DC THE OUTPUT DC VOLTAGE For halfwave rectifier circuit (Fig. like in Zener diode near breakdown. regulation is zero or it should be low for a given circuit.2. ( 3.

For a given circuit of half wave rectifier. This expression indicates that V De is REGULATION FOR HWR The regulation indicates how the DC voltage varies as a function of DC load current.Vm + IDC' R f x 100 IDc-Rf VITI I R .1t Vm and V FL = . The larger the value of R f . the greater is the decrease in V DC with IDC' But... 141 VDe IDe IDe is determined by R L . VNL - VFL VFL x 100 VDC = V NL = - Vm 1t - IDC . Filters and Regulators Adding and Subtracting R f .. (3.IDe x Rfl V -. Rf .DC' f 1t x 100 % Regulation = R Rf L x 100 .. The percentage of regulation is defined as % Regulation = As we know that.. and 1t it decreases with increase in IDe Iinearly since R f is more or less constant for a given diode.DC' f 1t Vm..3 ) at no load or wlten tlte load current is zero.. ..1t - Vm IDe' R f 1t 1t :. if a graph is plotted between V De and IDe the slope of the curve gives ( Rf + Rs ) where R f is the forward resistance of diode and Rs the series resistance of secondary of transformer.. the series resistance of the secondary winding of the transformer Rs should also be considered.. = = Vm·(R L +R f -R f ) 1t{R + R ) L f Vm 1t{R + R ) L f Hence V De depends upon R L ... the percentage of regulation for ideal power supply is zero. I V De = ~ ..!!!.. % Regulation = -'-'--=-=---'-'---Vm I R .Rectifiers. In general.

and harmonics ).C. Rectifier converts A.5 3.C. the no load + Rs ) = 25 0 voltage is 15V and max load current that can be drawn is 100 mAo If the value of ( then the percentage regulation of the circuit is: Rr No Load Voltage = 15V Drop across Diode = 1m ( R f + Rs ) Rs = Transformer Secondary Resistance Max. Voltage with load = 15V .C. Hence A.C. Filters convert unidirectional flow into D. y = ----------=-----'---------A verage Value of the waveform I'nns I DC V'rms VDC RMS Value of alternating components of the waveform y =--=-- I:ms and V~s denote the value of the A.5V 15-12.loci is the total current. So filters are used to get pure D.2. to D.C.( 1m x ( Rr + Rs ) ) = 15 = 15 Percentage Regulation = 100 rnA x 250 2. some D.C components of the current and voltage in the output respectively. Ripple factor. While determining the ripple factor of a given rectifier system experimentally.C component is. 12.5 volts = 12. The instantaneous current is given by i' = i . a voltmeter or ammeter which can respond to high frequencies ( greater than power supply frequency 50 Hz) should be used and a capacitor should be connected in series with the input meter in order to block the D. component. But the simple circuit shown before will not achieve this. i. i' = ( i-IDe) [ ( Total current - IDe) ] RMS value is l:ms = ..C. is sum of D. the specifications are 15V and 100 rnA.C components are also present. In a half wave rectifier. to unidirectional flow and not D.5 x 100::: 20%.5 x 100 = 12.6 RIPPLE FACTOR The purpose of a rectifier circuit is to convert A.C.142 Electronic Devices and Circuits Suppose for a given rectifier circuit.e. Ripple factor is a measure of the fluctuating components present in rectifier circuits. We shall now derive the expression for the ripple factor.5 2. only A.C.C. Ripple factor should be small. (Total current i = 1m Sin rot according to Fourier Series.

C value loc. I 2 21t I DC f dex = de 21t 0 21t [21t] I~s = ~(lnnsY -2Ioc2 + loc 2 The rms ripple current is I~s = ~(InnsY -J OC 2 Ripple factor.. I' nns = ~I nns 2 I DC and Ioc = 0 (blocked by Capacitor) output waveform For Half Wave Rectifier Circuit (HWR)... Filters and Regulators 143 I' nns = _1_ 2]i 2dex = Square of the rms value of a sine wave by definition..Rectifiers. - 1 21t Ji. 21t 0 =(Inni Now. If a capacitor is used to block D.. I = 1m sin ex 1[ I =I av = _1_ JIm sinex. So taking this term outside.. and then Inns or V nns is measured.4 ) This is independent of the current waveshape and is not restricted to a half wave configuration.dex = The average value or D...dex = ~ DC 21t 0 1t . y=-= Ide I'rms ~(lnnsY .C.loc 2 IOC y= l rms [ loc )2 -I .. ( 3. 21t 0 loc is constant. Then.

y = ( 1m X1t 2 x 1m ) -1 P 3. Pac = (Inns)2 (Rf + R L) Q from 1t .1 21t( f 12 21t 0 2I. I rms RMS value of ripple current --IOC Average value of the current I = IDe + I'(ripple) I'(ripple) = (I .--'-----------AC mput power from transfer secondary P De But = Ibex RL I De for HWR=1t 1m P o.21t the AC is not being converted to D.144 1 1t r 12 Sin2 (a) da 21t Jo m 1 Electronic Devices and Circuits I = nns - = -'!L 2 Peak Inverse Voltage ( PIV ) = Vm Ripple Factor Total current y = .IOC + IOC 2) .21t the diode is not conducting.C.da ~(lrms)2 - 2IOC2 + IOC ~(Irms)2-IOC2 IrmsJ2 -1 ( IOC 2 I'rms y=-IOC for Half Wave Rectifier. DC = (Im)2 xRL n' PAe is what a Wattmeter would indicate if placed in the HWR circuit with its voltage terminal connected across the secondary of the transformer.f 1 21t 21t 0 (I-IOC )2 da 2 . So this power is wasted.IDe) If nns = = I'nns= .2. . From 1t . Hence lac = o. as heat across diode and transformer.7 RATIO OF RECTIFICATION (T'I): DC PAC DC power delivered to the load Ratio of Rectification = --.

We have to consider the rating of the secondary of the transformer.287 Transformer Utilization Factor for Half Wave Rectifier is 0.Rectifiers. During negative half cycle. Filters and Regulators I 2lt 145 I Inns( 1t . Only part of it is converted to D.406 1t 4 Ratio of rectification for HWR = 0..406 Considering ideal diode.406 0.RLx4 R m L = -2 =0.oc = PAC P 1~. In ratio of rectification we have considered only the A. the expression ~ I + ( :: ) The AC input power is not converted to D.21t ) portion of AC is sin 2ada =-'!!.C. PAC = (2 ) 1t 212 1m 2 (Rf+R X L) = 1m )2 (2 X RL . diode is not conducting and current I in the loop is zero even though Voltage V is present. The balance of power is also dissipated in the load itself as AC power.fi = Rated voltage of (Secondary Transformer) But Inns = Im /2 Pac =:= V nns x Inns V m = 1m (Rr + R L) :::: 1m RL ( R f is small ) TUF= n 2 x l~ R jlmRL L J2 1m x"2= 2. Pac = V nns x Inns Vm V nns = . = -21t fl2 m 2 It Inns for HWR is I m/2.C power delivered to the load PAC rated This term TUF is not ratio of rectification.. 3. because all the rated current of the secondary is not being drawn by the circuit.287 .2. If we consider Rf also.[i 7 =0.8 TRANSFORMER UTILIZATION FACTOR Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF) = AC rat·mg 0 ft ranSiormer secondary Co D..C and is dissipated in the load.C output as the secondary of the transformer.

21 1.C voltage.C. Power is zero ( V x I = P = 0.C saturation of transformer.57Y-l = 1. So integration is from 0 . So now analyze a full wave rectifier circuit. I = 0 ) I It I =sina.2. \.r---IA 21t Waveforms Fig 3. Therefore. ~ : I .C voltage 2.287 ) For half wave configuration.57 "2 = y>1 3.da = ~ I-cosallt = ~Il + 11 = ~ DC 27t 0 27t 0 27t 7t = _l_ib~ sin 2 a.406) 4. Jim Ripple Factor for Half Wave Rectification Irms = 1m 12 = . 3.9 1.9 FWRCircuit . The circuit is as shown in Fig.9. U i o A. for ripple voltage is greater than DC voltage. Ripple factor. I I 1t: I I .da .27t.------- =.146 Electronic Devices and Circuits DISADVANTAGES OF HALF WAVE RECTIFIER 3.7t only. Even though V is present. I rms 2. 27t 0 2 Because during negative half cycle the diode will not conduct hence i = 0 in the loop from 7t . Low TUF ( 0.10 So the ripple voltage exceeds D..2. Peak inverse voltage ( PIV) 5. Regulation 3. High Ripple Factor (1. 3. it cannot be used. : I . ~a l' 0:! . Hence HWR is a poor circuit for convertingAC to DC.m. Average and peak currents in each diode 4. i = 0 for one half cycle. The required output D.21) 3. IDe 1m 17t y= 7t ~(1.3 FULL WAVE RECTIFIER ( FWR ) Since halfwave rectifier circuit has poor ripple factor. since. Low ratio of rectification (0. POWER SUPPLY SPECIFICATIONS The input characteristics which must be specified for a power supply are: 1. D.!.

Ripple Factor is improved. IDe = Twice that of half wave rectifier circuit IDe = 2 Im /1t flm For half wave rectifier circuit. I =- 1m o i 21m IDe = ---. O2 is forward biased during the period 1t to 21t since the input to O2 has a phase shift of 1800 compared to the input to 0]. I For half wave rectifier. Filters and Regulators 147 During the +ve half cycle.3. and it is is 0. while the D. Inns = 2 x .!.C. So positive half cycle for O2 starts at a full wave rectifier circuit. So 0] is forward biased during the input cycle of 0 to 1t. = V1rms -IDe ' Y ~Irm/ -Ioc 2 Ioe Therefore. 21t 0 2 1 It 1 It 2 For full wave rectifier circuit. because of centre tapping.Rectifiers. I 2lt. A centre tapped transformer is essential to get full wave rectification. 0] conducts and the current through O 2 is zero During the . IDe = -2 slOada = --'1l 1t 0 1t For full wave rectifier.m.- Hence.fI~ sin ada 21t 0 m 1=---'-'-'m R f + RL Rf is the forward resistance of each diode. current starts through the load resistance RL is twice that of the Half Wave Rectifier Circuit. So there is a phase shift of 1800.21 for HWR.ve half cycle.482 for FWR. o Fig 3. circuit. for Half Wave Rectifier Circuit. 1t 3. Y DC 1t For Full Wave Rectifier Circuit. circuit.1 RIPPLE FACTOR 2J2 = 1. Inns = . y = 1.fI~ sin ada = .10 FWR voltage output.11 I'rms I 2 2. V Therefore. . O2 conducts and the current through 0] is zero A centre tapped transformer is used. The total current i flows through the load resistor RL and the output voltage V 0 is taken across R L.

3.VFL % Regulation = V x 100 FL The variation of DC voltage as a function ofload current is as follows V De = IDe RL 2:rn . The percentage of regulation is defined as VNL .: Irn = R f : rn R L ] _ 2Vrn R [ .1t rn =-2V 1t [1.. rn R f +RL _ 2Vrn .2 The regulation indicates how D. R f ~1t~__~1t~_______ x 100 2Vrn -I .1t(R f +R L)' L .R DC f 1t = IDC R f 2Vrn -I R dc· f 1t x 100 ( l R % Regulation = ~ L 2Vrn x f +Rd 1t 2Vrn . I = Vrn ] .R + f ] Rf RL 2Vrn 1t(Rf + Rd IDe' IV = ~ De Rr I IDe' V NL =- Vrn 1t VFL = -1t Vrn Rr % Regulation 2Vrn _ 2Vrn + Ioc .148 Electronic Devices and Circuits REGULATION FOR FWR 3. RL [.R f 1t x (R -lJ 1 x 100 100 .C voltage varies as a function of load current.

3.' . .1 m R 1[2 2 V PAC is what a Wattmeter would indicate if placed in the FWRCircuitwith its voltage terminals connected across the transformer secondary.vered to load .3. powerdeliveredto Load A..fi 1m ( ~ )'. Irms for FWR = . input power from transformer secondary PDe = 16e x RL for FWR.Rectifiers. (RF +RL)..(R 2 F + Rd ).C..812.= 2 2 =.. Pac = (Irmsf. for FWR the ratio of rectification is twice that of HWR. the secondary current flows through each half separately in every half cycle. . Filters and Regulators 3. While the primary of transformer carries current continuously.2 =0.406. Hence TUF is calculated for primary and secondary windings separately and then the average TUF is determined. DC power del. .3 RATIO OF RECTIFICATION 149 D. Therefore.Secondary TUF = .812 PAC 1t I m x R L 1t For HWR it is 0.3... ~(R +R 2 F L If we assume that R f is the forward resistance of the diode is very small..AC rating of transformer secondary = (~r·RL Vmx1m - J2 J2 if Rf « RL ' then secondary TUF = 0.. : .C... IDe = 21m 1t = 4.4 TRANSFORMER UTILIZATION FACTOR: TUF In fullwave rectifier using center-tapped transformer. compared to RL. Rr+RL =RL· PAC = -I!L(Rd· 2 e Poe 4Im2RLx2 8 Ratio of Rectification = .

C. SATURATION In a FWR. during the -ve half cycle.6 D. During the same half cycle. 3.5 PEAK INVERSE VOLTAGE (PIV) FOR FULL WAVE RECTIFIER With reference to the FWR circuit. the total voltage across D.574 The average TUF for FWR using center tapped transformer TUF of primary + TUF of secondary 0. PIV is 2 V m for each diode in FWR circuit because. In Bridge rectifier circuit. D~ is across R L.3. Voltage delivered to RL is V m. These two HWR's work independently of each other but feed a common load.574 2 2 = 0. is conducting. the transformer is utilized 69. Therefore.11. During the positive half cycle.C. D. 0. currents I. So the transformer secondary line to line voltage should be one half of that.4 BRIDGE RECTIFIERS The circuit is shown in Fig. 3.C. D3 and D4 are open. During the -ve half cycle D 4 and D~ are forward biased and they conduct. current flowing through the core of the transformer and causing saturation of the magnetic flux in the core. the drop across it is zero. D2 is not conducting.11 Bridge rectifier circuit. 21m 1t . D J and D2 are forward biased. when D. there is no need for centre tapped transformer. Hence the dIrection of current is the same. then TUF for primary = 0. 3. is not conducting and D2 is conducting. the D.287 TUF for primary = 2 x TUF of HWR = 2 x . and 12 flowing through the diodes D. used for the FWR circuit.9 ). Therefore. = V m + V m = 2V m ( Fig. So we get full wave rectified output. peak voltage across It is V m from the second half of the transformer. The current flows from D3 through RL to D 4.3. So there is no problem of D.693 Therefore. 3. Hence maximum voltage across RL is V m' since voltage is also present between A and 0 of the transformer.812 + 0.3% in FWR using center tapped transformer.150 Electronic Devices and Circuits The primary of the transformer in feeding two HWR's separately. and D2 are in opposite direction and hence cancel each other. employing two diodes. The total voltage across D2 is V m + V m = 2V m· 3.Rf I +RL ifRf « R L. II Fig 3. So current will flow through D J first and then through RL and then through D2 back to the ground.

812 0. 3. 2R f should be used since two diodes in series are conducting at the same time. So the transformer utilization factor is high.1 ADVANTAGES OF BRIDGE RECTIFIER 1. There is some voltage drop across each diode and so output voltage will be slightly less compared to FWR. Selenium rectifiers are also available as a package.C. Current flowing through the transformer since there is no centre tapping and the return path is to the ground.C.2 DISADVANTAGES 1.812 .812 0. = Forward Resistance of the Diode. 3. The ripple factor and ratio of recti fication are the same as for Fu II Wave Rectifier. But these factors are minor compared to the advantages.-IDC(RS 7t .5 COMPARISON OF RECTIFIER CIRCUITS HWR Peak Inverse Vo ltage No Load Voltage Ripple factor Number of Diodes required Ratio of Rectification Pdc PAC TUF= DC Power delivered to the load AC ratings of transformer secondary Vrn -1t FWR 2V rn -1t Bridge Rectifier Circuit Vrn 2Vrn 1t Vm 2Vm 1. Four diodes are to be used. There is no D..482 2 0.406 0.Rectifiers. 2.4. It will have two terminals for A.287 0. Centre tapped transformer is not required.4.21 1 0. 3. = Load Resistance. 3.482 4 0. Input and two terminals for DC output. 2. Hence the Voltage rating of the diodes can be less. Bridge rectifiers are available in a package with all the 4 diodes incorporated in one unit. 2Vrn + 2R F ) Resistance of Transformer Secondary. The peak inverse voltage (PIV) across each diode is Vm and not 2Vm as in the case of FWR. Filters and Regulators 151 where Rs+2Rf+RL = .693 0.

In A. Input. 3. So. the A. The circuit is shown in Fig. the total voltage during -ve half cycle V m across C 1 +Vm of -ve half cycle = 2V m.C.1 I Electronic Devices and Circuits VOLTAGE DOUBLER CIRCUIT HALF WAVE'VOLTAGE DOUBLEwEIRCUIT The circuit is shown in Fig. This is the no-load voltage. So it is FW Voltage Doubler Circuit. 0 1 is forward biased. 3. line But the output of a rectifier circuit contains ripple components in addition to a D. So C 1 gets charged to V m. Voltage measurements. V i o I i --+t Fig 3.15. 3. During the -ve half cycle. RL is across the series combination of C 1 and C2• Therefore. The actual voltage depends upon the value of RL connected. D2 ~t Fig 3. meter (2V m) is proportional to A. FILTERS A power supply must provide ripple free source of power from an A.C.C. O2 is forward biased during the -ve half cycle and C 2 gets charged to 2V m. 3.6. Input.6 3.15 Output waveforms.14 Fullwave voltage doubler circuit.c. 0 1 conducts C 1 gets charged to V m. Here the PIV across each diode is only Vm and the capacitors are charged directly from the input and not C2 will not get charged through C 1 During the time period 0 to 21t we have two cycles. Current flows from 0 to 1t and 1t to 21t also. 3.C.14. During the +ve half cycle.7 INDUCTOR FILTER CIRCUITS Fig 3.12 Hal/wave voltage doubler circuit. During -ve half cycle. Therefore.C. term. It is necessary to include a . D t jsreverse biased and the PIV ~ross it V m. C2 charges through O 2 and to V m. 3.13 Output waveform.2 FULL WAVE VOLTAGE DOUBLER CIRCUIT Fig 3.6.13. The meter calibrated in terms of the rms value of the A. Wave forms are shown in Fig.C. the total output voltage V 0 = 2V m. The output of D. input is given to a voltage doubler and filter circuits.152 3. During +ve half cycle.12 and ' e wave forms are shown in Fig.

I in HWR Circuit is I=-+-Smmt-. Air Cored An inductor opposes any change of current in the circuit.C.C.C. 1m 1m. Filters and Regulators 153 filter between the rectifier and the load in order to eliminate these ripple components. So it can be used as a filter. current. .2 For second Harmonic. where as D. diode and choke (inductor) resistances can be neglected. For simplification.16 Inductor filter circuit One winding of transformer can be used as 'L'. Vm .1t 31t 151t The reactance offered by inductor to higher order frequencies like 4mt can be neglected. These are not desirable.C output of the rectifier. 3. Signals in the D. there is change in the magnitude of current with time.C. component of the current is ~= RL Impedance due to L and RL in Series IZI = ~RL2 + (2mL). So filter circuits are used. The circuit for FWR with inductor filter is as shown in Fig. 21m Cos4rot An II '""'-"""".16.. The ability of a component to develop induced voltage when alternating current is flowing through the element is the property of the inductor. so they must be filtered. (XL = jmL).C is minimized in the output. In the case of AC. Ripple components are high frequency A. the frequency is 2m.Rectifiers. compared with RL .-----"=---. passes through it.. Therefore..1t 31t the fundamental harmonic m is eliminated.. FWR gives 48% ripple and by using filter circuit we can improve it. A.1t 2 1t 3 21m 4Im 4Im cos4rot Current in the case of FWR is i ::::: .. AC voltage is dropped across the inductors.--cos 2 rot . According to Fourier Analysis.. The D. Iron Cored 2. So the output current 1S i ::::: 21m . Inductor filter is used with FWR circuit. Therefore.41m cos2rot .. Flux linkages per ampere of current L = ~cj> . IDU = Fig 3.So any sudden change that might occur in a circuit without an inductor are smoothed out with the presence of an inductor. . Inductor is a short circuit for DC and offers some impedance for A. HWR gives 121 % ripple and using filter circuit for such high ripple factor has no meaning.. Types of Inductors are : 1.

Suppose the output wave form from FWR supply is as shown in Fig. . .e ) nRL 3n~RL2+4roL2 where e is the angle by which the load current lags behind the voltage and is given by 9=Tan... Vx 300 % ripple = Ripple factor xl 00 % = 1...J2 .17. then.7..J2 4oo 2L2 --2.3. 3. A..~Rt + 4oo 2L2 4vm xnR 4Vm Ripple factor = 3. for current. Component of current 1m = VmI ~ R L2 + 4oo 2L2.L Therefore. values in the expression.» 1. RIPPLE FACTOR 3.x -..---1!!.. 21 41 I = ---1!!. the ripple factor is low.18 Vrrms _ 3...C. ( 3.J2....J2-.. =..17 Ripple Voltage V V . Hence inductor filter should be used where the value ofRL is low.5 ) 3 200L Ji.1 Y = Ir·nn/IO.54V RIpple Factor y = . IfRL is large.~R~ +4oo 2L2 x2Vm 2 1 L . .12roL RL . V/ms = .. = I' nn/IOC loc = 2Vmin RL I .3. Cos 200 t n 3n by inductor to higher order frequencies like 400t etc..======:= 4oo2L2 1+ RL 2 If RLx2 3-v2 x200L ~ ro~ Fig 3. 10 Vy max then V R maximum = '2= 5Y. 2V 4V I = _m_ m cos (2oot ..154 Electronic Devices and Circuits So substituting these Therefore. then also y is high... Therefore.1m _ rnns - . and Vyp_p is lOY.C.. Suppose Voc = 300V.J2 5 = 3. then RL Ripple Factor r = Ripple factor = . Vyp _ p is the peak to peak value of the ripple voltage.J2 .. for higher values ofL.54 _ 00118 . we get.

2 Problem 3.7. But this is true if L is ideal.236.~ ) where ~ = Tan. The rms value for Triangular wave is 2".. or r::. Choke Inductors of 20 H inductance and capacitors of l6. One Inductor Filter : 21m . Filters and Regulators 3. In practice 2Vm V DC = .414x2 =0. Solution 1. ( 3. One Inductor filter 2..f are available... • 2"... Another formula that is used for Inductor Filter for Ripple Factor = 0.41m I= ~ 31t cos (200t . One capacitor filter 3.236 Rc +RL ro L .1 (2roL) R 2Vm I DC = nRL I ripple RL 100 loe =3~200L =3x1.. V DC is constant irrespective of RL. Single L type filter. This is the same as the above formula 3 2roL ~ 1 ~ =0.1 A FWR is used to supply power to a 20000 Load. An inductor stores magnetic energy when the current flowing through it is greater than the average value and releases this energy when the current is less than the average value. 3". Capacitor filter : The ripple voltage for a capacitor filter is of Triangular waveform approximately.6 ) where RL is load resistance Rc is the series resistance of the inductors.Rectifiers....-IDc-Rf 1t where Rr is the resistance of diode. Compute the ripple factor using 1.2 REGULATION 155 v DC = 2ImRL = 2Vm n n Im·RL = Vm· Therefore...074 V= 2.3 Erms = 2J3 Ed ..3 Ed V nns r::.

Solution Since only one diode is being used. .~ = 152.5V. (I) Problem 3. (b) The DC load current (e) AC Load Current (d) The DC diode voltage. 1 = 4xJj x50xl6xl0-6 x 2000 = 0.3 Show that the maximum DC output power PDe = VDe IDe in a half wave single phase circuit occurs when the load resistance equals the diode resistance Rf .09 3.18 Vo of Capacitor filter. 1020 (b) (e) (d) (e) . = 110.2mA. (e) The total input power to the circuit.5mA. (1) % regulation from no load to the given load.then the change last by the capacitor Q=rot = IDe 1 X-. 2 V De = -Im·R L 1t = --48.5 = 48 5 A IDe . L Type factor: Problem 3.5 x 1 = --48.5 = 76. it is for HWR Circuit.Ji = 152. m .920. (a) I = m R f + RL 1t Vm . 2f Q voltage = C i --+t Fig 3.156 Electronic Devices and Circuits Suppose the discharging of the capacitor will cut one for one full half cycle .2 A diode whose internal resistance is 20 0 is to supply power to a 10000 load from a llOV «rms) source of supply. Pi = Inns x(Rf+RL ) =5. Calculate (a) The peak load current. 1t I nns = ~= 2 152.

The sinusoidal input voltage is applied in series with a 5 . 3. .. L RL = 5KO + 100 = (5000 + 10)0 = 5010 0 = Vm lmA = 2. What is the full scale reading of this meter? Solution IDe = ---.J2vrms 2. The stored energy in the capacitor maintains the load voltage at a high value for a long period. 1t V I .8 CAPACITOR FILTER Here X should be smaller than RL .[i x Vrms IDe = 1tR .S6V.[i x Vrms 1txSOIO. During +ve half cycle for a H W R circuit.. current should pass through C and C should get f chargeo. or Problem 3. Capacitor opposes sudden fluctuations in voltage across it. C gets charged when the diode is conducting and gets discharged (when the diode is not conducting) through RL . The waveforms are as shown in Fig. So the ripple voltage is minimised. with C filter. C will discharged through R L . Filters and Regulators 157 when RL is very large. Xe will be large and hence current flows through R only (Fig. When the input voltage is less than that of the capacitor voltage. The effective resistance of each element may be considered to be zero in the forward direction and 00 in the reverse direction. C gets charged. Because.. When the input voltage e = Em Sin rot is greater than the capacitor voltage. The diode conducts only for a short interval of high current. 3.20.4 A 1rnA meter whose resistance is Ion is calibrated to read rms volts when used in a bridge circuit with semiconductor diodes.KO resistance. 3.--1!!.19) and no filtering action takes place. m- 21 RL' .!!L for bridge rectifier circuit.Rectifiers. If C value is very small. 1x 103 Vrms= 2 2 h x 5010 = S..

.. . •• 91 92 rot ==---. even though the second diode is forward biased. the voltage V 0 is closer to DC wave form. . The point at which the diode stops conducting or the capacitor gets discharged is known as Cut Out Point 9 2.Ym' So the first diode conducts from e) to e2 and the second diode conducts from 1t + 8) to 1t + 8 2 . So the voltage across RL is more or less constant and hence ripple is reduced. Therefore.19 ) .19 FWR Circuit with C filter.20 Output of capacitor filter circuit. .. as shown in the graph. Diode conducts only for a short of time when input current is high and charges C to the peak voltage.C. Fig 3. Considering one diode. e c is almost =::. 3. t Ie .1 : ' . C will not start charging at 1t itself.158 Electronic Devices and Circuits AC Input Fig 3. dt . iB = ie + iR ( Fig. ec 1=R R where ec is the voltage to which c gets charged. The point at which diode starts conducting and C gets charged is known as cut in point 9 . vo t . At 9) 'C' gets charged and at 9 2 C starts discharging. _ dV =C dec .d . •w : .

Rectifiers, Filters and Regulators
But e c = V m Sin cot. Therefore, at that point, diode conducts and C gets charged. 81 = cot l · dec dt = coY m· Cos cot. General expression for

159

. IS

In = co C Vm cos cot + V S·m cot

R

By some mathematical manipulation, ib can be written as is= -; .jl + co R C Sin(cot + 4» where
~ = Tan-l(coRC)
2 2 2

At an co instant 82 , when the capacitor fully discharges, is = 0 Em S·In 8 2 = 0. coC V cos 8 + m
2

R

8 2 = tan- i (-nRC) or Thus the value of conduction angle depends upon the values of Rand C, and also the value of is. Ouring the non conducting interval, the capacitor discharges into the load R supplying load current. -ic= iR · de e The circuit equation is -C x ~ = ~
t

or

ec

=;

Ae- t/RL

At cot = 82 e c = V m sin 82. The final expression for EDC seems a little complicated. So a simplified expression which is widely used is V DC = ( V m - VR 2 for Ripple Factor,
.),

where ER is the peak to peak ripple voltage. The expression

y=

V;;; -

V'Ae _ 1t+(81 -8 2 )

2JjcoRC .

where (8 1 - 8 2 ) is the angle of conduction 8 c . For large coRC ( typical value 100), 8 c = 14.6°. The larger the value of R, the smaller the y.

3.8.1 RIPPLE FACTOR FOR C FILTER
Initially, the capacitor charges to the peak value V when the diode 0\ is conducting. When the capacitor voltage is equal to the input voltage, the diode stops conductmg or the current through the diode 01 is zero. Now the capacitor starts discharging through RL depending upon the time constant C.RL. Therefore, RL value is large. Rate of charging is different from rate of discharging. When the voltage across the capacitor falls below the input voltage and when the diode 02 is forward biased, the capacitor will again charge to the peak value Vm and the current through D2 becomes zero when Vc =V m. Thus the diodes 1 and 02 conduct for a very short period 81 to 8 2 and 1t + 8 I to 1t + 8 2 respectively ( Fig. 3.21 ).

°

160

Electronic Devices and Circuits

V,)

i
[ ..

\

\

ur~ ..

- - __ J - - - __ - - ~ __________ / _
I I I I \ \ I \
I

i I
I

I I I I I

\

\

\\

/ I

I

\ \

I

D,_ II Conducting \
It!"
I I I I •
\

I

I

I

I
I

I

\

\

I
I

\ /
\ /
11

I I \

~

D, Conducting

) (l)t

Fig 3.21 Output waveforms of a capacitor filter.
T2 = Time period ofthe discharging of the capacitor T] = Time period of the charging of the capacitor The amount of charge lost by the capacitor when it is discharging = loe.T~. Because, IDe is the average value of the capacitor discharge current. This charge is replaced during a short interval T] during which the voltage across the capacitor changes by an amount = peak to peak voltage of the ripple V' rp_p'
Q=Vxc.
Q charge
= =

V p-px C

Q charge

Q Discharge.

V'p_pxC =IDC xT 2' IDe x T2 C The output waveform can be assumed to be a triangular wave T2 » T](T] +T2 ) when the diode is conducting (0 to n). (T] + T2 corresponds to one half cycle). TIl T 2 = "2 - 2f" "T2 - 2f .

or

V'

=

p-p

=

T/2

, _'ocx1"T __1_ 1 V p-p - C2f . 2 - 2f' for the triangular wave, form factor = Jj' V'
=~

V'

Ims

2Jj

Voe IDe = RL

V' rms = 4JjfCR

L

'

Rectifiers, Filters and Regulators
v'nns y = VDC = 4.J3fCRL

161

Ripple Factor

Therefore, Ripple factor may be decreased by increasing Cor RL or both.

Expression for VDC :
V'p-p

VOC=Vrn-

2
VDC

.. V' P P - IDe I
-

2fC

_ VDe 'De-

RL

Voc= V rn - 4fC.R

L

or

Voc

(I+-l-)=Vm
4fCR L

3.9

LC FILTER

In an inductor filter, ripple decreases with increase in RL. In a capacitor filter, ripple increases with increase in RL. A combination of these two into a choke input or L-Section Filter should then make the ripple independent of load resistance. If L is small, the capacitor will be charged to V rn' the diodes will be cut off allowing a short pulse of current. As L is increases, the pulses of current are smoothed and made to flow for a larger period, but at reduced amplitude. But for a critical value of inductance Lc ' either one diode or the other will be always conducting, with the result that the input voltage V and I to the filter are full wave rectified sine waves. The graph of DC output voltage for LC Filter is as shown in Fig. 3.22.
V DC

'.

rn = -1t-

2V

for Full Wave Rectifier Circuit. considering ideal elements, conduction angle is increased when inductor is placed V R because there is some drop across L. So C can~t charge to V rn' Therefore, the diode will be forward biased for a longer period. Ie --. The ripple circuit which p~sses through L, is not a.Howed to develop much ripple voltage across RL, if Xc at Fig 3.22 LC filter characteristic. rIpple frequency IS small compared to R L, Because the current will pass through C only. Since Xc is small and Capacitor will get charged to a constant voltage. So V 0 across RL will not vary or ripple will not be there. Since for a properly designed LC Filter, Xc «RL XL» Xc at (0 = 21t/ XL should be greater than Xc because, all the Af3twukl be or-opped across XL itself so that AC Voltage across C is nil and hence ripple is low.

i

and

162

Electronic Devices and Circuits
RIPPLE FACTOR IN

3.9.1

LC FILTER

AC Component of current through L is determined by XL' XL= 2coL RMS value of ripple current for Full Wave Rectifier with L Filter is,
I

I rms
I

==

4Vm 3refiX L
~

=

RMS Value of Ripple Current for L Filter

I rms =
I

2V 2 = -m re 3v2XL

2 .J2vDC I rms = 3.J2XL . VDe = 3X L The ripple voltage in the output is developed by the ripple current flowing through Xe'
..

..

V rms

I

= I rms. Xe = ) ' X '
L

I

.J2 Xc V
DC

V'rms Ripple factor = -V-DC

y=

.J2.xc 3X
L

Xe = ~ ,XL .J2
1

1

= coL
1

Y= )X2fficX2;L
XL = 2coL since ripple is being considered at a frequency, twice the line frequency.

If
3.9.2

If=60H .... ____z ...... , _ Y= O.83xl0--6 LC

I

BLEEDER RESISTANCE

For the LC filter, the graph between IDe and V De is as shown in Fig. 3.23. For light loads, i.e., when the load current is small, the capacitor gets charged to the peak value and so the no load voltage is 2V Ire. As the load resistance is decreased, IDe increases so the drop across other elements V iz ~iodes and choke increases and so the average voltage across the capacitor will be less than the peak value of2VmIre. The out put voltage remains constant beyond a certain point IB and so the regulation will be good. The voltage Voe remains constant even if IDe increases, because, the capacitor gets charged every time to a value just below the peak voltage, even though the drop across diode and choke increases. So for currents above IB, the filter acts more like an inductor filter than C filter and so the regulation is good. Therefore, for LC filters, the load is chosen such that, the I~e ~ lB' The corresponding resistance is known as Bleeder Resistance ( RB ). So Bleeder Resistance is the value for which loc ~ IB and good regulation is obtained, and conduction angle is 180°. When RL = RB , the conduction angle = 180°, and the current is continuous. So just as we have determined the critical inductance Le> when RL = R B, the Bleeder Resistance, IDC = the negative peak of the second harmonic term.

Rectifiers, Filters and Rellulators

163

i

Fig 3.23 LC filter characteristic.
I
DC

=

2Vm 1tRs

4V 1 If peak = ---1!L._. 31t XL 2Vm 4Vm 1 1tRs =J;-'X L

RB = -2-;

3.x L

RB is Bleeder Resistance.

IDC should be equal to or greater than I peak, since, XL determines the peak value of t.. ripple component. If XL is large I' peak can be ~ I DC and so the ripple is negligible or pure D.C. is obtained, where XL = 2mL corresponding to the second harmonic. Therefore, R should be at least equal to this value ofRB, the Bleeder Resistor.

3.9.3

SWINGING CHOKE

The value ofthe inductance in the LC circuits should be > Lc the minimum value so that conduction angle of the diodes is 1800 and ripple is reduced. But if the current IDC is large, then the inductance for air cored inductors as L =N~II (flux linkages per ampere of current), as I increases, L decreases and may become below the critical inductance value Lc' Therefore, Iron cored inductors or chokes are chosen for filters such that the value of L varies within certain limits and when I is large, the core saturates, and the inductance value will not be < Lc' Such chokes, whose inductance varies with current within permissible limits, are called Swinging Cllokes. (In general for inductors ~II remains constant so that L is constant for any value of current I ) This can be avoided by choosing very large value ofL so that, even if current is large, Inductance is large enough> Lc But this increases the cost of the choke. Therefore, swinging choke are used. Lc ~RL/ 3m RL = Load Resistance Lc = Critical Inductance m = 21tf At no load RL = 00. Therefore, L should be 00 which is not possible. Therefore, Bleeder Resistance of value = 3XL /2 is connected in parallel with RL, so that even when RL is 00, the conduction angle is 1800 for each diode.

164

Electronic Devices and Circuits

The inductance of an iron - cored inductor depends up on the D.C. Current flowing through it, L is high at low currents and low at high currents. Thus its L varies or swings within certain limits. This is known as Swinging Choke. Typical values are L = 30 Henrys at I = 20mA and L = 4 Henrys at I = 100mA.

Problem 3.5
Design a full wave rectifier with an LC filter (single section) to provide 9V DC at I OOmA with a maximum ripple of2%. Line frequency f= 60 HZ.

Solution
RIpple factor y = 0.02 = 0.83 orLC LC

.

J2 1 1 3 X 2roC x 2roL
= 0.83 = 41.51l
0.02

0.83 = LC Il

Voc _ 9V -900 RL = Ioe - 0.1 . LC ~ 3ro ~ 1130' But LC shou'd be 25% larger. :. for f= 60 Hz,the value ofLC should be ~ 900
RL 90 LC ~ 900 ~ 900 = 0.1 Henry. RL RL RL

IfL=O.IH,then

C=

0.1 = 415 Ilf. This is high value

41.5

IfL = IH, then C = 41.51lf. If the series resistance of L is assumed to be 50 fl, the drop across L is IDe x R = 0.1 x 50 = 5Y.

Transformer Rating:
Voe = 9V + 5V = 14V Vm =
7t

2' ( 9 + 5 ) = 22V
.J2
22 = 15.5V

rms value is

Therefore, a 15.5 - 0 -15.5 V, 1OOmA transformer is required. PIV of the diodes is 2Vm Because it is FWR Circuit. PIV = 44V So, diodes with 44V, 1OOmA ratings are required.

Rectifiers, Filters and Regulators
Problem 3.6

165

In a FWR with C filter circuit, Vrp-p = 0.8v and the maximum voltage is 8.8 volts (Fig. 3.24 ). RL = 1000 and C = 1050 f.lf. Power line frequency = 60 Hz. Determine the Ripple Factor and DC output voltage from the graph and compare with calculated values.

Solution

V/ p-p = 0.8Y.
0.8 V nns ' = 2.fj =0.231V V
DC

= Vm -

Vr'~-P =8.8- 0~8 =8.4V.

y = V'rms VDC

= 0.2 =0.0238 or 2.38%
8.4

Theoretical values, y

v

S.svt
4~3 x 60 x 100 xl 050f.lf = 0.057 or 5.75%
VDC = 1+4~LCxVm =8.46V

~ ------

-----

.O.Sv
+

---. rot
Fig 3.24 For Problem 3.6.

4tR C

3.10 CLC OR

1t

FILTER

In the LC filter or L section filter, there is some voltage drop across L. If this cannot be tolerated and more D.C. output voltage V Q is desired, p filter or CLC filter is to be used. The ripple factor will be the same as that of L sectIOn filter, but the regulation will be poor. It can be regarded as a L section filter with Land C ' before which there is a capacitor C,i.e. the capacitor filter. The 1 input to the L section fhter is tlie output of the capacitor filter C. The output of capacitor filter will be a triangular wave superimposed over D.C. Now the output Vo is the voltage across the input capacitor C less by the drop across Lt. The ripple contained in the output of 'c' filter is reduced by the L section filter LtC t .

L}

C

Fig 3.25 CLC or

7r Section

Filter

166

Electronic Devices and Circuits
1t SECTION FILTER WITH A RESISTOR REPLACING THE INDUCTOR

3.10.1

Consider the circuit shown here. It is a 1t filter with L replaced by R. If the resistor R is chosen equal to the reac~ce ofL (the impedance in 0 should be the same), the ripple remains unchanged. V DC for a single capacitor filter = (V m - IDd4fC) If you consider C 1 and R, the out put across C 1 is ( V m - I DC /4fC). There is some drop across R. Therefore, the net output is IDe Vm - 4fC - IDC x R The Ripple Factor for 1t sector is

.J2xc x cI

........... ( 3.7 )

So by this, saving in the cost, weight and space of the choke are made. But this is practical only for low current power supplies. Suppose a FWR output current is 100 rnA and a 20 H choke is being used in 1t section filter. Ifthis curve is to be replaced by a resistor, XL = R. Taking the ripple frequency as 2f= 100 Hz, XL = coL = 21t(2j).L = 41tjL = 4 x3.14 x50 x20 = 125600 :: 12 KO Voltage drop across R = 12,000 x 0.1 = 1200V, which is very large.

R

Fig 3.26 FWR Circuit

1t Section

I CRC Filter.

3.10.2 EXPRESSION FOR RIPPLE FACTOR FOR 1t FILTER The output of the capacitor in the case of a capacitor filter is a Triangular wave. So assuming th,e output V0 across C to be a Triangular wave, it can be represented by Fourier series as V'P - P sin 40)t sin 60)t V=V DC 1t (Sin2cot2 + 3 ... )
IDe But the ripple voltage peak to peak V' p-p = 2fc' ( for Ll wave)
Neglecting 4th and higher harmonic, the rms voltage ofthe Second Harmonic Ripple is v'p - P
1t..[i

IDe

= 2..[i1tfc =
c

IDe x 2 _ .J2I De 4•./21tfc - 41tfc

I --=x

41tfc

Rectifiers, Filters and Regulators
It is the capacitive reactance corresponding to the second harmonic. V'rms = fi1ocXc. (across 'C' filter only)

167

The output ofC filter is the input for the L section filter of LIC I . Therefore, as we have done in the case of L section filter, . . fiIocXc Current through the mductor ( harmoOlc component) = _--"'-'''---''''XL I Output Voltage = Current ( Xc) ( V 0 = I.Xc ) V, rms = fiIocXc X X . CI LI
(

after L section)

Ripple factor,

y=

v'rms _

Voc

-

(fi.loc.xc) XCI Voc XLI

VOC = IOC·RL
Y=

(fi.xc)·(~l· RL XLI

where all reactances are calculated at the 2nd harmonic frequency (0 = 2rc/ DC output voltage = ( The DC voltage for a capacitor filter) - ( The drop across LI ).

Problem 3.7
Design a power supply using a rc-filter to give DC output of25V at 100mA with a ripple factor not to exceed 0.01%. Design of the circuit means, we have to determine L,C, diodes and transformers.

Fig 3.27 Peak to Peak detector. Solution
Design of the circuit means, we have to determine L, C, Diodes and Transformer R = VDC L Ioc Ripple factor

= 25V =
Ioc
.

25V 100mA

= 2500

_ ~2 Xc _xCI y - v L.. . RL XLI Xc can be chosen to be = Xc I.

168

Electronic Devices and Circuits

e RL.x Ll · This gives a relation between C and L. C2 L =y There is no unique solution to this. Assume a reasonable value of L which is commercially available and determine the corresponding value of capacitor. Suppose L is chosen as 20 H at 1OOmA with a D.C. Resistance of 3750 ( ofInductor).

Y=

J2.

X

2

v

i_~
Voe

~(j)t

Fig 3.28 For Problem 3.7.
C2
= -

or

C=

Jt
2"
Vy

Y L

Voc=Vm-

Vy = 2ft: Now the transformer voltage ratings are to be chosen. The voltage drop across the choke = choke resistance x IDe = 375 x 100 x 10 - 3 = 37.5Y. Voc = 25Y. Therefore, voltage across the first capacitor C in the 7t-filter is V c = 25 + 37.5 = 62.5V. The peak transformer voltage, to centre tap is Y V m::: (V c) + (for C filter)

IDe

-t

IDe
Vy = 2fc

0.1 V m = 62.5 V + 4 x 50 xC Ym _ V = ~.=60Y nns ,,2 Therefore, a transformer with 60 - 0 -60V is chosen. The ratings of the diode should be, current of I 25mA. and voltage = PIV::: 2V m = 2 x 84.6V::: 169.2V

y = .47 0.a.. D. Filters and Regulators Problem 3. . . .-2. Solution Voe R =L IDe 250V 0. so that the transformer should be rated at about 340 volts 100 rnA. Vnns = 455 =322V J2 Therefore.29 .fi XCI XC 1. 2Vrn I = -= 2x455 == 0 . 3.46 y = L2C 2 Inductor value L in Henrys and Capacitor value C in IlF(microfarads) So ripple factor will be much smaller or better filtering is ach ieved. 3.8 169 A full wave rectifier with LC filter is to supply 250 v at 1OOm. the transformer should supply 322V rms on each side of the centre tap. if Rc of the choke = 4000.1 For the choke input resistor.47 Ripple factor y= 2 = 2 6 40) LC -I 4x 377 x 20x 10The current ratings of each diode = 0.C. RL = =25000.C 3X L The Bleeder Resistance Rs = -2L= 10000n.11 MULTIPLE LC FILTERS Better filtering can be obtained by using two or more LC sections as shown in the Fig. ' and Inns == Ioc ' V = 1tVoe (I + Re) = 1tx 250 (l + 400) =455V m 2 RL 2 2500 .Rectifiers.00413.. Should be 50mA. D. This includes no allowance for transformer impedance. Determine the ratings of the needed diodes and transformer... . L = 10H and C = 20 IlF. Ripple factor If we take 3 XLI XL 2 · L = L I = L2 C = C 1= C 2 and f= 60 Hz.0256A B 31troL 31t x 377 x 10 0. the value of the bleeder resistor and the ripple..

B. Xc. C1 Bl----~------------~------------~ Fig 3. XL..9 A full wave rectifier circuit with C-type capacitor filter is to supply a D.C. 20rnA 16 .- _ Vo Voc _. Ioc Voc RL = - =.8KO =8000..11 x C 1 3 2 2 _ J2.=0.C. 3 . Iffrequency is 50 Hz ripple allowed is 5% Calculate: (a) Required secondary voltage of the transformer. V 0 == 12 XC 2 / RL is in parallel with C 2. .xC X L\ \ VA2B2 1=-2 X L2 The value of XL 2 should be much larger than XC 2 . +X L. = . Xc.-. Therefore. Voc. A. 12 = V A 2 8 2/ X L2 and not X L. V A. (b) Ratio of I peakiI max through diodes. XL 2 But the actual value ofLc should be 25% more than this because of the approximately made in the series used to represent V. Current of 20 rnA at 16V. XL. Xc..170 Electronic Devices and Circuits 11 = )X ~ (RMS Value of the ripple component of current. current should get dropped across C2 . (c) The value of C required.29 Multiple LC filter sections. Xc.--3 ·X L.fi Problem 3. Solution IDe = 20rnA Voe = 16V..) .fi Voc VA 8 . . Ripple factor y .fi .Voc.

S x 800 = 4.5Y.C. Sineot) .10 A half wave rectifier allows current to flow from time t J = 1t 16ro to ~ = 51t16ro.fj x 2. Solution 1 S1t/6 V c= J 100Sinrot.14 Ii = SO x 1.=------ 41i xSOxCx800 1 1 = 1 C = -4 x 1. .Rectifiers. Filters and Regulators y = 5% = 0. Calculate the RMS and DC output voltage.05 r. Voltage being given by Vs = 100 Sin rot.drot D 21t 1t/6 100[ -cos-+cosS1t 1t] = .732 x SO x O.deot = 48.14 Vnns = - 1 S1t/6 21t 1t/6 J 2 (100.732 = 27. 171 4 v3fCR L 1 = -----.OS x 800 = 4..fj x 2000 C V DC with load Ii 8000x3 =72~F Problem 3. the A.1 x 100 x [-cos rot] S1t/6 = 21t 1t/6 21t 6 6 100 [-cos(1S00)+ cos(30o) ] = SO[.fj Ii] =+-+ 21t 1t 2 2 = SO x 3.6V 3.

DC 4fC L V m =30+ 4x50x80x10. RL = YDC = 6000. (c) The ripple factor of the output. calculate (a) V m the peak secondary voltage of transformer.125 x2 xSO xSO x 10 -6 = 0. (b) Ratio of surge to mean currents of diodes. = Vm Vrms (b) J2 = 33. C-type filter system used.S3~3 50 x 10 = 16. Current of SOmA at 30V.172 Electronic Devices and Circuits Problem 3. Idiode surge is 1t 1m' X Vm c = Y mcoC = 33.C.11 A full wave rectifier operating at 50 Hz is to provide D.65. Idiode swing = Idiode mean (c) 0.06. SOmA Y DC - - Ym IDC [ 1+ 4fCYoc J= 1 m Y 1 +-4fCR L I DC 1 -=Y DC RL Y I + oc -Y + DC Y m -Y DC 4fCR . Solution (a) RL = Voc loc = 30Y =6000. L .6 =33.4V J2 Surge Current through the diode. with a SO~F.12SV.125 = 23. I DC Y= 4J)fCR = 0.S33 A I DC = 50 rnA = Idiode mean is the average or mean current througlr the diode.

(IDC)2 = ~12 (0. and Temperature T. it is converted to DC by Rectifier and Filter Circuits and given to I. the rectified voltage across RL also has a peak value of3S. If the input is A. Transformer secondary voltage is SOY.41(0. RMS and AC component of load voltage. and the output desired is constant DC. The term voltage regulator is used when the output delivered is DC voltage. Diodes etc and in IC (Integrated Circuit) form. . RL 25 IDe = 21m 1t =0.4V Assuming ideal diodes. The input can be DC which is not constant and fluctuating.6361 m = 0. Voltage input to transformer primary = IISY.897 A. = Vm = 35.636 x (3S.41A.41) = 0.'Y .12 INTRODUCTION TO REGULATORS Voltage Regulator Circuits are electronic circuits which give constant DC output voltage. Solution Since. before the electronic regulator circuit.5)2 = 10.4)=22. irrespective of variations in Input Voltage V. Peak DC component.441 A.12 173 For a FWR circuit.Component load voltage is V ~s = ~ Vm 2 = VDC 2 ~(25)2 -(22. The block diagrams are shown in Fig. there must be 2SV across each half of the secondary winding. the A. Filters and Regulators Problem 3.31. IL(rms) = 0. RMS and AC component of load current. to get constant DC output voltage.J2 = 3S.SY. 3.4V(V m)' Average value V DC for FWR circuit is = 2Vm 1t =0. RL = 2Sft Determine 1. Voltage Regulator dircuits are available in discrete form using BJTs..707) = IA I~s = ~(Im.c. If the input is AC.707 1m = 1. a stepdown transformer is used and then Rectifier and filter circuits are used.C 230 V from mains. 2.C.30 and 3. the transformer develops SOV between secondary terminals. Voltage Regulator circuit.636(1.4 = 1. current drawn by the load I[ from output terminals.C..897)2 = 0. The peak value across each half of secondary is 2S.9V. A.636Vm V De =0. Peak DC component.Rectifiers. 3.

3. Output Resistance (Ro) Temperature Coefficient (ST) Output Voltage V0 Output current range (IL) Ripple Rejection 0% Different types of Voltage Regulators are 1. Some of the commonly used ICs are. Output Voltage Fig.7812. Input t V.7808. 7. 3.174 Electronic Devices and Circuits t---r-.31 Block diagram 01 voltage regulator with D. Input Resistance (R. 7805. 4.7806. The Voltage Regulator Circuits are used for electronic systems. 7908. High Current regulator . --~---1---:E~le-ctr~o-n~ic----t-------------~+ Un regulated D. etc.series regulator Negative voltage regulator 5.7815 : Three terminal positive Voltage Regulators. 3. Voltage regulator with foldback current limiting 6.C input.Regulated + Unregulated A.C. The term Voltage Stabilizer is used. 6. 5. LM 105. The voltage regulator circuits are available in IC form also. 7915 : Three terminal negative Voltage Regulators. IC circuits.C input. Regulation (Sv) 2. 7912. The specifications and Ideal Values of Voltage Regulators are : Specifications l. 7906.C.) I Ideal Values 0% 00 ohms 0 ohms 0 mv/oc. 2.Input V1 Regulator Circuit Fig. LM 309. CA 3085 A. Switching regulators 7. 3. The circuits used for voltage stabilizers are different.C.1 Step Down Transformer Rectifier Circuit Filter Circuit Electronic Regulator Circuit RL D. IlA 723. 4. 7905. if the output voltage is AC and not DC.30 Block diagram 01 voltage regulator with A. Zener regulator Shunt regulator . electronic circuits.

32 Zener diode reverse characteristic. (Fig. The output voltage remains constant only when the input voltage is sufficiently large so that the voltage across the zener is Vz' 2. In the reverse characteristic voltage remains constant irrespective of the current that is flowing through Zener diode. even if the input voltage increases. The voltage in the break down region remains constant. + Fig.12. Iz increases and hence breakdown will occur. 3. Filters and Regulators 3.Rectifiers. Therefore zener diode resistance is much smaller than RL when it is conducting. 3. Typical values are from 10m A to 1 ampere.32) Fig. Voltage regulation is maintained only between these limits. If Vi is increased enormously. If the output voltage is taken across the zener. the current through Rs increases. Therefore IL remains constant and so Vo remains constant.1 ZENER VOLTAGE REGULATOR CIRCUIT 175 A simple circuit without using any transistor is with a zener diode Voltage Regulator Circuit. 3.33 Zener regulator circuit The input Vi is DC. The circuit as shown in Fig.33.2 SHUNT REGULATOR The shunt regulator uses a transistor to amplify the zener diode current and thus extending the Zener's current range by a factor equal to transistor hFE • (Fig. 3. 3. through the zener diode and not through RL . 3. the output voltage remains constant.12. 3. There is limit to the maximum current that we can pass through the zener.34) . Zener diode is reverse biased. If the input voltage Vi increases. This extra current flows. The limitations of this circuits are 1. Therefore in this region the zener diode can be used as a voltage regulator. the minimum current and the maximum permissible current through the zener diode.

The maximum allowable zener current is Power rating 0. Maximum transistor power dissipation.II II is constant at S rnA IB = Iz -1( x II is constant at 5 rnA . 3. hFE = 49. The nominal voltage 2.2 ----=--= = 318 mA Voltage rating 6. Voltage Vo does not change with current. The value ofRs and its power dissipation.3 = 6. R( must supply SmA to the zener diode: 8 -6. flows through the load resistance RL .C. The nominal output voltage is the sum of the transistor V EB and zener voltage. The load current range is the difference between minimum and maximum current through the shunt path provided by the transistor.SV = V Eb + Vz 2. Therefore for a small current through the zener. S. 3. IB = I z .34 Shunt Regulator Circuit Zener current.2 + 6. requires SmA minimum curre. 200mW. In otherwords. At junction A.3 . V B I Fig. I.176 Electronic Devices and Circuits + Unregulated D. Problem 3. Therefore the total current 10 = (P + 1) IB.nt Transistor Specifications: VEB = O.3V. leBo = O. IB = S 10-3 .. we can write. for large current through RL' Vo remains constant.3 1. Vi = Constant. passes through RI Nominal output voltage = Vz + V EB The current that gets branched as IB is amplified by the transistor.7 R = = 340 n 3 I Sx10Sx10-3 3. Value of R I. Zener diode 6.S x 10-3 = 0 .2V. large current flows through ~L and voltage remains constant. determine I.13 For the shunt regulator shown. V 0 = 0. Load current range 4.

12 = 31.Vo 1 1.ilV.34)2 . Rs must pass 1. An electronic feedback control circuit is used in conjuction with an unregulated power supply to overcome the above three short comings. . The short comings of the circuits are : I.34 A 4. Input voltage VI 2. we want the output voltage to remain constant. output voltage varies with temperature also.8 x 10-3 .5 1. Such a system is called a "regulated power supply". 1. the d.ilI L +--. (1.8 rnA Ie = IE = P 18 = hFE 18 (P + I) Is = (hFE + I) Is Is ranges from a minimum of 0 to maximum of 26.8 x 10-3) = 1.12) = 3W REGULATED POWER SlJPPLV An unregulated power supply consists of a transformer. as the load varies (load means load current) [No load means no load current or 0 current.34 8-6.1 2 n The power dissipated by Rs' = IS2 Rs = (1. Temperature Change in the output voltage il V0 can be expressed as ilV o = --.e.34) = 8. Full load means full load current or short circuit]. In simple rectifiers and filter circuits.c.8 rnA Total load current range is (hFE + I) Is = 50 (26. input voltage varies 3.ilT aVj 1 oiL aT avO avo avo ilVo = SI ilVj + Ro illL + Sr ilT Where the three coefficients are defined as.Rectifiers. Filters and Regulators IZ Max . DC output voltage varies directly as the a.5 (1. Load current IL 3.5 The transistor emitter current IE = 18 + Ie = 177 18 (min) x 10-3 = 26. Stabilization The output voltage depends upon the following factors in a power supply.34 = 1.c. Rs - V· . if semiconductors devices are used. For such a circuit regulation will be very poor i.34 A to supply current to the transistor and R L. and a filter. But this will not be so for unregulated power supply. a rectifier.7 W 5. The maximum transistor power dissipation occurs when the current is maximum IE :::: Ie P D = VolE = 6. Poor regulation 2.+--.

e.35. which is taken across R2 and the potef!.tiometer) is compared with the reference voltage YR. r 0 RL Y R3 I Samphng resistor r I1Y =Y Control I1Y=Y I I o o J 3.VR) is amplified by the transistor Q2.178 (i) Electronic Devices and Circuits Stability factors. If the change in output were amplified before being applied to the control transistor. Ideally Output Resistance ° since Vo should not change even if Vi changes. But when the input increases. i. if a large part of the increase in input voltage appears across the control transistor. LlT ==0 1 I (ii) This should be as small as possible. LlIL ==0 I The smaller the values of the three coefficients. increase in Vi results in increased VCE so that output almost remains constant. there IS constalll . Because the emitter of Q2 is not at ground potential. Series Voltage Regulator Circuit is as shown in Fig. Ll IL ==0..e. change in the output voltage as load voltage varies (or input voltage varies) can be improved. LlT ==0 (iii) I Temperature Coefficient LlV ST == Ll. LlVO Ro = LlIL Ll Vi ==0. Series Voltage Regulator The voltage regulation (i. there may be some increase in the output but to a very smaller extent. This additional bias causes an increase in collector to emitter voltage which will compensate for the increased input.12.. Sv = LlVO Ll V.35 Series Regulator Circuit SERIES VOLTAGE REGULATOR CIRCUIT Q is the series pass element of the series regulator. the better the circuit. The difference (bVp . A fraction of the output voltage b:V0 (b is a fraction.3 R2 L Fig. better stabilization would result. D is the reference zener diode. 3. so that output voltage tries to remain constant. Ll VI ==0. 3. Q acts as the difference amplifier. This increase in output acts to bias the control transistor.

When input voltage increases by AVi' the base-emitter voltage of Q2 increases. -18V. (Rl R2 in parallel with R2)+ h. output will also decrease. i.VR). (b VQ. even when Vi decreases. So when the output is shorted or when the load current exceeds the set value.12. VBE of the transistor Q\ is small. If the input decreases. The tapping of a transformer should be changed by a relay when Vi changes). As Vo increases. 3. constant load current limiting is employed. ro is the output resistance of the unregulated power supply which preceds the regulator circuit.12. The input should also be negative DC voltage. So foldback current limiting is employed. the power dissipation . If the input voltage is much higher. -21 V etc with positive terminal grounded. (If the output were to remain constant at a specified value. When the output is shared. Filters and Regulators 179 voltage YR.12. filter circuit or it can be taken as the resistance of the DC supply in the lab experiment. The load current will not increase beyond the set value. This type of circuit takes care of the increase in input voltages only. -6V.4 NEGATIVE VOLTAGE REGlJLATOR Sometimes it is required to have negative voltage viz. the current will be varying. But this will not ensure good protection. I+G m (R3+ ro)' R o = The preset pot or trim pot R3 in the circuit :s called as sampling resistor since it controls or samples the amount of feedback. Preregulator It provides constant current to the collector of the DC amplifier and the base of control element. The series pass transistors will not be able to dissipate this much power. Hence the increase in the voltage appears essentially across Q\ only..Emitter of the transistor Q2 is (bVo . suppose the output voltage should remain constants at +6V. buck and boost should be there. Therefore the drop across R3 = VCB ofQ\:::: VCE ofQ\ since VeE is small.5 VOLTAGE REGlJLATOR WITH FOLDBACK ClJRRENT LIMITING In high current voltage regulator circuits.6 SWITCHING REGlJLATORS In the voltage regulator circuit. but then this term is very small.e. The expression for Sv (Stability factor) = AV = AyO . the current through the series transistors decrease or folds back. the quantity since it is being divided by hfe . the input can be upto + 12V or + 15V maximum.Rectifiers. Therefore the net voltage to the Base . with the result that it may be damaged. hre2 R3 [Rl + R2 ]. ro is the output resistance of the rectifier.VR) increases. R3 + h iel also increases. Thus all the change in Vi will appear across RJ !tself. This type of circuit supplies regulated negative voltages. If R3 is increased. So Collector current of Q 2 increases and hence there will be large current change in R3.e2 +(1 + h fe2 )R 2 Rz = Zener diode resistance (typical value) R3 +h ie1 ro +-----"----'-"-'1+ h fe1 . 3. 1+ hfe 3.

protection is provided by using a fuse. Short Circuit Overload Protection Overload means 0\ erload current (or short circuit). 3.36. To get even better values of Sy. This constant current source circuit is often called a transistor preregulator. delivers 50 mW to. the fuse wire will blow off.is another Voltage Regulator IC. This fuse wire is provided before roo Another method of protecting the circuit is by using diodes.Vo)/!. +13Y~r--~--~ --:>-~-""---r-------r--e 2 +6Y 3 Un regulated mput Fig. and delivers 30 m W of output power. tllrough R3. so that R3 tends to infinity (R3 ~ 00). thus protecting the components. A simple voltage regulator circuit using CA3085A is as shown in Fig. But if. LM309 K . the voltage regulators IC is used as a switch between the input and the output. It gives 6 V constant output upto 100 rnA. We can increase R3 by decreasing I. .36 CA 3085A IC voltage regulator.. So to prevent this. I. A power supply must be protected further from damage through overlo'ad:. alphabets CA. the input is limited to around twice that of the input. so that when current excess of the rated values flows. 3. The current I through R3 can be decreased by using a Darlington pair for Q. Preregulator The value of the stability factor Sy of a voltage regulator should be very small. CA3085A is voltage regulator. ~ = R2 Rl +R2 RCA (Radio Corporation of America) uses for the ICs. Sy can be improved if R3 is increased (from the general expression) since R3 :::: (VI . Vi is the maximum value of input that can be given.In a simple circuit. MCI554 is 20W class B power amplifier. higher input fluctuations were to be tolerated. R3 is replaced by a constant current source circuit.lA716C is head phone amplifier. The input voltage is not connected permanently to the regulator circuit but ON/OFF will occur at a high frequency (50 KHz) so that output is constantly present.180 Electronic Devices and Circuits I across the transistor will be large and so it may be damaged. 500-6000 load CA3007 is low power class AB amplifier.

hfe2 = 200. The unregulated power supply has the following specifications Vi = 50 ± 5V. 2 ~ = 220. DI and D2 will be generally si diodes. h ie2 = 800 n. the collector current of Q2 will be very high Is .VBE1 Y1 Y2 Is = R S When the output is short circuited. Rz = 12 n at Iz = 20 rnA Choose IC2 :::: IE2 = lOrnA At IC = lOrnA. but such a circuit is relatively costly. 3.6V. ~ = t20. The large collector current of Q2 passes through the diodes D I and D2 and not through the transistor QI.5 V Two Zener diodes with breakdown voltages of 7. h ie2 = 800 n. Transistor Q I will be safe.Rectifiers. and ro = 10 n. So Is Rs drop can be large. the h-parameters for the transistor are measured as. Given: Rz = 12 n at Iz = 10 rnA.3 7 Circuit for short circuit protection.14 Design a series regulated power supply to provide a nominal output voltage of 25V and supply load current IL :s IA. Filters and Regulators 181 + From amplifier 02 of series voltage regulator Fig. Problem 3. II = 10 rnA.5 V in series may be connected. so that Iz = IDI + ID2 = 20 rnA R = D Vo . In the case of a short circuit the current Is will increase upto a limiting point determined by V + V . Zener diodes can also be employed. The diodes DI and D2 will start conducting only when the voltage drop across Rs exceeds the current in voltage of both the diodes DI and D2. since cut in voltage is 0. Vo """"2 Vo = 12. hfe2 = 200 Choose II = 10 rnA. Rs will also be large.VR ID 25 -15 10 =IKn . At IC2 = 10 rnA. The reference diodes are chosen such that V R:::: """"2. The two diodes DI and D2 start conducting.

6 R 2 :::: -1. flVo = . Ripple Rejection : It is the ratio of peak to peak output ripple voltage to the peak to peak input ripple voltage.(P-p) . 1t5 V 50-25.560 Q I lOxlO For the transistor QI' choose 12 as lA and h FE ) = 125 (d.6 = 940 Q lOx 10. irrespective of the changes of the input voltage or the current.= -3 = 1.x 100 % flVj In the Ideal case fl V0 = 0 when Vo remains constant.13 TERMINOLOGY Load Regulation: It is defined as the % change in regulated output voltage for a change in load current from minimum to the maximum vahre.182 IC2 lOrnA Electronic Devices and Circuits IB2 = -p. E) > E2. VBE = 0.c. 18x10Voltage regulator is a circuit which maintains constant output voltage. it is a stabilizer circuit. and output is also a.6 3 = 1. Load regulation is with respect to change in IL Line regulation is with respect to change in V..6 V R = ) VO-V2 II 25-15. Stabilizer . This value should be minimum.3 V2 15. This value should be small.360 Q.= 220 = 451lA Choose I) as 10 rnA for-~i transistors.. R3 = Vi -( YBE I + Vo) I = 3.6 V V2 = VBE2 + V R = 15. E) = Output V<)!tage when IL is minimum (rated value) E2 = Output voltage when IL is maximum (rated value) E I -E2 % load regulation = E x 100 %. V~(p-p) V.c. current gain p) IL +11 +ID I B) = h (A) .If the input is a. Ic:::: IE = IL + I) + ID fel fJ ) ) (DC Current gain) 1000+ 10+ 10 125 :::: 8 rnA The current through resistor R3 is I = IB) + IC2 = 8 + 10 = 18 rnA The value of R3 corresponding to Vi = 45 V and IL = IA is (since these are given in the problem) VI = 50 + 5.c. 1 Line Regulation : It is the % change in Vo for a change in Vi.

..... 2 .................J2 1 1 x y= ............ Filter Circuit Converts .......... 4.. for Full Wave Rectifier y = 0.......... (2) ..... ...... Inductor Filter 3..J2Xe(~) RL XLI • Critical Inductance Lc ~ • Bleeder Resistance RB = R 3~ 3X L -2- OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS I.fjjCR L • ExpressiollJor Ripple Factor for L Filter... The characteristics of a swinging choke is .......... Ripple Factor in the case of Full Wave Rectifier Circuit is ....... 1 y= 4.. L-Section ( LC ) Filter..... to ........... ... CRC and CLC Filters • Ripple Factor 183 = II ~........ . ....... Bleeder Resistance ensures (1) .......... • The different types of filter circuits are 1.. It minimises Ripple............. In the case of LC Filter Circuits... 5................21....... • Filter Circuit converts Unidirectional flow to DC..... Capacitor Filter 2.. 1t-Section Filter 5.482 • Expression for Ripple Factor for C Filter.... RL y = 4.......... Filters and Regulators SUMMARY • Rectifier circuit converts AC to Unidirectional Flow.. y= 3 ............... 2roC x 2roL • Expression for Ripple Factor for 1t Filter... ...Rectifiers. IDe For Half Wave Rectifier.......... to ........ 3......... .... 4.... Rectifier Converts .. .. y = 1...fjroL • Expression for Ripple Factor for LC Filter.....

. 3. Compare C...184 Electronic Devices and Circuits ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS 1. (a) Snap diodes (b) Rectifier diodes (c) Storage d iodes (d) Memol)' diodes 2. Explain the terms Swinging Choke and Bleeder Resistor. L. (a) 1% (b) 0.1 % (c) 5% (d) 0% 4. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. The Circuit which converts undirectional flow to D. x-Section (CLC and CRC ) Filters in all respects. For ideal Rectifier and filter circuits. 2. Obtain the expression for ripple factor in the case of Full Wave Rectifier Circuit with Capacitor Filter. is called (a) Rectifier circuit (b) Converter circuit (c) filter circuit (d) Eliminator 3. Special types of diodes in which transition time and storage time are made small are called .1 rnA (c) 0 (d) few rnA .. The value of current that flows through RL in a 'n' section filter circuit at no load is (a) 00 (b) 0. % regulations must be .C. L-Section.

The variation of current with voltage. in the three configurations is given. Common Base and Common Collector Configurations is explained. The structure of Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) and its V-I characteristics are explained. namely Common Emitter. • • • • • • .. JFET amplifier circuits in Common Source (CS) Common Drain (CD) and Common Gate (CG) configurations are given .cs In tltis Chapter. The Operation of Transistor in the three configurations. (which are also simply referred as Transistors) and their characteristics are explained. • The principle of working of Bipolar Junctions Transistors. The structure of Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) and its V-I characteristics are explained.

When there is transfer of resistance from input side which is Forward Biased ( low resistance) to output side which is Reverse Biased ( high resistance ).1 POTENTIAL DISTRIBUTIONS THROllGH A TRANSISTOR Fig. it is a Trans Resistor or Transistor Device.2). The three sections of a transistor are Emitter.Base Voltage. 4. 4. 4.1. So arrow mark is towards the base for PNP transistor. So the holes move from emitter to base. electrons and holes is called a Bipolar Device. Fig. it is PNP transistor. 4. V EB reters to Emitter . The arrow mark on the emitter specifies the direction of current when the emitter base junction is forward biased. E C E C (a) (b) PNP NPN Fig. it is a junction device. is as shown in Fig4. As p-n junctions exist in the construction of the device. 4. ---------Fig. If the arrow mark is towards the base. In NPN Transistor.2 Current components in a pnp transistor. When the PNP transistor is forward biased. holes are injected into the base.3 shows a circuit for a PNP transistor. Emitter Base Junction is Forward Biased Collector .186 4. 4.1 (b). The conventional current flows in the same direction as holes. The symbol for PNPtransistor is as shown in Fig. If it is away then it is NPN transistor.Base Junction is reverse biased. Similarly VCB and VCE' PNP +E -+IE Ic -+-- C+ t V EB IB t t VCB B ~ ~ ---------_. Emitter ( E ) Voltage being measured with reference to base B ( Fig.1 Electronic Devices and Circuits BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS ( BJT'S ) The device in which conduction takes place due to two types of carriers. There are two types of transistors NPN and PNP. 4. Similarly for NPN transistor. Base and Collector. a p-type Silicon (Si) or Germanium (Ge) is sandwiched between two layers of n-type silicon.4 ( a) shows potential distribution along the transistor (x). DC Emitter Current is represented as IE' Base Current as IB and Collector Current as Ie' These currents are assumed to be positive when the currents flow into the transistor.1( a) and forNPN transistor.1 Transistor symbols. . it is away.

In commercial transistor the Doping of the Emitter is made much large than the Doping of the Base. Similarly collector base potential is reduced by IVcBI.Base junction is forward biased. 4. The base potential almost remains constant.Transistor Characteristics 187 When the transistor is open circuited. effective base width decreases. Then only current flow results through the transistor. When EB junction is forward biased emitter .Base Junction is to be Forward Biased because. So when the transistor is open circuitt?d h01es will not be injected into the collector. So the resulting current is I nE . Basewidth is narrow ( Fig. because the carriers must be attracted into the Collector Region. Collector is lightly doped. Therefore the total emitter current IE = IpE + I nE . So holes will be injected into the base. since some of them recombine with electrons in the base and disappear. Collector base junction is reverse biaseo. So the emitter current mainly consists of holes only. But if the reverse bias voltage of collector . The ratio of ~ is proportional to the ratio of conductivity of the 'p' material to that of'n' ~ I .base junction is increased. (Such a condition is desired since electron hole recombination can take place at the emitter junction). But when transistor bias voltages are applied. material. The injected holes diffuse into the collector across the n-type material (base). . So collector extends into the base or depletion region width increases. So this current is I (holes crossing form Emitter to base). So 'p' region conductivity will be much larger than 'n' region conductivity. emitter base junction is forward biased and the collector base junction is reverse biased.1. the emitter base barrier is lowered.Base Junction must be reverse biased. there is no voltage applied. The potential barriers adjust themselves to a height V . (Potential barrier exists all along the base width. in a PNP transistor. holes are injected into the base.2 TRANSISTOR CURRENT COMPONENTS Consider a PNP transistor.base potential is increased by IVEBI. All the holes injected from emitter to base will not reach collector. Also electrops can be injected from base to emitterPr which also contribute for emitter current IE). V will be few tenths of a volt. Emitter . 4. Since EB junction is forward biased. the carriers must be injected and Collector . It is the barrier potential. When Emitter .3 PNP transistor circuit connections. since the holes from emitter have to reach collector and not just remain in base). Fig 4.4(a».

: -+-Distance x V EB .4 Potential barrier levels in a transistor. In the collector. 0. Currents entering the transistor are positive. So tfie Col1ectotCurrent is approximately equal to reverse saturation Current leo' If IE -:j:. For NPN transistor. If Ip is the current due to holes at the Emitter Junction. IE> I e since some holes have recombinea with electrons in the base. Under these condItions.188 E B Electronic Devices and Circuits c (a) ~ :+:--p--~_nr-~--p--~~c. leo consists of holes moving from left to right (base to col1ector) and electrons crossing in the opposite direction. EffeCti~e~ ---- : Base' : Width : . which is 'p' type. IpE = Current due to injected holes from emitter to base InE = Current due to injected electrons from base to emitter. le~~onsists of electrons. In the base. holes ar:e the minority carriers. So the direction of leo for NPN transistor is the same as the conventional current entering into the transistor. then I would be zero.-! . y = IpE + InE IE Value ofy is always less than I. the minority carriers in the base moving to collector and holes from collector moving to base. y IpE = IpE . junction acts as a reverse biased diode. electrons are the minority carriers. ____ (b) tmiuer ---f -----. Emitter Efficiency (y ) : Current due to Injected at the Emitter . so that I = 0.Base Junction Total Emitter Current For a PNP transistor. The recombination curreht is equal to ( IrE -Ipe )' If the emitter is open circuited. Hence leo is positive for NPN transistor. I is due to minority carriers. which is n-type. \L-____ Fig 4. then Ie = leo + Ipc For a PNP transistor.

3 TRANSISTOR As AN AMPLIFIER ~IE' a' is defined ~s the ratio of the change in collector current to the change in emitter current. r' = Emitter Junction Resistance. e . A = ~yo = a'RL·~IE v ~Yi re'ME A V = La' --' a'. Current due to injected carriers reaching B . there will be change in output voltage ~ V o .1.C junction Injected carrier current at emitter . Because of change in emitter current ~IE and consequent change in collector current.~IE ~Ic r' x ~IE I e RL is load resistance.Current Change = a' x RL X ~IE Since a' = . ~ V0 ~V A small change ~ V of Emitter .Circuit Current Gain. Therefore.Transistor Characteristics Transportation Factor ( 13 *) : 189 13* = For a PNP transistor.Base Voltage causes relatively large Emitter .R ~IC =-- r~' ~IE VCB=K RL > r' e a' Ay> I = Small Signal Forward . the voltage amplification is.base junction Ipin the Collector _ Hole Current in the Collector Hole Current in the Emitter I pin the Emitter 13 * _ Ipc --= I pE Large Signal Current Gain (a ) a= Collector Current Emitter Current Ipc a= IE Multiplying and dividing by IpE ' IpE Ipc a= xIpE IE - Ipc =13 * IpE 4.

r' is used since this resistance does not include contact or lead resistances. the transistor acts as an amplifier. So current from low resistance input circuit is transferred to high resistance output circuit ( l\).190 Electronic Devices and Circuits The term.3 MANlJFACnrRE OF GROWN JlJNCTION TRANSISTOR Grown Junction Transistors are manufactured through growing a single crystal which is slowly pulled from the melt in the crystal growing furnace Fig. So a PNP transistor formed. Grown type 2. On cooling.5 Crystal growth. beecause emitter . dissolves Germanium beneath it and forms a saturator solution.2. Molten Germanium 3.5. 1. So it is a transfer resistor device and abbreviated as transistor. Two small dots of indium are attached to the wafer on both sides. Alloy type 4. Voltages are measured with respect to base ). Vertical Drive 4 1 Fig 4. The purified polycrystalline semiconductor is kept in the chamber and heated in an atmosphere ofN and H2 to prevent oxidation. To get n-type impurities.2. Gas Inlet 5. 4. to the molten polycrystalline solution.2 TRANSISTOR CONSTRUCTION Two commonly employed methods for the fabrication of diodes. e So a small change in emitter base voltage produces large change in collector base voltage. impurities are . A seed crystal attached to the vertical shaft which is slowly pulled at tFte rate of (I mm / 4hrs) or even less. The crystal starts growing as the seed crystal is pulled.2 ALLOY TYPE A thin wafer of n-type Germanium is taken. 4. . The seed crystal initially makes contact with the molten semiconductors.2. The temperature is raised to a high value where indium melts. 4. The magnitude of current remains the same ( a' ~ I ). (This is for common base configuration.base Junction is forward biased. Gas Outlet 6. transistors and other semiconductor devices are : 1.0000).!. indium crystallizes and changes Germanium to p-type. r' value is small. 4. Furnace t 5 2. The doping concentration depends upon the amount of indium placed and diffusion length on the temperature raised. The input resistance of the circuit is low (typical value 400) and output resistance is high (3. Seed Crystal 4. Hence.1 GROWN TYPE It is made by drawing a single crystal from a melt of Silicon or Germanium whose impurity concentration is changed during the crystal drawing operation.

Baron is driven inside by drive in diffusion process. lEO and leo represent the reverse saturation currents. Lo:J p n .MOLL MODEL OF A TRANSISTOR A transistor can be represented by two diodes connected back to back.3 THE EBERS . By this technique abrupt step type p-n junction can be formed. A transistor cannot be formed by simply connecting two diodes since. with properties identical to that of the surface. The structure is shown in Fig 4. This forms the collector.4 DIFFlJSION TYPE OF TRANSISTOR CONSTRUCTION To fabricate NPN transistor. a very thick. Then p-type impurities are added. ~ Ie N aN .. (n on n+) or (p on p+). !I-type 'Si' ( or 'Ge' ) wafer is taken. . Over this base and emitter are diffused.MOLL EQUATION EBERS .Moll Model. Otherwise the majority carriers emitted from the emitter will recombine in the base and disappear.7 ). Encapsulation 4. a I Ie represents the current source in inverted mode ( Fig. p-type impurity (Boron) is diffused into the wafer by diffusion process. Photolithography 3. are placed side by side. the base region should be narrow.2.7 Eber-Moll Model of PNP transistor. This technique implies the growth of a crystal on a surface. Nitrogen gas will be flowing at a particular rate. 4. Now again n-type impurity ( Phosphorus) is diffused into the Base Area in a similar way. The different steps in process are : B E 1. Oxidation 2.6 (a) Epitaxial type transistor.--+ IE p C + VE B Ve + Fig 4. Such a circuit for a PNP transistor shown is called Eber . 4. high purity (high resistance).epitai n . Diffusion 4. before the Boron is converted to Boron Oxide and this gets deposited over Siliconwafer.5 EPITAXIAL TYPE In this process. So transistor action will not be seen. So the crystal now is p-type. aN IE is the current source. So the base-collector junction will be formed. Now the crystal that grows is n-type ~emiconductor.substrate Fig 4.Transistor Characteristics 191 added. Like this NPN transistor can be fabricated. Base-collector junction areas is determined by a mask and diffusion length. The transistor is represented by the diodes connected back to back. Epi mean 'ON' Taxi means 'ARRANGEMENT'. Metallization 5. This forms the collector. The wafer to be diffused and the Boron wafer which acts as p-type impurity. single crystal layer of Silicon or Germanium is grown as a heavily doped substrate of the same material.6 (a). 4. Epitaxi is a greek word.2.

Common Collector Configuration (C.. For a PNP transistor.B) 2.. 4.. Emitter and Collector Voltages are measured with respect to the base.+ .. holes are the majority carriers.....1 COMMON BASE CONFIGURATION (C. (1) a l2 = Similarly -AeDpPno w 1c a = a21 e (VE/VT_l)+ a (vc/vT_l) e 22 .. Emitter Base Junction is ... a =Ae .8 Common base amplifier circuit. So this is known as Common Base Configuration or Grounded Base Configuration. (DpPno DnnE) . entering the transistor are taken as positive and those leaving the transistor as negative. Common Base Configuration (C....C) Fig.. Common Emitter Configuration (C. 4.. The convention is currents. all = a21 Equations (1) and (2) are called Eber-Moll Equations..192 Electronic Devices and Circuits . 1.B) The base is at ground potential.E) 3. .4 TYPES OF TRANSISTOR CONFIGURATIONS Transistors ( BJTs ) are operated in three configuration namely. 4..w '22 W Lc ..4.. (2) 21 = -AeDpPno .

B configuration are as shown in Fig. the emitter is open circuited.3V Cut-off region (b) VCD = (V) (a) Fig 4.B configuration. So the transistor is not conducting and the IfBu!S not considered.. . So it is named as Saturation region.9 (a) and (b) When IE = 0.. Generally the transistor is not used in this mode and it is regarded as cut of . When transistor IS being used as a switch. 2. The region to the right is called active region. It is in saturation. it is operated between cut ott and saturation regions. 4.6 VED(V) 0. V EB = f\(V CB' IE) Dependent Variables are Input Voltage and Output Current. Active region Saturation region Cut off region The input and output characteristics for a transistor in C. Hence Ic IS negative. Ie is flowing out of transistor. for reverse bias collector junction VCB is negative. The literal meaning of saturation should not be taken. For a Forward Biased Junction VEB is positive.Transistor Characteristics 193 Forward Biased. IE (mA) SmA IE = 40 mA :--J'----=I E = 30 mA =20mA IE :.9 (a) Input characteristics in C. Hence the transistor can not be operated in this region. There is no control over the current.. Holes through the base reach collector. Ic = f2 (V CB' IE) Independent Variables are Input Current and Output Voltage. For a given V cs.--=-:O:-mA -4 = 0. there is no appreciable change in~.-----~ Saturation region = 10 mA 6V IV V T ~----. Since holes are entering the base or IE is positive. Even though ICBO is present it is very small for operation. During the region OA. The characteristics of the transistor can be described as. for a small variation of V BC there is very large.' with IE increased. change in current Ic with IE' So current is independent of voltage. similarly IB is negative.B configuration (b) Output characterisitics in C. Transistor Characteristics in Common Base Configuration The three regions in the output characteristics of a transistor are 1. 3.

I increases with V exponentially.& .W 2 Fig 4.. If V BE = 0..::..NA VB 2E . emitter is common to both base and collector. Vy is the cut in voltage .. If V CE increases. As V CE is increased. The input characteristics are as shown transistor amplifier ClrCUlt.11. II ..& Vy = 0.Collector Junction of PNP Transistor increases. . and results in decreased recombination.::. the probability of recombination of holes and electrons in the base region is less.::.. the space charge width at the n-p region of Base .12 Input characteristics in C. If this reverse bias voltage is increased. The variation is in B similar to thato!fa Forward Biased~iode.11 Common Emitter pnp similar to a Forward Biased Diode. II ~ . 4.. .::..12.10 ) I . .. II "t IB (rnA) SmA .4.E configuration.. since emitter andYcollector junctions are shorted. the transistor is Fig 4. So effective base width decreases ( Fig.. W = Space Charge Region Width.::. The decrease in base width with increase in collector reverse bias voltage is known as Early Effect.. I = 0.. So this is known as CE configuration or grounded emitter configuration.10 Early effect... RL 4. So IB increases as .&.. So the transportation factors 13* increases. beyond cut-in voltage V.::. . from -1 to -3 Ib decreases.E) In this circuit Fig 4. pig . These depend upon the output voltage V CE and input current lB' Ie C eE ~ + .194 EARLY EFFECT Electronic Devices and Circuits E B C p The collector base junction is reverse biased..6 ~ VBE(V) Fig 4. When the base width decreases. base width decreases ( gy Early effect ). V increases..2 COMMON EMITTER CONFIGliRATION (C. The input voltage V BE' and output current Ic are taken as the dependent variables. 4.Vee INPliT CHARACTERISTICS If the collector is shorted to the emitter.-----i p "------I 1 II II I n V EB IJ VCB _ e..

2.E Configuration. Is = 10 e nvr -1 [ VUE ] The input characteristics Is vs VSE follow the equation.-I] The three different regions are 1. The output characteristics is divided into three regions namely.istor is similar to a Collector Junction Reverse Biased Diode. Cut-off Region . Ic~ +~~. 1. These are shown in Fig 4. Cut-Off Region. increases. If IB increases. Therefore. Hence characteristics are as shown. Active Region t ~---------------IB=80~ __----------------IB=60~ __----------------IB=40~ _ _~~~~-B =O~ ~ VCE(V) Fig 4.(I B + I ) · e 195 As VCI. there is more injection into the collector. IB ~ If~: -I] OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS The trans. (Collector Base junction is reverse biased). therefore Is decreases.Transistor Characteristics IE + IB + Ic = 0 I E = .13. Ic increases. Active Region. They follow the equation. So Ie increases. Active Region 2. The mput characteristics are similar to a forward biased p-n junction diode.13 Output characteristics in C. . Saturation Region 3. The output characteristics are similar to a reverse biased p-n junction. Saturation Region 3. base recombination will be less.

leo + a .Ie = +Ieo .a(-Ie ) + leo Ie (1.(IB + Ie) . Hence Ie = O. But in the case ofC.. leo = Reverse saturation current in the collector. ~ 2.196 Electronic Devices and Circuits But 1+1 B e+1 E =0 IE = . is p~sitive for PNP transistor and negative for NPN transistor. Because. through B. IB If the transistor were to be at cut off. Ie will have a considerable value even when IB = O. TEST FOR SATURATION 1. IE = -Ie Ie = . even ifIB is made 0. II BI> ~fy eB IS In .a But If or or . Ie = O.leo + a . So the transistor can not be operated). IE IE = . To achieve this. IE = -(I B + Ie)' IB = 0. The circuit is shown in Fig.a) = leo leo Ie = 1.14 Common Emitter Cut-off region. IB + a . RL CE Fig 4.a = leBO Ie =.14.E configuration. 4.a . if the emitter-base junction is open circuited. IE + leo' a = Current gain . there cannot be injection of carriers from E to C. (Any reverse saturation current flowing because of thermal agitation is very small. Ie Ie (1 . IB must be equal to zero.!s. the transistor saturatIOn. the transistor is not cut off.a) = . COMMON EMITTER CUT OFF REGION If a transistor was to be at cut off.(I B + Ie ) Ie = .

Alloy junction and epitaxial transistors give the lowest values of V CEO Grown junction transistor yield the highest V CEO DC CURRENT GAIN J3de J3 = J3 de is also designated as hFE (DC forward current transfer ratio). when the emitter current is zero. it IS not sufficient. but will be leo' Since Ico is small.Transistor Ch aracteristics 197 In order to achieve cut-off in the Common Emitter Configuration.E contlguration to cut of the transistor. then leBo ~ 10 leo' So the transistor is not cut off. The collector current in a transistor. So the actual collector current with collector junction reverse biased and base open circuited is designated by !cOB' If a ~ 0. Emitter Base Junction should be reverse biased. saturation resistance for Common Emitter configuration is of importance. so that IE is equl to O. It is denoted by ReEs or RcE's (saturation) or Rcs VCE (sat) Res = Ic The operating point has to be specified for Rcs' Saturation Voltage: Manufacturers specify this for a given transistor. in the C. Still If.9. REVERSE COLLECTOR SATURATION CURRENT leBO ICBO is due to leakage current flowing not through the j unction. is designated by IC. will not be zero. The Emitter Base Junction must be reverse biased. V CE(Sat) depen9s upon the operating point and also the semiconductor material. This is done in number of ways. IB = (Ip ) gives the value of base current to operate the transistor in saturation region. and on the type of transistor construction. if IB = O. but around it.!£ To know whether a transistor is in saturation or not. a is constant for a given transistor. Therefore. . TEST FOR SATURATION . ~ J3 varies with Ic for a given transistor. Therefore. Ie . SATURATION RESISTANCE For a transistor operating in the saturation region. the transistor can be regarded as at cut of .Bo· IlcBol can be> leo' leo is collector reverse saturation current (when collector-base junction IS reverse biased). 1.!£ IB Vee RL 1=- c So ifJ3 is known. Res value may be given for different values of I or they may supply the output and input characteristic for the transistor itself.

(IB + IE) Ic = .Ie 1=--"'-"'--"'E a ... Ie = leBO and IB = .(IB + Ie) IE + IB + Ie = 0 Ie = .E configuration.=-IB .ICBO' So at cut-off 13 = O.IB a=- -Ie IE or for PN P transistor taking the convention.lB·~ If we replace Ico by ICBo' Ic = ICBO x ( 13 + I ) + .a) a =- a ~ a. Ic = . THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN a AND 13 IE = Emitter Current IB = Base Current Ic = Collector Current Since in a PNP transistor. The convention is.l --+ -B c I-a I-a But.1= leBo a.alE + Ico leo .a - IIc = (1 + (3)1CBO + 13 IB I Transistor is cut off when Ie = 0. .I E .198 Electronic Devices and Circuits 2. VCB should be positive for PNP transistor and negative for NPN transistor. IE flows into the transistor. In the C. or or But IE = . IB and Ic flow out of the transistor. currents leaving the transistor are taken as negative .I CaB e (I_~l a) (a-I) =-1 B le-a. -Ie 1=E a I I Ie =+ . 13=I-a (1.

B junctton IS left open i. f I-a = ~ = Large Signal Current Gain = hFE B The Expression for Collector Current. The general expression for Ic in the active region is given by.a). (2) in eq...Transistor Characteristics I (I-a) =+1 CaB 199 or ~-~ 'B .. ( 1) Ic = -a IE + ICBO . in Common-Emitter (C. Hence the transistor is not considered to be cut off. The magnitude of ICEO is large..alE + ICBO This is. (2) IE = .a) = ( ~ + 1) ICEO = ( ~ + 1) ICBO .. (1 . IB = 0 and collector is reverse biased.the general expression for Ic in term of a IE and ICBO· when IB = 0. .. (I) Ic = + a (Ic + IB) + ICBO Ic [1 . when E ...a ) = ICBO ICBO 1 ICEO = (I .I + eBO C I-a B I-a Ic = ~ IB + (~ + 1) ICBO Ic = ~ IB + ICEO CEO I-a ICEO is the reverse collector to emitter current when base is open.. ) Configuration.(Ic + IB) Substitute eq.E. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN I AND I CBO CEO where I leBo =- Ic = . Ie : The current flowing in the circuit. Ic = .IE = ICEO Ic + IB + IE = 0 18 = 0 ( Since E-B Junction is left open) Ic =-1 E or ICEO = +a ICEO + ICBO ICEO ( 1 .e.a] = alB + ICBO a . I = ..

LA ~ VEC(V) (c) Output characteristics in C. When the base current is I 0' emitter current will be zero. Input is given between base and ground.ICBO ) to the increase in base current from cut off value ICBO to the lB' So [3 is large signal current gain of a Transistor in Common Emitter ConfiguratIOn.15 (a) and the characteristics are shown in Fig. the emitter junction is reduced and hence lCEO IS reduced. 4. travel into the collector resulting in large current.3 THE COMMON COLLECTOR CONFIGURATION (C.15 (b) and (c). holes in the collector and electrons in the base are the minority carriers.15 . (a) Cirucuitfor C.C) Here the load resistor RL is connected in the emitter circuit and not in the collector circuit.C configuration Fig. 4. 4. These excess electrons which do not combine with the hole. The operation of the circuit similar to that of Common Emitter Configuration. So no current flows through the load.C configuration 6V 10 rnA IB = 0 J. to neutralize this. the expression for [3 gives the ratio of change in collector current (Ic . for NPN transistor. Base current IB shouldl5e increased so that emitter current is some finite value and the transistor comes out of cut-off region. Therefore.C configuration ~ VBC(V) (b) Input characteristics in C. Output characteristics Ic vs V EC Input characteristics IB vs V BC The circuit diagram is shown in Fig. When one hole from the collector is injected into the base.4.200 Electronic Devices and Circuits In Common Emitter Configuration. The drop across RL itself acts as the bias for emitter base junction. 4. the emitter has to inject many more electrons. Hence ICEO is large com~ared to I CBO ' When E B junction is reverse biased.

... a = ~.alE + ICBO) IE [I-a] =-IB-IcBO .. (1) Ic = -a.-Ia Ie . IE : ~ ~ [-: a = ~~e 1 ..of holes emitter a = Small signal current gain Ic = I . (2) IE::~-~ IE = -y IB + IECO ECO I-a Where IECO is reverse emitter to collector current when base is open. (3) in eq.. of holes reaching collector No...... IE + ICBO IE :: -(I B + Ic) Substitute eq. IB = (lc + IE) Substitute eq. (2) IE = -(I B... (3) Expression for emitter current. PARAMETERS I =-- Ieao y. (2) IE + IB + Ic = 0. 'y' : It is defined as emitter current to the base current y.....Transistor Characteristics The current gain in CC. (I) .y a <1 E . ~ = Emitter Efficiency :: I iIE for PNP transistor.. p :: Transportation factor • IpC :: IpE = No. (1 ) Relationship between 'a' and 'y' : 0.- .. (I) in eq. :...-Ia 201 IE ..

Second letter A for diode. What is the mmimum base current required in order that the transistor enter its saturation region? (Fig. B ~ Second Letter : ~ ~ ~ Variable capacitance device ~ Transistor for A.F application: D Power Transistor: Rectifying diode F : Transistor for R.0 Kn. 4.F application BY 127: Silicon rectifying diode. leo = 2mA. B: Silicon devices C : Ga As devices Indium Antimonide Detection diode.98. Example: AF 139: It is Ge transistor for R. AZ for zener diode OA 81 : It is semiconductor diode OC 81 : It is transistor OA Z 200 : zener diode Problem 4. C for transistor. RL = 4.16 ) .202 Electronic Devices and Circuits a' = Small signal current gain = ale/alE = ~ IB hFE ale alB M 1 dIe a' < 1 E hFE = 13 = Large signal current gain 13» dIe dl B = 13' = Small signal currenL6ain = = - 13'» 1 leBO = Reverse saturation current when E-B junction is open circuited. A common emitter connectIOn is used and Vee = 12V. leo = Normal Reverse Saturation Current ~a=1+~ 13=I-a 4.5 CONVENTION FOR TRANSISTORS AND DIODES Two letters followed by a number a First Letter : A D A C Y ~ ~ Ge devices.F applications No.1 Given an NPN Transistor for which aN = 0. 139 is design Number Old System: Letter '0' indicates that it is semiconductor device.

(l'lg.B junction is oscillator circuited in C. Problem 4.U It is the collector current when ~ = 0 or when E .0..1.on Ie (saturation) = 203 R 12v L 4 Kn = Then I 12 4K = 3mA. This is the reverse saturation current in the C. 1) = I I (0) np = Ae On np 0 Ln (e VE '.) ~ 13 = 1_ a IB(mln) = 0. 4.98 1. n is left open)..Transistor Characteristics Soluti.16 For Problem 4..Vr - nE Inp(0) = Current due to injection of electrons from the base.type material. V BE .17 ) Fig.17 For Problem 4.2 Show that the ratio of the hole to electron currents I Ell E crossing the emitter junction of a pnp transistor is proportional to the ratio of the conduc&vitY ofthe p .98 = 49 = 49 = 61.. I~ c + 12 V B(mln) = a .:::. Solution _ vc Assume e VT is much smaller than 1 and eVE /VT » I.3 rnA 3 Fig.B.~- lC<sat. .type material·to that of the n ...1. 4.B junction due to minority carriers whe~ IE = O. where The electron current component of emitter current. 4.E configuration.. (in Covalent Bond Configuration when E .

.. ( 2 ) ~ an . a = /l x e x . (1) n2 p=/lxex-' no n an Substituting there two values in the above equation we get.. (3) a p = /lp x But P =p np 2 n. the collector is reverse biased.... e -Vc/VT is negligible.... v VC T »1....... V c is negative = (e .Vc IVT If - I) ...Pno eVE/VT InE w -= IpE Ln JuE Ln·Dp·Pno w........./lp But w ..' and p p npo n2 n =/l xex-' po p n2 ap ..204 Electronic Devices and Circuits Since.Dn·npo ex Ppo .. 1(0)= pn +Ae·Dp·pno W v I" e EYT=I pE ~ _ Ae DP.

compared to IB' a~ . dIe . alB leBO is small. A=h FE • fJ Problem 4.3 Assuming that ~' 105 = hfe and ~ ~ hFE . dl: (Multiplying and dividing by aIe) But P' =dI B dI B = P' d~ . Show that hFE h = fe 1-(I cBO + IB)ah FE alc P' = Small Signal C.E current gain = hFE Solution: The relation between P' and ~ is. d~ B P' = ~ + (leBo + I B)· aI dlB d~ = dIe dIe d~ dI .E current gain = hfe ~ = Large Signal C..4 If IB » leBo· Show that hfe - hFE h fe Solution: hFE = ~ = Large signal current gain hie = ~' = Small signal current gain P' = ~ + (leBo + I B) .Transistor Characteristics Problem 4. dIe d~ d~ But P' == ~ + (leBo) P' .

18 For Problem 4.E configuration to cut off. Tire reverse saturation current tlrat isjlowing eve" wlren IB = 0 is called I CBO ' For a transistor in C. Solution: leBO at 25°C = 21l A It gets doubled for every 10° rise in temperature.V BB + RB . leBO is at 7SoC.5 The reverse saturation current of the Germanium transistor shown in the Fig 4.25 = 50° C. . it is not sufficient if IE is made zero. In order to cut off. is 21lA at room temperature of (25°C) and increases by a factor of 2 for each temperature increase of 10°C. 4.18. Problem 4. leBo:S .206 Electronic Devices and Circuits Fig 4. Increase in temperature is 75 . Therefore.B junction should be reverse biased.18 NPN transistor in Common Emitter Configuration is shown. but the E . Find the maximum allowable value ofRB if the transistor is to remain cut-offat a temperature of 75° C. The bias V BB = 5Y.0.1 This is valid for Si or Ge devices. In the Fig. the condition is V BE = . Note V BE should be negative.4.

7 F?r the transistor AF 114 connected as shown in Fig.OV.0021 V.5kO Problem 4. since VBE < V . conduction takes place in the transistor. But because of high value ofRB. 18=2x2 t1T 1O = 5V ICBO = 641lA. determine the values of Is' Ic and VBC gIVen that VCE = . -0.Transistor Characteristics 50 207 ICBO at 75°c = 2 x 10-6 :x. transistor remains cut off till the temperature increases above a particular value.30 Kn B -9V E 77T Fig 4. L'1T=320C T = 25 + 32 = 57°C l------I 11 Kn --.19 For Problem 4. 4019. VBB RB = ? V BE = -0.2 t1T 10 =9 or 10 ~T =302 Hence Problem 4.1 V.0007V and VBE = . 0. 210 = 2 x 25 x 10-6 = 6411A rIf VBE is ::. how high may the temperature increase before the transistor .1 V.9 ~ = 64x 10-6 = 76.1 .7 . RB = 50k -I + 50 x 103 x ICBO = -0.6 If VBB = -I. = 50KO.VBB + 1\ . ICBO ~ 0. VBB = -I. The equation of transistor to be at cut-off is Y +V BE = .1 = -5 + 64 x 10-6 x RB 4.OV .1 V.'. ICBO = 181lA ICBO doubles for every 10° rise in temperature. the transistor will be at cut-off. and ~ comes out of cut-off? Solution As the temperature increases.

VCE lK -9+ 0. entering into the transistor are positive. I C IB = = -9V .VSE 30K = 30K = . Neglect reverse saturation current.98 x 2 = 1.98}{-:-2) = 40 J.a.8V V BN is> V BE .07 1x 103 =-8.) IE = (l .2rnA .21 + 0.A The voltage between base and ground V BN = +V BE + IE ~ and (considering only magnitude) IE .208 Electronic Devices and Circuits Solution PNP transistor collector is reverse biased.6 V. . find RI in the circuit shown in Fig. IE = 0. Ic = . So the current flowing is the reverse saturation current. E-B junction is open circuited.0. IB = (l . +12V -9+0.0 VBN = 0.0.8 If a. = 0.20 For Problem 4.6 +(2 x 0.6 : IE = 2 rnA : ~ = 100. 4.1) = 0.20 an Emitter Current IE = -2 rnA. Though there is no separate bias for the emitter.14V Problem 4.293 rnA.3 KQ N Fig 4. IE = .VCE = -0.. So actually lJiis flowing out of transistor.0.21 3.a. VBe = VBE .07 = .96 rnA Ic is positive since it is entering into transistor.93 rnA -9. the voltage drop between emitter and ground itself acts as the forward bias voltage. Solution is negative because it is NPN transistor. . VBE = + 0.l.8. and VBE = 0. ~o IE is negative here.98. The convention is currents.

. the voltage V is given by 6.47 VR R = _. VB .S 20k = 40)lA = IRI = IB + IR2 = 40 + 40 IRe = 80)lA IRI + Ie. N A ..N = . the base is 'P' type.96 mA == V R =Vce-VRc-VBN= 4. <ip = <iB . <iB = (base) e .A 1 PB·)lp VB = e.Transistor Characteristics VSN R~ 209 I R2 = - = - O.sec. = -I IR O. NA = - Thus e. eNA where E = 12/36rc x lOll F/cm.N A in the expression for VB' V =--B 2E.OS I I 12-(2. 2.S=4.)lpPB 2 W .09 x 3.. Substitute the value of E. IRI = SO)lA .47V = 56K Problem 4. W 2 V=----where PB is in n .9 Show that for an NPN silicon transistor of the alloy junction type. ~W2 VB is called the Barrer Potential or Contact Potential.3)-0. PH Solution 12 12 ( F/m= . E = p The expression for W2 = 2E. In NPN transistor.N.F/cm 36rc x 10) 36rc x 1011 )l = 500 cm 2/V .96mA IRC = SO )lA+ 1. in which the resistivity PB of the base is much larger than that of the collector.04~lA Ie = 1.cm and base width W in mills.34xI03. )lp <iB 1 = -)lp PB·)lp or e .

210

Electronic Devices and Circuits

SubstitutethevalueofEofSiliconas Since
W is in mills,

12 II F/cm. 361tx 10

I 1 mil = 1000" (one thousand of an inch)

To convert this to centimeters, multiply by 2.45 :. Barrier Potential,
W 2(mills)x (2.54

f x (_1_)2 1000
500

VB =

2x12
11 x

PB 361txl0 V-sec 2 )l = 500 cm /V - sec = Mobility of Holes p

VB

=

6.1

x

103

x -

W2
PB

Problem 4.10
A transistor having a = 0.96 is placed in Common Base Configuration with a load resistance of 5 KO. Ifthe emitter to base junction resistance is 800, find the values of amplifier current, voltage and power gain.

Fig 4.21 For Problem 4.10 Solution
Al

= current gain = -I
E

Ie

=

a = 0.96

a.RL A =--

v

/'BE

= 60 80 Power Gain Ap = Av x Al

0.9x5xl0 3

=

60 x 0.96

=

57.6

Transistor Characteristics
Problem 4.11

211

If a transistor, with a = 0.96 and emitter to base resistance 80n is placed in Common Emitter Configuration, find AI' Ay and Ap'

Solution
I A=~=j/3
I

/3=I-a 0.96 = 1-0.96 = 24 A = -/3RL
Y

IB a

YBE

24x 7.5x 104 = -22,500 Ap = AI x Ay = 24 80

x

22,500 = 5,40,000.

Problem 4.12
A transistor is operated at a forward current of2J.lA and with the collector open circuited. Calculate the junction yoltages Ve and VE' the collector to emitter yoltage VeE assuming leo = 2J.lA, lEO = 1.6/-lA and aN = 0.98.

Solution

Ie = 0

Since Collector Junction is open circuited.

1= lo(eYN/Vr -1)
Vb _l IE = IEO e nY1 (

1

212

Electronic Devices and Circuits

Problem 4.13
A load draws current varying from 10 to 100 rnA at a nominal voltage of 100V. A regulator consists of Rs = 2000 and zener diode represented by 100 V, and Rz = 200. For IL = 50 rnA. Determine variation in Vi corresponding to a I % variation in V L'

Solution
The zener ~iode is represented by a voltage source with it. V Lcan vary with in I % so what is the allowable range in which V can be permitted to vary? In oraer that the zener diode is operated near the breakdown region,lthe current through the zener diode is operated near the breakdown region, the current through the zener should be at least 0.1 times the load current.

Rs
--'\/\1

i 2000 i
I Z

r----- _:to! 'z
l
i

~

IL

RL

i
V
L

V

V:

..!--~--!..--~--LL----__ ----1 ---'-~
Fig 4.22 For Problem 4.13
IZm1l1 = 0.1 (lLma) Iz = 0.1 x 100 = lOrnA. V L = Vz + IzRz = 100 + 0.01
x

!

'

I Lmax = 100 rnA.

20 = 100.2V

V I = V I_+ (It + Iz) Rs = 100.2 + (0.05 + 0.01) 200 =112.2V. V L= 100.2V 1% increase is Vt ~ I V. V' = 100.2+ 1= 101.2V L 1 heretore, tile Illcrease 111 , Ve'-Vz R Iz, ]z· =

-

z

101.2 -100 20 1.2 V = 20 n = 0.06A Total Current = 0.05 + 0.06 = 0.1 A Total Voltage V I = VZ + Rs x (lz + I,)

= 101.2 + 200 x (0.05 + 0.06)
VI = 123.2V Change in VI = 123.2V - 112.2V = IIV A change of 11 V in V, on the input side produces a change of I Von the output side due to zener diode action.

Transistor Characteristics
4.6 FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (FET)

213

The Field Effect Transistor is a semiconductor device which depends fo.. its operation on the control of current by an electric field. Hence. the name FET.

There are two types (FET) :
I. Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) or simply FET. 2. lnsuiated Gate Field Effect Transistor IGFET. It is also called as Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) transistor or MOST or MOSFET. The principle of operations of these devices, their characteristic are"given in this chapter.

Advantages of FET over BJT (Transistor)
I. JFET is unipolar device. Its operation depends upon the flow of majority carriers only. Vacuum tube is another example of unipolar device. Because the current depends upon the flow of electrons emitted from cathode. Transistor is a bipolar device. So recombination noise is more. 2. JFET has high input resistance (MQ). BJT (Transistor) has less input resistance. So loading effect will be there. 3. It has good thermal stability. 4. Less noisy than a tube or transistor. Because JFET is unipolar, recombination noise is less. 5. It is relatively immune to radiation. 6. JFET can be used as a symmetrical bilateral switch. 7. By means of small charge stored or internal capacitance. it acts as a memory device. 8. It is simpler to fabricate and occupies less space in IC form. So packing density is high.

Disadvantage
1. Small gain - bandwidth product.

4.6.1

JFET~

There are two types; 1. n - channel JFET. 2. P - channel JFET. If n - type semiconductor bar is used it is n - channel JFET. If P - type semiconductor bar is used it is p - channel JFET. Ohmic contacts are made to the two ends of a semiconductors bar of n-type or p-type semiconductor. Current is caused to flow along the length of the bar, because of the voltage supply connected between the ends. If it is n - channel JFET, the current is due to electrons only and if it is p-channel JFET, the current is due to holes only. The three lead of the device are 1. Gate 2. Drain 3. Source. They are similar to 1. Base 2. Collector 3. Emitter of BJT respectively.

214

Electronic Devices and Circuits

4.6.2

n-Channel JFET

The arrow mark at the gate indicates the direction of current if the Gate source junction is forward biased. On both sides of the n - type bar heavily doped (p+) region of acceptor impurities have been formed by alloying on diffusion. These regions are called as Gates. Between the gate and source a voltage Vos is applied in the direction to reverse bias the p-njunction. p-Channel JFET The symbol for p-ch,annel FET is given in Fig. 4.24. The semiconductor bar is p-type or source is p-type. Gate is heavily doped n-region. If G - S junction is forward biased, electrons from gate will travel towards source. Hence, the conventional current flows outside. So, the arrow mark is as shown in Fig. 4.24. indicating the direction of current, if G-S junction is forward biased. The FET has three terminals, Source, drain and Gate.

~SD

Fig 4.23 (n-channel JFET)

~SD

Source

Fig 4.24 (p-channel JFET).

The source S is the terminal through which the majority carriers enter the bar (Fig. 4.25). Conventional current entering the bar at S is denoted as Is'
~p

- type Gate

I
Source S

I
n - type channel Drain D

o

Al
Drain

~ 2L-----~----~~~------L-----~~Al

I

I

. - - - p - type Gate

Fig 4.25 Structure of JFET.
The drain D is the terminal through which the majority carriers leave the bar. Current entering the bar at D is designated by ID. VDS is positive if D is more positive than S, source is forward biased.

Gate
In the case of n - channel FET, on both sides of the bar heavily doped (p+) region of acceptor impurities have been formed by diffusion or other techniques, The impurity regions form as Gate. Both these region (p+ regions) are joined and a lead is taken out, which is called as the gate lead of the FET. Between the gate and source, a voltage V GS is applied so as to reverse bias the gate source p-n junction. Because of this reason JFET has high input impedance. In BJT Emitter Base junction is forward biased. So it has less ~. Current entering the bar at G is designated as IG.

CHANNEL
The region between the two gate regions is the channel through which the majority carriers move from source to drain. By controlling the reverse bias voltage applied to the gate source junction the channel width and hence the current can be controlled.

Transistor Ch aracteristics
4.7 FET STRUCTURE

215

FET will have gate junction on both sides of the silicon bar (as shown in Fig. 4.26).

Source ~
S ..-.

"(,(,

+

-

+

Fig 4.26 JFET structure.
But it is difficult to diffuse impurities from both sides ofthe wafer. So the normal structure that is adopted is, a p-type material is taken as substrate. Then n-type channel is epitaxially grown. A p-type gate is then diffused into the n-type channel. The region between the diffused p-type impurity and the source acts as the drain. Source 2b (x) = Actual channel width, at any point x, the spacing between the depletion regions at any point x from source end because the spacing between the depletion regions is not uniform, it is less towards the drain and more towards the source (see Fig.4.27). 2b depends upon the value ofVGs ' Fig 4.27 Structure 2a = Channel width, the spacing between the doped regions of the gate from both sides. This is the channel width when V GS = 0 (and the maximum value of channel width).

4.7.1

THE

ON

RESISTANCE r

DS

(ON)

Suppose a small voltage Vos is applied between drain and source, the resulting small drain current 10 will not have much effect on the channel profile. So the effective channel cross section A can be assumed to be constant, throughout its. length. A = 2bw Where, 2b = Channel width corresponding to zero 10 (Distance between the space charge regions) w = Channel dimension perpendicular to b.

216

ElectJ'OJH(:

n·;··.. ices and Circuits

.. Expressions for, ID = A . e . N D ~n Ex J = n e. ~ . E (J = cr.E. U .= r:C.~L) I = A x J, But A = 2b (x) . w Considering b along x-axis, since 'b' dependf, upon the voltage V GS' b(x) is till' width at any point 'x'. J .. ID = 2b (x) roo q. ND . ~n .':, en

= ~s = 2b

V

.
; L is the length of the channel

(Electric field strength depends upon VDS' Channel width 2b depends upon .. ID
(x) w. q. ND .

Vas.)

. Vos L 'This expression is valid in the linear region only. This is the linear region, It behaves like a resistance, where ohmic resistance depends upon V as.v DS / ID is called as the ON drain resistance or rDS(ON) ON because, JFET is conducting, in the ohmic regions when V DS is small and channel area A = 2a.w, rDS(on) = Ll2 b(x) wq ND ~n rDS(on) will be few n to several 100 n. Because, the mobility of electrons is much higher than that for holes, rDS(On) is small for n-channel FETs compared to p-channel FETs.

~n

4.7.2 PINCH OFF REGION
The voltage V DS at which, the drain current ID tends to level off is called the pinch off voltage. When the value of VDS is large, the electric field that appears along the x-axis, i.e., along the channel ex will also be more. When the value of ID is more, the drain end of the gate i.e., the gate region near the drain is more reverse biased than the source end. Because, the drain is at reverse potential, for n-channel FET, source is n-type, drain is n-type and positive voltage is applied for the drain, gate is also reverse biased. Therefore, the drop across the channel adds to the reverse bias voltage of the gate. Therefore, channel narrows more near the drain region and less near the source region. So, the boundaries of the depletion region are not parallel when V DS is large and hence Ex is large. . As V DS increases, Ex and ID increase, whereas the channel width b(x) narrows (.: depletion region increases). Therefore the current density J = ID / 2b(x) w increases. If complete pinch off were to take place b = O. But this cannot happen, because if b were to be 0, J ~ 00 which cannot physically happen. Mobility ~ is a function of electric field intensity ~ remains constant for low electric fields when Ex < 103V/cm.

~a

k
Ex

when Ex is 103 to 104 V/cm.(for moderate fields).

u a _1 for very high field strength > 10-1 V!ern.

'0 =

2bwe ND ~n Ex'

Transistor Characteristics

217

As V DS increases, Ex increases but )..tn decreases, b almost remains constant. Therefore If) remains constant in the pinch off region. Pinch off voltage (V PO or V p) is the voltage at which the drain current ID levels off. When VGS = OV, if V GS = - 1, V, the voltage at which the current ID levels off decreases, (This is not pinch off voltage). If V GS is large - 5, V DS at which the current levels off may be zero. So the relationsh ip between V DS' V PD and V GS is

V DS = V PD + V GS V DS is positive n-channel FET. VPO = P indicates pinch off voltage, zero indicate the voltage when VGS = Ov.
V DS is the voltage at which the current ID levels off.(See Fig. 4.28).
lOrnA VGs=O

iDrnA

-I

-2 -3 2 3 4 5=V po
Vos

Fig 4.28 JFET drain characteristics.

,

4.7.3

EXPRESSION FOR PINCl-I OFF VOLTAGE, V p

Net charge in an alloy junction, must be the same, semiconductor remains neutral. e.N A
Wp

=e

ND . wn

If NA » N D, from the above eq, wp « w n • The relation between potential and charge density (p) is given by Poisson's equation. d V
2

e.N D
E

dx 2

We can neglect w p and assume that the entire harrier potential VB appears across the increased donor ions. e.NI) = charge density P
d\'
:c-

_x

e1x

n -----.x
E

I!.N

,

Fig 4.19 Charge density variation

V=

e.N n
E

~l~~~~~~"~
=

At the boundary conditiuns, x

wn

Fig 4.30 Structure

218
Wn

Electronic Devices and Circuits

= depletion region width
=
D 2E . Wn
1

V

e.N

2

or

Wn

=

{~}2 e.N
D

This is the expression for the penetration of depletion region into the channel. As the reverse bias potential between Gate and drain increased, the channel width narrows or the depletion region penetrates into the channel. Therefore the general expression for the spacecharge width Wn (x) = w(n). w(n) V
w
=

2E { -{Vo eND

- V{x)}

}li

= Voltage between drain and source V DS = Penetration of depletion region into the channel,

Where V = Vo - Vex); Vo is the contact potential at x and V(nl is the applied potential across space charge region at x and is negative for an applied potential. This potential (between D and S) is not uniform throughout the channel. The potential is higher near the drain and decreases towards the source. The depletion region is more towards the drain and decrease towards the source. .. V = Vo - V(x) The actual potential is the difference of V0 and V(x).
E

= Dielectric

constant of channel material

w(x)

=

a-b(x) = {e~: (Vo - V(x)>t

.....(1)

a - b(x) = Penetration w(x) of depletion region into channel at a point x along the channel from one side of gate region only. 2a = Total width between the two gate diffusions. 2b(x) = Depletion region width between the two sides of the gate regions. If ID = 0, b(x) is independent of x and it will be uniform throughout the channel and will be equal to 'b'. Vo will be much smaller than Vex). If in equation (1), we substitute b(n) = b = 0, neglect V o, and solve for V we obtain the pinch off voltage. Because at pinch off, the two depletion regions from both sides meet each other, therefore the spacing between them b(x) = 0. Therefore, w at pinch off, V 0 neglected, b = 0,

w={~v}X eND
or
w2

= clf.: .'vp
Q.

2,E

.•

P

Transistor Characteristics
4.8 FET OPERATION

219

If a p-n junction is reverse biased, the majority carriers will move away from the junction. That is holes on the p-side will move away from the junction leaving negative charge or negative ions on the p-side (because each atom is deprived of a hole or an electron fills the hole. So it becomes negative by charge). Similarly, electrons on the n-side will move away from the junction leaving positive ions near the junction. Thus, there exists space charge on both sides of the junction in a reverse biased p-n junction diode. So, the electric field intensity, the lines of force originate from the positive charge region to the Fig 4.31 Space charge in p-n negative charge region. This is the source of voltage drop .. across the junction. As the reverse bias across the junction JunctIon. increases, the space charge region also increases, or the region of immobile uncovered charges increases (i.e., negative region on p-side and positive region on n-side increases as shown in Fig. 4.31). The conductivity of this region is usually zero or very small. Now in a FET, between gate and source, a reverse bias is applied. Therefore the channel width is controlled by the reverse bias applied between gate and source. Space charge region exists near the gate regi·on on both sides. The space between them is the channel. If the reverse bias is increased, the channel width decreases. Therefore, for a fixed drain to source voltage the drain current will be a function of the reverse biasing voltage across the junction. Drain is at positive potential (for n-type FET). Therefore, electrons tend to move towards drain from the source (1) Because, source is at negative potential, they tend to move towards the drain. But because of the reverse bias applied to the gate, there is depletion region or negative. charge region near the gate which restricts the number of electrons reaching the drain. Therefore the drain current also depends upon the reverse bias voltage across the gate junction. The term field effect is used to describe this device because the mechanism of current control is the effect of the extensions, with increase reverse bias of the field associated with region of uncovered charges The characteristics of n-channel FET between ID, the drain current and VDS the drain source voltage are as shown in Fig. 4.32, for different values of Vas.
0
10 • rnA

--

+0.5 V OV -2V -3.5V 20V
----.. V OS' Volts

J

i

((
&
~

Fig 4.32 Drain charecteristics To explain these characteristics, suppose Vas = 0. When Vos = 0, 10 ~ 0, because the channel is entirely open. When a small Vos is applied (source is forward biased or negative

e. But the channel cannot be closedown completely and there by reducing the value of 10 to zero. The maximum voltage that can be applied between any two terminals of the FET is the lowest voltage that will cause avalanche breakdown. '0 value will be comparatively larger. Because of the ohmic drop. For p-channel FET. the current will remain constant at a particular value and the corresponding voltage at which the current begins to level off is called as the pinch off voltage.type channel I p I I Fig 4. a positive voltage is applied to it. FET characteristics are similar to that of a pentode. voltage or negative voltage is applied to the gate. This is because. . drain is at negative potential with respect to source. Because. avalanche breakdown occurs early or for a lower value of Vos.33 below).SV is just equal to or less than the cut in voltage.I FET. If V GS is made + O.SV. Positive voltage is applied to the drain. so negative voltage is applied. in vacuum tubes.SV). But at this voltage. across the gate junction. (compared to V GS = OV or . because the required reverse bias will not be there.SV. the constrictions is not uniform. O. Therefore. Drain is similar to anode (at positive potential). the reverse bias gate source voltage adds to the drain voltage because drain though n -type (for n-channel FET). Therefore. but is wore pronounced at distances farther from the source. the characteristic for V GS = + O. the source gets reverse biased or the negative potential at the n-type source reduces. Now if a gate voltage V G5 is applied in a direction to reverse bias the gate source junction. Therefore. the gate is p-type. Gate source junction should be reverse biased. n-channel FET is exactly similar to a Vacuum Tube (Triode). Consider n-channel FET.. and gate is p-type. and the maximum drain current will be smaller compared to when V GS = O. the effective voltage across the gate junction is increased. as the reverse bias voltage for the gate source junction is increased.33 Structure of n-channel . the gate source junction is forward biased. Therefore. (But the characteristics are similar to pentode). 4. source and drain are n-type. along the length of the channel it self. the gate current will be very small because for Si FET. the channel width is narrow at the drain and wide at the source. I Gate I Source S p I Drain D n . The source and drain are n-type and p-type gate is diffused from both sides of the bar (See Fig. The source should be forward-biased. the ohmic voltage drop between the source and the channel region reverse biases the junction and the conducting portion of the channel begins to constrict.220 Electronic Devices and Circuits voltage is applied to n-type source). Finally. pinch off will occur for smaller values of (V os). gate is n-type. and positive voltage is applied. the n-type bar acts as a simple semiconductor resistor and so 10 increases linearly with Vos' With increasing current. From the FET characteristics it can be observed that. source to cathode and gate to grid. Pinch off will occur early. i.O. For n-channel FET.

So channel width decreases and channel resistance increases. This problem is similar to that of a reverse biased p-n junction diode.35. Because drain is at positive potential. Therefore. Source is IHype. length and thickness. So we call this as the depletion region since it is depleted ofmobile carriers or charges.. So it is Forward biased.+ I .-_--'-_ _ -... If V DS is increased. _ 0 I~ I -> I _ r--::.'_ _. since these p-n junctions are reverse biased and so the current is due to minority carriers only. since. the current between Sand G or G and D can be neglected.34 Reverse biased G .34.L.0 _ . eventhough there is positive potential for the electrons at the drain and hence they tend to move towards the drain and conventional current flows as shown by the arrow mark. There are no mobile charges near the junction. This resistance is a function of the doping of the n-material and the channel width.. As V DS is increased.. As the reverse voltage is increased. Source Drain Fig 4. depletion region is increased (shaded portion). V PO is the pinch off voltage.. But extends more towards drain than source. the rate at which ID increases reduces..35 . The current flowing from source to drain ID depends on the potential between source and drain.Transistor Characteristics 221 Suppose source and gate are at ground potential and small positive voltage is applied to the drain. drain is n-type and positive voltage at drain is increased. electrons from the source will move towards the drain. the depletion region width 'I' increases. the reverse bias voltage for the gate drain junction is increased. Negligible current flows between source and gate or gate and drain. So the depletion region is not uniform VDS < V po. The depletion region extends more towards drain because points close to the drain are at higher positive voltage compared to points close to source.D junctions Consider a p-n junction which is reverse biased. o _ + + + I + I v Fig 4. in the FigA.~ P i n : . Because gate is heavily doped. The holes on the p-side remain near the negative terminal and electrons on the n-side reach near the positive terminal as shown in FigA. V DS' resistance of the n-material in the channel between drain to source. This result is directly applicable for JFET.

Source Drain Fig. No Iln E A = 2b . The corresponding VDS is called as VPD' the pinch off voltage. the channel cross-section A can be assumed to be constant throughout. more electrons tend to move towards the drain. Io=Ae. Where 2b is the channel width corresponding to negligible drain current and w is channel dimension perpendicular to the 'b' direction.36. ros is almost constant. So the resistivity of the channel increases. because it pinches off the channel connection between drain and source.3 7) Source Drain Fig 4.36 When Vos > Vpo If Vos is further increased. So 10 remains constant.37 Depletion region width variation in JFET. the net result is 10 levels off.222 Electronic Devices and Circuits When VDS = Vpo When Vos is further increased. Because drain is at more positive potential. So as Vos is increased.(See Fig. for any Vos above Vpo' Vos 10= ros In the linear region.w. Hence 10 should increase. its length. 10 increases.4. w . But. When the two channels meet. A = 2b. The resulting small drain current 10 will not have appreciable effect on the channel profile. 10 decreases. Therefore. as Vos increases ros also increases. 4.9 JFET VOLT-AMPERE CHARACTERISTICS Suppose the applied voltage Vos is small. the depletion region on each side of the channel join together as shown in Fig. the depletion region thickens. Therefore. 4.4. because channel resistance increases.

.b) because for a given VGS' as Vos increases. this value in equation (1 ).. the reverse potential between drain and gate increase.b)2 . EXPRESSION FOR V Gs V= e. No Iln · VOS L .. w = a = The spacing between the two gate dopings. (1) Where L is the length of the channel. Eliminating 'b' which is unknown. ..N D x 2 2E We can get the expression for VGS if we replace x by (a . _ e.ND(a .. Therefore. VGS = ( 1- ~ r.. depletion region width increases. But.. b =a = 0.b) and V by VGS' VGS = ---""-2'-E--'-- e.N o Vp 28 .b (x) at pinch off. ID = 2awe~D~n [1-[~ V DS 2 W n This is the expression for 10 in terms of VGS' V p and Vos because the value of b is not directly known. Vp Substituting.Transistor Characteristics E = 223 VOS L 2bwe . Vp ~ a = 1 _ [VGs)7. a2 [ VOS controls the width of the depletion region (a .:-. [!Vp ! = . W .

It is found that the transfer characteristics giving the relationship between los and V GS can be approximated by parabola. channel width is controlled by V GS and depletion region width by V DS' hs ~ (I-Hvp I ID = THE ON RESISTANCE r ds (ON) When Vos is small. ices and Circuits But IVpl = = e.N D 2E IVpi a2 Substituting this in expression for V Gs' V GS = Vp 2 -(a-b) a2 Channel width is controlled by V GS' As V GS increases. channel width reduces. ID vs V GS (loss + IGSS) [ 1. to S will be of the orderofnano amperes. loss = The saturation value of the drain current when gate is shorted to source that isVGs=O. .a 2 2E e.) Therefore.N D .224 Elect. so it can be neglected. the FET behaves like an ohmic resistance whose value is determined by VGS' The ratio 2bwe ND ~n' Vos L L = r 2a we N D Iln ds(ON)' --+Vos Fig 4.10 TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS OF FET The saturation value of the drain current or the value at which ID remains constant."onic Dc.Vp VGS]2 ID = - IGSS With negligible I GSS ' because IGS is the leakage gate current between G and S when Dis shorted.Vp VGS]2 Transfer characteristic follows the equation.38 Drain characteristics 4. los = los -loss _ [1.

Normally this is chosen in the saturation region. because the characteristics are flat. Sinc~ in the latter case 10 is not zero. Mobility (Jl) decreases at constant Electric Field (E). As T increases depletion region width decreases. To construct transfer characteristics.10.7 % per degree centigrade.lo = O.es by 0. For n-channel FET. So this gate source voltage at which 10 becomes zero is also called as pinch off voltage or VGS(oft) voltage. The intersection of the vertical line abed gives a particular value of 10 for different values of VGS' SO the transfer characteristics between 10 and V GS can be drawn. 10 decreas. This channel width is made zero either by controll ing Vos or V GS' Hence there are two types of pinch of voltages. This is the voltage between gate and source for which 10 becomes zero. If V p is positive. This pinch off voltage is different from Vos voltage at which 10 levels off. If the specified V p is -5V. G-S junction is reverse biased) is positive. So conductivity 0' of the channel increases. therefore 10 increases. a b c Vp ~ -4 d IOV -3 -2 -I 0 ---+ Vos V Fig 4. 10 also increases. The transfer characteristics can be derived from the drain characteristics. So channel width decreases.loss _ (1- VGS]2 Vp This Vp is VGS(oft) and not Vos because when Vp = VGS(Oft).1 FET BIASING FOR ZERO DRIFT CURRENT As Temperature (T) increases.Transistor Characteristics 225 10 .39 Drain and Gate characteristics of JFET. Vos 4. VGS is negative (since gate is p-type. . The specified pinch off voltage VJl for a given FET can be known if it is due to Vos or V GS from the polarity of the voltage V . a constant value of VOS is selected. loss = The saturation value of drain current when gate is shorted to source or VGs=O. depletion region width increases. a transfer characteristics for the device can be constructed. (say) that it is due to V GS(off) because V p is negative. As the reverse potential between G and S increases. Here Vp is again called the pinch off voltage or V GS(oft) voltage. If the end points V p and loss are known.amps). it is due to Vos at which loss levels off. For some value of VGS channel pinches off or 10 practically becomes zero (It cannot be exactly zero but few nano . but channel width becomes zero and channel pinches off.

if Rd = 5kn (a) Find 10 for zero drift current. for a FET having the following particulars: Vp =-3V.08 rnA V GS =-3 -0.8 mAN loss = 1. ~o= .Vp V = 0. For zero drift current.63 Vp =-3V VGs=Vp-O.2 Ioss V 4.63 =43Kn 0.75 rnA.0 07 110 1 = 0. (b) V GS (c) Rs (d) Voltage gain with Rs bypassed with a large capacitance.. or or gm = gmo (1p VGS] V p .. 0.2 mVJOc.89 .v GS Fig 4. IV pi-IV Gsl = 0.08 rnA (d) gm = gmo VGS .63 (a) (b) _ (1.63 =-3.63 V (c) .314 V gm IIVpl-IVGSI=0.VGS]2 lo-Ioss Vp :::::0.40 Biasing for zero drift current.V.Vp ) . 363 R =~=-'-= s 10 10 3.0022 gm W=O.226 10 Electronic Devices and Circuits increase at a rate of 2.63VI VGS 12 Ios=loss ( 1.2 mVJOC change in VGS' Therefore change in V GS = 2.14 Problem Design the bias circuit for zero drain current drift. Rd = 1.-.378 mAN p Ay = gm . Solution For zero drift current. gmo = 1.

.. Suppose Vos is fixed and VGs is varied. -2 etc. Just as a p-n junction breakdown when reverse voltage is very high FET also break down if Vos is high due to high electric field. This decreases channel width and increases channel resistance.O.a where No = Donor atom concentration E = Permitivity E . therefore % = constant. resistance of the channel also rises. Gate cut-off current when Drain is shorted to source. ' . Therefore. The drain current 10 increases rapidly as Vos increases.E o r a = Effective width of Silicon bar . So n-type JFET is usually operated so that VGS = 0 or negative. BVDSS VI'O .. The region before V po is called ohmic region because ohms law is obeyed (see Fig. The p-n junction. Drain current when the JFET is in OFF state. breakdown (avalanche) occurs and the current rises rapidly. Mutual conductance gm when VGS = O..41 Drain characteristics. As V increases. Saturation value of the drain current when gate is shorted to source (V GS=O). between gate and source becomes forward biased and current flows from gate to source.Transistor Characteristics 227 In t '1'0 ohmic region saturation region /VGs=O breakdown region . When VGS = Breakdown voltage BV oss.. R increases.. -I.4. depletion region decreases and hence 10 increases.+ Vos Fig 4.. towards V po' Above V po' The current tends to level off at Ipo and then rises slowly.. If gate voltage is made positive.. Breakdown voltage Vos ' when gate is shorted to source. loss BVoss IO(oft) IGSS Saturation value of the drain current for V GS *. I remains constant. As VGS is made negative..... .. Hence 10 decreases.... Current levels off because as V increases.. E. Vpo oindicate VGS = O...41). p-n junction is reverse biased and depletion region between gate and source increases.-.N o 2 The expression for the pinch offvoltage IV pi = 2. Pinch offvoltage when VGS = O.

. designed as IGS ' this is when drain is shorted to source. and increase by a factor of 1000 at a temperature of 150°C. more electrons will reach the drain.10. The drain current 10 is a function of gate voltage V GS and drain voltage (Vos) 10 = f(V GS' V os ) .1 amps to few nano amps at 25°C.type.228 Electronic Devices and Circuits 4. E ~.3 ApPLICATIONS 1. 4. IGSS is due to the minority carries ofthe reverse biased gate.10. IO(oft) is due to the carriers reaching drain from source because channel resistivity will not become infinity. offresistance is very high. with a = pinch offvoltage. Under these conditions. JFETs make good digital and analog switches.channel Silicon FET. 2.NA 2 (forp-channeIFET) sec. 4.(2xlOp 4 4 2x12(36nx10 11 t L =3. gate is p . because for n . e :::'~A fl p ' e 1 or e. Find the Solution Vp= ForSi.channel FET. Source junction.N =-- Pflp or 10x500 e.78V 4. 3. They are used in special purpose amplifiers such as very high input resistance amplifiers. 2 x 10-4 cm and channel resistivity p = Ion . There exists some drain current under these conditions also called ID(off)' 10 (off) and IGSS will be in the range 0. Because drain is at positive potential for n-channel FET.11 FET SMALL SIGNAL MODEL The equivalent circuit for FET can be drawn exactly in the same manRer as that for a vacuum tube.type and source is n .. there will be some current called gate reverse current or gate cut off current.15 Problem For a p . (1) ..2 CUT OFF A FET is said to be cut off when the gate to source voltage IV Gsl is greater than the pinch off voltage V p' IV Gsl > IV pl. It can be used as a voltage controlled resistance because resistivity of the channel varies with Vos. = 12 eo flp = 500 cm2 /v = p::: A I 0' pflp.NA=2x 10-4 V = 2xl0. buffers voltage follower etc..a e.cm.

Fig 4. ~Io= aiD 229 a:v.1 DRAIN RESISTANCE OR OUTPUT RESISTANCE r D ro= avOs I m o VGS ::: ~ aVos I VGS = -1d Vds I VGS . . .. ~Io = Id . V gs + rd . 1 Id = gm . ~VGS = Vgs . . ~ Vos = Vds. regIOn I ---. ' . or ~VGS ~IO I VDS = Vgs Id I VOS The mutual conductance or transconductance.I . . Sometimes it is designated as Yc or gc the second subscript's' indicating common source and y or g for forwards transadmittancJ or co~ductance respectively.42 Drain characteristics of JFET. V ds where. I...Transistor Characteristics Expanding (1) by Taylor's series. 4. I'. .+- • Saturation .c quantities. . I" I '.~V OS OS Vas GS VI" In the small signal notation the incremental values can be assumed to be a.. .I ~GS + aID ---av. .1 ----"0..~Breakdown region ~VDS I .11. I " " .

I-IOmAN rd=O.44 Simplified equivalent circuit . This is similar of a transistor h-parameter equivalent circuit.Vds rd This is similar to the expression Ip of a triode. Gate -----r---1 C gs Drain gd . Between gate and source the capacitance is C gs and C gd is the barrier capacitance between gate and drain. ro ofFET is analog to rp of vacuum tube..I-IMO p=rd. 4. In low frequency circuit.2 EQlJIVALENT CIRCUIT FOR FET The ~xpression for drain current Id in the case of a FET is I Id=gm V gs + -.l C Cds Source'---~------~----~----~~~ Source Fig 4. (See Fig. 4. -. Ifwe neglect the capacitances the equivalent circuit ofFET can be drawn as given in Fig.230 Electronic Devices and Circuits Drain conductance = Yos = output conductance for common source. we are controlling the current. Xc will be very large so C is open circuit and neglected. gm ofFET is analog to gm of vacuum tube. So the equivalent circuit can be drawn as a current source in parallel with a resistance. Fig 4. FET is a voltage controlled device.44.1 . Cds represents the drain to source capacItance ot the channel. IlforFET = ~ av I avGS 10 = ~ Vos I ~V GS 10 = Vds V I gs 10 TYPICAL V ALlJES gm =O.10 pf 4.11. by controlling the channel width by voltage.43). .43 JFET equivalent circuit This is high frequency equivalent circuit because we are considering capacitances.gm C gs = I-IOpf Cds = 0.

19 XlO l5 X(3XIO-4 )2 2 x 12 x (36 n x lOll = 6.Lp·e or or 1 1 e.6 x 10.N A EO ~ ForSi... E = 12 1 f. with a = 3 x 10-4 cm and No = 10 15 electrons/cm3• Find (a) The 1 pinch offvoltage.Lp..Trans istor Ch aracteristics 231 Arrow mark is downwards in the current source &n Vgs because the current (conventional current) is flowing from drain to source for n-channel FET (Because electrons are the majority carriers).78V 2XI2(361tXI011t 4. 0-= P=pf.for p-channel FET. with a= 2 x 10-4 cm (effective channel width) and channel resistivity P = 1on~ cm. e.. Find the pinch off voltage.N 2 p 2E 1.Lp= 500 cm2 /v-sec. (b) The channel halfwidth for VGS ="2 Vp and 10 = O. NA = Pf.8V (b) t b=? for b= all-(~s )11 (3 x = II>') (I-Gr) = 0.e=NAf.a e. Solution (a) D V =--.N A =2 x l0-4 2 x 10-4 (2 x lO-4t V = p =3.87 x 10-4cm .a . Solution V p = ~.L p = tOx500 e. J 7 Problem For an n-channel silicon FET. 4.16 Problem For a p-channel silicon FET.

VGS) Vp Vp But or 1 ( - ~:S J ~ /:ssS = gm =.lDs I Vp I 4.vGsJ V p where gmo is the transistor conductance ~ fdr VGS = O. g = _2_ i1oss. the drain current is 10::::: lDSS + gmo VGS . gmo-= _ Dss Vp 21 gnl 21 DSS [1. Vp ~ los loss = _2_~IDss.2Ioss .19 Problem Show that for small values of V GS' compared with V p. Solution .Ios m I Vp I" Solution -gm _ _ (1.232 Electronic Devices and Circuits 4.18 Problem Show that for a JFET.

SOLID STATE DEVICES FET 1.-_. derive their name from Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) or MOS transistor (See Fig. . [ . there is no p-njunction between gate and channel.46). a dielectric ofSi02 and the semiconductor channel.!-.2I IllO - VI' [)S5] 4. These are also known as IGFET (Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistor). ....1 Depletion type only MOSFET (IGFEl) N-channel P-channel Depletion type Enhancement type N-channel ~ P-channel N-channel ~ P-channel Fig 4. . gate will be p-type). So these are very widely used in ICs and are fast replacing JFETs.Transistor Characteristics 233 I D = I DSS + gmo V.12 FET TREE The input Z of JFET is much higher compared to a junction transistor. These devices.It is this construction which accounts for the very large input resistance of 10 I 0 to 10 15 0 and is the major difference from the JFET.. In FETs the gate source junctions is a p-n junction. [two conductors separated by dielectric] .----.45 FET Tree. g (JS .. The gate is a metal ang. but rather a capacitor consisting of metal gate contact.. ( If the source is n-type. enhancement mode and depletion mode.. the input Z is much higher compared to JFETs.. But for MOSFETs. But in MOSFETs.. 4.> insulated from the semiconductor (source and drain are semiconductor type) by a thin oxide layer. There are two types ofMOSFETs..

234 Electronic Devices and Circuits The symbols for MOSFETs are. High package density::: 105 components per square cm. and a positive voltage is applied at the gate. Hence.channel Enhancement mode devices require 1 diffusion and 4 photo masking steps. The source and drain are separated by 1 mil. 4. the arrow will point outwards. Self Isolation: Electrical isolation occurs between MOSFETs in ICs since all p-njunctions are operated under zero or reverse bias. between source and drain. 3. 2. these two are to be separated (See Fig. depletion type Fig 4.47. 3. For the MOSFET shown in Fig. Bulk is the substrate material taken. Slow speed switching. Passive: As a resistance or voltage variable resistance. CMOS ICs are popular. G ~-+----oB G S S n-channel MOSFET.4. 7. CMOS or NMOS reduces power dissipation. depjetion type Fig 4. Can be used as passive or active element. Active: As a storage device or as an amplifier etc. But for bipolar devices.12.1 ENHANCEMENT TYPE MOSFET n-channel is induced. 2. 4 diffusions and 8 . Disadvantage 1. source and drain are n-type. 5. Slower than bipolar devices. 6. Because of this an electric field will be directed perpendicularly through the oxide. micropower operation. 4. if they are connected together is. This field will induce negative charges on the . Input impedance is very high Zn::: 10 140. Advantages of MOSFETs (over JFETs and other devices) I. 4. Inherent memory storage: charge in gate capacitor can be used to hold enhancement mode devices ON. So it is called as n-channel MOSFET. Suppose the p substrate is grounded. Stray and gate capacitance limits speed.47 Some manufacturers internally connect the bulk to the source.46). p .46 p-channel MOSFET. High fabrication yield. Gate is Al (metal) in between oxide layer is there. But in some circuits.10 photo masking steps are required.channel. 4.48. for p . The symbol. given in Fig.

the induced negative charge in the semiconductor increases. the drain characteristic is given by 10 _ IlC o· W :s 2L [2(VGS-VT)VOS-Vos] 2 .type substrate form an inversion layer. 4. the drain current is enhanced by the positive gate voltage and such a device is called an enhancement type MOS. For a voltage < V GST' (V GS threshold) 10 is very small. So the conductivity of the channel between source and drain increases and so current flows from source to drain through the induced channel. Source Gate Drain Induced Channel p ( substute ) (n . slowly first and then much more rapidly with an increase in V GS (Fig.49 The current 10 for V GS 0 is very small being of the order of few nano amperes.48 n-channel MOSFET The volt-ampere drain characteristic of an n-channel enhancement mode MOSFET are as shown in Fig.Transistor Characteristics 235 semiconductor side. As the positive voltage on the gate increases. As V GS is made positive. IO(Ot-l) of MOSFET is the maximum value of 10 which remains constant for different values of V os' In the ohmic region.+ Vos (a) Drain characteristics -2 -1 -+ V GS (b) Gate characteristics Fig 4.channel MOSFET) Fig 4. The region below the Si02 oxide layer has n-type carriers. Sometimes the manufacturers specify gate. The negative charge of electrons which are the minority carriers in the p . 4. source threshold voltage V GST at which 10 reaches some defined small value:: 1O~A.49(b). Thus. the current 10 increases.49. ohmic or non saturation l constant current or saturation region i 5 i o 10 20 30 loss I .

the hole density in the p .type region now extends continuously from source to drain.substrate are attracted towards the lower region of Si02 layer because there is positive field acting from the gate through Si02 layer. equivalent capacitor is formed.. This charge results from the minority carriers (electrons) which are attracted towards the area below the gate. because of the applied positive potential to the gate V GS' As more number of electrons are attracted towards this region. So as the carriers density increases. If the positive gate potential is removed. the lower the channel resistance. It is sandwiched between two conducting regions the gate (metal) and the S. in the p . So a negative charge is induced on the opposite plate by the action of electric field within the dielectric. So the resistance seen by the Vos depends on the voltage applied to the gate.l = Majority carriers mobility. because there are large number of free carriers (electrons).. This process is referred to as . the effective channel resistance decreases. The nchannel below the gate is said to be induced because it is produced by the process of electric inductor. Co = Gate capacitance per unit area. A positive potential is applied to the gate. the induced channel disappears.channel (n. Suppose a negative potential is applied between gate and source. Si02 is an insulator. because like in a triode 10 increases with Vos. If the gate voltage is further increased.type source and drain only) decrease. An T} . The constant current region is known as pentode region because the current remains constant with Vos' Vos + s G D + + + + Electric field lines of force p .236 where.C p-type substrate. The electron~ in the p .. with Si02 as the dielectric whenever a positive charge is applied to one plate of a capacitor a corresponding negative charge is induced on the opposite plate by the action of the electric field with in the dielectric. Therefore.-channel MOSFET) Fig 4. Electronic Devices and Circuits /. This is true only in the relatively small region of the substrate directly below the gate.12.2 MOSFET OPERATION Consider a MOSFET in which source and drain are of n-type.50 MOSFET structure 4. L = Channel length. w = Channel width perpendicular to C The ohmic region in the 10 vs Vos characteristic of FET or MOSFET is also known as triode region.substrate. in the p . The higher the gate potential.type substrate. and the higher drain current 10 .substrate (below the Si02 layer between n . greater number of negative charge carriers are attracted towards the induced channel.Substrate Induced n .

the name is given as depletion type MOSFET which can also be used in enhancement mode.51 MOSFET biasing.3 MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS There are two types ofMOS FETs. 4. Enhancement type 2. As VGS is increased in positive values (0. -2. So channel resistance increases. If negative voltage is applied to the gate. D G ~-t----oB S Fig 4.52 n . Here as the gate voltage increases. holes. Here the region below the gate is doped n . Fig. So to distinguish these two. -I. then it is depletion mode of operation.channel MOSFET.Transistor Characteristics 237 enhancement because ID increases. (negative voltage) Ifwe apply ~ositive voltage to V GS' then this becomes enhancement type. The resistance looking into the gate is high since the oxide is an insulator. Consider n . These holes will recombine with the electrons of the n . then it is enhancement mode of operation because ID is enhanced or increased. etc) if ID decreases.type. But enhancement type cannot be used as depletion type. Depletion type. +2 etc) ifiD increases. p . These are also known as DE MOSFETs.12. Depletion type MOSFET can also be constructed in the same way. The channel is depleted of carriers. and the resulting MOSFET is called enhancement type MOSFET. Depletion type MOSFET can also be used as enhancement type.e. depletion type. negative charge on the gate induces equal positive charge i.channel between sources drain since channef resistivity increases. 1. Therefore ID decreases as VGS increases. The resistance will be of the order of 10 150 and the capacitance value will also be large.52.channel MOSFET. 4.. As V GS is increased in negative values (0. + 1. . the channel is depleted of carriers.Su bstrate Fig 4.

Thus. Vas = -1 V. The channel between the source and drain will be depleted of majority carriers electrons. ID decreases Depletion +EnhancelOent -+ -I o Fig 4. etc. When the gate is made negative (i. Because it is semiconductor electrons and holes are induced in it below the gate. there is a p . So channel conductivity increases and hence ID increases. for a given VDS' significant current flows just like in a JFET. positive voltage positive Vas can also be applied between gate and source.njunction. V D increases. Hence. Now a negative charge is induced in the channel. because these induced holes will recombine with the electrons.e. So a positive charge will be induced below the gate in between the n type source and drain. -2. In the transfer characteristic as Vas increases.53 Drain characteristics (N MOS).e. there is no such p . the current is enhanced.54 Gate characteristics .n junction between gate and source. bt!cause the channel will be depleted of majority carriers as Vas is made negative (for n-channel MOSFEn.. Therefore current decreases as Vas is made more negative i. This is the depletion mode of operation.238 DRAIN CHARACTERISTIC : ID versus V DS Electronic Devices and Circuits When Vas = OV. Therefore. thereby increase free electron lornA +2V +IV OV -IV Vas=-2 V t IOV 20V Fig 4.. In a FET. -1. the free electron concentration in the channel between source and drain decreases or channel resistivity increases. So. concentration. the device can be used both in enhancement mode and depletion mode. Similady in the depletion mode as Vas is increases in negative values.) it is as if a negative voltage is applied for one plate of plate capacitor. But in MOSFET.

sec. If the gate is left open circuited.4 MOSFET GATE PROTECTION The Si0 2 layer of gate is extremely thin. In NMOS.type Silicon. So drain is made positive.5 COMPARISON OF p-CHANNEL AND n-CHANNEL MOSFETs Initially there were some fabrication difficulties with n-channel MOSFETs. The third advantage is NMOS devices are TTL compatible since the applied gate voltage and drain supply are positive for an n . hence no distinction is made.channel enhancement MOS. then the p-channel device must have more than twice the area of the n-channel device. Thus NMOSFETs have replaced PMOSs and PMOSFETs have almost become obsolete.l' of carriers because (J = p = neJ. . But in 1974.Transistor Characteristics 239 A JFET is a depletion type.channel device. the induced mobile channel surface charges would be electrons. Similarly. For enhancement type the gate which is AI metal is made positive).ln or peJ. So it can be used in enhancement type. When the potential at the gate is not large.lp' 1 If the ON resistance of a p-channel device were to be reduced or to make equal to that of n . if we take n -type substrate and diffuse two p . (Because in n-channel MOS. 4. the zener will conduct and the potential at the gate will be limited to the zener breakdown voltage. and if two 'n' regions separated by the channel length are diffused into the substrate to form source and drain n-channel enhancement device (designated as NMOS) is obtained. The hole mobility in Silicon at normal fields is 500 cm 2/v. it will be easily damaged by excessive voltage.channel devices will be smaller or packing density of n-channel devices is more (R = ~ . When the potential at the gate is large. Therefore p-channel ON resistance will be twice that of n-channel MOSFET ON resistance (ON resistance means the resistance of the device when 10 is maximum for a given Vos) ON resistance depends upon' J. The capacitance is proportional to the junction cross sections. Electron mobility = 1300cm2/v-Sec. Here in the induced mobile channel surface charges would be holes.regions separated by the channel length to form source and drain. Therefore n . these difficulties were overcame and mass productions ofn-channel MOSFETs began. Tht! op·erating speed is limited by the internal RC time constant of the device. PMOSFET will be formed. To prevent this damage. +2 etc for n-channel FET) ID increases. source and drain are n-type. The second advantage of the NMOS devices is fast switching. because as V GS is made positive (+ 1.12. the electric field will be large enough (due to accumulation of charge) to cause punch through in the Si02 layer or the dielectric.R is decreased by increase in A). 4. some MOS devices are fabricated with zener diode between gate and substrate.12. at the same values of 10 and V DS etc. Ifthe body (bulk) ofMOS transistor (MOSFET) is p . the zener is open circuited and has no effect on the device. But there is no other type of JFET which is used only in enhancement mode and no depletion mode.

the majority carriers will be depleted. Thus. with the induced charges in the channel. Hence. But the current in MOSFET is due to majority carriers. JFET and depletion MOSFET have identical characteristics. negative charges are induced in the channel. A MOSFET of depletion type can also be used as enhancement type.of impurity as used for the source and drain diffusion depletion type MOSFET will be formed. In the case of n-channel depletion type (source and drain are n-type). . So. When V DS is positive and VGS = 0. if we apply-positive voltage to the gate-source junction. ). So the induced pesitive charges in the channel reduces the resultant current IDS' As V GS is made more negative. The ON resistance is less because conductivity of NMOS devices is more since electrons is greater than that of holes. The conductivity of the channel in the case of depletion type is much less compared to enhancement type. NMOS devices are TTL compatible since VGS and V Dto be applied for NMOS devices are positive 3.55 Depletion MOSFET.. Packing density of NMOS devices is more 4. But if a channel is diffused between source and drain with the same type .13 THE DEPLETION MOSFET In enhancement type MOSFET. the electrons from the source recombine with the induced positive charges.The current ID decreases because. If V GS is made negative. a channel is not diffused. depletion type MOSFET can also be used as enhancement type by applying positive voltage to the gate (for n-channel type). positive charges are induced in the channel through Si02 of the gate capacitor. 2. the majority carriers (electrons in the source) are more and hence ID will be very large.12.Substrate Fig 4. So because of the recombination of the majority carriers. The characteristics of depletion type MOSFETs are exactly similar to that of JFET.240 Electronic Devices and Circuits 4. this type of MOSFET is knows as depletion type MOSFET.6 ADVANTAGES OF NMOS OVER PMOS I. NMOS devices are fast switching devices since electron mobility is less than holes. more positive charges are induced in the channel. .t of 4. S G D p . Therefore its conductivity further decreases and hence ID decreases as VGS is made more negative (for n-channel depletion type). It is of the same type (p-type or n-type) as the bulk or substrate. large drain current denoted as IDss (Drain to source current saturation value) flows. So the number of electrons reaching the drain reduces and hence ID decreases.

~ Depletion ID 16 ~ 12 Enhancement Type t -4 -2 2 4 Fig 4.7 kn. V 0 is to be approximately 20V.58 For Problem 4.Transistor Characteristics +4V 241 t __---+-2------ } Enhancement Type Depletion Type -2 -4 ~ VDSv Fig 4.Vo o RL 30Y -20Y for V 0 to be constant. Solution V0 = y DO - Io . RL I = Voo .7kn = 2.7kn ::: ± O.20 A JFET is to be connected in a circuit with drain load resistor of 4. Problem 4. L 4. Design a suitable self bias circuit. and a supply voltage of VDO = 30Y.57 Gate characteristics of depletion type MOSFET. it should be within ± 1Y. and is to remain constant within ± 1Y.56 Drain characteristics of DMOSFET. . .20.2mA Fig 4.1 rnA G ±V = ±IV 4.Mo= -R .

3mA Indicate the points A and B on the maximum and minimum transfer characteristics of the FET. The reciprocal of the slope ofthe line gives Rs c -+--VGS 1 --.9mA 10 (max) = (2.1 .I. Rs = ~I = 2. Ro = 9.242 Electronic Devices and Circuits 10 = (2.2) = 1.it till it cuts at point C.3 -3000xl0-6 x 100 x 103 xlOxl0 3 (100 x 103 Solution )+ (lOX 103 ) .kO. RL = 1O. VG= R2 ~V lOY R J +R2 .~V ----------~~~1 Fig 4.2mA) Io(min) = (2.Voo R2 7 - RJ 23 R2 and R\ should be large to avoid overloading input signals. gm = 300 J.09kO =-27.0. Join these two points and extend. IfR2 = 700 kO.vGS ~1~~------.21 Problem (a) For the common source amplifier.20.1 + 0.2) = 2. calculate the value of the voltage gain. . R\ =2.5mA = 4kO The bias line intersects the horizontal axis at V G = 7V An external bias of 7V is required. given rd = 100 kO.1 ±O.3 MO 4.59 For Problem 4.

So the dielectrics between metal (AI) and semi-conductor (Si) is a sandwich ofSi02 and Si 3 N 4.14. 1 X = = S3kn c 21txlxI06x3x10-12 IZol = 4. the name MNOS. But the disadvantages are I. 4. More number of oxidation and diffusion steps are involved. 2.60 MNOS FET. Less number of devices per unit area. Nitride.09knx S3kn ~(9. determine the output impedance at a signal frequency of 1MHz. .Transistor Characteristics (b) If Cos = 3pf.14 9. 2. Low power consumption. It is the most sophisticated technology. AI AI Al N .Si Fig 4. (Si 3 N 4) Oxide (Si0 2 ) and Semiconductor structure. whereas in ordinary MOSFETs we have only Si02 . So we get the Metal. Fabrication is more difficult.)i02 over it and then layer of Silicon Nitride (Si 3 N 4) and a metal layer. Hence.09kn)2 + (S3kn)2 = 8.96kn CMOS STRUCTURE (COMPLEMENTARY MOS) This is evolved because of circuits using both PMOS and NMOS devices. l. Fabrication density is less. we will have Silicon semiconductor. CMOS devices incorporate p-channel MOSFET and n-channel MOSFET. because the device chip area is more.1 MNOS STRUCTURE In this process. 243 Solution X c = 1 21tf Cos f= 1 MHz. The advantages that we get with this complementary use of transistor are: 1. High speed.

Is = 0 BVGSS : This is the value of V GS that will cause breakdown when drain is shorted to source.3 VOLTAGE BREAKDOWN IN JFETs There is a p-n junction between gate and source and gate and drain. A/ Al Al n + p n + p n Insulating saphire substrate Fig 4.14. charge storage is more. Just as in the case of a p-n junction diode if the voltage applied to the p-n junction of G and S.e..BV DGO . when the source is left open i.62 JFET circuit. avalanche breakdown will occur. there will not be much change in the voltage which causes breakdown. BV GSS = . So. (V 0) beyond which only the increase in drain current 10 will be significant) 2. the parasitic capacitance will be very low. For such a device. When drain is shorted to source.14. Io Fig 4.2 SOS . (V T is the voltage of the drain. Low threshold voltage V T. Because the dielectric constant will have a different value since because C is more. or G and D junction or D and S junctions increase. Capacitance per unit area of the device is more compared to MOS structure.4. It is used as a memory device. 4.244 The advantages are : Electronic Devices and Circuits 1.61) is the silicon crystal grown on Saphire subtrate.MOS Structure. BV DGO : This is the value of V DG that will cause junction breakdown. The substrate used (Fig.61 SOS . 4.MOS STRlJCTURE This is Silicon On Saphire MOS structure.

Therefore YGS = . . since no DC voltage is applied between gate and Source.2V and VGS = -7.5000 V GS = (-5000)(5 ~G5S r c 10-3)(1 + 0. 10 = 10SS(I- ~c~~ r ? =5 x 10-3 (1But YGS 10 = .8Y. Therefore with respect to D.25Y Vos = 10 .type. YGS 2 + 11 YGS + 25 = 0 Fig 4. YGS BY os X = Breakdown voltage Yos for a given value of YGS' X indicates a specific value ofY GS BY osx = BY DCiO + YGSX 4.3. The FL'.65 mA x IlJ' RL = 2000 10 = 1. YGS is positive voltage because G is at positive potential with respect to source. Y OG is negative voltage. A positive voltage is applied to G and negative voltage to drain.1.45Y. Rs = 5kO. Y OG + Max. Gate is l1-type. 0 Vo YGS is unknown and 10 is unknown. must be conducting. loss = 5mA. RL = 2kQ.5 Y.BY OGO gate junction breakdown can also result by the application of large Y Oli' Yos = Y OG + YGS More Y os that can be applied to a FET = Max. Y p = . If YGS = .8Y. Rs = .22 Problem Determine the values ofY GS' '0' and Yos for the circuit shown in using the following data. Y 00 = lOY Solution The gate is at DC ground potential.3.3.25 = 5.10 .63 For Problem 4. the FET in cut off.5000 1 . Therefore Y p = -5Y. The pinch off voltage V p for which 10 becomes zero is given as 5V therefore VGS cannot be 7.8 Y. 10 = (5 x 10-3)( I . IG is negligible Y GS + 10 Rs = 0 YGS = . Rs = 0 Is::: 10 .2Y. Sand Dare p . Rs::: 5000 10 = 3.Transistor Characteristics 245 For a p-channel FET.22 YGS = .3 .2Y.2Y Gsi.0. Therefore YGS is chosen as . But or YGS + Is . Since BY GSS = .3.64)2 = 0.3Y 10 .7.

1 ANNULAR TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION OF SCR Fig 4.type impurity is diffused. . 4. As the gate current increases. the voltage to be applied between anode and cathode to turn the device ON decreases. From the p region on the other side anode is formed. But if the voltage between anode and cathode is increased beyond a certain voltage. Gate p n p fG K A Anode Fig 4.2 STATIC CHARACTERISTICS The gate current Ia determines the necessary forward voltage to be applied between anode and cathode (Anode positive with reference to cathode) to cause conduction or to turn SCR 'ON'.15. As the gate current is increased. the forward break over voltage decreases. If the gate is open. V BO called as the forward breakover voltage. Ia = 0 . the SCR will turn ON and current will be limited by only the applied voltage VBO called as the forward breakover voltage.246 4. the cathode connection is taken. B. n-type material is diffused into a silicon pnp pellet to form alloy junction. the SCR will turn ON immediately when same voltage is applied oetween anode and cathode.O : Breakover 0 : Zero gate current.:: 50 rnA. The advantages of this type construction are (i) Fast turn on time (ii) Improved high temperature capabilities. the gate is shown close to the cathode. V BOO: THE FORWARD BREAK OVER VOLTAGE This is the voltage to be applied between anode and cathode to turn the SCR ON. the SCR will turn ON and current will be limited by only the applied voltage. From the diffused n region. If the value of Ia is very large . This is also called as shorted emitter construction.15 SILICON CONTROLLED RECTIFIER Electronic Devices and Circuits Silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) is a 4 layer p-n-p-n device. In this type of construction gate is central to the device. the SCR is in the OFF state.15. Gate is taken from the p . 4. This is known as planar construction. So that current flows through the device. with the cathode surrounding it. In one type of construction. So in the symbol for SCR. when Ia = O..65 SCR symbol. projecting into it.64 SCR structure.region into which n . The anode current that flows is only due to leakage. This is also known as forward blocking region.

the current that results is the leakage current (leOl + le02)' . IfIA goes below I .)nt is the leakage current. the gate looses control over the device. and it is turned ON by a pulse of current in the gate. LATCHING CliRRENT IL Minimum value of IA to be reached to keep SCR in the ON state even after the removal of gate trigger signal. Ifthe current is lowered below IH' by increasing external circuit resistance. some voltage is applied between the anode and cathode of the SCR..Transistor Characteristics 247 Usually. SCR H is turned off ( To hold in conducting state ). The emitter of p-n-p transistor is the anode. S IA I~_ _ _ High conduction region ON state • Holding <:urrent IH Leakage current ~~~~~~ . The base ofn-p-n transistor is connected to the collector of p-n-p transistor.3 ANALYSIS OF THE OPERATION OF SCR The SCR can be regarded as two transistor connected together. The emitter of n-p-n transistor is the cathode. Fig 4. IH : Holding Current Minimum Anode Current required to keep SCR in the conducting state.15. a minimum amount of current is required to flow to keep the device ON. Once the SCR is turned ON. Therefore when SCR is not tUrI'!cd ON. the transistors are off. the SCR will switch off. (To latch on to the conducting state. The Base of p-n-p transistor is connected to the collector of the n-p-n transistor. Suppose a positive voltage is applied to the anode (p type) since there is no base injection for both the transistors.) 4. leOI and le02 of the two transistors. The only currl'. The gate can not be used to switch off the device.66 SCR Characteristics IG = 0 HOLDING CliRRENT IH Once SCR is ON. The SCR can be regarded as two transistor p-n-p and n-p-n. If V A _ K is reduced to zero ( as automatically happens in rectifying application) or if the current is reauced below I If the device will turn off.

Anode current is IE2 = IB2 + IC2 .-----' P n E2 K Q1 r3 1 le2l leo2 leo1 r32 IG G Fig 4.. In a transistor....67 Two transistor analogy of SCR. (4) CONSIDER TRANSISTOR Q The base current of transistor Q is the collector current Ic I of Q I' 2 IC2 = [32 ( ICI + IC02 ) + IC02 ....... (3) CONSIDER TRANSISTOR Q1 Ic The base current for the transistor Q I' IB I is the collector current IC2 of Q2' = r3 (IB + lco ) + Ico IBI = IC2 ICI = r3 I (IC2 + ICOI ) + ICOI 2 . (2) ..... ................ ( 1) . ...............248 Electronic Devices and Circuits p n n B2 G P '----. (5) ..

IA = IC1 + IC2 IA can be written in the forms. But this is the base current for 02' 1 So transistor 02 is tuned uN. °. until both the transistor are driven into saturation. to inject holes into the base ofO]' emitter base junction of0 is forward biased.-----------------~ (1 + PI Xl + P2 XI col + IC02 ) J -PI' P2 The two transistor will have wide base regions..0 13 will be small. .Transistor Characteristics But IB2 = IC1 249 . removal of gate current will not stop conduction because already the transistor 02 is turned ON and it provides the base injection for SCR can be represented as a pnp and npn transistors connected together. The value of 13 depends ::: ICOJ + IC02 When a negative voltage is applied from gate to cathode. . as shown in Fig. The IC2 of 02 now becomes trigger current and so increase I ' So the action is one of internal regeneration feed C1 back. 4. Once the SCR is turned ON.68 Two transistor analogy of SCR. This increases collector and emitter currents. So leI increases.68. P IB)=IC2 C2 n E) B) 13) le2l leo2 leo) B2 p n G C) 132 IB2 IG G E2 K Fig 4. So upon the value oflE' When IE is very small. 13 ::: O. 1 2 (lcol +IC02Xl+0Xl+0) IA = 1-0. Therefore when 13 = 13 = O.

(8) ..250 Electronic Devices and Circuits IBI = IC2 ICI = IB2 Anode current = IA = lEI General expression for Ic in term of f3. (6) . ........ (6) in (7). IBI + (f3 1 + 1) ICOI + IBI ........ IC2 = f3 2 IB2 + (f3 2 + 1) IC02 IB2 = ICI IC2 = f3 2 Ic I + (f3 2 + 1) ICo2 IA = lEI = ICI + IBI But ICI is given by eq. (7) = f3 1 .. or or IC2 = f3 2 [f3 1 IBI ·+ (f3 1 + 1) ICOl ] + (f3 2 + 1) IC02 IC2 = IBI IBI = f3 2 f3 1 IBI + f3 2 (I + f3 1) ICOI + (f3 2 + 1) IC02 (1........ IEI=IA=(f31+1)(lBl+IcOl) Since we must get an expression for IBI" Substitute eq...... (6) ..... I =1 =(1+A )[132(l+13I)I col +(l+132)lc02 +1 EI A 1-'1 1-13 13 COl 12 1 ..... But .... (9) Substitute the value ofIB I from eq.. (9) in (8). IB and Ico is Ic = f3 IB + (f3 + 1) Ico Since for transistor QI' ICI = f3 1 IBI + ( f3 1 + I) ICOI Since for transistor Q l' But .. .f3 1f3 2) IBI = f3 2 (1 + f3 1) Icol + (1 + f3 2) Ic02 IBI = 132 (1 + PI )Icol + (1 + 132 )1 CO2 1-131132 .

/' Base n-typesilicon bar Ohmic contacts B1 (a) UJT structure (b) Symbol Fig 4.2: 2: 2 .ClIRRE.2: I .16 UNIJUNCTION TRANSISTOR (UJT) This device has only one p-n junction and three leads like transistor. . -. .4 ANODE TO CATHODE VOLTAGE . P-N junction EC-"""'~:::J Aluminium rod ..7: o.70 (a) UJT structure (b) Symbol . 4.5: 3 : Forward blocking state Forward avalanche region Forward breakover point Negative resistance region Forward Conducting characteristic Holding current .69 SCR characteristics.Transistor Characteristics 4.. .6 Reverse blocking characteristic : The device is in blocking state o . The construction ofthis device is as shown in Fig.4: 3 .I. ~VR 2 __--------------~~1 1 6 V 80: Breakover voltage when IG = 0 7 Fig 4.15. 0 .\T CHARACTERISTIC 251 o . 4.70. Hence it is called as unijunction transistor (UJT).

Therefore material is the same (n type sfIicon bar). Therefore V p decreases with temperature. So there is sudden increase in the number of holes in the region close to B]. junction is forward biased. when E . Thus there is large increase in the number of holes and electrons in the region corresponding to R B]. If R2 is chosen such that it increases by the same amount as to decrease in RB] and 11 and V v' V p will remain constant. The net :effect is n decreases slightly with the temperature.junction is forward biased.: it has only one p-n junction and two base leads). :. 4. and positive voltage V E is applied. Suppose V BB is the voltage from B2 to B]. . the free electrons from B2 region will mo"e towards the B] lead.increases. The change is :::: 4% for 1000 C rise in temperature. The symbol for the voltage between emitter and base 1 (B] is n-type). Because of increase in the n p values of nand p. So UJT consists of emitter and two bases with the emitter close to the second base. even after recombination of holes and electrons. 4. Now R2 has positive temperature coefficient.72. But now it is called as UJT (. Holes will not travel upwards because B2 is at positive potential. The doping concentration ofp-region is large. still there will be large number of electrons and holes in the region close to B]. So conductivity (J increases.73). A 3 mil aluminium wire. The resulting current IE gives the emitter to base B] diode characteristic. because of the increase in the number of free carriers. 4. With temperature. RB and RB have the same temperature coefficient. 4. Vv decreases with increase in temperature. (J . RB decreases. decreases. there is leakage current lEO from B2 to emitter. Now if V BB == 0. The emitter will be close to the base two (B 2) than base one (B]) (see Fig. the alloy is formed by diffusing Alluminium into n type silicon close to the B2lead as shown in Fig. To recombine with these holes.B]. The emitter is ptype and the two bases are n-type. R2 will provide temperature compensation.71 UJT structure.16. called emitter E is alloyed to the base close to B2 to form a p-n rectifyingjunction. The doping and construction is such that. Thus.252 Electronic Devices and Circuits A bar of high resistivity n-type silicon of typical dimensions 8 x 10 x 35 mils called base B.71. When the E-B. Polarity is as shown in Fig. This device was originally described in the literature as the double-base diode.1 UJT CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION In UJT. Because threshold voltage decreases with increase in temperature. (J == ne Il + p e II ' p will be almost comparable with n. UJT basically consists of a bar of n-type silicon with one p-type emitter providing p-n junction. Vp = (11 V BB + V v). R B. holes are injected into the n-silicon bar from the p-region towards the B] lead. +v E n-Silicon bar Fig 4. is taken and two ohmic contacts are attached to it at the two ends to form the base leads B2 and B]. With V BB == 10V or 20V.

. II = R + ~ B2 = Intrinsic stand off ratio. RS2 i V RSI + RBI i ~ V BB ~ V RB . RB is the resistance of base two portion. + (a) Symbol Fig 4. So the resistivity between E and 8. . Its value depends upon the biJs voltage Yo' The p-n junction formed due Ito emitter is shown as a diode. It takes::::: 7 volts from E to B" to reduce this current to zero and then cause current to flow in the opposite direction. Peak voltage Vp = II VBB + Vy' Vy = O. 4.5 and 0. from zero and when V E is> II V BB' the diode will be forward biased. This lasts until the valley voltage is reached and the device saturates.73. = llV BB = R RB B' + R B2 x V BB . because the cathode voltage is II V BB and anode current is O. Its value lies between 0.SY.82. Therefore RB . decreases since holes are injected from emitter into 8. reaching peak point V p' After this point IE increases suddenly and V E drops. The resistance of the silicon bar is represented by two series resistors. This is the unstable resistance region. Now as V E is increased.Transistor Characteristics 253 (.72 (b) V-I components The equivalent circuit for UJT is as shown in Fig.' B2 is n-type-and E is p-type when B2 is at a higher potential. where. the minority carries from B2 and E will flow which results in leakage current). B. RB is variable resistance. decreases or VE decreases and IE increases. Since no voltage is applied at the emitter.. the diode is reverse biased. So negative resistance region results.

So the voltage across RB . So holes are injected from the emitter into the base region B I.) negative ~ resistance region : I . If VEE is increased beyond 11 VBB' input diode becomes forward biased and becomes positive. 11 V BB decreases. It is the reverse saturation current lEO which is of the order of 10 RB. As VEE increases. .-----(a) (b) I valley point Fig 4.5 and 0. VE decreases and the device exhibits negative resistance region. So as IE increases. In thyristor circuits. :. + RB2 If VEis < 11 VBB the p-njunction diode or the E-B junction ofUJT is reverse biased and the current IE is negative. When IE = 0.75.11 is called is intrinsic stand off ratio and its value lies between 0. In Relaxation oscillator circuits to produce sawtooth waveforms. IE increases. IE = O. the resistance becomes positive. RBB will be in the range 5 to 10 kn.V. 74(b)) When IE is very large the current IB2 flowing from VBB into B2 load can be neglected.16. = RBI Vp = 11 VBB + VV V p = Peak Voltage Vv = Valley Voltage For current greater than the valley current the resistance becomes positive. 3. I : ~ Saturation region BI . Then the silicon bar can be considered as an ohmic resistance RBB between the leads B2 and B I. In triggering SCR circuits. As the hole concentration in the base region increases. 2. So the holes injected into B1 region also increases (cr = pe IIp). 4. (Fig. (Fig.16. its resistivity decreases. the voltage across RBI = 11VBB" Where.3 ApPLICATIONS OF UJT 1. If VBB is small.2 V-I CHARACTERISTIC OF Electronic Devices and Circuits UJT Suppose some voltage VBB is applied between B2 and B I. RBB = (RBI + RB2 ).74. 11 RBI . For current greater than the valley current.74 (a) UJT circuit (b) V-I Characterisitic of UJT 4.254 4. This is the voltage VEbetween E and B I. 4.

P. the complete-electromagnetic spectrum visible spectrum extends in the range ::: 4000 7200 A . Photons create electron hole pairs on both sides of the junction.10 18 fcm 3 .75. They are mounted in standard To . This is the current through the device with no light falling on the device. When no light is applied the current is the reverse saturation current due to minority carriers. Direct Band gap semiconductors usedfor LEDs: (GalliumArsenide)GaAs. the difference in energy is released in the form of light. Impurities added are Group II materials: (Zinc) Zn. (Arsenic) As. Photons have high energy and low momentum. Semiconducting materials suitable for light emitters should have energy gap EG in the range l. Th is property is exhibited by direct band gap semi conductor materials. Because when reverse biased energy transition and hence light emission will not take place. Impurity concentration for acceptor atoms: 10 17 . It is typically 30 .Transistor Characteristics 4. Thus Iight emission takes place. LEDs are based on Injection IIIuminisence.70 n A at V = 30 V. N 18 =~ AOI 4. When light falls on the device photo induced electrons and holes cross the junction and thus increasing the current through the device.K diagram of semiconductors.= E.1".3.SiC LED Yellow colour Silicon Carbide LED Amber colour Gallium phosphide. Impurity concentration: 10 17 . Direct Band Gap Materials: Conduction band minimum energy and valence band maximum occur at the same value of K (wave vector) in the E . Due to injection of carriers light is emitted. (Phosphorous) P. 7 5 . R The active diameter of these devices is only 0.5 package with a window..K diagram.Zinc oxide LED Green colour Gallium phosphide . Indirect Band Gap Conduction band minimum and valence band maximum energy do not occur at the same value of K (wave vector) in the E . hC h ·f= E I/. LEDs are always used in Forward Bias. Group VI donars: Tellicum Te. On the application of voltage. For Photo diodes also dark current will be specified. (Antimony) Sb. when electron transition occurs from excited state to lower energy level. for donor atoms..N .' /. The mechanism of current control through radiation is similar to that of a photo conductive cell. The symbol for LED and its V-I characteristics are shown in FigA. (Magnesium) Mg. if a reverse biased p-njunctions diode is used the current sensitivity to radiation can be increased enormously. (Cadmium) Cd.15 e V.17 LED'S 255 These are Light Emitting Diodes.(Gallium Antimony) Ga Sb.10 19fcm 3 .18 PHOTO DIODES Instead of photoconductive cells. . LED Red colour Gallium phosphide . Sulphur S.

But this can be further increased by taking advantage of the inherent current multiplication found in a transistor. Photo induced current of the junction serves as the base current of the transistor (I. or Fig. the current sensitivity is much larger compared to a photoconductive cell.77 Photo diode reverse characteristics. 76 Symbols for photo diode. These are used in optical communication and in encoders. Symbol is It has two diodes pn and np. Symbol for photo transistor: Ifthe base lead in left open.fe The base lead may be left floating or used to bias the transistor into some area of operation. In a photodiode.78 Symbols for Photo transistors Therefore collector current Ie = ( 1 + h ) 1. 4.). 4.. So it is called as photo duo diode. . Photo transistors have a lens. A A or ~ ~ K Light intensity K t ~ I~J.79 Symbol for Photo duo diode.. to focus the radiation or light on to the common base junction of the transistor.256 Electronic Devices and Circuits They can operate at frequencies of the order of 1 MHz. the device is called photo duo diode. 4. Fig.LA Fig 4.19 PHOTO TRANSISTORS Fig 4.

The three configurations of Transistor are Common Emitter.Bandwidth product compared to BJT amplifier circuits.l = Amplification factor = aVDSI av GS In= K Relation between J. The proper name for this device being referred as transistor is Bipolar Junction Transistor ( BJT ). is In IDss ~ Inss {I . there is transfer of resistance from a lower value on input side to a higher value on the output side. rd and gm for a JFET is J. interms of pinch off voltage V p is W = {~Vp}1/2 eND • • Expression for 1m. = K J. when operated in the cut-off and saturation regions. Transportation Factor Gain a is. 257 13* and Current a=13 xy * .l. rds (ON) = aI D avosl V".~s r = Satuaration value of Drain current when gate is shorted to source. when operated in the Active Region. Active Region 2.l = rd x gm Width of the depletion region W n for n-channel JFET. .Transistor Characteristics SUMMARY • The relation between Emitter Efficiency y. Saturation Region Cut-off Region 3. JFET is UNIPOLAR Device (Unipolar only one type of carriers either holes or electrons) JFET device has Higher input resistance compared to BJT and Lower input resistance compared to MOSFET. It is also used as a Switch. The three regions of the output characteristics of a transistor are 1. in tenns of Inw VGS and V. Common Base and Common Collector. • • • • • • • • • • • • • Transistor is an acronym for the words Transfer Resistor. Transitor can be used as an amplifiers. As the input side in forward biased and output side is reverse biased. The disadvantage of JFET amplifier circuits is Smaller Gain .

.. Enchancement type In JFET terminology... types of bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) have faster switching times......... ... II.......................... in amplifier circuits is known as Square Law Distorion........... the transportation factor 13* = ............. At high frequencies... J3' of a transistor ( BJT ) is ........... Is = O....258 Electronic Devices and Circuits • • • • For zero drift current in the case of JFET......... 13 is ......... the expressions for input capacitance C m of JFET shunting Ro is... C m = Cgs + [I + gm (R L II rd)] Cgd The purpose of swamping resistor rs connected in series with source resistance ~ in common source (C. a = . 14...................... and 13 is same as .. .... .......... 7............... Expression for Ie in terms of 13....... .. . For NPN Bipolar Junction Transistor Emitter Efficiency y = ..... The parameters B Voss stands for breakdown voltage Vos when drain is shorted to source....... 8................. 13* and y for a transistor ( BJT )........... ( for DC Currents )........... The expression for a in terms of 13 for a BJT is .S) JFET amplifier is to reduce distortion........ The arrow mark in the symbols of BJTs indicates ..... 12................. J3' is ........ Relation between a.......... 10. For PNP Transistor (BJT)...... 2............ ... 15. . 6... gm = (1.................. IV pi-IV osl = 0.... 5....0022 gm For zero drift current.... 9....e..... Simplified expression for voltage gian Ay in the case of common Drain JFET amplifier Rs is A = ----"-y 1 Rs+gm The distortion caused due to the non linear trarfsfer curve of JFET device....... OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS For identical construction... Relation between J3' and 13 is .......................00711DI = 0......... ..........~:s ) • • • • • • I.............. Expression for leEO in terms of leBO and a is . ........ IB and leBO is . 3... B V DGO parameter means the value of breakdown voltage VDO at breakdown when the source is left open i......... ....... ... Depletion type 2.... ...63V Expression for gm for JFET interms of gmo is.. 0.................... J3' of a BJT is defined as ....... The two types ofn-channel or p-channel MOSFETs are I........... 13. .. The expression for 13 in terms of a for a BJT is .......... in the case of JF ETs........ J3' is synonymous to ..... 4...... .. ( for AC Currents ).... .......

......... critically... 9... ............... Expression for V GS in terms of V P' . 8... 24...... G..... Base width modulation is ..................... In JFET recombination noise is less because it is ........ Describe the V-I characteristics of a transistor in Common Collector Configuration and Explain........... Derive the relation between ex... .............. 23........ The voltage V DS at which ID tends to level off... 26.. ................. 2..... ... 30............ fe 6.. . IDSS in defined as . Obtain the expression for the pinch offvoItage Vp in the case ofn-channel JFET 14....... Deduce the condition for JFET biasing for zero drift current... Derive the expression for the width of Depletion region' W' in the case of p-channel JFET...... 27...... The square law device is ...... Relation between /J... 25...... Compare BJT... ex ...........Transistor Characteristics 16... 21........... . ..... 7. 22......... The voltage V GS at which ID becomes zero in the transfer characteristic of JFET is called .. rd and gm for JFET is .. 31........... 259 18.......... IGFET is the other name for ....... 10........ device.. The D.... 3......... 12.......... 13............................ For low electric fields Ex of the order of 103Vfcm.. ... Explain about the different current components in a transistor.. The MOSFET that can be used in both enhancement mode and depletion mode is ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS 1..... The range of r DS (ON) for JFET is ... ..... Expression for IDX in terms of IDSS in IDS ... 11.... 13* and y 5...... With the help of a neat graph qualitatively explain the Potential distribution through <t transistor (BJT).... 4... 29.... in JFET is called . ....... JFET and MOSFET devices in all respects......... Derive the relation between 13 and 13' ............ .. 28. .... Compare the input and output characteristics of BJT in the three configurations. 17....... JFET can be used as .................... Explain the V-I characteristics in Common Emitter Configuration................ S terminals of JFET are similar to .... /J....... Differentiate between the terms hFE and h ............ resistor....... device.. Derive the relationship between them. 20....... The disadvantage of JFET amplifier circuit is .. 19. terminals of BJT respectively....... Qualitatively explain the input and output.... Draw the Eber-Moll Model of a transistor for NPN transistor and explain the same........

Expression for 'a. Expression for (3 * is.E configuration to be at cut-off. for a diode.IE' I etc is c (d) none of these 2..0. 16. ~a) "rl R-~s= . the condition is. The relation between I CEO' ICBO and a. Give the constructional features ofUJT. is.I 6. The condition for test for saturation in a BJT is 7. ICBO ~. 19. What are the applications of JFET and MOSFET devices? 18.a)2 (d) ICBO (1. As reverse bias voltage is increased.4 (b) V SE = + Vss - Rs. Repeat the same for p-channel JFET. I = CEO (a) leBO a (b) ICBO (1 + a) (c) I CBO (1.a) 5. ICBO:S: 0. Draw the structure of p-channel MOSFET and Qualitatively explain the static Drain and Gate characteristics of the device. 20.ICBO:S:-O. I pc (a) I PB (b) I pc InB I pc (c) IPE (d) I PE I pc 4.ICBO:S:-O. VCE -Je(sat) VCE (sat) Ie (b) VeE R c s = Ic(sat) Rc s=~- (c) R~-=.4 (c) VBE=-VBB+~. (d) YCE Ic . Draw the structure and explain the static Drain and Gate characteristics of n-channel JFET. What is the significance of negative resistance region? Explain how UJT exhibits this characteristics ? MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. 17. Qualitatively explain the static V-I characteristics ofUJT. the base width at the junction (a) decreases (b) increases (c) pc remains same . (a) V SE = .260 Electronic Devices and Circuits 15.Vss + Rs.:.' of a BJT in terms of I (a) ~ IE (b) ~ IE (c) ~ IE (d) lnE Ic 3. Expression for satlJrafic»I=resistance Rcs of a transistor (BJT) is ••.I (d) VBE=-VBB-RB. For a transistor in C.

. (a) (a) N 2 0 1 (b) (c) ~No Vgs loss 1... At pinch off voltage in a JFET device.022 gm 0..Vp (d) No loss ( 1. Channel width is zero and 10 becomes zero Channel width is zero.022 gm (c) . The forward break over voltage is symbolically represented as...Transistor Characteristics 8. layer device (a) 3 layer (c) 10... DIAC is a . (a) 0.. JFET is (a) Less noisy (c) (a) (b) (c) (d) Same noisy 13. Expression for In in the case of JFET is. (For SCR) (a) VBO (b) V BOO .0022 gm 0. (c) VBR (d) VFBO " .V" Vp ] Vgs loss 1+ Vp (b) ( )' (c) ( )' = 0... mobility of carriers is proportional to (c) 4 (d) None of these 15. (c) V GTO DIAC 4 layer (b) (b) SCR 6 layer (d) TRIAC (d) Two layers 9. Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistor (IGFET) is a .007 1101 = 0. The condition to be satisfied for zero drift current is.007 1101 0. The symbol shown is (a) 261 is that of a .0022 gm = (d) loss ( r VgS Vp . but 10 is not zero Vos becomes zero None of these E 14.7 1101 (b) (d) 0. (a) (c) Normal JFET device p-channel JFET device (b) (d) (b) (d) n-channel J FET device MOSFET device more noisy can't be said 12. Compared to BJT. 11. The pinch off voltage Vp in the case of n-channel JFET is proportional to No 16.1 17. For high eletric field strengths > 10 V/cm.071101 = 0.

! : 1 10 20 50 200 4 .4 25-80 40 50 250 8 20 100 Units V V V 1. The resistor which is connected in series with source resistance Rs to reduce distortion in JFET amplifier circuits is called (a) (c) Swamping resistor \ (b) (d) swinging resistor distortion control resistor bias resistor Specifications of a Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) ~. dB I . nSec.5 mAN Il = 6.gm=100mV (b) (d) Il= 1000. 12. . 4. 20. 18. gm = 10K V 20. rd = 1Mn. 15.Emitter Break down voltage Symboi VCE Typical value 40 60 6 500 0. nSec. rd = IMn. 16. . ! I ! ! . The relation between (a) Il=rd/gm rd and gm for JFET is. : I V CB V EB Ic Po Top BV CEO BVEBO 1 I rnA W 5. 19.Gain Bandwidth product Output Capacitance Input Capacitance Small Signal Current gain Output admittance Voltage feedback ratio Input impedance Delay time Rise time Fall time Storage time Noise Figure ~~ I i ! fT Co Chi h re hoe hre hie td tr tr ts NF ~ ~.262 Electronic Devices and Circuits J. gm = 0.gm (b) 19. rd=Il. °C V V MHz Pr Pr I 1 i I I I 1 Emitter-Base Break down voltage Current . 3. I I 6.2gm (c) Il=rd. ! mU I i 1 i i I 10 8 x 10-4 3 kn nSec.~ ~ .gm (d) ll=rd2. 8. 11. 18. 10. nSec.1. gm = 0. 14.1 mU Il= 7. 9.~ . 13. 17. 2. 7. rd = 10 n. I 1 Parameter Collector-Emitter Voltage Collector-Base Voltage Emitter-Base Voltage Collector-Current Total Power Dissipation Operating Temperature Collector. ~ SI. (a) (b) 1l=5.No. Typical values of Il' r d and gm for JFET are.rd=100n.

~ .SA c . "w:. Two Junction semiconductor device 2N 2222 (NPN Transistor) AC 128 BC 147 2N 3866 2N6253 2 N 1481 2 Germanium Audio Frequency range BJT Silicon Audio Frequency range Transistor NPN RF Power Transistor. Anode Fig. '. NPN High power.& .39 SCR case construction and terminal identification {(a) courtesy general electric company.4A. 115W. I. (b) and (c) courtesy international rectifier corporation} ../ ' Cathode Anode Gate Cathode (a) Cathode" Gate Anode~ (c) . 4. 4.lE Gare- B . 45V.. NPN 5W.:e f. E Ee B C Fig.38 Transistor terminal identification . 40V. . 15A.Transistor Characteristics Nomanclature used for Transistors (BJTs) BC107 (NPN Transistor) 263 B C Silicon Device Audio Amplifier application Type Number (No Significance) Germanium Device 107 AF 114 A F 114 High Frequency Applications Type No. 30V O. 5W.

264 Electronic Devices and Circuits Type Numbers of JFETs 2 N 4869 BFWIO BFW 11 N .channel Silicon JFET N . Styles T0-92(TO-226AA) 1 Drain 3 Gate 2 Source JFElS General purpose N-Channel-Depletion Fig.channel Silicon JFET N .41 Identification of MOSFET leads . 4.channel Silicon JFET 2N5457 Case 29-04..Enhancement i Fig 4.40 Identification of JFET leads 2N4351 Case 20-03. Styles 2 TO-72(T0-206AF) 3 Drain a-J Gate . _ J~ ! - 4 Case I Source MOSFET Switching N-Channel.

6. Value Units Vos VOG VGS 10 25 30 30 30 10 V V V rnA nA 2. 4.No. 3. 3.Source voltage Gate Current Junction temperature range Gate source Breakdown voltage Symbol Typical Value Units 1 Vos VOG V GSR IG 1] 25 25 -25 10 V V V rnA °C 2. 6.2 N 4351 n-channel Enhancement type MOSFET MOSFET SI. 1. Parameter Drain-Source voltage Drain-Gate voltage Reverse Gate .Trans istor Ch aracteristics 265 Specifications of JFETs (Typical Values) SI. 4. 2N5457 n. 125 -25 V(BR)GSS V Type No. 5. loss VGS (th) 1 V .No. 5. Parameter Drain-Source voltage Drain-Gate voltage Gate-source voltage Drain current Zero gate voltage drain current Gate threshold voltage Symbol Typical.channel JFET Type No.

No. 5.266 Electronic Devices and Circuits UJT SI. 3. 6. 4. 11 Ip Iv lEO 300 50 30 30 0. 1. 4. 7. Parameter Power Dissipation RMS Emitter current Emitter reverse voltage Inter base voltage Intrinsic stand off ratio Peak Emitter current Valley point current Emitter reverse current Symbol PD IE (rms) V ER V B are (inter) Typical Value Units mw rnA V V 2. Parameter Average forward Current Power Dissipation Peak forward Current Axial luminous Intensity Peak wavelength Luminous efficiency Symbol IF PD i f(peak) Iv Typical Value Units rnA mw rnA mcd milli candelas nm 20 120 60 1 600 140 2.14 4 1 f. 6.5S 0. A Peak nv Im/w .lA Specifications of Light Emitting diode (LED) SI. 1.lA rnA f. 3.No. 8. 5.

or operating point or 'Q' point is explained. Different types of biasing circuits are given and the expressions for stability factors are derived. Variation of 'Q' point with temperature and temperature compensating circuits are given. The Quiescent point.In this Chapter. • The need for biasing and its significance in amplifier circuits is explained. • • .

1 Output characteristics of BJT. LlIe LlIE a' x RL x LlIE re LlIE Ll Ve = alRL x LlIE = alRL LlVj RL»rc' SoA y > 1 The quiescent point changes with temperature T.1 TRANSISTOR BIASING The transistor output characteristics in Common Emitter Configuration are as shown in Fig. As IB (in IlA) increases. Hence operating point changes with temperature. because it depends on the parameters 13. 5.1. The operating point or the quiescent point has to be fixed when any transistor is being used as an amplifier. there is corresponding large change in Ie and thus transistor acts as an amplifier. transistor acts as an amplifier. aIR A = __ L y re RL « rc' RL = Load Resistance r c = Collector resistance a' = Small signal current gain ( less than 1 ) Ay = Voltage gain Therefore. Q 60 30~ ) Vn: Fig 5. leo or V BE etc.1. 5. This is shown in Fig.268 Electronic Devices and Circuits 5. a . the quiescent point may be made stable . Ie (in rnA) increases. The point in the characteristics of the transistors indicated by VeE' Ie is called Operating Point or Quiescent Point Q. The operating point must be in the active region for transistor to act as an amplifier. So for a small change in IB. 13 and leo depend upon temperature. Transistor when being used as an amplifier is operated in the active region. So by suitably biasing the transistor circuit.

PNP transistor is being considered.1 ) Vcc is DC Bias Supply.. It is Common Emitter Transistor circuit with a load resistance RL .3 Variation of operating point. the load line can be drawn. Hence it is essential to choose the operating point correctly. if the quiescent point is not chosen correctly or it is changing with temperature. 0 then . the output will be distorted. the output will also be a true replica of the input or it will also be a perfect sine wave. Let Let Ie V CE = = 0 then VCE = VCC" This is one point of the load line.2 and 5. It is very essential to choose the operating point properly so that the transistor is operated in the active region and that the operating point does not change with temperature. Operating point is fixed with respect to the output characteristic of a transistor only.ic x RL .....1 ). V CE = Vee .Transistor Biasing anti Stabilization 269 or not to change with temperature. From the above circuit. Consider the circuit as shown in Fig. Otherwise. The value of rc is very small compared to RL . IC = Vce R' L This another point of the load line. Rio ~iu r Ie PNP RIJ Vo: - + Vee /--+---:-I-~=--:2:-::0:-::0-~-lA-:-+ Is = 400JlA VBU '-----=-=j I-'+'------'----~--' ) Fig 5. clipped etc . Compensation techniques are also used in order to make the operating point stable with temperature.. t Neglecting. Since if the input is sinusoidal wave. ro ~ ( R~~CrJ .. V CE = Instantaneous Voltage From the Equation ( 5. ( 5.. So now the question is how to choose the operating point? Before this let us consider as to how the quiescent point is fixed. Hence· it can be neglected..3. 5. Fig 5.. To draw the load line. ic is instantaneous value of AC Collector Current.2 Amplifier circuit.

5. Suppose Q] is the centre point. corresponding to Is:.: 0. if drawn. Self Bias or Emitter Bias circuit (Universal bias or Voltage divider bias circuit~. I S = VCC-VSE RB I :. It blocks DC since capacitor is open circuit for D. RB provides the bias voltage for the base. the load line is drawn. varying both on positive and negative sides equally. For Is = 800 /lA. For a given value ofi s ' Ie is also fixed when the transistor is being operated In the active region. with QI' the transistor will be cut off stnce for that swing Is :. then the load line will be elliptical. within the range of the transistor characteristics.c signal. Input signal is the a.VCE e Rc .2 FIXED BIAS CIRCUIT OR ( BASE BIAS CIRCUIT) Consider the NPN Transistor Circuit as shown in Fig. the quiescent point is cltosen at tlte centre of tlte load line. VeE = 0. 5. The slope of the line depends on RL the load resistance only. the quiescent point is QI.. If the output impedance in the circuit is reactive. then the operating point is chosen to lie in the centre of the output characteristics (i. is called as the dynamic (AC) load line. it is called AC Load Line or Dynamic Load Line. with AC Input. It is called as Static Load Line or DC Load Line But if the load line is drawn considering a finite load resistance R L. The drop across Rb .C. There are three types of Biasing Circuits I.: Vec . and the transistor is cut off.e.270 Electronic Devices and Circuits So by setting ie = 0. and it is chosen as the operating point. For a resistance the load line is a straight line. if only the collector resistance Rc is considered and load resistance RL is infinity ( 00 ). the operating point is Q4 and so on. While drawing a load line. Choosing the operating point means. Fixed Bias circuit or Base Bias circuit 2. 5. When the input signal is symmetrical. Since the voltage and current are shifted in phase. Therefore for Is = 200/lA. So the output signal will be pure a. C e is coupling capacitor.4. so another operating point is to be chosen. But if the input signal is greater than 40 /lA on the negative side. because the collector should be reverse biased. Now. Rc. Since this is NPN transistor. Collector to Base Bias circuit 3. and the resulting equation will be that of an ellipse. Re is collector resistance. and the resistance considered is RL in parallel with Re . a correct value of Is. It is a straight line independent of the transistor parameters. Vee should be positIve. so that the output signal is a true replica of the input without distortion ( Vee and V ss are bias voltages. V CC is a fixed quantity.c signal between Band E ). then the load line is drawn with the points [ ~e~ and VCE ) . dynamic load\ne has to be considered. Ie' VCEo (if the transistor is in Common Emitter Configuration) so that we get undistorted output. The load line as explained above. Suppose the output characteristics of the transistor are as shown in Fig.: 300 /lA). ( V ce . Since RL is connected.5. Since from the above circuit.I x Rs) is negative and it provides positive bias for the base. when the input signal applied between base and emitter is a symmetrical signal.limits the current Ie .

Hence in the above circuit. In the above circuit. because Is remains constant for given values of Vee and V ss and Rs. On the other hand Is should be changed to account for the change in f3 so that the operating point is fixed or Ie and VeE are fixed. Because of these reasons. In order to get a large value of Is or the change in the operating point.Transistvr Biasing and Stabilization 271 ( Cc N PN E Vo 0 1 R. The furnace may not have constant temperature profile along the length of the furnace.4 is called as a Fixed Bias Circuit. since the characteristics of the transistor will be slightly differt<. Hence for the same circuit when one transistor is replaced by the other. for Is' f3 is not appearing.6 for Silicon. If we say impurity concentration is 1 in 106/cm 3. So the above circuit is called as Fixed Bias Circuit. . So the operating point must also remain fixed. and we replace this transistor by another AC 128 transistor. 5... the operating poi~ is not fixed. The diffusion length will also be not the same since the temperature inside the furnace during drive in diffusion may vary. and f3 changes.5 Operating point variation V SE is the base emitter. 5. It is because of the limitations in the fabrication technology. The doping concentration..2 ) . So once Rs and Vee are fixed. if one AC 128 transistor is replaced by another transistor. VCE Fig 5. Because in the expression.. in fabrication cannot be controlled precisely.. are fixed.. Since once V ce' Rs etc. since Is is fixed.nt.3 BIAS STABILITY The circuit shown in Fig. 5. In some cases. the operating point will change. it need not be the same. Suppose the transistor in the circuit is AC 128. ( 5. diffusion length etc.4 THERMAL INSTABILITY· Change in temperature also adversely effects the operating point. There will be slight difference. Hence the name Fixed Bias Circuit. the transistor may be cut off.. This will be 0.. leo doubles for every 10°C rise in temperature.2V for Germanium and 0. The characteristics of these two transistors will not be exactly the same. Is is fixed. because of the change in the operating point.. Vee or Rs has to be changed. the biasing point is also fixed.voltage for a forward biased EB Junction.4 Fixed bias circuit Fig 5. transistors of the same type may not have exactly the same characteristics. Is is fixed when Rs and Vee are fixed.. operating point changes... (Is ~ V ss/Rs).

If it is large. 5. s=mco p. the operating point will shift. So ins is fixed. leo a. Stability Factor S is defined as the rate of change of Ie with respect to leo the reverse saturation current. it indicates that the circuit is thermally unstable.. Then the operating point changes. the operating point will be shifted to the saturation region.. with variation in leO' f3 and V8E. which provide compensating voltage and currents to maintain the operating point constant are used.272 Electronic Devices and Circuits leo a.. So in certain cases. There are two methods to keep Ie constant.3 ) The collector current causes the collector junction temperature to rise... VBE ~lc ~Ieo ole = K The value olS should be small. i. ifIs is fixed. Ie also increases with temperature. Ie and VeE should be kept constant. 2. even if the operating point is fixed in the middle of active region.. thermistors etc.4 ) S . aV ole .. ( 5.81 -~ eo p = K.. and then Ie So the transistor output characteristics will shift upwards (because Ie increases). This in turn. In order to keep operating point fixed.... VBE = K . Compensation Technique: In this method. increases the temperature and so leo still increases.. keeping f3 and V8E constant. transistor.. Hence leo increases . to keep Ie constant. So Ie also increases.Is Ie = I-a + I-a leo gets doubled for every 10°C rise in temperature.... 18 decreases if leo increase.. are al"o some times called as Stability Factors.. Stabilization Technique: Here resistive biasing circuits are used to allow 18 to vary to keep Ie relatively constant. SE Expression for Ie' Ole a~ . because of the change in temperature.. 1. operating point will shift with changes in the values ofIe with temperature.I 1=--+-s - e I-a I-a .e.5 STABILITY FACTOR'S' FOR FIXED BIAS CIRCUIT In the previous circuit. ( 5.. temperature sensitive devices such as diodes..

VSE s Rs For a fixed bias circuit. al aI ( I ._ 1 I 1 B E Fig 5. It is a very large value or thermal instability is more. ( 5.... 5. al s Sale leo cannot be measured directly. r IC : B ~ Vee B v u . differentiating Equation (5. 273 1 =(1 +/3)x ~ +/3 x ~ ale ale I = (I + /3) + /3. S = 5 is a reasonable value for practical circuit. So some circuits are available which make Ie more independent ofIeo and hence S will be low.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization Therefore. Ie and Is can be measured directly. since Is is fixed./3( ale s) .6. Is is independent of Ieals = ale o.4 is fixed bias circuit. S=I+/3 If /3 = 40.. 5. ~ R" IB v../3.4) with respect to Ie' with /3 as constant. S = 41. 5.. General Expression for Sis. So Ie is not differentiated directly with leo.6 Collector to base bias circuit. But an improvement over this circuit is the circuit shown is Fig. .. This is ideal case. al s) aI S= -~'----:- 1+/3 1. = 1+ /3 ale S S = 0 implies that Ie is independent ofI eo ..5 ) I = Vee .6 COLLECTOR TO BASE BIAS CIRCUIT The circuit shown in Fig. if Vee' Re and V ss are fixed..

I is same and so IB decreases.I Re . the capacitor will block DC input and allow only AC signal to the base. We can calculate the stability factor for this circuit. VeE = Vee . the value of S is less than (1 + /3). Applying KVL.4 fixed bias circuit because. Therefore collector bias circuit. Re is a resistor in the collector circuit..274 Electronic Devices and Circuits In this circuit. Vi is input. RB is connected to the collector point C.Vee + (l~ + Ie) Re + IB . Since Vee is same.2V for Germanium.6V for Silicon. (I + /3) is the maximum value for the fixed bias circuit. instead of Vee as in Fig. which controls . Now let us consider the effect of /3 on the stability of the circuit. That 1l1l':1ns the reverse bias voltage of the colIector junction is reduced or number of carriers collected b~' I Ill' . 5. because of the reduction in the bias CUfl"l'1I1 ' • the increase in Ie will not be as much as it would have been considering only increase in leo ~Ilh temperature. Therefore.~ Therefore.4. collector junction is reverse biased.t >l1ector reduces. VBE . 1·= Ie + IB fhis circuit is an improvement over the Fig. Hence JBalso reduces. discussed above. 5.VBE =: IB ( Re + RB) + Ie . So VeE reduces.(Ie + IB) Re I = Ie + IB With temperature Ie increases. As Ie increases with temperature because of the increases in leo' (Ie + IB) Re product increase. VeE = Vee . and O. the reverse bias voltage of the collector junction with respect to emitter. . It is independent ofIe' So differentiate this expression with respect to leo we get al O-Re -0 = ---'=---ale Re+RB The expression for stability factor S ---1i -Re Re+RB I+P S = -1 _-p7(a'--JB---) 8I e But alB _ -Re ale Re +Rb l+P S = ------'-:--R 1+ /3x e Re+RB .VBE -IeRe B Re+RB VBE is the cut in voltage and it is 0. RB = 0 or Vee . Since it is NPN transistor. Re I = Vee . is an improvement over the fixed bias circuit.

8 ) (1 + P)Ieo P ...VBE + (Re + RB)Ieo Re So if we choose RB very small compared to PRo the circuit will work satisfactorily. Since Ie is dependent on the P from the above expression.V BE + (Re + RB)I o ] Again (P + 1) ::: p... I . IB = Ie - . and since P changes with temperature.. I _ P[Vee-VBE+{Re+Rs)IcoJ Ie - (1 + p)l eo e- --'=--------'------'---"'- PRe PRe» RB Ie::: Vee .. this may not work out. IB is being decreased. ( 5. to .. P x Re» R B· Therefore..VBE + (Re + RB)leo] . But in all cases. so that the modified circuit works satisfactorily to keep the operating point fixed.. the abOve expression becomes. ( 5...P[Vee .10) is.. draw the load line on the output characteristics of the given transistor. it is essential to make Ie insensitive to p..le changes so the operating point also changes. The assumption to be made in the above expression (5. with temperature..9 ) Equating (5.V BE] + (Re + RB) leo (1 + P)) P» 1 = 1 + P ::: P IdRe + PRe + R B] = P[Vee .. with increase in Ie (Because leo increases with temperature) to keep operating point constant.PIc Re Ie (Re + RB) + P Ie Re = P ([Vee .. ( 5.7)....Transistor Biasing and Stabilization 275 . then the above assumption is not valid and hence the circuit won't work satisfactorily....10) e(pRe+R B) This expression.V BE] . Therefore from the above expression....V BE] + )(Re + RB) leo P Ie [(P + 1) Re + RB]::: P [Vee .8) and (5. Therefore. Ie also changes and thereby operating point changes... The above circuit..determine the operating point.(1 + P)(Re + R B) leo = P[Vee . For a given circuit.. Load line is drawn as given below: Vee = Ie RL + VeE .. with the changes in the value of p...VBE P Re +RB Ie (Re + RB) .VBE I B = ~""-R-e-"'-+-'R"-B---"-'=From Equation (5.9) and transferring Ie to one side Vee -ieRe . in this form is derived to get the condition to make Ie independent of p..7 ) Vee -leRe ... IfRB value is not so small.. (5. is an improvement over the fixed bias circuit.

Is is decreased with increase in Ic to keep operating point fixed. then. operating point changes. is the SelfBias on Emitter Bias Circuit.8 Thevenin's equivalent. there is feedback from the output to the input through the resistor Rg. the above assumption will not hold good. This circuit is also known as Voltage Divider Bias or Universal Bias Circuit. line is drawn on the output characteristics of the transistor. IB also changes to keep operating point fixed. Vee = VeE RL With these points. The circuit is as shown. But VCE decreases. But the advantage is stability is improved. If VeE = 0. Such an amplifier circuit with feedback is called as Feedback Amplifier Circuit.7 SELF BIAS OR EMITTER BIAS CIRCUIT :.If the signal voltage causes an increase in IB. Corresponding to a given value ofIs ' where this line cuts the output characteristic. it is called as the operating point.7 Self Bias circuit. The current in the emitter lead causes a voltage drop across Re in such a direction. a straight. Hence the increase in IB is less than what it would have been without feedback. Re is small. So collector to base circuit is as bad as fixed bias circuit. In the fixed bias circuit. It is NPN transistor emitter is n-type. the assumption has to be made that PRe » RB to make Ie independent of p. But since P changes with temp. Negative polarity . In the collector to base bias circuit we said that the stability is good since. In collector to base bias circuit. This type of circuits are discussed in subsequent chapters. [In transformer coupled circuits Re will be small]. and IB is fixed. that it forward biases the emitter-base junction. though Ie changes with temperature.- Vee 5. In that circuit. Fig 5. A circuit which can be used even if there is zero DC resistance in series with the collector terminal. +Vcc Vi i 1 I( CB N Fig 5. But if in one circuit. and Ie depends on p. thenIe = . since Ie increases with temperature.• 276 Electronic Devices and Circuits If Ie = 0. In feedback circuits the amplification factor will be less than what it would have been without feedback. Ie increases. the component of base current coming through RB decreases. So because of this.

Therefore Ie 'will increase less . So current I or emitter current increases. That is why the symbol is with arrow mark pointing outwards. RB can be regarded as parallel combination ofRI and R2. is given by the expression. RB + IB Re = + V . R = V = IBRB + Re (IB + Ie) + V BE Assuming V BE to be independent of Ie' differentiating IB with respect to Ie' to get'S' .V BE . 5. 5. had there been no self biasing resistor. than it would have been. it is NPN transistor. In the Fig 5. With reference to Fig. So emitter point is at positive with respect to N. IB decrease.Ie x Re IB (RB + Re) = V . V BE = V BN . So the conventional current is flowing out of the transistor. I B.B junction.V BE . If Ie increases due to increase in leo with temperature the current in Rc als9 increases.V EN As IB increases. Hence stability is good. So the drop across R2 which is equal to V.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization 277 should be at the emitter. Hence the drop (IB + Ie) Re has the polarity such as to reverse bias or to oppose the forward bias voltage V BE junction. I = Ie + IB.al c Re Re + RB The expression for stability factor S = I_p(aI I+P ) B al c .V BE -lcRJ I = -'---. Therefore IRe drop increases.8 STABILITY FACTOR'S' FOR SELF BIAS CIRCUIT S is calculated assuming that no AC signal is impressed and only DC voltages are present. Combination acts as a potential divider.Ie x Re (v .8. from the emitter. the voltage V is the drop across R2. Since the polarity of this voltage is to reverse bias the E .8. Vee ·R 2 V=R 1 +R 2 ' RB is the effective resistance looking back from the base terminal RIR2 B RI + R2 Applying Kirchhoff's Voltage Law around the base circuit. [The voltage drop across Re provides the self bias for the emitter]. Ie also increases.--~---'7--=B (RB +RJ alB .

.5 mV....13 )....12 ).11) . (5.12) V = Is x Rs + VSE + (Is + Ie) Re Ie = (1 + l3)1eo + 13 . 5.278 Rs R e Electronic Devices and Circuits ...~ )R. I x R pee e V~V -Ie {R~B + ~' +R. . (5..- aVSE p= K where both leo and 13 are considered constant. S ::: 1... .} OE V SE = V+(RS+Re) {1+P}leo. ... Is Therefore. (5..{R s +R e (I+ P P P )}l e .. V SE VSE V.. VBE decreases at the rate of 2........9 STABILITY FACTOR S' The variation of Ie with V SE is given by stability factors S' . From equation ( 5. the potential barrier is reduced and more number of carriers can move from one side (p) to the other side (n).... . 13 also increases side with temperature..14) S'= ~ aVSE aVSE =_{R s +R e{I+ P)} ale p .} + leo {RB~+~) +('.tOC for both Germanium and Silicon transistors..11 ). collector to base bias circuit and Emitter bias circuits provide stabilisation of Ie against variations in leo' But Ie also varies with V SE and 13...{ le-O+P)leo } P Rs - {lc-{l+P)Ico P + c I}R e V_IC. Ie Is = {I + P)Ieo P IsRs x (Is + Ie) Re .13 ) From equation ( 5...{I+p)xI P P + eo 1+ ( p P) Re x Ieo - ~ x R .(l + P)l eo P Substituting this value in equation ( 5. V SE But Is =V - = Ie . with the increase in T. The fixed bias circuit. ( 5.. Because.RB+Rb. :. Hence Ie changes.. If IS very small.. c I al S.

. e the graph as i s 100 10 1. If P is small. then S = 1 + p.(.then we get.. Re S = ----. l+P+~=l+~=l+P Re Re R when RB is small. S increases with increases e Re R p.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization or But 279 P+l::::P R B if it small can be neglected Re . S is almost independent of p..0. Now for a fixed R B . If a graph is plotted between Sand RB ....9 Variation oj stability Jactor . Or to a better accuracy. Is' = - S Re I R S = 1.0 RB Rc Fig 5.1 +-~""')~ (l+~(l+ RB) Re = 1+ R e RB If RRB is very large. implies that the stability of the circuit is very good.

01 S"=~ op where both leo and V BE are assumed to be constant.14 ). The smaller. than S' will also be less. S'-. But for Germanium transistor. the value ofRB. V BE = V + (RB + Re) -p. For selfbias circuit. S is negative indicate that as V BE decreases. We get stability ofIe with respectto both V BE and leo.RE Therefore. the variation will be 30% when the . n 1 or mhos.11 PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS Silicon transistors are superior to Germanium transistor as far as thermal stability is concerned. The variation in the value ofle for Silicon transistor is 30% for a typical circuit when the temperature varies from -65°C to + 175°C. S has the units of . To prevent this.x leo - P+ 1 R B + Re (l + p) p x Ie P+I V BE .~-~VBE +1 e .10 STABILITY FACTOR S" The variation of Ie with respect to ~ is given by the stabil ity factors S". . ifS is made unity. -S 5. So R) and R2 should be small. variation ofS"with V BE is also less. the better the stabilisation.vBE + V. Ie increases.~ leo(RB+ReXI+~) (RB+ReXI+~) (RB+ReXl+~) RB+Re(I+~) V. the AC gain is reduced. Re is shunted with a capacitor whose reactance at the operating frequencies is very small so that AC signal passes through the capacitor only.(RB+ReXI+~) eo ale = (RB+ReXl+~XV-VBE)-~(V-VBEXRe+RB) (RB + Ref(1 + ~f op (RB + ReXV .x leo = 1 e I RB +Re(I+P) p x Ie ><: (1 + ~) = -~.V . S"is approximately equal to 1. From equation ( 5.VBE ) (RB + Re)+ (1 + pf "Ole S = 8i3 = p{l + p) le· S 5.(RB + Re) -p.280 Electronic Devices and Circuits The smaller the value of RB the better the stabilisation RB = R) in parallel with R 2. Because of feedback through Re.

5.1. Find Stability Factor.5 /-tA Ie = 50 x 49. Re = 1KO Vee =: lOY. + Fig 5.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization 281 temperature is varied from -65°C to +75°C. Problem 5. -~----o- 1+ 50x2 102 = 25. Is = 202x 103 = 49. Assume V SE = O. But we said that there is feed back from the output to the input. Such high temperature will be encountered in the electronic control of temperature for furnaces.3 10.4 = 0 . Solution Vee S= (13 + 1) Is x Re .5 x 10-6 = 2..475 rnA 51 E ~ Ie W+ B B r ! +R.1 An NPN transistor with 13 = 50. Choose Rs so that quiescent collector to emitter voltage is 4Y. space applications etc. Hence the amplification will be reduced. The bias is obtained by connecting a 100 kO resistance from collector to base.101 x 103 Is . the thermal stability is poor for Germanium transistor.6 Problem 5. Silicon transistors are never used above 175°C and Germanium transistors above +75°C. Therefore. +-Assume V SE = O. even though the stability is improved.VeE = 0 101 100x 1 = 41 1+-68. is used in Common Emitter Circuit with VeE = 10V and Re = 2KO.10 For Problem 5.2 A transistor with 13 = 100 is to be used in Common Emitter Configuration with collector to base bias.12 BIAS COMPENSATION The collector to base bias circuit and self bias circuit are used for stability ofIe with variation in leo' VSE and 13. Find ( a) The Quiescent Point ( Ie + Is ) ( b) The Stability Factor He Solution Neglecting leo' Ie = 13 x Is Then 1) Is Re + Is Rs = Vee (50+ l)x2 x 103 + 100 x 103 xI s = 10 10 :.

Find the Stability Factor. +V IB x Rs + VSE + (l + ~) RCIB +0.3. Rc = 0.7K 1 N Fig 5.11 For Problem 5.27 KO. Also determine the Quiescent point Q (V CE .7 KQ and Rl = 27K.282 6 IB = 101xl03 = 59.5K. Fig 5.4Il A Electronic Devices and Circuits V CE = IB RB = 4V R B = 4 59.3.12 For Problem 5.2 .27) + 0. Applying KVL over the loop. If ~ = 44.4xlO-6 = 67. Solution . R2 = 2.3 One NPN transistor is used in the self biasing arrangement. The Quiescent Point Vee 27K + T V 2. The circuit components values are Vcc = 4.3K Problem 5.5V.409 = Is x (2.46 + 45 x 0. Rc = 1. Ic).

The negative voltage Vo across the diode will have the same temperature coefficient as V BE. so that Ie will be insensitive Fig 5. Since the diode is connected as shown. The decrease in V BE is nullified by corresponding increase in Vo. Thus the diode circuit compensates for the changes in the values of VBE.12. the mobility of carriers increases. The diode should be of the same material as the transistor. So Ie also increases with temperature. Therefore.1 DIODE COMPENSATION FOR V BE The circuit shown in Fig.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization or 0. 5.(IB + Ie) Re = 2. Since with temperature. Vo increases with temperature.Ie x Re . so current through the diode increases and V 0 increases.1 rnA 283 IB = Ie = 13 x IB = 44 x 1. A circuit to achieve this is as shown in the Figures 5. Resistance Rd limits the current through the diode.1 = 48. 5. diode compensation should also be given against variation in leo.12. Thus both stabilization and compensation technique are used depending upon the requirements. 5.14.409+ 0.4V If the reduction in gain is not tolerable then compensation techniques are to be used.2 14.14 Diode compensation for I CO' .6 = 1. So the net voltage more or less remains constant.4 rnA VeE = Vee . I o 1 o 1 Fig 5.13 Diode compensation for V BE to variations in V BE.2 DIODE COMPENSATION FOR leo leo the reverse saturation current of the collector junction increases with temperature.13 employs self biasing +Vec technique for stabilization. as V BE decreases. Therefore. Vo increases. + Vee NPN -l. if V BE decreases with increase in temperature (V B is cut in voltage). In addition a diode is connected in the emitter circuit and it is forward biased by the source V DO.

P x 10 + P x leo -P x 10 and +P x leo are of opposite signs.VBE -I BI -I B2 RI . It is one step process and fabrication is easy. But Ie = P x 1. Transistor Q I is used as a diode between base and emitter because. a transistor is being used as a diode. transistors and diodes can be used. Ie is essentially is constant. in biasing and stability circuits.R\ The diode D is reverse biased by an amount 0. Hence certain circuits incorporating transistors in biasing compensation are developed.14. P+1:::. a transistor is used. V BE is small compare to Vee' Vee:::' 15V. collector and base are shorted.2V for Germanium. Moreover. I ~ Vee . 10 and leo need not be the same. 5.6Y.13 BIASING CIRCUITS FOR LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS With the advancements in semiconductor technology. the rate of increase of 10 and leo will be the same. Q I is connected as a diode across the emitter base junction of trans istor Q2' SO effectively the circuit is same as circuit in Fig.13 Ie = P x I .2 or 0. So net value of Ie will remain constant. Why should transistor be used for compensation when it is being used as a diode only? It is because of convenience in fabrication technology. Only the changes in leo and 10 will be of the same order. lei = Vee . Now the collector current through transistor Q1 is. 5. 5. capacitors etc. incorporating the passive components particularly capacitors in ICs is difficult. IB = 1-10 But we know that Ie = ( 1+ P) leo + 13 x IB Substituting the value ofI B.P x 10 + (I + P)Ieo P» 1. Current through the diode is the reverse saturation current 10 . If the diode and the transistor are of the same material. Vee is measured with respect to ground. In IC fabrication for a diode.284. Therefore. With today's technology. If the diode and the transistor are of the same material. One such circuit is shown in Fig. Electronic Devices and Circuits The diode D is reverse biased since the voltage V BE which also appears across the diode is so as to reverse bias the diode.15. V BE = 0. the reverse saturation current 10 of diode will increase at the same rate as .the transistor collector saturation current leo' I Vee -VBE = --"=--~ RI Therefore. the active components made with this technology are no more costlier than the passive components like resistors. Instead of a diode.

V BE = Drop Across RE· As current through RE increases. The materials used for thermistors are: Mixtures of such oxides as NiO (Nickle Oxide). compensation can be achieved. Instead of a thermistor. there will be increase in (3. 5. the emitter reverse bias increases and hence Ic decreases. due to increase in temperature. Collector is to be reverse biased and hence Vce is given.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization V BE « V ce' and (lBI + IB2 ) « ICI ICI = ~ = 285 Vee Constant. As this current passes through Re. So the potential at the emitter (E) point is negative.--. Hence the stabihty will be good. mobility of carriers decrease since there are more number of thermally generated free carriers (n is large).B junction reduces. RT decreases. Hence ICI = IC2 = Constant if RI = Re' These two transistors are being driven by the base voltage V ~E' Since. it is PNP transistor.e.14 THERMISTOR AND SENSISTOR COMPENSATION By using temperature sensitive resistive elements rather than diodes or transistors. So th current through RT increases.16. Thus the effect of temperature on Ic i. such circuits are employed for biasing stability. Mn 20 3 (Manganese Oxide).-------. Thermistor has negative temperature coefficient i. there is voltage drop across Re' Since. 5. practical experience has shown that. V BE and Ico' The corresponding increase in Ie is nullified by the increase in the reverse bias voltage at the emitter. V BE is the same. RT is the thermistor. V ce and Rc are also fixed. . as temperature increase.e. As the drop across Re increases. If transistors QJ and Q2 are identical. 5.7% j0c. Even if the two transistors are not exactly identical. V BE or the forward bias voltage of E . the stability factor will be around 5. Since the emitter is grounded. Sensistor is a heavily doped semiconductor material.+ Vee I=----v o NPN Fig. Ie will not increase. As temperature increases. Hence Ie reduces.. When a semiconductor is heavily doped.15 Biasing circuit for ICs. The circuit is as shown in Fig. a temperature sensitive resistor with positive temperature coefficient like a metal or sensistor can be used. Hence in ICs. this acts as the reverse bias for the emitter. Its temperature coefficient will be + 0. (C0 2) 03 (Cobalt Oxide). their V BE' (cut in voltage) will be the same. its R decrease exponentially with temperature. Thus compensation is achieved. ..

<-aT] aT] . more current will pass through Re now. Therefore.16 Thermistor compensation Re' Sensistor should be placed in parallel with Re because. Also the resistance of sensistor increases. The condition for thermal stability is that the rate at which heat is released at the collector junction must not exceed the rate at which heat can be dissipated. Ie increases.286 -Vee Electronic Devices and Circuits ~l ___+o:-_ _--'+ Fig 5. Po is the power dissipated at the junction in Watts. collector current increases. to start with. As the junction tempetature rises. The junction temperature will increase either-because of temperature increase or because of self heating. 8 is the so called Thermal Resistance of the transistor varying from 0.Drop across Re)' As Drop across Re increases. Hence the reverse bias of emitter increases and so Ie decrease. V BE decreases hence Ie decreases. So apc apo -. 5. Re will have the same So temperature compensation can be obtained by placing a sensistor in parallel with R J or Vi i value of sensistor. So the current will get branched equally. So the effect of temperature on Ie is nullified. For Germanium it is low since the conductivity is more for Germanium compared to Silicon. (Since V BE = Drop across R2 . This process can become cumulative to damage the transistor. The maximum power is limited by the temperature also that the collector to base junction can withstand. So temperature increases and Ie still further increases.15 THERMAL RUNAWAY The max power which a transistor can dissipate (power that can be drawn from the transistor) will be from mW to a few hundred Watts.2° C/W for a high power device to I OOooC/W for a low power device. Now L. since current takes the path of least resistance.\T=TJ-TA =8 x Po where TJ and T A are the temperature of the junction and ambient. So this results in increased power dissipation. As T increases. This is known as Thermal Runaway. For Silicon transistor the max temperature range is 150°C to 205°C and for Germanium it is 60°C to 100°C.

(lc + IB) Rc IB is very small compared to Ic. If Ie is so chosen that V VeE = -2- Vee rate of increase of Pe with Ie is not large and Thermal Runaway problem will not be there.4) 250 V CE :::: 4. >. eE 2 then temperature increases with a increase in Ie.(21 + 0.4 Calculate the value of thermal resistance for a transistor having Pe (max) = 125 mW at free air temperature of 25°C and T J (max) = 150°C. So it can be neglected. It is desired that the quiescent point be apporoximately at the middle of the load line.. Also find the junction temperature if the collector dessipation is 75 mW.4 rnA and 21 rnA respectively. so IB and Ie are chossen as 0. if the operating point is so chosen th~t VeE = -2- Vee then the effect of thermal runaway is not cumulative. Problem 5. Pe increases.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization aPe < ~ aT] e 287 or e= aT] aP D Heat Sink limit the temperature rise. Problem 5. V CE = V ce . the stability factor. But if V..6 V . . As Ie increases.25 = I x 75 . But it follows a certain law.5 A silicon type 2N780 transistor with f3 = 50.Ie .s:£. (i) T J -TA =9xP D or 150-25=9xI25 or 9 = I°C/mW (ii) TJ . TJ = 100°C Solution It has been found that.. Find RB and Calculate'S'. Solution V CE = Vcc .Again with increase in Ie' T increases and hence the effect is cumulative. Heat sink is a good conducting plate which absorbs heat from the transistor and will have large area for dissipation. Vee = 10V and Rc = 2500 is connected in collector to base bias circuit. Rc = IOV .

The collector circuit resistance is Re = 1kn and Vec = 10V. Rc = I kn Vee = 10V S=? Rb =? .=[3 IB Ie = [3 x IB Vec . Vce is voltage these negative to positive.VeE = O.(101) IB x I x 103. Ie .(Ic + IB) Rc .VCE = o. Assume V BE = O.4 S= ---'-----=-- [3+1 1+ [3.VBE IB 4.([3 + I)IB Rc .4 f!A = But VCE = lB· RB 4V 59.288 Electronic Devices and Circuits Since it is Silicon transistor. Solution [3 = 100 . (a) Choose RB so that the quiescent collector to emitter voltage is 4V (b) Find the stability factors. (50+1) 250 = 23 1+50x ( ) 250+IOx10 3 23 Vee .6V VCE .6 =IOkn 0. Vee = 10V VeE = 4V Re = I kn 10 . But Ie value is not given.6 A transistor with [3 = 100 is to be used in Common Emitter Configuration with collector to base bias.6-0.4 = 0 or [3 = 100 IB = ? 6 IB = 10lxl03 = 59. VeE should be 4 V Applyining KVL around the loop. V BE = Vy = 0. VCE is voltage drop positive to negative. Rc Rc +Rb S= S= Problem 5.4 f!A x RB .

Transistor Biasing and Stabilization 4 = 59.6V.6-0.17 For Problem 5.3kO 289 RB Therefore.6V at 25° C . Since the two transistors are identical. V cc = 20. we can assume that IBI Vcc -VBE 1= ~~~. Find the currents IBi' IB2' ICI and IC2 at T = 25°C (b) Find IC2 at T = 175° C when ~ = 98 and V BE 0. 1= .=.7 Two identical Silicon transistor with ~ =48.7. RI = I B2 . C. S= 1+~. Stability Factor..3} 3 =41 S=41 Problem 5. S= ~+1 Rc Rc+RB 101 1+ 100 x 1x 10 103 (1+67.I vj-_I ~ Q1 v 0 ! NPN Fig 5.6 = 67. 'YBE 20.6 10k =2mA = O. RI = 10K and Rc = 5K are connected as shown.22V Solution + Vee R.6V at T = 25° C.4x1O. V BE = 0.

13 is same for the two transistors.18 For Problem 5. Rc = 2K. then I = 21B + ICI = 2IB + J3I B or 2mA = (2 + 48)I B ·. V = IB x RB + V BE + (lB + IC)Re . ICI = IC2 = I-' A X IB = 98 x 2038 . V BE = 0. (b) At 17S oC.22V and 13= 98 I= or VCC-VBE 10k = 2. Solution Sx20 = 100+S = 0. The circuit component values are Vcc = 20V. x 10-6 = 2mA Problem 5.38~A.1 k. For Germanium transistor. Re = 0.9S2 V Fig 5.92mA ·. Hence V BE at 17S o C = 0. Hence Ic should be the same.290 Electronic Devices and Circuits Since IBI = IB2= IB.038 IB = 2+98 rnA = 20.8. IB is same. Find the stability factor S. 2 IB = SO rnA = 40mA ICI = IC2 = 13 x IB = 48 x 40 x 10-3 = 1.8 Determine the quiescent currents and the collector to emitter voltage for a Ge transistor with 13 = SO in the self biasing arrangements.038mA = (2 + J3)I B 2. RI = lOOk and ~ = Skn. V BE decrease with temperature.2V ·.

5K.2 Is = = 76."1] + 0.IE Re =20-3.2 9.-l! Re =51 x 51+ 4.VCE -IeRe (Is+Ic) 16-8-4x 1.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization 291 v = Is x Rs + VSE + (~ + 1) Is Re = Is [Rs + Re(l +~) ] +V SE 0.5 4. Stability factor S = 12 is desired ~ :.952 = Is [4.89 x 0.76 0. Is = 13 = Ie 4 SO = 80llA R e- --=~~=-~-= Vee . The quiescent point is chosen to be VeE = 8V and Ie = 4rnA.1 Problem 5.1 = 12V S=(l+~)x l+~~ 1 _1_+=-~"'--'~-16_=25 [ 1+~+--.leRe .952-0.81 rnA VeE = Vee .9.76 x 103 + 51 x 0.: 50.19 For Problem 5.81 rnA IE = (Is + Ie) = 3.49k .2 rnA Ie = ~ x Is = 3. Solution v~ Fig 5.9 Design a circuit with Ge transistor in the self biasing arrangement with Vee = 16V and Re = 1.08 = 0.81 x 2-3.86 X 103 0.

56k 5.05k.... ~ =8.05 ..(IB + IC)Re = 0 or V BE .08 x 0. (5.. V BN = 0.. 2.76 = 41k =2.. ( 5.16 ) ...05 = 2.08 x 7.....4 = 14.49 = 2... = Base to ground voltage = V BE + IE Re Therefore... ( 5.ICRe But or Ic = (1 + ~) x Ico + ~ x IB Ic -(i+p)lco -I = -=----'-~~ B P ...76V R 2 xVCC ' = Rl +R2 R 2 x16 = 41k+R2 ..2 + 0.17) .19) =V - IB X (RB + Re) .2 + 4......V BE .. RB == Vcc 16 =-=Rl R\ 16R B =-- RIR2 Rl + R2 V = V 16x7. IE is negative..4 x Re == 7..76V V V RB R2'VCC = R) + R2 ....IB x RB . (5...2V V =V BN +IBRb = 2.18 ) .16 STABILITY FACTOR S"FOR SELF BIAS CIRCUIT V .292 Electronic Devices and Circuits or RB Re RB V BN = 14.....

~ + 1) R B + Re (I + 13) V BE =V+(RB+Re) ( -13. 1) x leo = V' J3 + I --I J3 y' ::: (Rb + Re) leo Y BE or = . I( Co N Fig 5. Substituting equation (5.leo13 Ie = V . R B + Re + (3) V +V ~ x Ie 0 (-VBE + V + V') = RB + ReO + ~) x Ie ~ I3(V + Y'-VBE ) Ie"" RB+Re(I+I3) y' can be assumed to be independent of 13. 293 i V.l}eo B e {RB+~e(l+J3)} Let (R B + Re) (~.20 Stability factor S".21 Self bias circuit. ! Fig 5. S " .1 7).19) in (5.leo +(R +R )(J3.Ie { Y BE =Y-I e (RB+R e) } (P+l) J3 + Re + (RB + Re)-J3. S " aIe = a 13 = 13{1 + (3) = S Ie.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization V("(.

75 =0. Ic = 2mA and Ic should be in the range of 1.10 A transistor type 2N335 is used in the selfbias configuration may have any value ofB between 36 and 90 at room temperature. RE (Rc + Re) = =0 20-10 2 = 5 KQ Rc=:4KQ Re = (5 ..5 rnA = B2 .Ic .75 to 2. V cc = 20V......Ic .Bt = 90-36 = 54 .VBE ) = RB + ReO + 132) . Rc .VCE Ic e V cc .... (R + R ) C = Vcc ....22 ) Problem 5. ( 5.25 rnA as B varies from 36 to 90.4) KQ = I KQ L\ Ic L\ B = IC2 - I Ct =: 2.21 ) lCl _ lCI . Design a self bias circuit (Find Re..PI RB+Re(I+~2) Subtracting I from both sides. {h} RB+Re(I+~d . ( 5.20 ) Bt(v + V' . normal bias point is to be at V CE = 10V. R t and R2) subject to the following specification R = 4 Kn.. ( 5.1... Neglect the variation ofIco Solution Ic » I B · So neglecting IB..V CE ..... and simplifying equation.294 Electronic Devices and Circuits or S" - IC2 - ICI _ - ~2 -~I L\lc L\~ .25 .VBE ) ICt IC2 = RB+Re{I+Bt) P2(V + V' .

13 2 = 90.s2 _ 52 .38) . S2 = 17. V R = 2 =20. 1+ RB S2 = (l +13 2) 1 + R 1+132 +-'! Re Re ..75 = 3. S2 is the Stability Factor ( S ).5 54 or S2 = 17.38 RI =R B Vee .(1+90) 0. Re =1 K!l.6 + (20.3. 37) 1.1x~=119K R1V =119x3.38=242K VCE-V (20-3.22 For Problem 5.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization ~Ic 195 ~13 _ Icl.3.~.131(1+132) .10.38V V = V BE + = 0.1 K!l Neglecting the effect of leo' B Fig 5. RB =20. Rs + Re (1+ (3) 13 x Ie 3.

biasing arrangement the circuit components are Vee = 4.46 k!l = + 4.27 2. R) =27 K of J3 = 44.35 .1+13 Re Re + Rb ~ = 8. (b) Quiescent point (c) Recalculate these values if the base . Fig 5.409 5. Find (a) Stability Jactor. Solution The circuit and its Thevenin's equivalent are shown in Fig.24 For Problem 5.7x27 29. R2 = 2.23 For Problem 5..11..5V. = 2.23.22 and Fig.296 Electronic Devices and Circuits Problem 5. V~ Fig 5.7 =2.7 29. 5.7 K .11 A PNP transistor is used in self .7 = OAIV 44 + 1 1+ 44 0. RE = 0.__1_+-::13.73 s .--_ = .11.spreading resistance oJ690 n is taken in account.27 K .5 x (a) 2. 5.

V CE = 4.5 .42 -0.528 rnA V CE = 4.27)+3.012mA These are the values taking rbb' into consideration. Vee = Ic Rc + V CE + IE RE = Ic Rc + V CE + (1 +p) -p.6 + (2.484V Ic =0.013 rnA (45xO.012mA Ic = -0. RE + V BE + RB IB 0.46) IC = 13 IB = 0.0.06 1+44-·3.Rc + RE + 13 RE) + V CE .1.46) lB.528mA IB = 0..41-0. (c) s IB = 45 0 27 = 10. determine the stability factor S and Thermal Resistance 9 Th • V CC = 24V Rc= 10K VCE = 5V RE = 270 0 13=45 Solution: In Collector-Emitter Circuit.5 .013mA Taking rbb' = 6900 .12 For the given circuit. Vcc = Rc Ic + VCE + IE RE = IB (13 .41 = (45) IB (0.6) = 297 V2 -0.27) + 0.484 V Quiescent Point: V CE= 3. (0.15 =-O.27 + 2.19 = (45xO.562V Quiescent Point: Ic =0.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization (b) In base circuit. = IE RE + V BE + RB IB = (1 + 13) IB . Problem 5.Ic· RE .016 = 3.562 V CE = 3.572mA IB =O.572mA In collector circuit.938 = 3.

496 We know that AT = TJ = TH = (Th.844 =9.496 (c) R = 107.0911 = 107.298 Electronic Devices and Circuits 46 = 10 Ie + 5 + 45 Ie (270 ) = 1.08 = 46 1+3. BFW 10. Vos can be calculated. . So we get point A as the characteristic X-axis..10 . Maximum transfer characteristics which is a plot between maximum loss and maximum V p and minimum transfer characteristic which is a plot between minimum Vp and minimum loss. (1) Vos = Voo . This cannot be exactly defined. This is because loss and V p cannot be specified accurately. the voltage Vas for which pinch off occurs varies.09 ~ ~ 45 In collector base circuit. (known). So. Vos is fixed. . because. For the same FET.849 =41. Hence the manufacturers specify maximum and minimum values for loss and Vp..08Kn (b) Stability factor = S = 1 1+~ +: Rc+ R 46 C 1+45~ 117. (a) = ~= 1. Recombination of carriers can cause variation in depletion region thickness. two transfer characteristics are drawn for FET. They vary. loss and V p will not be constant. V CE = IB x R + V BE R = 5 ..0. RL RL is known.08 KO S =9.. V p and loss will not be constant. when 10 = 0.17 FET BIASING One of the problem in using FET is that each device type does not have a single transfer characteristic. Accordingly. So by choosing any convenient value of 10 in eq (1). The DC load line for a FET circuit is drawn upon the device characteristic in exactly the same way as was done with bipolar transistor circuits. Res) TJ - Thermal resistance T A = 6 Th x Po· 150-25 125 = 1000oC/W 5. Vos = V 00.849 rnA.6 41.

17. 10 = Voo .26 FET biasing circuit. V8. For a FET.1 FIXED BIAS CIRCUIT The circuit is shown in Fig. . Fig 5.28.. 5. Join points A and B.Va> Fig 5.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization loss (max) loss 299 .29. B I I VO) Fig 5.Transfer CharacteristIc Min . 5. The gate is biased via resistance Ro to a negative voltage Va.Transfer CharacteristIc Vp (Mini) . This is an example of fixed bias circuit.. So the maximum and minimum levels of 10 for a given bias voltage can be best determined by a graphical first plot maximum and minimum transfer characteristics as shown in Fig.. when Vos = 0. and loss are not fixed. So we get point B on y-axis. Then the point at which the load line intersects the corresponding drain characteristics is the operating point Q.25 Transfer characteristics. The variation of maximum and minimum values can be as much as ±50 Yo or more over the typical values.-4E:--+-"--loss (min) ~=-+--- Max . Choose any value of V as say -I.27 DC loadline.5. This will be RL the load line.

e. the operating point is not fixed in a fixed bias circuit. Rs will also tend to stabilize 10 against signals applied to the gate i. Corresponding to these values. (Because AC current is not passing through Rs but only through Cs)' (V RS) voltage drop across Rg = 10 x ~.2 SELF BIAS CIRCUIT In self bias circuit. 5. Let VGS is chosen as . Therefore gate is negative with respect to source. So.IV.28 JFET Fixed Bias Circuit.29 Transfer characteristics. A B ID Max ID Min ---VGS -IV 0 Fig 5.17. Cs is the bypass capacitors (CE in BJT circuits). the maximum and minimum values of Vos can be calculated using the expression.ID(min) • RL V OS(mm) = V 00 .300 Electronic Devices and Circuits RG -VG Fig 5. . a resistance in series with source terminal provides the gate bias voltage. A gives maximum 10 . Gate is grounded via Ra.ID(max) • RL As is evident. It cuts the maximum and minimum transfer characteristics at two points A and B. Rs will stabilize the drain current. B gives minimum 1 0 . The total DC load is (RL + Rs). Then draw a base line (vertical line) through the -IV VGS value. Vos = V 00 . RL V OS(max) = V 00 .10 . Rg will reduce the AC voltage gain ofthe circuit. the fixed bias circuit is not useful. The Q point (V os and 10 values) vary over a wide range. Therefore total AC load with Rg bypassed is Rv Therefore AC load line must be drawn to describe the AC performance of the circuit.

5. 10 variations will be less if larger value of Rs is chosen. maximum and minimum values ofIo are determined. Source is 1V positive with respect to ground .Transistor Biasing and Stabilization +VDD 301 Fig 5. Hence Gate-Source junction is forward biased.------0 V ss = . .3 SELF BIAS WITH EXTERNAL VOLTAGE IMO ----"'---.3 V Fig 5. if V GS is fixed. Self bias technique minimises variations in 10 and Vos' compared to fixed bias circuit.. Let 10 = ImA.1.'..17.31 JFET self bias circuit.10 x Rs V00 = 10 .: Gate is grounded through RG • Gate is 1V negative with respect to source. Rs From the maximum and minimum transfer characteristics.30 JFET self bias circuit. VGS =. RL + Vos + 10 . maximum and minimum values of Vos can be calculated. Then. Rs = lkO . . V RS = 1rnA x 1kO = 1V .

type). 1MQ Fig 5. A potential divider R) and ~ is used to derive a positive bias voltage from V DO' (VG should be positive because G-S junction should be reverse biased. Gate is p .R R 1+ 2 10 Rs' 10 within closer limits i.302 Electronic Devices and Circuits v ss = 10 .10 Rs . G is grounded. VDD =20V G -VG Fig 5.18 BASIC FET CIRCUITS Bias circuit which have an external voltage source Vss and source resistances maintain .. Rs + VGS V GS = V ss . Q point will be more stable. Rs Another self bias circuit is . V G = V GS + 10 Rs V G VOO ·R 2 = --="'--~ RI +R2 _ _ VOO ·R 2 V GS .e.33 CS amplifier circuit .32 JFET self bias circuit.VG .10 . 5.

C.1 COMMON SOURCE FET AMPLIFIER: (C. swamping resistor is connected.5.-.. Fig 5.34 C. in this circuit. This produces a sinusoidal drain current.~rs is called as swamping resistor..Transistor Biasing and Stabilization 5. Distortion is more. C. A=-gm Ro Some times a resistance rs is added in series with Rs. the source is not at ground potential.2 THE COMMON SOURCE AMPLIFIER USING SELFBIAS The circuit is shown in Fig. Since AC flows through the drain resistor. +VDD I ..S configuration also introduces a phase-shift of 180°.. As common emitter configuration is widely used.35 C. RL (DC values) 5. To reduce this. configuration is also widely used in the case ofFETs. Now.. As in the case of common emitter configuration..j 1 .. it produces variations in gate .34.18..18. Vos = V DO .S.0 Vo Fig 5. . we get an amplified AC voltage at the output.V gs is a current source 1800 phase-shift will be there. Ro ~. V In = V gs .S. When a small AC signal is coupled into the gate.S.source voltage.. CONFIGURATION) 303 This is FET equivalent of common emitter transistor amplifier in BJT.S amplifier circuit. Vm Yo =-gmRo ... Amplifier equivalent circuit..10 . V 0 = gm V gs .

0 Vo (n-channel JFET) rs (Swamping Resistor) Fig 5.37 Circuit with Swamping resistor. DISTORTION r-'\ produces ' -.source voltage produces more drain current. The source resistance Rs is bypassed by Cs ' the source bypass capacitor. .. This is known as square law distortion. So distortion will be reduced./ decreasing output voltage. So increasing input voltage there is phase inversion. It follows square law. (Similarly to RE in BJT circuit) If rs is not there. But when rs is connected. which means that drain voltage is decreasing because drop across Ro increases. Therefore The transconductance curve of a JFET is non-linear.10 Ro = Vos decreases. V 00 .. +VDD 1-----1 1 . through this.. Fig 5. AC current is passing..36 Transfer characteristic.. Because ofthis JFET distorts large signals. because source is not at ground potential.. Thus local feedback will help in reaching the non-linearity of the square law transconductance curve of JFET. SWAMPING RESISTOR The resistor that is connected in series with the source resistance Rs is called Swamping resistor.304 PHASE INVERSION Electronic Devices and Circuits An increase in gate . source is at ground potential.

The voltage gain will be (.Ro / rs).5.3 COMMON DRAIN AMPLIFIER The circuit is shown in Fig. . 1.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization 385 Fig 5. It reduces voltage gain.Vm = 0 Vm = (1 + 8m rs) Vgs Vo = . So the effect of swamping resistor is..-----0+ V DD (n-channel JFET) Fig 5. .. It reduces distortion. 2.D amplifier circuit. =Av= rs +(Rm) r.. Vgs + gm V gs rs .38 Equivalent circuit.8m Vgs Ro V Vi: If 8m is large.s -RO -Ro A =-- v 5.-----.18.39 C.39 .

41 Common gate amplifier circuit. because the source resistor is not bypassed.306 G Electronic Devices and Circuits --L---------~------------~--~~D Fig 5.Vss Fig 5. Ay < 1 2. 1. KVL: v gs +V 0 -V In =0 V gs + gm Vgs Rs . No phase change. Rs Yo = gmRs Y l+gm R s IIl It is similar to C. 3. Less distortion than a common source amplifier.4 COMMON GATE AMPLIFIER The circuit is shown in Fig. . (n-channel JFET) .18.41.Vm = 0 V Ill = (1 + gm Rs)V gs V 0 = gill V gs . 5. 5.C amplifier or emitter follower. So it is also called as source follower.40 Equivalent circuit.

S junction is reverse biased.B junction is forward. a JFET takes larger changes in input voltage to produce changes in output current.e.n junction.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization 307 D s G Fig 5. This is another name for parabolic shape.S junction is a reverse biased p .loss _ [1- VGS]2 Vp This is a square law.: IG = 0). Equation 10 . JFET amplifier has high input impedance. [For a bi polar transistor amplifier circuit. So JFET is often called as a square law device. Vm=Vgs. .. E . In the ideal case. So it has less resistance].=4 x 10 12 0 SpA . 10 = Is ( . G . the input side i. That is. The price paid for high input resistance is less control over output current. therefore the input side i.. 20V = .Vo=gm Vgs·R o Av= gm Ro im = id Vgs = lin = gm V gs gm JFET amplifier has very small gate leakage current. This is equivalent to saying.e.r Problem 5. G . IG = O. therefore a JFET amplifier has much less voltage gain than a bipolar amplifier.13 What is the DC input resistance of a JFET which has IGSS (gate leakage current) = SpA at 20 V ? Solution: RGS = Input resistance.42 Equivalent circuit.

Zo = Rs II _1_ 380 0 5mV::1 SOOK I Fig 5...!Q Open circuited output voltage. An AC source of 4.5 K Vo ~3 K Fig 5. 3000 Vo = 3380 x 4.43 For Problem 5.75 mV = 4.. gm gm = 7500 0 11400 0 =3800 This is the AC equivalent circuit.. what is the . ---=4000 2500 j.949) (5mV) = 4.44 For Problem 5.14 For the JFET amplifier circuit shown in Fig.? Solution: ~ Electronic Devices and Circuits = 2500 J.. Therefore.l!l. .-----.14. and Vm = 5 mY. that is without considering Ru = (0.14. AC voltage across the load resistor is.+ 30 V 1 MO (n-channel JFET) 1 MO t----r---o 7.22 mV Output impedance is.308 Problem 5.75 mY. if value of V.-..75 mV is in series drawn circuit with an output impedance of 380 O.

biasing circuit must be employed. Selfbias or Emitter bias Selfbias circuit is commonly used. VCE and lB. Diode Compensation for Ico 3. 2. It ensures that the operating point is in the centre of the active region. Sensistors have positive temperature coefficient.(-'-a-I s-. So to nullify for the effect of temperature. resembling metallic thermal characteristics. The operating point is defined by Ic. Vee • • Stability factor is a function ofIco' S .Transistor Biasing and Stabilization SUMMARY • 309 In order that for a transistor. S = -1_-~-. The three types of biasing circuits are 1. Diode Compensation for VBE 2. The circuits are: 1. The materials used are oxides of Nickle. VBE I ~ and VBE = Constant General Expression for. Emitter-Base junction is forward biased and collector-Base junction is reverse biased.:-) ale 1+~ For a Self bias. Usually VCE is chosen to be equal to -2-. . compensating techniques must be used. • Thermistors have negative temperature coefficient. Cobalt and Manganese. Collector to base bias 3. circuit. • Quiescent point Q. They are very heavily doped semiconductors. Thermistor and sensistor compensation. (or operating point or biasing point) changes with temperature.al c al eo 13. Fixed bias or Base bias circuit.

....... 11.... Semiconductor materials having positive temperature coefficient of R (PTCR) are called .. the operating point is chosen such that VCE 5.. .................. Thermistors have . 9.. Operating point is also known as '" ........ ..... Materials used for Thermistors are .... ...... General expression for S = ...... = . Expression for S for self bias circuit is ......... Draw the Fixed bias circuit and derive the expression for the stability factor S. .. 7........... .. 13...........................310 Electronic Devices and Circuits OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS l.... 6........ .......... 3...... the operating point must be located at ..... For normal amplifier circuits. Self bias circuit is also known as ........... . S· is defined as S· = .. 4................ . Explain about the need for biasing in electronic circuits..... = .... Compare all the three biasing circuits....... . ...... what are the factors affecting the stability factor. Draw the Self bias circuit and obtain the expression for the stability factor S............. For a transistor to function as an amplifier...... . 15............. For both Silicon and Germanium....... 8... temperature coefficient of resistance 14............ What are the limitations of this circuit? 3. 2... Fixed bias circuit is also known as .... Stability factor S" is defined as S. Draw the Collector to Base bias circuit and derive the expression for the stability factors What are the limitations of this circuit? 4..... 2. Vcc 10. ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS 1... Stability factor S is defined as S == .. Operating point depends upon the following BJT parameters ..... 12... . What are the advantages of this circuit? 5.............. ................... VBE or Vr cut in voltage decreases at the rate of .. .

to operate the BJT in active region.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization 6. the expression for stability factor'S' is (a) 1- 13 (b) 1 +13 2 (c) l+~ l-~«()Ie) (d (d) 1 + 13 IB) 5. value of stability factor'S' must be (a) large (b) as small as possible (c) (d) 0 4. For better stability of the amplifier circuit.. the quiescent point is chosen . Explain the terms: Thermal Runaway and Thermal Resistance. Voltage divider bias or universal bias circuit is also known as (a) (c) self bias circuit collector to base bias circuit (b) (d) collector bias circuit Fixed bias circuit 6.. 311 S.a~ . MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. By definition.. (a) (c) dynamic load line quiescent load line (b) (d) variable load line active load line 3. Explain the terms Bias Stabilization and Bias Compensation. For fixed bias circuit. AC load line is also known as . expression for stability factor S" is (a) s" = ~ a Ie I VBE=K IeO=K (b) s" =~Iv a Ie I BE' CO =K (c) s" a I~ a Ie (d) s" a I~ . 7... When the input is symmetrical.. (a) (b) (c) (d) at the top edge of the load line at the bottom edge of the load line at the centre of the load line can be chosen any where on the load line 2. Draw the circuits and explain the principles of working of Diode Compensation for V BE and leo.

Compared to silicon BJT.. thermal stability for germanium transistors is . temperature coefficient (a) -ve (b) +ve (c) zero (d) None of these 10.312 Electronic Devices and Circuits 7. The units of stability factor S are (a) ohms (b) constant (c) mhos (d) volt-amperes 8.. ... Sensistors have . The units of thermal resistance (a) °CIO (b) OloC (c) nloc (d) °C/O.• (a) good (b) poor (c) same (d) can't be said 9...

In this Chapter,
• A Transistor ( BJT ) can be represented as a group of elements consisting of Current Source, Voltage Soutc~, Resistor, Conductor, etc. Using this equivalent circuit, it is easy to aria lyse Transistor Amplifier Circuits. The Transistor is represente? in terms of h - Parameters or Hybrid Parameters. The values of these parameters vary with the configuration ofthe transistor namely Common Emitter ( CE ), Common Base ( CB ) and Common Collector ( CC ). The expressions for Voltage Gain Av' Current Gain AI etc., are derived using these h - Parameters.

314

Electronic Devices and Circuits

6.1

INTRODUCTION

In thi~ chapter, the definitions ofh - parameters, expressions of Av' Al etc., in terms ofh - parameters are gIven. These are also known as hybrid parameters ( h for hybrid ), so called because, the units of these parameters are different, Ohms ( n ), mhos ( U ), constants etc. Because the units are different for different parameters, these are called Hybrid Parameters. In defining these parameters short circuit and open circuit conditions are used. In order to analyze different amplifier circuits and compare their merits and demerits, equivalent circuits of the amplifier must be drawn. These circuits are drawn in terms of the h - parameters. The transistor equivalent circuits assume that the operating point is chosen correctly and does not involve biasing resistors. An amplifier circuit is one which will increase the level or value of the input signal. If the output voltage (V ) is greater than input voltage (V. ), it is called voltage amplification. Similarly if P > P., it is po~er amplification. The voltage arhplification factor is represented as A and ° I V A =V IV. v 0 I The other parameters of an amplifier circuit are: Input resistance R. ( or input impedance Z. ) I I Output resistance R (or output impedance Z or out admittance Y ) u 0 The resistance associated with the amplifier circuit, as seen from the input terminals of the amplifier, into the circuit is called input resistance ( R.). For a given circuit, R. must be high. ( Ideal value of R. = 00). Because, when the input signJI source V is connected fo the amplifier circuit, the amplifier circuit will draw current ( I. ) from V s. (1. = IR.). IfR. is small, I. will be large, which V s the signal source may not be a~le to supply. So ~ rrlay fall1from the s~t value ( due to loading effect). So R. must be large for a given amplifier CIrcuit. I Similarly, the output resistance R of the amplifier must be small. Because, the amplified signal V 0 must be fully delivered to the looad RL connected to the amplifier. The signal voltage drop in the amplifier must be as small as possible. So R must be small. Ideally Ro must be zero. Output resistance is the resistance of the amplifier cft.cuit, as seen through the output terminals into the amplifier circuit.

°

V

6.2

BLACK BOX THEORY

Any four terminal network (two terminals for input and two terminals for output), no matter how complex it is, can be represented by an equivalent circuit, if there is a connection between input and output, as shown in the Fig 6.1

II

'1'
VI

./

_A

C_

12
......

l'
V

Linear circuit
B

t

0-

t

2

Fig 6.1 Four terminal network.

Amplifiers

315

If a voltage V2 is applied at the output terminals and current 12 is allowed to flow into the circuit, the Thevenins equivalent circuit looking into the input terminals is given by a voltage source VOl in series with an impedance ZOI. Similarly, if a voltage V I is at the input, the equivalent circuit can be represented as a voltage source VO) in series with an impedance Z02 so the Thevenins equivalent circuit reduces as shown in Fig 6.2. 11 ZOI Z02 12

~
VI

~
V2

V

V

Fig 6.2 Equivalent circuit of a four terminal network.
But it is convenient to represent the output equivalent circuits by following Nortons Theorem as

acurrent generator Vo zo: in parallel with an impedance of Z02. Therefore, the final equivalent
II ZOI 12

circuit reduces to as shown in Fig 6.3.

~
VI V0 2 Z02 Z02

t
V2

V

V

Fig 6.3 Equivalent circuit with the current source.
What is the relationship between the Variables VI' II' V 2, lz' and the constants of the circuits ZOl' Z02' VOl' V0 2, etc? The general symbols that are used m these equivalent circuits are detmedas: h n : Jfvoltage VI is applied to the device, the resulting input current is II then the ratio

V t
h tl h 21
:
:

represents the resistance. This parameter represents input resistance. Units are

I

Ohms ( (2). VOl is related to V 2 as VOl = hl2 V 2. It is called as Reverse voltage gain. The current in the output circuit depends upon the forward current gain and magnitude of the input current I I. Hence I I and 12 are related as 12 = h21 I I· The output of a device has some output resistance or admittance which is represented as h . This is output admittance parameter. Units are in mhos ( U )
22

h 22 :

Therefore, for transistors we use, hll for ZOI or h22 for \/Z0 2 and so on.

316

Electronic Devices and Circuits
The equivalent circuits for a transistor can be represented as shown in Fig 6.4. II hll
12

Fig 6.4 Equivalent circuit of a transistor.
This is the hybrid equivalent circuit for a transistor. From the equivalent circuit, VI = hllII + h l2 V 2 12 = h21 I I + h22 V 2 These h-parameters are constant for a given circuit but they depend upon the type of Configuration i.e. parameters vary depending upon, whether the circuit is in Common Emitter, or Common Base or Common Collector Configuration. So these are represented as h ,h ,hfi and h in Common Emitter Configuration. The second subscript 'e' indicating co~hto~e Em1tter. {~Common Base Configuration, these are represented as h b' h b' htb and h b' In Common Collector Configuration, the h - parameters are represented as hi, h 0, h., and h r. The second subscript 'b' and 'c' indicating common base and IC oc IC rc common collector. The general equations are .......... ( 6.1 ) VI =hlIII +h 12 V 2 .......... ( 6.2 ) 12 = h21I1 + h22 V 2 From the first equation 6.1, VI h II = -I when V 2 = 0
J

........... ( 6.3 )

It has the units of Resistance and V 2 = 0 indicates that output is shorted. Therefore, hJJ. is the input .resistance when output is shorted. It is represented as h. , in Common Emmer

Confi guratlOn.
h21

~

= ~I
II
V2 = 0

..... (
Ie

6.4 )

This is Forward Current Transfer Ratio or Forward Current Gain, or Forward Short Circuit Current Gain V 2 = 0 means, output is shorted. Second subscript 'e' in h represents C.E. Configuration.

h12

=

~I I
2 '1=0

.......... (6.5 ) .......... (6.6 )

It is the ratio of input voltage to the output voltage. Hence it is called as Reverse Voltage

Gain, with Input Open Circuited, since I) = O.
h22

=

~I

2 '1 =0

This parameter is called the Output Conductance when the Input is open circuited.

Amplifiers
6.2.1
OUTPUT CONDlJCTANCE

317

In the audio frequency range, the h - parameters are real numbers ( Integers). But beyond this frequency range, they become complex. The reason is that in the audio frequency range, the effect of Capacitance and Inductance

= 21tfC. If f is small, Xc :: 00 and can be neglected (Open Circuit). Inductive Reactance XL = 21tfL. If f is small X :: 0 and can be neglected
are negligible. Capacitive reactance, Xc (Short Circuit). Beyond. audio frequency range, they can't be neg1ected and reactances must also be considered. Transistor can be represented as a two port active device. It is specified by two voltages input and output and two currents input and output. The Representation can be shown as in the Fig 6.5 .

1

. zS_1___ 1_---iI TWO Port Active DeVicell-__
Fig 6.5 Block diagram.

~_i

O(__

i2_ _ _

v-x~

Current flows only when there is closed path. Input current enters the two port device and the output current flows through the return path back into the device. Hence the direction ofI2 is as shown. Now of these 4 quantities (iI' i2, vI' v 2 ) two can be chosen as independent parameters and the remaining two can be expressed as variables. A transformer is a two port device. But V I and V 2 cannot be chosen as independent VI 12 parameters because V = ~. Hence we cannot choose independent parameters on our choice.
2

If v2 and i I are chosen as Independent Variables, then v I and i2 can be expressed in terms ofv2 and i l . VI = hlli l +h 12 v 2 .......... (6.7) i2 = h21 i l + h22 v2 .......... ( 6.8 ) hll is in n, h\2 is constant, h21 is constant and h22 is in mhos. All these are not the same dimensionally. Hence these are known as Hybrid Parameters. Suffix 1 indicates input side and Suffix 2 denotes output side. h-parameters are defined as, hI I =

~II
I V2=0

Input Resistance with Output Shorted. (0) Reverse Voltage Gain with Input open circuited (Dimension Less) Forward Current Gain with Output Shorted ( Dimension Less ). Output Conductance with Input Open Circuited ( U )

h 12
h21

=~I v
=

2 il =0

~21

I v2=O

h22 =

~21

2 11=0

318

Electronic Devices and Circuits

But, according to IEEE Standards, the notation used is 'i' for 11 ( input) '0' for 22 ( output) 'f' for 21 ( Forward Transfer) and 'r' = 12 (Reverse Transfer). The subscripts b, c or e are used to denote Common Base, Common Collector or Common Emitter Configurations. Thus for Common Emitter Configuration, the equation are . +h • v .......... ( 6.9 ) v 1 -h 11 Ie re 2 i2 =h fe i 1+ hoe v2· .......... (6.10) If the device has no reactive components, the hybrid parameters are real. But if the device consists of reactive elements also, h - parameters will be functions of frequency. The four h - parameters can be used to construct a mathematical model of an Amplifier Circuit. The Circuit representing the two equations relating v 1' v2' i1 and i2 is shown in the Fig 6.6. h12 v2 is a Voltage Source. h21 i2 is a Current Source.

Fig 6.6 h-parameter equivalent circuit

6.3

TRANSISTOR HYBRID MODEL

In drawing the equivalent circuit of a transistor, we assume that the Transistor Parameters are constant. With the variation in operating points, transistor parameters will also vary. But we assume that the Quiescent or operating point variation is small. The advantages of considering h-parameters for transistor are They are easy to measure. Can be obtained from Transistor characteristics. They are real numbers at audio frequencies. Convenient to use in circuit design and analysis. Manufactures specify a set of h-parameters for transistors. 6.4 TRANSISTOR IN COMMON EMITTER CONFIGURATION
The variables are ib, ie' Vb and ve. We can select ib and ve as independent parameters. vb =f1 (i andve ) ........ (6.11) b

1. 2. 3. 4.

These are DC quantities Incremental variation (Elementary Changes) in DC is considered as a.c. quantity. So small/etters v and i are used..

Therefore, Vb depends upon ib, and also the Voltage across Collector and Emitter is VCE ........ (6.12) i e = f2 ( i b, ve )

Amplifiers

319

Making a Taylor Series Expansion of ( 1 ) and ( 2 ) and neglecting Higher Order Terms, ilv b =

aa:11

ilib + aaf
c

1

18 V

Vc 1

I

ilvC

........ ( 6.13 )

b

iliC =

a~21
18

af2 ilib + a V Vc c

1 ilvc
Ib

........ ( 6.14 )

ilv ,ilic are A.C. quantities and ( Incremental Variations in D.C. quantities). The quantities ilv b, ili b, Xv c and ilic represent small signal (incremental) base and collector voltages and currents. They are represented as Vb' ib, Vc' and ic ( A.C. quantities, so small letters are used) vb = h Ie ib + h re Vc ........ ( 6.15 ) ic=hfeib+hoevc where ........ (6.16) Vc is kept constant ........ ( 6.17 )

af aV b h = ~ 1 = ai
Ie
U1b

I

B Vc= K

h -avBI re -

avc

........ ( 6.18 )
IB= K

DC values ofi b ~: or~vCd~c KI
........ ( 6.19 ) fe ACib=OorvC=O h - aic oe aVe ai B
Vc= K

I
Ib=K

( ib is kept constant)

........ ( 6.20 )

Parameters 6.17 to 6.20 represent h-parameters for C.E configuration from equations ( 5 ) and ( 6 ), we can draw the equivalent circuit.

6.5

DETERMINATION OF h-PARAMETERS FROM THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A TRANSISTOR

The output characteristics of a Transistors in Common Emitter Configuration are as shown in Fig. 6.7.

Q

A

Is = Const.
VCE

= Const - - .

VCE

Fig 6. 7 Transistor output characteristics (To determine hr,e,hoe graphically)

320

Electronic Devices and Circuits

h fe -

aiel ai B

Ve=K

i _ L'1 CI - Aib v -0
c-

hI£! h can he determined/rom output characteristics. hi£! h,e can he determined from inpul~haracteristics.
Suppose Q is the Quiescent Point around the operating point hfi is to be determined. For hfl , we have to take the ratio of incremental change in ib keeping V ~onstant. From the output characteristics two values i ,and i are taken corresponCling to ib a~d ib . Then,
CI C2 I 2

h fe

= (iC2 - iC1 )/(i b2 - i bl )

h fc is also known as Small-Signal Beeta (13) of the transistors. Since we are determining the incremental values of Current Ratio of iC and i b. h te is represented as 13· 13 is represented as hfi and is called large signal 13. 13 = i / ib, since here no incremental values are being considered. e c

h
oe

=

aie I av e Ib=K

Output characteristics of a transistor are plotted between i and v. Therefore, h is the slope of the output characteristics, corresponding to a give n value 'bfIb at the operating point. For Common Emitter Configuration, in exactly the same way we have drawn for amplifier system, the h-parameter equivalent circuit can be drawn. The Transistor in Common Emitter Mode is shown in Fig. 6.8. The h-parameter equivalent is shown in Fig. 6.9
+-i
c

C

C

E~----------~--~

Fig 6.8 Common emitter configuration.
+ 8
~ib

h.Ie
+
hreib

+-ic

i

C

Vb

h re V ce

~

V ce

i
E

E

~

Fig 6.9 Equivalent circuit in C.E. configuration.

;Amplifiers
Equations are Vb= h Ie ib+ h reVc iC=htei b +hoevc

321 .......... ( 6.21 ) .......... ( 6.22 )

6.6

COMMON COLLECTOR CONFIGURATION ( CC )

The NPN Transistor in Common Collector Configuration is shown in Fig 6.10. The h - parameter equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 6.11.
+-i c

B

NPN

v e =V0
Fig 6.10 Common collector configuration.
Equations are, v=hi+hv b Ie b re e . . +h V t -h t.t
e eb oe e

Fig 6.11 Equivalent circuit in common collector.
........... ( 6.23 ) .......... ( 6.24 )

Common Base Configuration ( CB )
Transistor in Common Base Configuration is shown in Fig. 6.12. The h-parameter equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 6.13.
~i

E

r
Ve

.1
Fig 6.12 C.B. Configuration.
The equations are, v e = hI b ie +r h bV e

1 •

Fig 6.13 Equivalent Circuit in C.B.

ie = htbi e + h0 bVe The above circuits are valid for NPN or PNP Transistors. For PNP Transistors, the direction of current will be different from NPN Transistor. Therefore, at the operating point, Q, a tangent AB is drawn The slope of AB gives hoe .

322
bI h -aV Ie -

Electronic Devices and Circuits

h.Ie

alb

ve=K

Llib

This can be obtained from the input characteristics. The input characteristics are drawn as shown in the Fig 6.14. Then a tangent drawn at the operating point and its slope directly gives hoe .
hre

~IB

h =
re

aV b

aYe

Fig 6.14 To determine h'J h re graphically. Ie

=V
b2

~:bc I

Ic=K

From the input characteristics corresponding to two values Vc and Vc VB and VBare
V
-

noted then the ratio V _ V
C2

bl
CI

I

2

I

2

gives h re ·

Here we have seen the methods of determining 'h' parameters for Common Emitter Configuration. The same is true for Common Base and Common Collector Configuration. 6.7 HYBRID PARAMETER VARIATIONS From the above analysis, it is clear that, when 'Q' the operating point is given, from input and output characteristics of the given transistors, we can determine the h-parameters. Conversely if the operating point is changing, the 'h' parameters will also change. Ie changes with temperature. Hence 'h' parameters of a given transistor also change with temperature because the output and input characteristics change with temperature . Hence when the manufactures specify typical h-parameters for a given transistor, they also specify the operating point and temperature. SpecifYing the operating point is giving the values of If! p and VeE ( DC Values). h fe the small signal current amplification factor is very sensitive to Ic' Its variations is as shown in Fig 6.15. The variation ofh fe with IE and Temperature T are shown in Fig. 6.16.

1
h,.
--~)Ic

i
) IE

50·C

Fig 6.15 Vqriation of hie with Ie

Fig 6.16 Variation of hie with IE and T.

base is common point Hence the above circuit is to be redrawn so as to get' E' emitter.8 CONVERSION OF PARAMETERS FROM C.1.17 h .18 is exaGtly the same as Fig. as the ~ommon point. Emitter is the common point In C.V is across h b' I is entering into htb I and h b' There is nJ connection b~tween E and C termmais.B. This circuit is to be redrawn in the Common Emitter Configuration. configuration htb I is as shown. B 'b --thrbv~ v B B C E ! VBE hOb t VBCJvce E t rho E Vee t ! E Fig 6.3 rnA) CE I loon 2.lAlV CC 11000 ~1 -51 25J. Common Collector and Common Base are given in the Table 6. h b is in parallel with hjb I . 6.17 is the h-parameter equivalent circuit in Common Base Configuration.parameters circuit in C. But the figure in 6.18 is in Common Emitter Configuration. Typical values of h-parameters at room temperature. So AC voltage Vb may be represented as small changes in D. 6.C voltages and currents.lAN 6.C. Table 6. namely Common Emitter.C characteristics of the transistors But the' h' parameters are defined with respect to A. levels of V BE' Hence the above graphical analysl~ is correct. Hence invert the voltage source h rb Vcb ' From the -ve ofh rb V cb ' we go to htb Ie pomt: I~ Ves 1 B B Fig 6.17.Amplifiers 323 We are determining these h parameters from the static D.18 (b) . In Common Emitter Configuration.98 0. 6.1 Comparison of h-parameters in the three configurations (at IE Parameter hJ hr hf ho = 1.49J. 6. in the three transistor configurations. We are taking incremental values of DC to represent AC quantities.E. !fence the ci~cuit has to be drawn as ~hown ~n the Fig.lAN CB 21. The circuit shown in Fig.9xI0-4 -0.B.17. The circuit in Fig.60 2.18 (a) Equivalent Circuits Fig.5 x 10-4 50 24J. 6. TO C.B.

" Vbe = Vbc + Vce (of redrawn equivalent circuit) Vbe + Vee hre = ---"''-v--'''''ee 18 =0 ~be I I ee 18=0 IfIb = 0.. I =-I .... But the current Through h b is I.. ( 6. Vee hjbhob + (1.(1 + htb )hrb (l+h ).25 ) 1= (l + hfb) Ie· hob V be = (l + hfb) Ie or I e h = (1 + VbC) re V = --"!<-.I = Ic hfb 1-1=-1 e e or I=hfble +1.h rb )(1 + h tb ) h = 1 + Vbc re Vee hrb « = hjbhob . I = hOb· V be . Ie gets brandied through hob). . 0 Hence hfb Ie .. (I is in oppoCsite direction...(1 + htb)hrb hjbhob + (1......=1 (l +hfb) e e Since hob represents conductance.. hob Vbc l+hfb Applying KVL to the output mesh.324 Electronic Devices and Circuits But h = = Reverse Voltage Gain re ce lb. IB + Ie + IE = 0 for any Transistor. +h be V b + Vbe + Vee = 0 hI'b x Ie r = (hjbhOb)Vbc =-h V +V +V =0 1+ htb rb be be ce or Hence But Hence....!::!:. tb ..andhobh «(l+hfb)= 'b h'bhob _ h hre == 1+ h tb rb.. Therefore. ( 6...hrb)(l + h tb ) hjbhob .26 ) l...

VEE and V ce' there by adjusting the values of Ic and V CB' The h-parameters depend upon the frequency ot operation.27 ) 6..parameters.--------i I 0 0 Fig 6. ( 6.(I hrb)y Com bmmg h be e .. 6...Vbe I Vbc=Vbe ·· t hese two equatIOns. hOb Ie = +r h be Vb .. 1+1 I -h obbe V =0 b e +h tbe or I = (1 + h ) __r_b V + h V b tb be ob J-h h lb be Hence then .--------..18..Amplifiers 315 h Ie = Vbe Ib v"''"'' Ifwe connect terminals C and B together.9 MEASUREMENT OF h-PARAMETERS In the circuit shown in Fig. . PNP transistors are taken into account. .19 to determine the h-parameter. I = .. The operating point is chosen by suitably adjusting R2.. So the . Applying KVL around the I mesh on the left hand side. 6...19 Circuit for determining h . we get the circuit as (the same redrawn circuit in Common Base Configuration with C and B shorted) is shown in Fig.hrb V cb = O..b Applying KCL to node B.. V be + h lb Ie ..

This is very high compared to the input resistance of the transistor. The name. The input Sloe can be regarded as open circuit. 1 KHz is in the audio frequency range. The tank Circuit impedance will be very high at this frequency. The operating point will change h parameters. C:z. all the current Ib flows into the transistors alone. Vb hie = ~ I . The stray signal will pass through the LC tank circuit.parameters differ. is used for LC Parallel circuit. as water is stored in a tank. The tank circuit is tuned to the same frequency of the signal generator (1KHz).c. This will prevent any stray pick up.(as shown by the dotted lines).C. Dep~nding on the operating pomt h .C. Hence the D. while determining the h-parameter. But the A. vc Since the input resistance of the transistor is small compared to the Tank Circuit Resistance. the tank circuit impedahece is v~ large. Rs is negligible compared to ~ ( 1MO ). at which frequency normally all the transistor h parameters are specified by the manufactures. ~ill block D. tank circuit. I Now h = JCRI fe Vs where V0 is the voltage across Rr hand h are defined when Ih = 0 or input is open circuited.1 will be different and VCE will be different. since it offers least impedance.C values of VCE' I will not change at all.Vs . So this is called AC short circuit. But if the collector is dfrectly connected to the ground. = Vs b RI Now hand hfj are determined when V = 0 or the collector is shorted to ground. Hence AC short circuit is to be done. Therefore. because energy is· stored in these elements.326 Electronic Devices and Circuits signal generator is adjusted to be 1KHz. voltages.I b-~ . of the order of500kO. Voltage of V is = 0 or the collector is at ground potentta{for A. So the h-parameters are assumed to be real at audio frequency. h re = Vbl Vc Ib=O = Vb Vc . The signal generator is connected on the output side. So spurious signal will not affect the net voltages and currents of the transistor.

the circuit will not work. The output load can be a loud speaker in an audio amplifier. and two output terminals for the connection of the load and a means of supplying power to the amplifier.21 ) Vee AMPLIFIER Fig 6. 6. the output of the amplifier is an enlarged version of the input to amplify means to increase the size. Amplifier input voltage Amplifier output voltage Amplifier output current Load Resistance. Internal resistance of the source in Amplifier input resistance. The amplifier may be thought of as a black box. . pressure gauge etc. Input signal is a low level voltage such as the one obtained from a tape head. if it is voltage or power amplifications. One of the input and output terminals will be common for the input and output ( Fig. that has two input terminals. So without Vee or DC Bias Voltage.20 Block schematic of amplifier. The notations that are used in the case of amplifier circuit are ( Fig.21 Block schematic. there is some additional energy being gained by the output signal. (in the case of transistor amplifier circuit). n. Energy can be neither created nor destroyed.C. V I s s R s RI VI Vo I o = = Ro Open circuit signal voltage Source or signal current. In ~ny case. So in the case of electrical signals. So this additional energy is being gained from the D. DC Source AMPLIFIER Fig 6.Amplifiers 6.10 GENERAL AMPLIFIER CHARACTERISTICS 327 An amplifier generally produces an enlarged version of an input signal. or a transducer like thermocouple. bias supply.20 ). a motor in a servo amplifier or a relay in control applications. The signal to be amplified may be AC or DC. 6.

328

Electronic Devices and Circuits

Current Gain Voltage Gain Power Gain

A

= 10 15 - •
I

. I. - io peak to peak
15

peak to peak

_ V 1 V = Vo peak to peak Av - 0 I VI peak to peak

A = -.JL= ~ =A A
P

p


I

p.

I

V.is

An amplifier mayor may not exhibit both voltage and current gains, but in general, it exhibits power gain. 6.10.1
AMPLIFIER INPUT RESISTANCE R.
J

The amplifier circuit presents a load R to the source which can be 50 n to few thousand n for I transistor circuits. The input voltage to the amplifier will be reduced from V by an amount that depends on R.I (Fig. 6.22 ) s both Rand S

V=iR 5 S
V.I

vs

1

Fig 6.22 Input side equivalent circuit for an amplifier.
V=Vx
I S
I

+Rj IfR.» R the input voltage to the amplifier is same as that of V . or ifR is small then also V. = V ushally It = 50 n. From the above equation, we can determir:e the input resistance of a gi~en :mplifier ci}cuit by noting the open circuit voltage ofthe voltage source V and then voltage V.I after connections to the amplifier. If RS of the voltage source is known, R.I can be calculated.
6.10.2
AMPLIFIER OUTPUT RESISTANCE Ro

R.I +R S

1 =Vx--

sIRs

R. is used to denote the load resistance. So Ro is the output resistance of the amplifier circuit. (Fig. 6.23). The amplifier can be represented as a voltage source in series with internal resistance of Ro in parallel with 1\ is the external load resistance K is the amplification factor.

Amplifiers

329

R.."'-L_ = KV x - - V =Ky' __ o I I 1 Ro

+RL

Output voltage V can be made large by increasing the value ofRL But the output current will be small and so the °current gain will fall. Hence power gain will also be less. In order to get maximum power gain, R, should be matching with R . It should be complex conjugate of R according to Maximum P'ower Transfer Theorem. For °this purpose, matching transformers ar~ used (::
=

~:)

in the output stage of an amplifier. Similarly matching transformers are also

used to couple one stage of an amp lifer to the second stage, if the input resistance of the second stage amplifier is very small.

vo
KV. •

i 1

Fig 6.23 Output side equivalent circuit. Conversion Efficiency :
An amplifier circuit draws energy from the D.C. source and amplifies the A.C. signal. The D.C. supply provides the major portion of the extra energy. A.C. signal power delivered to the load I 00 ~ . ConversIOn TJ = . .. x =:: p . D.C. tnput power to the actIve devIce DC This is also known as collector circuit efficiency in the case of transistor and plate circuit efficiency in the case of tube amplifier circuits.

Problem 6.1
A single stage amplifier employing one active device, is powered by a 9V battery which has a current drain of20 rnA. Ifthe load voltage is 3V at 12 m A, determine the conversion TI.
Po == Volo == 3x 12x 10-3 ==36mW Poc ==Vocloc ==9x20xI0- ==180mW
n=::

3

.•

36 xI00=20% 180 .

330

Electronic Devices and Circuits

6.11 ANALYSIS OF TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT USING h-PARAMETERS
To form transistor amplifier configuration, we connect a load impedance ZL and a signal source as shoWn in Fig. 6.24.
Rs

1

II ~

~ 12

2

+ t
VI
Transistor

+t
V2

,1. IL
ZL

,1.

-,1.
2'
Fig 6.24 Amplifier circuit.

l'

rransist~r can be connected insC.E, C.B. and C.C. Configuration. To analyse these circuits i.e. to
determine the current gain AI' Voltage gain A , input impedance, output impedance etc, we can use the h parameters. So the equivalent circuit fo; the above transistor amplifier circuit in general form without indicating C.E, C.B, or C.C. Configuration, can be denoted as in the Fig. 6.25.

V is the signal source, R is the resistance of the signal source, and ZL is the load impedance.

Rs

1

II ~

hi

2

,1.-

l'
Fig 6.25 .h-parameter equipvalent circuit (general repersentation).
Current Amplification,
A
_-1.,.
I II'

I

But

1L = - 12

A
I

=-~.

I ' 1

Negative sign is because 12 is always represented as flowing into the current source. For a transistor PNP or NPN type, if it is flowing out of the transistor, 12 is represented as - 12, Now voltage across Z2 is taken with 2 as +ve and 21 as -ve The directIons of IL are as shown and IL = -1 2, From the above circuit we have, But 12=hfll+hoV2 V2 = IL ZL = - 12, ZL (Since IL =-12)

Amplifiers

331

or
A =_ ~=
I II

-hf 1+ hoZL

.......... ( 6.28 )

Negative sign indicates that I) and 12 are out of phase by 180°. 6.11.1 INPUT IMPEDANCE: Z. Input impedance of any circuie is the impedance we measure looking back into the amplifier circuit. Now amplifier terminals are 1and 11. R is the resistance of the signal source. So to determine the output Z ofthe amplification alone, Sit need not be considered.

Z=~
I

II

But Hence

VI

= hi I) + hr V 2 ·
.......... ( 6.29 )

VI V2 Z = -=h l +h r - · I II II

But

V

,ZL' 2 12
= = hi

..

~2

= (

~:2 ) ZL = AI ZL

.......... ( 6.30 )

Substituting the values of V 2 in Equation ( 6.29 ),

I Zj
But
A
I
I

+ hr' ArZL
-hf

I

1+ hoZL h f hrzL Z =hI

= ---'-

1+ hoZL

Z
I

=h
I

_

hfh r

YL +ho

.......... ( 6.31 )

Y I... i~ load a~mittance. Therefore, Input impedance is a function of load impedance.

If

ZL -

0, YL ..

00,

ZI=hl

6.11.2

VOLTAGE GAIN

But

332
But

Electronic Devices and Circuits

12 = - AI· 1\
V 2 = + AI" 1\ ZL·
~

A1l1Z L
-

v1

V1
I

But

~=Z. 1
1

z.=h.I I

hf.hr
_l_+h RL 0

A1Z L A =-V ZI

.......... ( 6.32 )

o The output impedance can be determined by using two assumptions ZL =

6.11.3

OUTPUT ADMITTANCE, Y

00, and Vs =

°

Yo is defined as
But Dividing by V2,

;2

I

with ZL =

00

12 _ y _ h l h - - 0 - -r- 1 + V2 V2 0 From the equivalent circuit with V 5 = 0,

.......... ( 6.33 )

Rs· 1\ + hi 1\ + hr V2 = 0.
Dividing by V2 Through out, we get RS.I1 + hil1 +h =0
V2 or V2
r

..!L=
V2

-h r hi +Rs

.......... ( 6.34 )

Substitute this value in the equation for Yo or equation 6.23.

Y
o

= h ( - hr ) + ho
r
hi + Rs

Amplifiers

333

Therefore, Zo = iN0 Therefore, output admittance is a function of Source Resistance R where as Z. is a function ofY L " IfRS = 0, Y0 -=:: h. Since (hfh rIh I ) is very small. S I 0

6.11.4

VOLTAGE GAIN A

vs

CONSIDERING SOURCE RESISTANCE, R
=

s

A
vs

V

2

= V2

Vs VI Vs Vs This is the equivalent circuit of the input side of the amplifier circuit. V =
1 Zj

x~=Av'~'

Vs.zj +Rs

~Is

Avs =
A = -1...
v

r
Z.I
vI

'v

Fig 6.26 Voltage source.
But

A1Z L IfR = 0 A = A . .. ........ ( 6.35 ) Rs + Zj . S 'vs v Hence Av is the voltage gain of an ideal voltage source with zero terminal resistance. 6.11.5 CURRENT GAIN A IS CONSIDERING SOURCE RESISTANCE The input source can also be represented as a current source Is in parallel with resistance R or voltage source V in series with resistance R . Now let us consider the input source as a cur';ent source in parallelSwith Rs' The equivalent circSuit is 1 +

A

vs

It i
ZjVI
1..-_ _"--_ _ ,

l'

Fig 6.27 Current source.
.......... ( 6.36 )

334

Electronic Devices and Circuits
. Is·R s From the Fig 6.27, I) = Rs + Zj
.. A IS

= (R s + Z.) = (R s + 2.)
.......... ( 6.37 )

AI xRs

AI·R,

If Rs = 00 , AI =A IS ' Therefore, AI is the current gain for an ideal source AI.z L Now A = Z R vs j + s

AI·R s Avs = Z, + Rs
A Z Dividing 1 and 2, A vs = RL
IS S
.

.......... ( 6.38 )

or

.......... ( 6.39 )

This equation is independent of the transistor parameters This is valid if the equivalent current and voltage sources have the same resistance. 6.11.6 POWER GAIN Ap
2_ 2= _ A =_ L P PI VIII =Ay.AI

P

VI

AI,Z L A=-y Z,
........ ( 6.40 )

6.12 COMPARISON OF THE CE, CB, CC CONFIGURATIONS
Of the three, it is the most versatile. Its voltage and current gain are> I. Input and output resistance vary least with Rand R . R. and R values lie between maximum and minimum for all the thr~e conttgurktions. °Phase shift of 1800 between V and V . Power Gain is Maximum. , ° C.B : AI < 1 Av > I. R is the lowest and R is the highest. It has few applications. Sometimes it is u~ed to match low imp~dance source V I and V 0 . No phase shift. C.C : Av < 1. AI is very high. It has very high input Z and low output Z. So it is used as a buffer between high Z source and low impedance load. It is also called as emitter follower. To analyse circuit consisting of a number of Transistors, each Transistor should be replaced by its equivalent circuit in h-parameters. The emitter base and collector points are indicated and other circuit elements are connected without altering the circuit Configuration. This way the circuit analysis becomes easy. C.E :

Amplifiers Example 6.2

335

Find the Common Emitter Hybrid parameters in terms of the Common Collector Hybrid parameters for a given transistor.

Solution
We have to find h. ,h ,h" and h
Ie re Ie oe

in terms ofh. ,h ,h" and h .
IC rc IC oc

The transistor circuit in Common Collector Configuration is shown in Fig. 6.28. The h-parameter equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 6.29 .
...... i
<

B

1
Fig 6.29 Equivalent circuit. Fig 6.28 For Example 5.2.

C.C :
vb -h - IC' . Ib +h rC ve ie = h., IC ib + h0 C v e. ie =h fe ib -i] = (h fe ib - Vce hoc) v be =i b .h Ie -h re v ee +v ee =i b .h IC But h Ie =h Ie .
........ ( 6.41 )

Sincevce =0

ie = - ib - ie = - ib -hfe . ib .+ hoe v ee

336

Electronic Devices and Circuits

But

vce =0

= - i b - (hfeb i - hoeee v )
=

-i b -hfeb i + hocee v

vee =0

hie =
........ ( 6.42 )

V

be

=i ble h -h V +V . reee ee

i b =0

h =re

hrevee + Vee Vee

=l-h

re

........ ( 6.43 )

ie =-i e -ib But ib = O. ieI=ie ie =Vee hoc

ie =-ie =-hfu ib +Vee hoc hoe =hoe Since,
ib = 0

........ ( 6.44 )

i e =Vee x hoc

hoe =h oc

is admittance in mhos ('0).

Amplifiers
6.13 SMALL SIGNAL ANALYSIS OF JUNCTION TRANSISTOR

337

Small Signal Analysis means, we assume that the inputAC signal peak to peak amplitude is very
small around the operating point Q as shown in Fig. 6.30. The swing of the signal always lies in the active region, and so the output is not distorted. In the Large Signal Analysis, the swing of the input signal is over a wide range around the operating point. The magnitude ofthe input signal is very large. Because of this the operating region will extend into the cut-off region and also saturation region.

i
Fig 6.30 Operating point Q.
6.13.1 COMMONEMITTERAMPLIFIER Common Emitter Circuit is as shown in the Fig. 6.31. The DC supply, biasing resistors and coupling capacitors are not shown since we are performing an AC Analysis.

B

Fig 6.31 C.E. Amplifier circuit.
Vs is the input signal source and Rs is its resistance. The h-parameter equivalent for the above circuit is as shown in <fig. 6.32.

VBE hie = -1. Therefore hre « 1. Because..l U and hoe = V· CE I Ic INPUT RESISTANCE OF THE AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT (R. hfe » 1 :::: J3 hre = 0..J Electronic Devices and Circuits B=<l ~IB .----. Is in IlA. re VCE re Output Output is » input. \ 0. .----..2 x 10-3 .--~~C vs "'" + E Fig 6. hie=4 Kn. Ie is in rnA and Is in IlA. h __ Input VBE h = .2V. B ~ince. it is the Reverse Voltage Gain. 100 IlAand so on..338 I h =~ oe VeE I B .--_. .32 h-parameter equivalent circuit. The typical values of the h-parameter for a transistor in Common Emitter Configuration are. hoe = 8 J.and VeE> VSE . because amplification takes place... VSE is a fraction of volt 0.) The general expression for Ri in the case of Common Emitter Transistor Circuit is .2V 9ie = 50 x 10-6 Ic hfe = -I B = 4Kn = 100 .

_1_ is large.33. It is of the order of few hundred O. L ~ varies with frequency f because h-parameters will vary with frequency.Amplifiers For Common Emitter Configuration.". Ro depends on Rs' If ~ is very small compared to hje' . 339 R j depends on RL. R o = 1 hoe _ ( hreh fe ) hie +Rs Rs is the resistance of the source. ~ == hie' If RL increases. _1_ will be negligible compared RL to hoe' Therefore. the second term cannot be neglected. OUTPUT RESISTANCE OF AN AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT (Ro) For Common Emitter Configuration.-I I I lKQ IMO Fig 6. IfRL is very large.. with R . R j decreases as RL increases.33. hre will change with frequency jofthe input signal. R 3KQ I I 300Kn I I I I I I I I -+----------..33 Variation of R. If RL is very small. R j is not affected by RL ifRL < I KO and RL> I MO as shown in Fig. The graph showing ~ versus RL is indicated in Fig. R j remains constant. 6. therefore the denominator in the RL second term is small or it can be neglected. R j = hje . 6.. .( finite value) Therefore.. hfe .

34. when RL = 00.340 Electronic Devices and Circuits Ro = h _ hreh re (independent ofRs) oe Then. If ~ is very large. 10 = O. Ai = O. 100 KO A. As RL increases.. 6. 800 KO Ro i 200KQ ------------~--- Rs--+Fig 6. Variation of Ai with RL is shown in Fig. Therefore. hoe The graph is as shown in Fig. Current Gain is large for Common Emitter Configuration. Ai drops and when RL = 00. Because.I t R.35. Ai = o.35 Variation ofAi with R • L .--+Fig 6. Ro will be large of the order of few hundred KO.34 Variation of R 0 with R S CURRENT GAIN ( A) I h re A·= --=-I l+h oe RL If RL is very small. So. Ai::: h fe ::: 100. 6. then Ro 1 ==150 KO.

then the current from the current generator hoe in the h-parameters equivalent circuit flows through hoe and not RL. hoe (RL is in parallel with hoe' So voltage across hoe= voltage across RL)· Therefore. AI decreases.36 Variation of Av with R . most of the output current flows through RL. POWER GAIN As ~ increases. I lKn 7100Mn L Fig 6. Ap t RL -+ Fig 6. But ifRL » _1_.6.36). As RL increases. Ay and AI varies as shown in Fig. 1 Output Voltage = hoe' Ib . L If RL is low..Amplifiers VOLTAGE GAIN (AV) 341 -. L . Power Gain which is the product of the two.-------_. V 0 remains constant as output voltage remains constant (Fig. Therefore. 6.37 Variation ofAp with R .37.---. Ay also increases. output voltage increases and hence Av increases. As RL increases. Then the.--.

800Kn). Vo = Vee . 4. 3. under such conditions.Q). S. . when RL is equal to the output resistance of the transistor. there is a phase shift of 180°. 180 0 phase-shift between input and output voltages. Large Power Gain. 6.38.39. Moderately High Output Resistance (lOOKn . As the input current iB' increases.39 CB.13. 2.(drop and across Rc)' Therefore. it can be summarised as. Maximum power will be delivered. 1. amplifier circuit. ie. Large Voltage Amplification.C is shown in Fig. Fig 6.5K. ic increases.342 Electronic Devices and Circuits Power Gain is maximum when RL is in the range 100 KO . Therefore. Therefore Drop across Rc increases.2 COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER The circuit diagram considering only A. Low to Moderate Input Resistance (300n . The amplifier circuit is shown in Fig. Amplifier circit. Large Current Amplification. B G Fig 6. Common Emitter Transistor Amplifier Circuit will have.1MO. 6.38 CE. 6. 6.

INPUT RESISTANCE (R) I Ri = h ib - 1 h ob + RL hfb·h rb htb is -ve when RL is small < 100 KO. = 0 = 37 x 10-6 (Typical Value) hrb is small.Amplifiers Veb is small fraction of a vo It.99 (Typical Value) 6. L . h = Veb rb V cb I. oon i 20n ~ RL 100Mn R l Fig 6. Rj = hib :: 300. RI varies from 200 to 5000.40 Variation of Ri with R .=h. R .. hjb is small. + ~ I Ib h ob The variation ofRI with RL is shown in Fig.40. 6. This current flows in between base and collector loop.0.h ob So Ri :: 5000 (Typical value) [.h hfb·h rb i. the second term can be neglected.ib. when RL is very large. because Veb will be very small and Veb is large.: ~ is negative] h h R. 1 R L can be neglected. Ie is in rnA. So.7 x 10-8 mhos (Typical Value) Ie will be very small because Ie = o. htb= 343 IIe e VCb =0 = .

43.42. Ay also increases. The variation of Ai with RL is shown in Fig.] ..41 Variation of Ro with Rs' CURRENT GAIN (A.-. Therefore. ib But htb is negative. 6. Av also tends to zero.41. value of hob is small. as RL~ 0 ). in the previous case. Ai decreases. VOLTAGE GAIN (Av) As RL increases. .Q) --+ Rs Fig 6. IfRL tends to zero. As Rs increases. (Ay ~ 0. 6. As RL increases.) I A I = -hfb 1+ hobRL Ai is < 1. Ro == 12MO The variation ofRo with Rs is shown in Fig. Ro == h 1 ob also increases. [This will be much larger because. Ro = ((hOb - h:~tb ). Because hfe < 1. of the order of300 KO.. in the denominator. Ro == h h rb fb h b+-o h This will be sufficiently large. 6. some quantity is subtracted from hob. ~fl2 _________ _ Ro t (K.344 OUTPUT RESISTANCE (RO) Electronic Devices and Circuits Ro = h h h ob .The variation of Voltage Gain Av with RL is shown in Fig. Ai is negative due to hib. rbfb h ib + Rs IfRs is small.

3 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER The simplified circuit diagram for A. Moderate Power Gain (30). Current Amplification A.42 Variation POWER GAIN (Ap) Power Gain Ap = Ay . Low Input Resistance (few 100 Q). Therefore. of a transistor (BJT).43 Variation of Av with RL Fig 6. AI Ay increases as RL increases. which is product of both.I t 0/ Ai with RL t --+ RL Fig 6. < 1. Power Gain. High Output Resistance (MQ).Amplifiers 345 ----~------------ A.: A. . .45 (a).13.44.44 Variation of A p with R L" The characteristics of Common Base Amplifier with typical values are as given below. 6. varies withRL as shown in Fig. 3. < 1. 4. 2. 1. Ap t 40 n Fig 6.C. 6. High Voltage Amplification and No Phase Inversion 5. 6.in Common Collector Configuration is as shown in Fig. But AI decreases as RL increases.

IB = 0. 6.346 Electronic Devices and Circuits ~IB Fig 6.780 n ( Typical Value) B VCE=O hoc = ~E I ECIB=O = 7.45 (b) h-parameter equivalent circuit..45 (b).' IE» lB' (Typical Value) hfc is negative because'.6 mhos (Typical Value) h fc =. VEB = O. The h-parameters equivalent circuit of transistor in Common Collector Configuration is shown in Fig. V BC =V EC ( TYPIcal Value) EC IB=O Because. IE and IB are in opposite direction.7 = x 10. RS B h.IC Ib--++ i VS '" + +-~ E + !IL hrc Vec Vbc t hfc Ib hoc Vec RL C Fig 6.45 (a) Common collector amplifier circuit.I ~I B VCE= 0 100 . . . E-B junction is not forward biased. hic = ~B~ = 2. VBCI hrc = V .

hrc :::: 1. hr is much less thanl. Av:::' I 5. Now Ro of the entire amplifier circuit is. Characteristics 347 1. Ri = hie II Rl II R2 R\R2 100 x 100 R\+R2 =100+100 =50KO 2x50 Ri = 2+50 =-~ 1. AI» I Since. So Ri of the transistor alone is hie. the output voltage ( Emitter Voltage) follows the input signal variatio~. considering the bias resistors is.[=----=] h:r~~s 1 hoe - Because. INPUT RESISTANCE (R ) I 4. the second term can be neglected. .Amplifiers For other circuit viz Common Base. hre is negligible. The graphs (variation with Rc) are similar to Common Base Configuration. Hence it is also known as Emitter Follower. [ h +oe R L J RL is very small and hre is negligible. For Common Collector Configuration. The graphs of variation with RL and Rs are similar to Common Base amplifier.1 x 10-3 )11 ( 100 K(l) hoe =2KO. Low Output Resistance 30 f2 (RJ 3. Good Current Amplification. Av is < 1. and Common Emitter. Lowest Power Gain of all the configurations. hoe _1 II R4 = (2. Ri input resistance looking into the base is hie only The expression for Ri of the transistor alone = hie - hfehre1 . Now RI of the entire amplifier circuit.925 KO OUTPUT RESISTANCE (RJ Ro = --. Ro of the transistor alone in terms of h-parameters of the transistor = _1_. High Input Resistance:::: 3 KQ (R) 2. Therefore.

1xlO +10 3 ) 6.. .1 x 10 = 3 (2.78 rnA. ~= 02 --6. .9 Negative sign indicates that there is phase shift of 1800 between input and output voltages. v VI Vi=V be 1: I 6. h fe • But this cannot be used because the input current Ii gets divided into I) and lb' There 1+ hoeRL is some current flowing through the parallel configuration of R) and R2 .A.78 =-33. as base voltage goes more positive.78x 10-3 = 104 xl 0-6 = 65. Current through RL = 10 = hfe lb' R 4 If- R4 +RL I = 100 x 10 o 4 ----::-3--::2.6. (it is NPN transistor).2y. So the above formula cannot be used. = 100 KO is very large compared with R4 and RL . Vo = -10' RL = (. the direction oflo is taken as entering into the circuit. i. Therefore. But actually 10 flows down. (This is AC Voltage not DC ) Voltage across R) R2 parallel configuration is also Vbe' Vbe 0. the collector voltage goes more negative.2 Current Ii = 50 x 103 = 50kO = 4 !lA. .1 V be = lb' hie hIe = 10--4 x (2000) = 0.1. Problem 6.78V Because. hfe Ib gets divided between R4 and RL only.78 x 10-3) x (10-3) =-6.348 CURRENT GAIN Electronic Devices and Circuits (AI) To determine Ai the direct formula for Ai in transistor in Common Emitter Configuration is. Current amplification = Ai = Vo A = -.e. all oe the current on the output side. because V0 is measured with respect to ground. 10 is the current through the 1KO load. Total Input Current II = I) +Ib = 100 + 4 = 104f.

The h-parameters for the transistor are given as hIe = 2000 n hre is negligible and hoe = 10-5mhos.I Fig 6.-----.47 Equivalent circuit. R J is connected between base and ground for AC. Solution At the test frequency capacitive reactances can be neglected.47.. ..6. hfe = 100 + Vee v..V. So R4 is in parallel with lIhoe in the output.I E Fig 6. equivalent circuit in terms of "-parameters of the transistor is shown in Fig. Ii R s ~I B C . Vee point is at ground because the AC potential at Vee = o. The A.Amplifiers Problem 6. So it is at ground. R J II R2 · R4 is connected between collector and ground.3.---E--""--'--t 10 hoe R4 RL C R IIR I 2 h.----. I vo .C.3 349 For the circuit shown in Fig.6.46 estimate Ai' Av ' RI and Ro using reasonable approximations. Therefore..46 For Problem 6.

---. R4 is between collector and ground and R2 is between base and ground. R4 is between collector and positive of V cc. Problem 6. h fe = 99 and hre is negligible. 6. in Fig. Because Xc is also negligible. All capacitors have negligible reactance at the test frequency. 1----1 1-----. In the second circuit also. R2 is between +V cc and base. (6. At the test frequency of the input signal . The emitter is at ground potential.48 For Problem 6. hie = lKO. hre is negligible.4 Forthe circuit shown. Hence both the circuits are identical. Therefore. emitter is at ground potential and t&is circuit is in Common Emitter Configuration. 6.4. Therefore. 6.49). 5x20 R4 " R7 = RL = 20+5 = 4KO. R4 is in parallel with R7 and R2 is in parallel with R3 ( Fig. So they are not shown in the AC equivalent circuit.48). . Solution: The same circuit can be redrawn as shown in Fig.350 Electronic Devices and Circuits The voltage source h re V c is not shown since. 6.49. all the AC passes through C3 . estimateAy and R J • _1_ is large compared with the load seen hoe by the transistor. Therefore.48 is same as circuit in Fig.V 0 Fig 6.the capacitors C[ and C 2 can be regarded as short circuits. Circuit in Fig. R 2 II R = 3 60x30 = 1800 60 + 30 90 = 20KO.49. the direct current source should be shorted to ground. In the AC equivalent circuit.

Ie hoe . (as shown in Fig.E 1 E 131 Fig 6. V.49 Redrawn circuit.V I =h I =_e_. C B B --~------------~--~ C V.Vee Fig 6. c fe b h Ie .J.: hre is negligible) hl. Therefore. r I R211 R 3 h. h')b R. 6.50 Equivalent circuit. the circuit reduces to.51) ( . R7 V r 0 12 E --~------------~--~--~~------~----~------~--.~~------~-----------H I + .Amplifiers ~----------~-------r------oVo 351 R..

1 = 0 974 419.1 KO A y = Aj. Problem 6.51 Simplified circuit.625 X . with Rs = RL = 10K. Calculate AI' A v .e lKO E s vo E Fig 6..R L = 40.8 x 10 Rj 409. But since Rs value is very small (R2 parallel R 3)..1 .1 4 = 0998 .1 + 10)10 3 4..5 Given a single stage transistor amplifier with h .. Av·R J Ays= R +R I s 0. Solution -h"c 5I A = " = 40. 10.998 x 409.352 Electronic Devices and Circuits B c 20KO ~ h. A Vs ' R 1.1 KO. V0 1 = -Ic . hoc = 25 )lA/v. 8x I 04 = 409. effective value will be Rs only.. h rc = 1..1 x I 03 + I x 40 . and Ro for the Common Collector Configuration.---'---~ y V h 10 3 I Ie Ay =-400 Ri is the parallel combination of20KO and hie 20x IkO 20+ I = 9500 While calculating R o' R2 is in parallel with R3 and Rs will come in parallel with these two. RL = - ~-h-'--"'Je h[e vi RL _ Vo _ hteRL -99(4xI03) A .parameter as hic = 1.3 25 x 10-6 + 51 x I (1.8 I I+hocRL 1+25xlO-6xI04 R 1 = hic + h rc AI RL = 1. h fc = -51.

6 For any transistor amplifier prove that hi' . R.= hi \ r' v. A = AI·RL Substituting this value ofRL in equation (I) R \. hfe · hre 0.. hoe = 25~U..Amplifiers Problem 6.. hfe = 50 h re = 2.. what is the maximum value ofRL for which RI differs by no more than 10% of its value at R2 = 0 ? hie = 1100n.' I ' " I 1.\ I-hrAy 353 Solution R I =h·I But A I -hf = ----'-I +ho. (1) R L = Av·Ri v . =h I' + ~...RL ~ = hi + hr Al RL AI Ri .R. Solution Expression for Ri is.AI·Ay. AI =h + h A R. .50 x 10--4.9 hie = hie 1 h +oe RL or .R= .7 For a Common Emitter Configuration.9 hie is found from the expression. Ri = hie' The value of RL for which Ri = 0.h r A y Problem 6. Ri= h iehfe·hre I h oe + RL If RL = 0.

the two transistors are in Common Collector Configuration. hoe and hfe .IxI IOOx25xIO. If the input impedance of the amplifier circuit is to be only 500 KO or less the Common Collector Configuration can be used.e. The input resistance of the second transistor constitutes the emitter load of the first transistor.Ihoeh.. I x I 100 50x2. For PNP transistor.6 4 6.e RL - or R L =----=-- RL = O. consider the equivalent circuit shown in Fig.-O. Ie enters the transistor and Ib leaves the transistor. we can assume that infinite resistance is connected between emitter and collector. The AC equivalent Circuit is shown in Fig.O. 'C' at ground potential.6. So.e hfeh re . The output of the first transistor Q) (taken from the emitter of the Q)) is the input to the second transistor Q 2 at the base.6.52 is used.5xlO.e O.14 HIGH INPUT RESISTANCE TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS In some applications the amplifier circuit will have to have very high input impedance. There is no resistor connected between the emitter ofQ j and ground i. But if still higher input impedance is required a circuit shown in Fig.lh.Hence. Collector Point.53. 6.Ih.e II.3KO O. . Ihoeh. Ie leaves the transistor. This circuit is known as the Darlington Connection (named after Darlington) or Darlington Pair Circuit. In this circuit.54. But its Ay < I.52 Darlington pair circuit. For the analysis of the circuit. The same circuit can be redrawn as AC equivalent circuit.oe Electronic Devices and Circuits hfeh re .54 and we use Common Emitter h-parameters. 6. So.354 1 _ hfe·h re h O.O. hie' hre . Darlington Circuit is nothing but two transistors in Common Collector Configuration connected in series. Common Collector Amplifier circuit has high input impedance and low output impedance. i C Cl C B B E icz PNP E Qz E ~ -------T------------~------r_--~E L ________________ Fig 6.Ih. So.e . DC is taken as ground shown in Fig. Collectors of transistors Q j and Q 2 are at ground potential.

14..Amplifiers 355 B 1 V. 1 I. (1 ) ..---L-- -Vee V.. Ic Ic = Ie( But = Ib h fe · (Assuming identical transistor 2 2 Ib = Ie (the emitter of Q I is connected to 2 I Ic = Ibl hfe +Ie1 hfe Ie and hfe is same) the base of Q2) . 6.. I = 00 I C Fig 6.I R V t 0 e Fig 6.1 ClJRRENT AMPLIFICATION FOR DARLINGTON PAIR + I c2 · ICI = Ibl hfe ..I .54 Darlington pair circuit. (2) = Ib + Ic I l = Ib (1 I + I I = c l hI I hfe ) fe b ...53 Equivalent circuit...I R.

hOe value is of the order of J. hic == hie.R L Here.. hoe.e. since it is in Common Collector Configuration. Electronic Devices and Circuits Ie = Ib hfe + Ib (1 + hfe)h fe = Ib (2hfe + hf/) \ \ \ But h2fe » 2h fe Since.2 INPUT RESISTANCE (R) Input resistance of the transistor Q 2 (which is in Common Collector Configuration) in terms of h.356 Substituting equation (2) in (1). RL = R i2and Ri2 = (1 + h fe ) Re· 1+ h fe All = I + hoe (1 + h fe )Re hoe Re will be < 0. (For Common Collector Reverse Voltage Gain resistance of transistor Q2. Ri = hie + hre AI·RL· Expressing this in term of Common Emitter h-parameters. 1002 = 10. = ib~ J in the case ofDarlington 6. hre == l. output is taken across emitter resistance. it is of the order h f/ i.I.14.1 and can be neglected. Ri2 But Ru I = hie + (1 +h fe ) RL I hie « hfeRL' and hfe RE » hie AI = ~ = (1 + hfe ) 2 12 Here RL is Re.l. and AI # 1+ hfe Ril == All Ri2 Ri2 = (1 + h fe ) Re But the expression for Common Collector Configuration in terms of Common Emitter h-parameters is A= I 1 + hoe. Pair Circuit. . Ri2 == (1+ hfe ) Re The input resistance Ril of the transistor Q\ is. since.000.parameters in Common Emitter Configuration is. = 1) and RL for transistor Q I is the input Ril = hie + All R i2 · ~2 is large.Ri2:S O. Ie = Ib hf / \ It means that we get very large current amplification ( A. Therefore. mhos(micro mhos) 1+h fe . h fe is of the order of 100.

_ (1 + hce )2 Re I - 1+ hoehCeRe This is a very high value. over all Voltage Gain Ay = AYJ x AY2 [ 1A II ·R i2 hie ]l Ri2 1 Ihie 1 hie) Ay:.h jc orA VI = V2 [ . A II ·R2· :. using h-parameters. Rs + hie Ro ROJ = 1+ hCe Rs + hie = 1+ hCe Now for the transistor Q2' Rs is RoJ ' . Therefore. 12 Therefore. AIj is »1 6.~e . Ifwe take typical values. .e y-= -R'It 1 1 But R j :.73 MO.e R II 1 '2 A V2 = Vo =[I-~] V 2 R.A h. AI = 427. .. ( .Amplifiers 357 R. R j = 1. AVJ = ( . Darlington Circuit has very high input impedance and very large current gain compared to Common Collector Configuration Circuit.4 OUTPUT RESISTANCE The general expression for Ro of a transistor in Common Collector Configuration in terms of Common Emitter h-parameters is.15.Ri2 Therefore.14. ofRe = 4KO. Ay is always < 1. 6.3 VOLTAGE GAIN General expression for A for Common Collector in term of h-parameters is v h Ay= 1. Rj2 = 205 KO.h. hje :.

Therefore. 2. 1 hob is the resistance between base and collector. . The input resistance can be increased greatly by bo~t strapping. R 02 = Rs + hIe (1 + h fe )2 +-l+hfe hIe This is a small value. hob 1 . since. (b) Darlington transistor pairs in single package are available with hje as high as 30.Ib2 is less CDIL make CIL997 is a transistor of Darlington Pair Configuration with hje = 1000. like one transistor in integrated form.). hje value will be small for the transistor Q/. 1+ h fe is» 1. 000). 3.: hje = (I/I. Very Low Output Resistance ( of the order of few il). Higher input resistance cannot be achieved because of the biasing resistors R]. Very Large Current Gain ( of the order of 10. They come in parallel with R j of the transistors and thus reduce the value of R. R02 is the output resistance of the Darlington Circuit. Voltage Gain. But in practice it is difficult to make out. h-parameters depend upon the operating point of Q] and Q2. Av < 1. Darlington Pairs are available in a single package with just three leads.000 6. What is Boot Strapping? .358 Rs +hje = Electronic Devices and Circuits R 02 l+h[e 1 +h[e +hje Therefore. (b) Leakage Current is more. the Darlington Circuit through the addition of Co between the first collector C] and emitter B2 . Since the emitter current of transistor Q] is the base current for transistor Q2' the value of IC2 » IC] 1. Very High Input Resistance ( of the order of Mil). the characteristic of Darlington Circuit are 1. Disadvantages : We have assumed that the h-parameters of both the transistor are identical. 4.R 2 etc. 2. The quiescent or operating conditions of both the transistor will be different. Leakage Current is the current that flows in the circuit with no external bias voltages applied (a) The h-parameters for both the transistors will not be the same.15 BOOT STRAPPED DARLINGTON CIRCUIT The maximum input resistance of a practical Darlington Circuit is only 2 MO. The second drawback is leakage current of the 1st transistor Q/ which is amplified by the second transistor Q2 (": Ie/ = Ibi Hence overall leakage current is more. The maximum value of R is only _1_ since.

c. This is called as the Boots Strapping method which increases the input resistance of a circuit. K is less than 1.54 Equivalent circuit.6. there is no current flowing through R (So V = KV there is no potential difference). if the potential at one end ofR is changed. It is as if R is pulling itself up by its boot straps. = __ Ie_. the voltage at the other end also changes or the potential level of R3 rises. Now ifK = 1. For c. Now the input resistance of the circuit is (Fig... = J-K . Therefore the potential at the two ends of R will increase by the same amount. 1 h· I-Av. R'. : it is of the same form as R R. = 00. So the input resistance R. K is constant. the input resistance of the circuit as seen by the generator is R j = I R itself. the other end of R also moves through the same pote:1tial difference.--=-1- VR R (l-K) l-K I' can be increased by increasing V. Here also. another voltage source ofKV (K< I). Fig 6. If the potential at one end of the resistance changes.55).- R Vr-.Amplifiers I 359 I' R V r-. > R. therefore R.55 V = In Fig. as if it is being pulled up from both the ends.. V is an AC signal generator.' = Rll-k I Fig 6. R j can be made large . Ifwe pull the boot with both the edges of the strap (wire) the boot lifts up. Both the top and bottom of the resistor terminals are at the same potential... R.= V 1 I' = (V-KV) I R or R . Now suppose. Therefore.- R=R I R. For Common Collector Amplifier. is connected between the bottom end ofR and grounri. can be made very large by this technique.60. Av:::= I.e. When V increases KV also increases. K = Ay:::= 1.amplifiers Av < 1 : := 0. So R. Therefore.6.095. the bottom end ofR is not at ground potential but at higher potential i. supplying current I to R.

t!ob is now effectively increased to hob(l ~AV) == 400MQ V =Av o i Fig 6.56 Boot strap circuit. Since. hfe. . There and C\. 6. The value of Xc is chosen such that at the lower frequencies. Ibl ~II. R eff = h ob (I . 1 v. If the input signal changes by V0' then E2 changes by Av. under consideration XCo is a virtual short circui~. we get R j as 10MO.360 Electronic Devices and Circuits In the circuit shown in Fig. A. Rj will be much larger. E2 also changes by the same amount.Vj (assuming the resistance of Co is negligible) Therefore.A) v IS .C.. h1 ob between B) Direct short circuit is not done between C) and E2.56. EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT : The input resistance R = _ I == hfe. If the collector C) changes by certain potential. Re If we take hfe as 50. If a transistor with hfe = 100 is taken. Xc is 0 a short only for AC signals and not for DC. Re = 4KO. capacitor Co is connected between C) and E2 . DC condition will change. So C) and E2 are boot strapped.

. The collector current of transistor Q) equals the emitter current of Q2' Q1 (C. Let us consider the input impedance (hI I) etc. This transistor configuration consists of a Common Emitter Stage in series with a Common Base Stage. The transistor Q) is in Common Emitter Configuration and transistor Q 2 is in Common Base Configuration.Amplifiers 361 h V re eel V.parameters of the entire circuit in terms of the h .58. 6. 6. output admittance (h 22 ) i.16 THE CASCODE TFtANSISTOFt CONFIGUFtATION The circuit is shown in Fig. the h . C.E) R -L V0 =V2 I V' 1 Fig 6.e.57 A.E.parameters of the two transistors.I N Fte = Ftell! Fte2 Fig 6.B configuration).. Equivalent circuit.C.58 CASCODE Amplifier (C.

hi2 = h lb2 · But h lb2 is very small. for the entire circuit is. (Since Q I is in Common Emitter configuration and hoe is defined with 11 = 0). = 40k . Q 2 is in Common Base Configuration. for a transistor in common emitter configuration is very small = 20. when II = 0. Therefore. Ih i = hie I SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT GAIN (h 21 ) 1= hfe 1 I' since h I h21 =hfe I OUTPUT CONDUCTANCE (h 22 ) fb =- Ie IE Output Conductance with input open circuited. C 2 is shorted. the net impedance for the transistor Q 1 is only h lb2 .362 INPUT IMPEDANCE (h ll ) Electronic Devices and Circuits h11 = Input Z = ~I 11 v. h11 = hie· When V 2 = 0. What is the value ofRo of the transistor Q 2 with R. But h lb . the output resistance of the transistor Q 1 is h 1 oe =40 Kn. 1 -=40Kn hoe is the source resistance for Q2. = 0 If V 2 is made equal to 0. We can conclude tnat the collector ofQ 1 is effectively short circuited. Therefore C 1 is virtually shorted to the ground.

there is no link between VI (input voltage) and V 2 (output voltage).E. When the value of RL is < 200 K.' hl2 is very small .. Transistor (Since hIe and hfe are same) with negligible internal feedback (:. there is negligib1e internal feedback in the case of cascode amplifier. Very High Output Resistance. 2. Large Current Gain ( hje ). Q2 is in Common Base configuration) hl2 == h re h rb · h re == 10--4 hrb == 10--4 . i.e. its input Z is equal to that of a single Common Emitter Transistor (hIe)' Its Current Gain is equal to that of a single Common Base Transistor (h fe ). Its output resistance is equal to that of a single Common Base Transistor (hob)' The reverse voltage gain is very very small. . . . ho' h f of the CASCODE Transistor. Typical value = 7 x 10 . the value ofhr is very very small. we can say that I'I == O. Therefore. output conductance ofthe entire circuit is h22 == hob' REVERSE VOLTAGE GAIN (h ) 12 == . for a CASCODE Transistor Configuration. (== hob) or large output resistance ( == 2MO equal to that of a Common Base Stage). 363 Since. This will not affect the values of hI' hr.49 ~ AN m hr = h12 == hre h rb . Or between E2 and ground there is infinite impedance.x - VI V' V' V2 II ==0 VII yo = Ii == 0 hre · V y' 2 =h rb (Since. In otherwords. if we make the assumption that hob RL < 0. A CASCODE Transistor Circuit acts like a single stage C. hI == hl1 == hie' Typical value == 1. hoel is very large. Therefore. h re is very small) and very small output conductance. Very Large Voltage Gain. 3.Amplifiers It is == lIhob itself.1 or RL is < 200K.1 kO hI' == h21 == h fe · ho == h22 == hob' Typical value == 50 Typical value = 0. The above values are correct. since. CASCODE Amplifier will have 1.8.

Therefore.8 x 5 x 103 =5 x 10.5 <0. Ri2 = hie + (1+h fe )RL2 = lKO + (1 +50) 5KO = 256 KO. It is convenient if we start with the II stage. and hoe hie = lKO. Ril = hie' ~ lkO. . AV2 = 1= 1- R~e 12 h· lkn = 1-0. hoe' RLI < 0.0039 = 0.1.1. .6.1. Assume -Vee vo Fig 6. Solution The second transistor Q2 is in Common Collector Configuration Q I is in Common Emitter Configuration. 6. approximate analysis can be made..AVI and AV2 ofthe amplifier shown in Fig.C.59 For Problem 6.996 256kn I Stage: RLI = 10KII Ri2 = 10k II 256kO = 9.. (h fe ) . and C.50 .B Configuration need not be used.36 kO.RL2 = 10. . Av2 is the expression for Voltage Gain of the transistor in Common Collector Configuration in terms of Common Emitter h-parameters is.' hre = 10-4.364 Electronic Devices and Circuits Problem 6. hoe RL2 is < 0. D Stage: hoe .8 Find the voltage gains AVs .59. Rigorous Expressions of C.' Approximate equation can be used All = . hfe = 50 = 10 -8 A/V.

S~--~----------~--~--~--~~ S Fig 6.17 6. Id = AC drain current rd = drain resistance Vo = Id x (rd II RL ) = I d x [ rd·R L fd + RL I 1 But Id = . Rs AyS = Ay x R + h s oe = Av x lkQ 2k = -240. 6. ..17.::...gm· RL -=.. FET is replaced by its small signal model so the equivalent circuit is as shown in Fig...1 THE JFET LOW FREQUENCY EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS COMMON SOlJRCE AMPLIFIER Capacitance and DC voltages are shorted.gm V (The value of the current source) VI = But rd» fd -gm·rd·RL rd+RL RL + RL = fd AV = -gm·rd·RL rd Av =.60.5 Overall Voltage Gain = A y \.. 6...:=----o:..60 C.480.S amplifier.63k hie lkQ 365 = _ = -481.A Y2 = -482 xO.996 = .Amplifiers R hfe.. ~ = -50 x 9.

C m = C gs + (I +Av) . C gd where Ay = circuit voltage gain gm. At high frequencies rd and RL 1 At low frequencies. S is not at ground partial. Electronic Devices and Circuits Yis = forward transfer admittance in C.-----O + V DD = 20 V 3. VG is not the same as V GS.O) 6.17. At high frequencies.S. This is FET equivalent of emitter follower or common collectors transistor amplifier circuit. the input capacitance shunting Ra becomes effective.61 Common drain circuit.366 Fora FET. Zo = rd :::: RL I RL . The actual capacitance presented to an input signal is amplified by the Miller effect. Therefore Z\ :::: R G.2 COMMON DRAIN AMPLIFIERS This is also known as source follower. II RGS But RGS is a very large value. input impedance Z\ = RG . r-------. are shunted by Cds.S configuration 1 rd At low frequencies. configuration =gm Yos = Out put admittance in C.: rd is large.3 M RJ Co v'~v t 0 C I -'>t I 470KQ t---1 tO~ 0 -'>t R2 Vc IsRL Fig 6. VG = VGS + VRL = VGS + ID · RL . (RL I rd)] C m = C gs + [1 + gm (RL II rd)] C gd (C.

. rd· RL .Amplifiers 367 If the input increases by I V..62 CD amplifier. Vo = gm .V 0) Solving for Vo V 0 (rd + RL) = gm . RL Voltage gain rd·R L R rd + L +gmrd· L gm VI is output current proportional to VI' and. 10 = {~:: ~~} from the circuit gm . V gs VGS = (V I ..V0) 10 = gm (V I . D~--~------~--~-~-~·D Fig 6.. So.. Vo = 10 x (r d II RL) = 10 . output also increases by IV.. V I . R Z o (rd·R L ) = ---'-"-----"-"--rd + RL + gmrd RL . Vord .. there is no phase-shift and voltage gain = I. G . VI· rd . RL Vo(rd + RL + gm rd . RL) = gm .gm . VI .

..63. .17. .3 COMMON GATE The circuit is shown in Fig.64 e. + V t--'"""--i I--_ _ -o~o f\y Pv~ v.. G Fig 6... Vo = 1D x (rd II RL) .. 6.368 Electronic Devices and Circuits L = ---"--"--- Z o rd·R rd + R L (1 + gmrd) [rdII +gmrd]RL [(rd /1 + gmrd )]+ RL Zl = RJ II R2 FET AMPLIFIER CIRClllT (C.. I RS Fig 6.63 Common gate circuit. s ~---. ---'-------+----'---.G configuration.G) DO C gd is in parallel with Zl 6.----{ ~---~--~---~D 10 G .

So 10 decreases.T ID t ~ -. But from characteristics point of view pentode is similar to a BJT. 1.. But no such channel closing in Transistor and Pentode. In FET and pentode current is due to one type of carriers only. Anode ~ collector. '11' decreases.. V gs = gm .66 . also as temperature increases. I increases. As Is decreases Ie decreases in a transistor. B ~ Grid. But in FET.." Vos .65 4.. 3. But it is less sensitive compared to a transistor or FET. 2.T Fig 6.Amplifiers 369 Zo = R2 II rd :::: RL 10 = gm . In FET pinch off occurs and current remains constant. In pentode it is only due to electrons.VGS=O ~------2 Fig 6. VI 1 Z=_I=I ID gm V This is the input impedance ofthe device. 10 decreases in FET. _1_11 Rs. _ . as temperature increases.18 COMPARISON OF FET AND BJT CHARACTERISTICS From construction point of view triode is similar to BJT (Transistor). Cathode E . As Vcontrol grid increases Ip decreases in pentode. Pentode Transistor FET Ip t / Ie t -"T / -. t _------1 . so I in a BJT increases.. In pentode. But in BJT it is due to both electron and holes.. As T increases. leo increases. As VGS decreases. gm 6. The circuit input impedance is.

If an external resistance is connected on the mput side. typically 5 to 7 V. COUPLED AMPLIFIER The circuit is as shown in Fig. 6.C source. IB will be about 100 BE Il A and Ic 5 mAo These are the proper bias conditions. equivalent circuit. at the centre of the active region of the transistor characteristics.19 Saturation (it IS very narrow) A"..: Ohimic region (it is more) ~ Pentode or Saturation region ~VCE Fig 6. 6.C components present in the A..----1 f--r----O Vo Output I Fig 6.. BJT JFET t I: 6. so that the D. it is to limit the input A. Rl' Rand RC' RE are biasing resistors. It blocks D.370 Electronic Devices and Circuits 5.67 R. the collector output of the transistor (BJT) is coupled to the output point V0 through a resistor (R) and capacitor (C). voltage so that the BJT is not damaged due to excess input current. Transistor is current dependent. ." 'D Cutoff region t I:. reg...c biasing provided is not about Vc~.C. MO. RL and Co are the coupling elements. FET and pentode are voltage dependent devices..C coupled amplifier circuit.C source. So it is called R-C coupled amplifier. C.68 R. rc of transistor is less (in kO).is the blocking capacitor. ro ofFET is very large.C.. But in pentode it is much higher. V .68 In the A. 7. It is a self bias circuit. Ca. Rs is the source resistance of the input A.5 V for silicon transistor. 8. Breakdown occurs in FET and BJT for small voltages 50. VCE will be must be 0. The operating point 'Q' is locate.. 60V etc.

Frequency Response is a plot between frequency and voltage gain. At f1 and f2' output power is half of the maximum value.= . so that V 0 . Rc is collector resistor to limit the collecPor current from V CC' to protect the transistor. y2 y2 P.69 A.707 of the maximum gain value. In decibels it is 20 log (~) ::: 3db.. ) 2 IR y2 = --'l!. at the CE E E E lower cut off frequency f1' X will be any way smaller than R . y2 P max = --'l!. ' . Because at these frequencies vo Itage IS --'l!. C is the coupling capacitor. At f) and f2' Po and f2 are also called as 3 db points.Amplifiers 371 changed.= 0..6 V for silicon transistor..--~-~Vo t Fig 6. C is emitter bypass capacitor..----'\ hie .---. I b . At high frequencies. E so that A..J2 0 output power IS - . y2 y = ( R -v 2 = . capacitance associated with BJT also must be considered. ){o ..C equivalent circuit is as shown in Fig.. CE E The A.C signal.. fo f1 .C equivalent circuit.----. C is chosen such that X = R . 1 0 yg. It by passes A. because of the variation of the reactance of capacitors with frequency. gain of the amplifier also varies.---.69.V EO = YBE. Y S .ax . 2R R So f and fare ) 2 called as half power points. 'R [Y J f1 and f2 are chosen such that the gain at these frequencies is . f1 or fL is called Lower cut off frequency or Lower half power point or Lower 3db frequency (f2 . Voltage gain is measured in decibels.5 to 0.-----.' o =_0 R R Gain = 10 log ~ = 20 log V db Y. IR As the frequency of the input signal varies.---.f ) is called Bandwidth.J2 I or 0. = 10 log pO . 6. to couple the amplified A.. I decibel = P 10 1 I P bel.C signal does not pass through R . . P .C signal at the collector of the c transistor to the output point V 0 RE is emitter resistor to provide biasing...

71J.707A~ r~ " L z B.71. Cb b I So the drop across it also decreases and hence net input at the base of transistor increases and V so V 0 increases. the capacitance reactances of both Cb. Initially as frequency increases.70. In the low frequency range.W ~/ ~I I Fig 6. XCc = 27tfC I A. .71 Phase response. 7z ---. Hence V0 decreases because. So the net change with frequency.6. capacitance reactance due to C . XCb is almost a short circuit. -hfeRL c is open circuit (in the Expression Ay (M. So rue shape of the cufve is as shown in the Fig. tl~ ----+/ Fig 6.------. V0 is taken across C .~. Hence Ay = VO also increases. In the mid frequency range.-. So as frequency increases. -Y. remains constant as shown in the figure. and C are negligible. capacitance reactance due to Cc ?ecreases.F) I = R S + h ie PHASE RESPONSE Phase shift between Vo and Vi varies as shown in Fig. u b = 27tfC decreases.-. C As the frequency is further increased. 6.C equivalent circuit). 6. I In the mid frequency range.n decreases and hence Ay decreases.~ O.372 Electronic Devices and Circuits FREQUENCY RESPONSE The graph of voltage gain versus frequency is as shown in Fig.70 Frequency response. since its reactance decreases with increasing frequency.-.

IL I E The current gain.p 21tTb'e(Cb'e +Cb'c) hfe = CE small signal short-circuit current gain. Where .. I V b'e E B + C ~\. c ~ gm Vb'e 1 Fig 6.c) ] .Amplifiers 6.: gb'e = gm hfe A = I -gmhfe gm + j21tf(C b'e + Cb'c)h fe -hre -hre = [(... the approximate high-frequency equivalent circuit is drawn below. '2 f(C C )h fe ] = J + J 1t b'e + b'c gm . When RL = 0. we examine how transistor's CE short-circuit forward-current gain varies with frequency. .. B r bb . Cb'e +C b . I Ii = Vb'e gb'e + Vb'e [jro (C be + Cb'c)] A I - -gm Vb'e _ -gm Vb'e [gb'e + jro(Cb'e + Cb. = .• r: hfe ] [ . AI= T= -gm Vb'e I.72 Approximate high-frequency circuit.gb'e + jro(Cb'e + C b'c) . b'e gm 1+j21tf(Cb'e+ C b'c) A = I -h~ 1+ {~) e 1 f.20 CONCEPT OF fa' fp AND fT 373 In order to obtain some idea of a transistor's high frequency capability and what transistor to choose for a given application.

The value offr ranges from 1MHz for audio transistors upto 1GHZ for high frequency transistors. I I . ( ~.707 from its value at low frequency. h th .e fr = h$ . and CE bandwidth fW fr is also the product of the low frequency gain.]' » fr / f~ '" . is the CE short-circuit small-signal forwardcurrent transfer ratio cutoff frequency.I ~ I. IA 1= I h fe )l+(f/fpt I. Gain Bandwidth Product : Although fa and fb are useful indications of the high-frequency capability ofa transistor. also referred as fhfe .374 Electronic Devices and Circuits 'fP' : P Cut-off Frequency The '[3' cut-off frequency f~. fr is the product of the low frequency gain. hre. It is the frequency at which a transistors CE short-circuit current gain drops 0. The fr is defined as the frequency at which the short-circuit CE current gain has a magnitude of unity. and the CB bandwidth.hre fr '" httJp :. are even more important characteristics is fr. The 'fr' is lies in between f~ and fa. i. at we obtain f~ f" IA. f~ represents the maximum attainable bandwidth for current gain of a CE amplifier with a given transistor. a Cut-off Frequency 'fa' : A transistor used in the CB connection has a much higher 3-dB frequency. Hence. fa.707 from its 1KHZ value. fa. The expression for the current gain by considering approximate high frequency circuit ofthe CB with output shorted is given by Where fa is the alpha cutoff frequency at which the CB short-circuit small-signal forward current transfer ratio drops 0.

in Common Emitter Configuration are.-:':-~!(:-:).-__ (CE) 0707 hfc Gam Bandwidth 1 ____________ ~ ___ ~~ct o 70~ ~~r-~--:-=-=---=-~-=-=-~-:--:-:--::-:-::-~=-=~~(CB) I a Cut off 0.5 x 10-4· h = 6 lin· 'oe r-' h fe = 250·' The second subscript denotes the configuration.--+ Frequency 0 l In liZ * f~ v fT fa * Fig 6...---'-.:O.. 6..--.--:". o 'J.:-. h.b' is called the base spread resistance. so called because the units of the four parameters are different.. The h . .l. replacing the transistor by h-parameter equivalent.parameters.Amplifiers 375 The following Fig..--r~l"":"().!-"":"I::.. These are used to represent the equivalent circuit of a transistor. Ie • • • • • = 500 n·' r e h = 1.---. can be derived in terms of h-parameters. It is the resistance between the fiction base terminal Bf and the outside base terminal B.1 lU7-. using h-parameters.. Expressions for Voltage Gain A v ' Current Gain AI' Input Resistance Ri' Output Resistance R etc. The Transistor Amplifier Circuit Analysis can be done.73 SUMMARY • Hybrid Parameters are h . AI 100 50 h f e l .parameters and their typical values. similarly band c represent Common Base and Common Collector Configurations.73 indicates how short-circuit current gains for CE and CB connections vary with frequency.

..... is also called lower 3-db point or lower half power point....... 12 4...376 Electronic Devices and Circuits • C......... configuration. Low Ap In Darlington pair circuit........ Low R o' Large AI' Av < 1..... Its characteristics are............. Large AI and thigh Ro.....E........... The general equations governing h-parameters are VI······························ 2... is defined as h re = .. 7.. if2 ..E.. The characteristics are : High Ri' Large AI' Very low Ro' Ay < 1 In CASCODE amplifier configuration.. Very large A y. Expression for cun·ent gain AI in terms ofh fe and h are AI = ... configuration... amplifier: Low R i.....5 kO) (b) Moderately high Ro (100 kO - 800 kO) (c) Large current amplification (d) Large voltage amplification (e) Large power gain (f) 1800 phase shift between Vi and Vo.. Moderate Ap ForC..... the gain decreases............ • • OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS 1.... Ay > 1. The upper cut-off frequency h is also called upper 3-db point or upper half power frequency.. amplifier.... High Ro' Ai < 1. High R i ......... configuration is in series with another BJT amplifier in C. rc Conversion Efficiency of an amplifier circuit is . 5..... Amplifier circuit characteristics are: (a) Low to moderate Ri (300 0 .... ..... the two BJTs are in C....... ... In the low frequency range and high frequency range...C.. .. Typical values of h-parameters in Common Emitter Configuration are The units of the parameter hare ..... . 6......... re ....... one BJT in C..... The lower cut-off frequency 1......B. In the case ofR-C coupled amplifier.. hence the name..... . the gain remains constant.. 3..........fi) is called Band width.... • • • For C... ....C...... The units of h-parameters are .......... 9......B.............. h-parameters are valid in the .... .... the output is coupled to the load through Rand C. No phase inversion.. 8... h-parameters are named as hybrid parameters because . frequency range.. The parameter h re = .. In the mid frequency range..

. 12. I 377 Current Gain AJ of BJT in Common Emitter Configuration is high when Power Gain of Common Emitter Transistor amplifier is ..... ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS 1........... the values of hrc ....... Compare the characteristics of Transistor Amplifiers in the three configurations.. Draw the circuit for Darlington piar and derive the expressions for AJ' Ay...... .. 20........... 11...C Configuration is also known as .. as I\..... current gain in Darlington Pair circuit is approximately The disadvantage of Darlington pair circuit is .. 22......... configuration. and Ro' Draw the circuit for CASCODEAmplifier...... In Common Collector Configuration..... 7. configuration.... ......... Explain its working...... Discuss the Transistor Amplifier characteristics in Common Base Configuration and their variation with Rs and RL with the help of equations. I\. .. large output resistance is in ....... circuit... Convert the h-parameters in Common Base Configuration to Common Emitter Configuration. Draw the h-parameter equivalent circuits for Transistor amplifiers in the three configurations.Amplifiers 10.... 8....... Write the general equations in terms of h-parameters for a BJT in Common Base Amplifiers configuration and define the h-parameters.. The salient featuers of CASCODE Amplifier are ........ 13...... Current Gain AI in Common Base Configuration is ... R.. the transistors are in ...... 5... C. Highest current gain. obtaining overall values of the circuit for hI' hI' ho and hr' . 4.. 21.. 17. under identical conditions is obtained in ... R .. 9.. With the help of necessary equations.. 15. deriving the neces~ary equations..... Compared to Common Emitter Configuration R of Darlington piar circuit is I In CASCODE amplifier. increases.......... transistor amplifier configuraiton.. 16. ..... 19. 6..... 2. . 14. In the case of transistor in Common Emitter Configuration.... Compare the transistor ( BJT ) amplifiers circuits in the three configurations with the help of h-parameters values... .... Interms of hfe ......... .. Ro' Ap with Rs and RL in Common Emitter Configuration...... discuss the variations of Av' AI' R.. is Among the three transistor amplifier configurations........ 18..... 3............

Z. Rs + Z. frequency range (a) (c) R. h .(b) I+h (c) I+h (d) I h I-h tb tb tb 7.98 I (b) a Ie aVe IB=k -101 I (c) a Vel a Ie IB=k + 2. Z is ..378 Electronic Devices and Circuits MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1... 10.. (a) h22 = :1 II =0 (b) h22= :~I II =0 ~J II = 0 (c) h22 = I2. AI (a) ho l+hfZ L (b) hf l+hoZL S S = hf l-hoZL (c) I ho I-hfZ L 0 (d) 9.. AI Aj. The expression for h.Ie hIe"::::: .I1 (d) h22 = 3.I is. By definition the expression for his. The ratio of A~ signal power delivered to the load to the DC input power to the active device as a percentage is called (a) conversion (b) Rectification 11 (c) f (a) htb ~ ~ ~ power 11 (d) utilisation factor 8. The expression defining the h-parameter h22 is. The h-parameters have (a) (c) Same units for all parameters do not have units (b) (d) different units for all parameters dimension less 2. Rs . oe (a) a Ie alB IE=K -0.F. Typical value of htb is (a) (b) (c) n 6.6 I 5. the resistance between fictious base terminal B' and outside base terminal B is.. called (a) (a) (c) Base resistance Base spread resistance (b) (d) Base drive resistance Base fictious resistance . Expression for Avs in terms of A . Audio frequency range (b) (d) ForDe only upto I MHz 4. The general expression for AI interms of h ho and ZL is . R .Ie interms of htb and h. Rs + Z.3 b (d) a IB a VB le=k (d) 26...Parameters are valid over a . In the case of BJT. ZL' Z.... h.ZL ZL (b) (c) (d) Rs + Z..

B configuration emitor follower (b) (d) c. In the case of Darlington circuit.. Av > 1 Ri=MO.. on the input side..= I. AI is approximately (a) 2 hfe (b) 4 hfe (c) hfe . CASCODE transistor amplifier configuration consists of (a) (c) CE-CE amplifier stages CE-CB stages (b) (d) CE-CC stages CB-CC stages 15..... AI = 10 k..Av< 1 18. (a) (b) 13. Typical value of hre is (a) 10-4 VIA ° 10-4 (c) constant 10-6 AN (d) V-A 104 (b) (c) (d) 14.. (a) (b) (c) (d) The swing of the input signal is over a wide range around the operating point..- ---- Amplifiers 11.Ro= 100. configuration 16.. AI = 1... The units of the parameter hoe ..... AI= 10k... large current gain...E. CASCODE amplifier characteristics are (a) (b) (c) (d) Low voltage gain. Compared to C. For CASCODE amplifier.... Ro = 1. Av < 1 Ri = 100.c. large current are Low voltage gain.. Ro = 100. Darlington pair circuit has (a) (c ) low current gain large current gain (b) (d) low voltage gain large p output resistance 20.00.... configuration..Av= 100 Ri = MO.. the amplifier stage is in .c. (a) (c) low current gain leakage current is more (b) (d) low output resistance high input resistance 19. Large voltage gain Low putput resistance 17... Ro=MO... low current gain large voltage gain. (a) (c) C. configuration C...... Characteristics of Darlington circuit are typical values (a) (b) (c) (d) Ri=MO. In large signal analysis of amplifiers .. The disadvantage of Darlington pair circuit is . high output resistance Large current gain.. Operating point swimgs over large range stability factor is large power dissipation is large 379 12.A..

Output impedance 9. 2. Input impedance 8.380 Electronic Devices.100 KHzs 200mW 20db 100 3. Band width . Current gain Power gain 6. Type of Amplifier Frequency Range Typical Values Audio / Typical Values / Power / RF / Video 15 Hzs . Voltage gain 5. 9 10 kO 5 pf 500n 1 pf 100 KHzs 7.••d Circuits Specifications of Amplifiers Parameters 1. Output Power 4.

' . . " . .. ~ ~ :~' . .\~ .~ 'r' . :". . .. ~.:~ ...

If the system is to perform smoothly. So there is no control over the output. 3. inside the furnance. Basic definitions Ideally an amplifier should reproduce the input signal. On the other hand. Another example is. If power is supplied on. Voltage amplifiers. Therefore we must have a thermocouple. green and yellow lights are fixed. When the output of the thermocouple. We take the book. 4. Distortion in wave-form due to non linearities in the operating characters of the amplifying device. mechanical. the input can be made to depend on output. temperature or due to components. 2. Another example is traffic light. we must be able to measure or control output. Current amplifiers. still if the green lamp glows for the same period. The amplifier may introduce noise (undesired signals) The above drawbacks can be minimizing if we introduce feedback 7. But some ofthe short comings of the amplifier circuit are I. we can't choose the book we need.1 V. our eyes will search for the book which we need and indicates to the mind. output will be I V. If the input is 10mV.9 V or 1. the furnace may get over heated. the traffic will not be cleared. hydraulic or pneumatic may be considered to have at least one input and one output. If our eyes are closed. 2. the temperature of a furnace. So in the ideal case. Then again another relay should operate. By providing feedback. gain of the amplifier is 100. reaches a value corresponding to 1000oC. Change in the value of the gain due to variation in supplying voltage. One example is. a relay should operate which will switch off the power supply to the furnace. Ifwe go to a library. it can be made to increase by having a link between the output and input. Thus the thermocouple and relay system provides the feedback between input and output. which we need. to switch on the power. Then after sometime. on one side of the road even if very few vehicles are there. If the input deviates to 9m V or 11 mV. If the input is increased. the timings of the red and green lamps must be proportional to the traffic on the road. If a traffic policeman is placed. So eyes will provide the feedback. 3. Tr~nsresistance amplifiers. the temperature should be limited to 1000°C. the temperature may come down below 1000oc. Transconductance amplifiers. Suppose. he provides the feedback. This classification is with respect to the input and output impedances relative to the load and source impedances. with change in magnitude and with or without change in phase. I.382 Electronic Devices and Circuits 7.2 CLASSIFICATION OF AMPLIFIERS Amplifiers can be classified broadly as. But by introducing feedback between the output and input. If the timings of red. there can be control over the output. which can measure the temperature.1 FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Any system whether it is electrical. the green light will be on for sometime. output will be 0. if the traffic is very heavy on the other side of the road. . continuously. our human mind and eyes.

» Rs.1).2 Current amplifier. Ay represents the open circuit voltage gain. Vo::::Av· Vs· :.1 VOLTAGE AMPLIFIER 383 This circuit is a 2-port network and it represents an amplifier (see in Fig 7. Output voltage is proportional to input voltage.Feedback Amplifiers 7. =- Vo VI with RL = 00.---+ r - - - - - - - - - - - - . (Source or load). Such a circuit is called as Voltage Amplifier.Vs. . The constant of proportionality Ay doesn't depend on the impedances.::::V s · Similarly. Therefore. The equivalent circuit of current amplifier is shown in Fig.2 CURRENT AMPLIFIER An ideal current amplifier is one which gives output current proportional to input current and the proportionality factor is independent ofR s and R L.. Fig 7. ifRL » Ro. Suppose R.7. 7. output voltage is proportional to input voltage and the constant of proportionality is independent of Rs or RL. For ideal voltage amplifier. drop across Rs is very small. = Ay 00. Ro= o. V.2. R. Fig 7. for ideal voltage amplifier R. Vo::::Av· VI" ButV. R.2.1 Equivalent circuit of voltage amplifiers. '.2.

. Thevenins' equivalent circuit on the output side. Ro= 00. Rj=O Ro= 00.3).4 TRANS RESISTANCE AMPLIFIER It gives output voltage Vo proportional to Is. on the input side. Fig 7. I Electronic Devices and Circuits . (See Fig.4 Trans resistance amplifier. If Ro= 00. On the output side..3 TRANSCONDUCTANCE AMPLIFIER Ideal Transconductance amplifier supplies output current which is proportional to input voitage independently ofthe magnitude ofRs and RL. IL = 10 = Aj Ij = Aj Is. it is Norton's equivalent circuit with a current source in parallel with resistance. it is the Thevenins' equivalent circuit. independent of Rs a.. 7.384 For ideal Current Amplifier. For ideal amplifiers R j =0. 7.---J\/\ ~ ~=~ + Fig 7. AI represents the short circuit current amplification. A voltage source comes in series with resistance...3 Equivalent circuit 0/ Transconductance amplifier. Ro=O Equivalent circuit R. IL . . Norton equivalent circuit on the R j input side. RL. In the equivalent circuit.2. AI = T with RL = O. 7. Ideal Transconductance amplifier will have R j = 00.2.

This is called as Current Sampling or Loop Sampling.. For current feedback the element will be in series. 7. The feedback network is connected in series with the output.. V = Output voltage of the basic amplifier before sampling [see the block diagram of feedback] V. Sampling Network 0 = L ..1 V -.. The block diagram representation is as shown in Fig. t + - . t + ' Vo - ~ .. . For voltage feedback.. Vs -"'1. Signal Source It can be a voltage source V s or a current source Is FEEDBACK NETWORK It is a passive two port network. = Input voltage to the basic amplifier Av = Voltage amplification = VN..3 FEEDBACK CONCEPT A sampling network samples the output voltage or current and this signal is applied to the input through a feedback two port network. But usually a resistance is used as the feedback element.. COMPARATOR OR MIXER NETWORK This is usually a differential amplifier. Here the output current is sampled and feedback.5.. omparatio[ or mixer .5 Block diagram of feedback network.. capacitors or inductors.f» + Ir t vr + -t - Feedback network p Fig 7.Feedback Amplifiers 385 7. GENERALIZED BLOCK SCHEMATIC Signal Sou ree . A voltage feedback is distinguished in this way from current feedback. It may contain resistors. AI = Current amplification = III.. It has two inputs and gives a single output which is the difference of the two inputs. " i - Basic amplifier A -. G M = Transconductance of basic amplifier = IN i RM = Transresistance = VII. the feedback element (resistor) will be in parallel with the output. + v.

Return difference 0 = I-loop gain negative sign is because it is the difference 0= 1-(-[3A) 10= 1+ [3·A. . A v.I is due to phase-shift of 180° between input and output in Common Emitter Amplifier. Af.I. it is Voltage Feedback. So the symbol 'A' is used to represent these quantities. G M and RM represent the transfer gains (Though G M and RM are not actually gains) of the basic amplifier without feedback. it is Current Feedback. = Feedback Factor. If the feedback signal is proportional to current. AVf= Vo Vs A 1f = G Mf = - 10 Is -10 - Vs Vo Is Feedback amplifiers are classified as shown below. Vf V (This 13 is different from 13 used in 8JTs ) o (I3)(A)(. Ar is used to represent the ratio of the output to the input with feedback. I I Current I Series Shunt Series I Shunt A = voltage gain = Vo V.1) = -I3A 13 Loop gain / Return Ratio .1 Types of Feedback How to determine the type of feedback? Whether current or voltage? If the feedback signal is proportional to voltage. Feedback I RMf = Positive (regenerati ve) I Voltage N egatIve (degenerative) I. Since Sin(1800) = . This is called as the transfer gain of the amplifier with feedback.386 Electronic Devices and Circuits All these four quantities.

2. The reverse transmission factor 13 is independent of Rs and RL .Feedback Amplifiers 387 Conditions to be satisfied I. Dist0l1ion is reduced.4 TYPES OF FEEDBACK FeedbacK means a portion of the output of the amplifier circuit is sent back or given back or feedback at the input terminals. 3. Because in negative feedback. Positive Feedback 2. 6 Block scltematic for negative feedback. Transfer gain Afcan be stabilized against variations in It-parameter of the transistor with temperature etc. I. 3. Negative Feedback Negative feedback is also called as degenerative feedback. 7.-I3V o . There are two types of feedback. The feedback signal is transmitted to the input through feedback network and not through amplifier. But there are many advantages with negative feedback.' VI' = V. Output impedance can be decreased. Input impedance can be increased. 4. the feedback signal opposes the input signal. Ay=yI Vo A'v= Vo/V. Bandwidth is increased. 7. So it is called as degenerative feedback. Advantages of Negative Feedback I. Input signal is transmitted to the output through amplifier A and not through feedback network 13. stability is improved. 5. Noise reduces. By this mechanism the characteristics of the amplifier circuit can be changed. i. 6. 2.e.5 EFFECT OF NEGATIVE FEEDBACK ON TRANSFER GAIN Fig 7. Hence feedback is employed in circuits. Linearity of operation is improved. 7.

A Av J For negative feedback A'v = Denominator is > I. :.388 V 0) Vo = Ay.{.L fH .. Ay{mid)/1 + j. --I+PA v 7. A I-' v 7. ~ is negative. VI .Ay .. (2) Substituting equation (1) in (2) for Av.2 INCREASE IN BANDWIDTH If. If the feedback is negative.1 REDliCTION IN GAIN (for positive feedback) Ay = Voltage gain without feedback.p. A 'v = Av 1. Ay = .. Expression for Ay (voltage gain at any frequency f) is...5. ~ is V e) .5. fH is upper cutoff frequency. A y = -----'--'--~ Av{mid) 1+ j.. f is any frequency. ~ Vo V 0 (1 + ~ Ay) = Ay V I Ayf = Electronic Devices and Circuits v0 = Ay (V i Vo = I ~ V A.. (Open loop gain).L fH 1+ Aymid 1+ jf / fH A y = p[ 1 (for negative Feedback. (l) Ay (mid) = Mid frequency gain Av (mid) 1+ PAy for negative feedback. 1 + n. fL is lower cut off frequency. There is reduction in gain..

Feedback Amplifiers 389 Simplifying. + D.. Ay = AyCmid)11 + ~vAv(mid) jf 1+ -.~y.--------"'--. Where. .3 REDUCTION IN DISTORTION Suppose. Similarly.5.. Ay = Ay (mid) + fH + j.~ Vo and ~ is negative for negative feedback. increases bandwidth.f + ~. A'= y A~ (mid) 1+ fH Where Ay' (mId) ~ AvCmid) = 1+ ~vAv (mid) fH' = fH (1 + ~y Ay (mId» and ~ is negative for negative feedback.f fH 1+ j. in addition to voltage amplification is also producing distortion D.. or A '= y Ay 1+ j f~ f 7. Vo (for negative feedback) Vi' = Vi . (3) fH[l + ~vAv(mid)] Equation (3) can be written as. the amplifier. :.fH . V.'-~vvol+D .. Negative feedback.' . Vo' =Ay [v. Vi = V.AYmld. Vo = Ay .f +~ [Ay mid] Ay (mid) [1 jL] fH + j.fH' > fH.--------.

Therefore these two are out of phase. the distortion introduced in the input cancels the distortion produced by the amplifier. So the new input Vi will have distortion introduced init. There is distortion in the output as shown. because both gain and instability are divided by D. if a part of the distorted output is fed back to the input. the feedback signal and input will be out of phase.Ay+D V Electronic Devices and Circuits = o V:. in Fig. 7. 7.4 FEEDBACK TO IMPROVE SENSITIVITY Suppose an amplifier of gain Al is required. suppose the input is pure sinusoidal wave. with negative feedback.5 FREQUENCY DISTORTION A A=-f l+PA If the feedback J'U:twork does not contain reactive elements.7.7 (b) Output with distortion (without negative feedback) Now.Av + 0 (1 + Ay. Build an amplifier of gain A2 = DA. The stability will be improved by the same factor. so as to oppose the input.is<D 1+ PvAv The physical explanation is. If f3 depends upon frequency.'. .5.f3v) (1 + f3vAv) For negative feedback. .. o t ---+ t (a) Input signal Fig 7. The overall gain is not a function offrequency.5. 7. because of mixing of distorted Vfwith pure VI' So the distortion in the output will be reduced because.. So frequency duration is less. Sensitivity is improved by the same factor D. in which D is large. Because these two distortions are out of phase. V.390 Vo [l+Ay Py]=V. f3 is negative therefore denominator is> 1 The distortion in the output is reduced. Feedback is now introduced to divide the gain by D. The feedback signal cancels the distortion produced by the amplifier. Q factor will be high.

.fa :::'/2 (BW)f = I~ -/1. 7.7 SENSITIVITY OF TRANSISTOR GAIN Due to aging... dAf Af Id:1 .I~): BW = (/2 . temperature effect etc.8 Frequency Response with and without negative feedback.. .-.. transistor or FET.I~ 1+~Am f..Jt wIth negatIve feedback i . A AmplifIer 13 Feedback Network Fig 7...9 Feedback network. stability of the amplifier will be affected Fractional change in amplification with feedback divided by the fractional change without feedback is called Sensitivity of Transistor.. on circuit capacitance.5..12 1 > /2 BW' = (j../1 ) ' f2 12= BW = /2 ...Ii Fig 7.2) /11 </1.__ --------.'. = 1 (l+f-.5.Feedback Amplifiers 7.7..6 BAND WIDTH 391 It increases with negative Feedback ( as shown in Fig.Am) A BW > ' BW (BW)f = (1 + I3Am) BW wIthout feedback Gam ..

Because of feedback. Comparator mixer ~ + Difference signal . Sensitivity.AI3 B2 f . Noise is reduced with negative feedback.9 REDUCTION OF NoIsE Let N be noise constant without feedback and NF with feedback. NF is fed to the input and its value is J3N F. . = = Reciprocal of sensitivity is Densitivityl D = (1 + I3A)..392 dA f Af I IdAI 11+J3AI A I + ~A I Electronic Devices and Circuits Differentiating. B2 .J3AN F. : . Basic Amplifier A Output signal Xo =AX I Xs Input signal RL External load Feedback Network 'p' Feedback signal Fig 7. B2f appears at the output.10 The basic amplifier shown may be a voltage amplifier or current amplifier.5. 7. 7. So positive I3B2 f is fed to the input.AI3 B2 f = B 2f· B2 B2f = I + J3A B2f < B2 or So it is reduced. Output with two tenns B2 .5. . transconductance or transresistance amplifier.J3ANF NF (1 + J3A) = N as N =-F 1+ J3A N NF < N. NF = N .8 REDUCTION OF NONLINEAR DISTORTION Suppose the input signal contains second hannonic and its value is B2 before feedback.---------.6 TRANSFER GAIN WITH FEEDBACK Consider the generalized feedback amplifier shown in Fig. It is amplified to .10. 7. Xd= X.AI3 B2 f. It is amplified to .\ 7.

1. (1 ) I ... (2) . The output of the mixer is the difference between the input signal and the feedback signal..Feedback Amplifiers The four different types of feedback amplifiers are. f3 = Reverse transmission factor or feedback factor = Xf / Xo. Xd = Xs .Xr Substitute ( 2) in (1). ~ = feedback signal.Xf = XI· Xd is also called as error or comparison signal.-.... Xd = Difference signal. Xa~ Xc Xa ... Voltage series feedback. 4.. 3. This ~=. Xo = Output signal. [Difference between the input signal and the feedback signal]. The mixer can be a difference amplifier.. Current shunt feedback. Xo A= ----"-Xs -X f Dividing Numerator and Denominator by X s' A= f3= - Xf -x. (3) Xo From (2).1-~ Xa/~ Xa/~ 1--. Current series feedback. 393 Xs = Input signal... 2.& f3 should not be confused with the f3 of a transistor _Xo_Xo A---XI Xd I f B Transfer gain X=X I d Gain with feedback Af = Xo Xs X d =X s -Xf =X But . Xo It is often a positive or negative real number. The feedback network can be a simple resistor. Voltage shunt feedback. Xd = Xs .

So effect of V f will not be there. feedback If IA~ > IAI the feedback is called as positive or regenerative. feedback f = 7. In order that seriesfeedback is most effective. II ). So the total product AI3.6. Then it passes through a feedback network and hence gets multiplied by 13. and in the comparator it gets multiplied by-I. In order thatshuntfeedback is most effective. R s Amplifier Fig 7. of the amplifier. In the process we have started from the input and after passing through the amplifier and feedback network.1 LOOP GAIN In the block diagram of the feedback amplifier.394 Electronic Devices and Circuits gam WIt feedback. 7. the amplifier should be driven from a constant current source whose resistance Rs is very high ( Rs » RJ Rs Fig 7. completed the loop.11 Series feedback. compared with R"V. (See Fig. the voltage source should have less resistance.12 Current shunt feedback. If IA~ < IAI the feedback is called as negative or degenerative. the circuit should be driven from a constant voltage source whose internal resistance Rs is small compared to R. IfRs is very large. A = transfer gain without feedback. will be modified not by Vf but because of the drop across Rs itself. the signal Xd which is the output of the comparator passes through the amplifier with gain A. So it is multiplied by A. Therefore for series feedback. .

13 Series derived feedback. then it is series derived feedback. Return Difference (D) The difference between unity (1) and return ratio is called as Return difference. Therefore the source resistance should be large and hence a current source should be used.Feedback Amplifiers 395 If the resistance of the source is very small. So in this case Vf is proportional to Vo' V. Similarly if the feedback signal is shuntfed it reduces the input resistance. . so R0 increase. So the change in I. even through V0 increase. I .14 (a) Shunt derived feedback. If the feedback current is same as the output current. 7. output voltage is simultaneously present across RL and across the input to the feedback. the feedback current will pass through the source and not through R. it increases the output resistance. An amplifier with shunt derived negative Feedback increases the output resistance. Return Ratio f3A = Product of feedback factor [3 and amplification factor A is called as Return Ratio. Fig. Therefore 10 remains constant. When the feedback is shunt derived. If it is series fed. Io remains constant. Fig 7. Amount of feedback introduced is expressed in decibels = N log (A') N = 20 log Af = 20 log A A 1_1_1 1 +AP If feedback is negative N will be negative because A < A. D= 1-(-f3A)= l+f3A. so ~ increases. When the feedback is series derived. will be nominal.

(c) Current Series Feedback Fig 7. Current shunt feedback.J I\. 3. Let the change in Av is represented by S.proportional to Vo. the stability of the voltage gain..7. Voltage Series Feedback Feedback signal is taken across RL.. The voltage gain must have a stable value. 4. Vf is coming in series with VI So it is Voltage series feedback. Current series feedback.15 Improvement of Stability with Feedback Stability means. with frequency. Voltage shunt feedback.(See Fig. V I Fig 7.396 Electronic Devices and Circuits 7. . VI VI (a) Voltage shunt Feedback (b) Current Shunt Feedback VI r-----.14 Schematic for voltage series feedback. Voltage series feedback. 2. So it is voltage feedback.l4).. 1.7 CLASSIFACTION OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS There are four types of feedback.

Ay)-Ay(+~) ( l+~. 7.. f -dAy (l+~. A = y . . Stability is good.8.Ay )2 ° =( 1 1 1+~Ay )2 dA~ 1 Av dAy 1 = (1 +~Av)" A~ But A' A~ and dA.. denominator> I. 13 is negative:. dAy Dlfferentlatmg wIth respect to Ay..e. is less with -negative feedback. I=I+AI SIt-' 0 [-: ~... Ay = ---'-y 1 + Av ~l . 'd'tng by Avon b ot h'd dA'y Dlvl Sl es. S' < S i. :. . dAy (1 +~Av dA' 1 f For negative Feedback.1 EFFECT OF FEEDBACK ON INPUT RESISTANCE INPlJT RESISTANCE WITH SHlJNT FEEDBACK With feedback If = 13. variation in A y' or % change in A. = :: 1 .'y = S' dAy =S v = 1+ ~Ay Ay Ay S=-_v = . 1 0 .8 7.Feedback Amplifiers 397 A~ = Vo A Vs (for negative feedback) .. .

+ R 1 AI 1 1 Fig. it is shuntfeedback. it is a Vo or so it is Voltage feedback.A.398 Electronic Devices and Circuits R .) Input resistance decreases with shunt feedback.--'-- for shunt feedback the input resistance decreases. .. +p.A] R.l+p. Is = II + If = II + f3 10 and R If - VI (l+PA])I. it is seriesfeedback.16 Current shunt feedback. EXPRESSION FOR R WITH CURRENT SHUNT FEEDBACK I AI = Shunt circuit current gain of the BJT AI = practical current gain 10111 I. A. V. (I + p. R = ----. = . If the feedback signal is taken across R L . AI represents the Shunt circuit current gain taking Rs into accounts. .A.I. = . R.---'------. If the feedback signal is taken in series with the output tenninals. I.) R . feedback signal is proportional to 10 . V. 7. . So it is current feedback. I.(I+p. If the feedback signal is in series with the input. If the feedback signal is in shunt with the input.

(I+~A) In general._ _V-"--II I l A I J ~_ V. + ~V 0 (in general case). .f = R. Vl=VS-Vf or Vs=V\+Vf R~ = R\f = V s/I\. Vi _ _---. ~ is negative.18). 7. I L J V' = V + ~ Vo . V 1 lit-' V. (see Fig.' = V. (I+~A) But V' . I Fig 7. + R I Fig.' = V. V' == V + A. For negative feedback.I. . = R.7.17 Feedback network. V f = 1\ R\ + V f == 1\ R\ + ~Vo Ay V.2 INPUT IMPEDANCE WITH SERIES FEEDBACK 399 V.Feedback Amplifiers 7.' I.8. (I +~A) R.R L Vo = R R = (Ay 1\ R\) 0+ L Let.A. R.18 Voltage series feedback. = I R I I V' -1-' = Input Z seen by the source . increases. EXPRESSION FOR I (1+~A) R WITH VOLTAGE SERIES FEEDBACK In this circuit Ay represents the open circuit voltage gain taking Rs into account.

19 RO is determined by impressing voltage 'V' at the output terminals or messing '1'.1 VOLTAGE SERIES FEEDBACK Expression for ROf looking into output terminals with RL disconnected. without feedback. Series feedback (voltage or current) R. V0 R If =R[l+~. + R. Hence the output voltage tends to remain constant as RL changes because output resistance with feedback ROf« RL" Negative feedback. increases. Current feedback (series or shunt) Ro increases. Disconnect~. Impress a voltage V across the output terminals and calculate the current I delivered by V. with input Rof terminals.AV) VI I AV = voltage gain. 7. decreases. for series feedback input resistance increases. For voltage sampling ROf< Ro. Fig. OUTPUT RESISTANCE Negative feedback tends to decrease the input resistances. which samples the output current will tend to hold the output current constant. ROf = VII. So this type of connection increases output resistance. 7. or Is = 0) Let RL = 00. 7. Shunt feedback (voltage or current) R.-shorted. Then. Hence an output current source is created (ROf » R L).400 Electronic Devices and Circuits Vo VI AvRL Ro + RL A V = -=--'---"'---- VS = Ii RI + 13 .9.VOJ=RI(l+~. Feeding the voltage back to the input in a degenerative manner is to cause lesser increase in Vo.9 EFFECT OF NEGATIVE FEEDBACK ON Ro Voltage feedback (series or shunt) Ro decreases. . To find Rot' remove external signal (set Vs = 0. For current feedback ROf> Ro.

Feedback Amplifiers 401 Vo = output voltage. VI = -l3 v V. .VI =-v f =-l3 v Rof= I Vo = This expression is excluding RL.9. Because with Hence. Substitute the 1 value of Rof ~(-)-xR Ro/ = ---'---'---~-+ 1 + PAv L Ro RL l+PA v 7. Roc' includes RL as part of the amplifier. [fwe consider RL also Rof is in paraIlel with RL..=O. I( = . V o V V Ro - 13 A ( I or I (I + 13 A ( )= R Rof = [= Ro (I + 13 A) A( = short circuit current gain.2 CllRRENT SHllNT FEEDBACK ~I I I s RI AI I I Fig. 7. = Practical current gain V (II~ J R o -A( I( = Is = 0. 10= -I Ai = Shunt circuit current gain Al 1= With.If = -131 I= - + 131.20 Block schematic for current shunt feedback amplifier.

V I J tJ y 0 = 10-3 +(.0. RL = AI 00. 1+~A. (b) f3 = .01 (. feedback voltage. A. is less negative Vo Output voltage = V. . = 0. Ay = . Vx Feedback voltage = f3Vo = 0. the output voltage. Determine the closed loop voltage amplification. o Ro·R L = Ro+RL .') = ImY.01. Input voltage to the system (V.01(-100) . :.: It is positive feedback. and type of feed back for (a) f3 = 0.402 Electronic Devices and Circuits x 1+~Ai } + ~A. there is increase in gain.Ro Ro +RL AI = ~= 10 A.5 mY.50 = .5 x 10-3) = 0.005 (c) f3 = 0 (d) f3 = 0. input voltage to the amplifier.'+A.1 The following information is available for the generalized feedback network.Ro Ro +RL R . R~ = RO j I R~f= RO (1+ f3 A )1 Problem 7.100. . -100 =::-50 A' = v 1-0. Open loop voltage amplification (A) = .3 ) V=V. Solution A A~ = closed loop voltage amplification = I _ A VA Pv v Sign must be considered.50 X 10. .3 mV =-50mY.01.5 mY. Rof =Rol+~AI If.0. x 10.0.

50. .1 1 100 100 = (1 + I3A)' 1000 (1+I3A) = 100 or I3A = (100 .2 In the above problem determine the % variation in Av l resulting from 100 % increase in A. Then new value of A v = .7 .50 = 16. V.01. It is necessary to have an amplifier where voltage gain varies by not more than ± 0.01(-200) Change in A~ is .7 ---so x 100 = 33.66. when I3 v = 0.3 An amplifier with open loop voltage gain Ay = 1000 ± 100 is available. Solution If Ay increases by 100 %. 403 Problem 7. Ay Av = I_A Ay t-'y l-l3v A v Now. When Av = . Solution (a) --=--- dAf Af dA 1+I3A' A or 0.1 % (a) Find the reverse transmission factor 13 of the feedback network used (b) Find the gain with feedback. 1-0.1) = 99. Hence.7.7 Variation = 16. 13 = 1000 = 0.'.Feedback Amplifiers This is negative feedback because.3% Problem 7.200.100 ' Ay I = .099 A = _A_= 1000 =10 f 1 + I3A 1+ 99 99 (b) . -200 = -66. < V.

.01 = 1 =S 0 S .404 Problem 7. produces 5% harmonic distortion at full output. 50 . Ay Ay Ay = 100 = I+PAv = 10 A~ = 100 x 10= 1000.1 = 9 ~= Problem 7. 0=5.1 for negative Feedback.4 Electronic Devices and Circuits A gain variation of + 10% is expected for an amplifier with closed loop gain of 100. = Ay -Ay =_ 500 =-10 I+PA y 50 . s S'= I-PAy S'=O.500.5 A:" = 1000 = 0.9 = 0. 1 = or ---.098. D = 0. How can this variation be reduced to + I % Solution S' S for positive feedback.----. (]-I ~ '\y) = 0. with 0.1 % ? What is the overall gain? Solution D .A v tJ = 10 . 5 1+P [500] ~ = 4. = D I+PA y (for negative feedback) . we can improve the stability to 1%. What value of f3 is required to reduce the distortion to 0.1 N N' = (I+PAJ o.009 ~= 9 9 By providing negative feedback.009. I + t---J" ~A = 10' "I ~.Ol.I 0. S=O. An amplifier with Av = .

000 _ VI' x 150 = 15 __ A_ x 105 V. Solution A= Vo V.1 ) =-10 v v 5 Problem 7. (at normal supply voltages) ~ . Calculate the 1) voltage gain of the amplifier with feedback for two values of plate supply voltage.24% :.000 80 I + Px 10000 1 + ~ (10.0079 Vo when Vs = 130 V is gain x Vs = 8000 x 130 = 104 x 104 V Voltage gain of ampl ifier with feedback when V s = 150V. With negative feedback stability is improved.8000 10.000. 405 A' =A ( -0. 8000 Afb2 = 1+ 0.000 . with and without feedback.0079 x 8000 = 124.. . 10.000) ~=+~ 4 10 =0.000) = 80 10. 7 % stability of gain without feedback = % stability of gain with feedback = 10.000 = 125. When Vs = 150 V and A = s 10.000 .000 10.000 with ground plate supply of 150 V and voltage gain of8000 at reduced rate supply of 130 V.6 An amplifier has voltage gain of 10. Afb1 = 80 10.Vo' Afb .Feetlback Amplifiers D' A' . 2) Percentage reduction in voltage gain with reduction in plate supply voltage for both condition. it is reduced by a factor of 80 with feedback.7 125 100 = 0. On application of negative feedback.000 x 100 = 20% x 125-124. The voltage gain at normal plate supply is reduced by a factor of 80.1+ PA But A fb =80 (faTh of 10. V 0 = 10. Vs = 130 V.

Complete analysis of the feedback amplifier is done by the following steps: Step I : First identify whether the feedback signal X f is a voltage feedback signal or current feedback signal. 7. Determine the feedback factor ~. The feedback signal is also across R . Calculate 'A' of basic amplifier. it is shunt feedback. also Incre<ftse and if V 0' V f also decreases because V f aVo' So it i~ . So V f = V . If the feedback signal X f is applied in shunt with the external signal. This is emitter follower circuit because output is taken across R . it is current feedback. If the feedback signal is applied in series. Calculate ~ = V fl Vo 6.1 VOLTAGE SERIES FEEDBACK Amplifier circuit is shown in Fig.. because feedback signal is proportional 10 output voltage. If the sampled signal Xo is taken between the output node and ground. 7. it is series feedback. the characteristics of the amplifiers R i.22.10.21 Circuit for voltage series feedback. Replace the active device (BlT or FET) by proper model (hybrid circuit or It-parameter model) 4. From A and ~. Determine the gain of the basic amplifier A. Knowing A and ~ of the feedback amplifier. If V increases V. calculate A f = 1+ PA . 5. Then determine whether the sampled signal Xo is a voltage signal or current' signal. R o' noise figure. Step II : 2. 7. can be determined. it is voltage feedback. separate the basic amplifier block and the feedback network. 7.406 Electronic Devices and Circuits 7. Rif and Rof· A 1t equivalent Fig. Afetc.10 ANALYSIS OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS When an amplifier circuit is given. Ifthe sampled signal is taken from the output loop. Indicate V fand Vo in the circuit. Draw the basic amplifier without feedback 3.

7. It reverse biases the fCedback in V!. coming in series with V HI >nd it opposes it .23 Block schematic. R. But in this case. (1 ( .Feedhack AmpNfiers ~07 Voltllge feedback.So it is negati\e series voltagefeedback In the current series feedback.\l across Rc or R\ and not Re. 7. R 1c R e V " _ _ _ _~_ _ _ _ _L~_ _ _ _ _ _~'- Fig. output is takt.. i .I. Now the drop across R.22 R Sil1lp/~fied circuit. it is emitler foll()\\er circuit. R " Fig.. So in that case VI' a I or I or Iwt VII . B ~--------------~-----------~.e . EQI'IVALEI'iT CIRCl'IT Now replace the transistor by its low frequency h-parameter equivalent circuit.. Vr opposes the input voltage.et llS draw the base amplifier without feedback. 7.-----------I I R L -A/V'v------. .24 Block Schematic . Fig. V I is the voltage across Re but. Output is taken across Rc and that itself is the feedback signal V f' I .

J = Voltage gain without feedback A v = hfe·R e Rs + hIe A'v : Voltage gain with feedback.h fe · Re Rs +h .e 1+ l. Ie::. So VI = Vs' Av = V .e h fe Re» (Rs + hie) AVf == 1. which is true for emitter follower. Ib Vi = (Rs + hie) Ii Ii = Ib v A = ----.408 Electronic Devices and Circuits v s is considered as part Qfthe amplifier.: h fe .~-=--~ h fe Ib Re Ib(Rs + h. . R: = Input resistance without feedback is Rs + hie' R ~I = Input resistance with feedback R: = Ri (I +13 A) (voltage Feedback increase input resistance) 13 = I. Rs in services with hie) Vo Ie:::: Ie . . or <1. . Vo = hfe · Ib·Re C: It is voltage source. Av Av= l+~Av 13=1 hfe' Re Rs +h .

7. h fe = 50..7. I 1+[3Av Problem 7. Capacitor C I' C 2. hi e = I. C s are DC blocking capacitors. Rs = 0. Assume.7 Calculate Ayf' Rof and Rif for the voltage series feedback for the circuit shown in Fig.--0 - 10 V 10 KO Fig. I R I Ro = 0 .25 For Problem 7. 1 khr e = hoe = 0 and identical transistor.Feedback Amplifiers . All these capacitances represent negligible reactance at high frequencies.. ~------~----------'-------~r------o-l0V --1:-------1 1---. tRs + hieXRs + hie. Load resistance is also R e. C 3 and C 4 are bypass capacitors for the emitter resistors. + hreReJ (Rs + hie) 409 R..25. Considering load resistance. Solution Voltage gain without feedback Ay = AYI x A y2 ' . The second collector is connected to the first emitter through the voltage divider RI R 2 . 7. [R: = = Rs +hie+ h fe Re Ri : Output resistance with feedback Output resistance of the circuit is Re' Because output taken across Re and not Rc and ground.

1 kQ::: 2 kO Effective emitter impedance Re ofQ] is R] parallel with R 6. Voltage gain Ay of the two stages is cascade without feedback Vo A y = -V.__ . So for Av. -SOX 0.' at high frequency XC2 is negligible).3 111. Rs in parallel with R7 (..=-91 Y2 hie 1. So Re = O. :.1 For Q 2 emitter is bypassed.hfeR'. in parallel with Rs ' and h 1e2 R~I = 2. R~ = Rs II R7 II Rsil h ie2 Effective load resistance R~2 of transistor Q2 is its collector resistance ~ in parallel with (R 1+ R2).2 kO Ilie with 10.-~.01 13 = 728 x 0.A] .2 kO = 0.000 = 10100 I = 101 ::: 0. Re1 = R] I lie R6 .1+(5I)xO.28 D = 1+ 13 Ay = 8.1 kO = 9800.410 Electronic Devices and Circuits Load resistance. R~2 = ~ II (R 1+ R2) . Av 728 A AYf = I + f3A = 0 = 8. IS A =- VI = ----.098kO = 980 The voltage gain AV1 of Q] for a common emitter transistor with emitter resistance v] V. = A Y1 x A Y2' = 778 x 91 -728 I 13= Ay x R RI +R2 100 100 100+ 10.- hfeRL h Ie hfe·R L 50 X 2 =2 =.e + (\ + h fe )R e For Q 1 emitter is not at GROUND potential.980 = 1.28 ::: 90 . h ..2 II 33 114.78 Voltage gain AY2 of transistor Q2' AY2 .01 ='7.. For Ay this formula is used..1 Ilie with 2... RLJ .' C 3 is short for AC Re = 0.28 . this formula must be used. R~2 = 2. R A _ RL _ I .098 :::-7.

1 + {I +50) 0. [T~is voltage follows the collector voltage.:: 0. Viis 180 0 out of phase with V I Q2 is emitter follower because emitter is not at ground potential. So Av < I.(I+~A) =6.Feedback Amplifiers Input resistance without external feedback Ri=h .7.7.24 K 0 411 Equivalent Circuit RJ Fig.V I2 is out of phase with VI!" V I2 » Vii because Q 1 is in Common emitter configuration. V i2 the input voltage to Q2 is » V tI .27.2 CURRENT SHlJNT FEEDBACK The circuit is shown in Fig.28 = 0.10.99 .098::6. 51 Output resistance without feedback R' = R'L 1 = 2 kO . Av is large. This is negative feedback because.30).26 For Problem 7. A =~ = Rs I II Rs +rbb' 7.28) =50.e + (1+hfJ Re= 1. So circuit analysis is not simply parallel or series combination. Also. 7.1 (1+7. 7. =Rif=R. hfe = P hoe = Ro The circuit shows two transistors Q 1 and Q 2 in cascade(See Fig. R 2 Output resistance without feedback ROf = 1+ ~A = 8. BJTwill not behave like a fixed resistor with hie' value. So it is emitter follower]. hie = R.5". Amplifier circuit parameters in terms of transistor h-parameters.1KO R. Feedback is provided from the emitter ofQ2 to the base ofQI. Voltage is taken across Re.

Dividing by R: .412 Electronic Devices and Circuits Ve2 is slightly less than V .27 Current shunt feedback.If' (Ii is the base current for the transistor QI' SO it is negative feedback) This is current shunt feedback because. Ve If _+_2 R' 10 = collector current of Q2' ::: emitter current of Q2' R' Fig. So it is negative feedback V I2 » Vii' V e2 ::: V i2 .IfI~ increases. 7.' II = V e2 increases as I~ increases) I~ . I~ the input current from source also increases. If the input signal Vs increases. If also increases ('.and there is no phase shift. ve -vI = 2 I f R' But ViI «Ve2 . [because emitter follows action] 12 V is in phase with V I2 e2 V I2 is out of phase with Vi!" Ve 2 is out of phase with Vi I (180°). V e2 »VI]' :.

10 I~ = Ii + If which is small J. RC2 Vs=ls·Rs· V Io ·R c2 _0 = _ _ Vs IsRs Is ~ If .Feedback Amplifiers 413 If a 10 This is current feedback A~ : Current gain with feedback. AI =~ s .A II = Ib (s ~ If A~ : Voltage gain with feedback. Vo V s (with feedback) Vo = 10 .l.

-lc2 Ib2 (Multiplying and dividing by Ib2 . A=-=-·I Is Ib2 lei -Ie. hfe = 50.414 Electronic Devices and Circuits We shall determine R. ICJ and Ibl ) -I e. To find the output resistance. with output terminals open circuited (:. output is taken at the collector 2 and not emitter 2. Because it is shunt feedback.50. A'I for the circuit shown in Fig.= . it is emitter follower configuration. RCJ = 3 kO. R~.28) I~ I s R' Ri Ri. (Fig. R' = Rs = 1. R' is in series with Re2 and thus total resistance is between base B[. Ri2 Fig. 7. 7. -1-.hfe = . w.it~out feedback. we have shown this as a current source with Rs in parallel with Is' Problem 7.8 To find A'v ' R.1 kO RC2 = 5000. When E2 is left open (To make 10 = 0). . :.. (EmItter follower) b.31. hre = h re = O. output is taken across emitter and ground). considering R' can be drawn as shown in Fig. R' is in series with R e2 . 7. and ground. . The actual circuit. Re2 = 500 Solution In this problem.28 To represent R' on the input side. 7. R~ taking numerical values.. R' or Re2 are in parallel.28 Current shunt feedback without R' .2 kO hie = 1. Hence on the input side. So the formulae derived earlier can be used directly. The circuit is as shown below. the base of Q[ is shorted to ground because one terminal of R' is connected to (input shorted looking the high outputterminals) B[ is at ground.

61 = 0. The current gets divided in the ratio ofthe resistances.2 x 1..2 J AI 406 A J = I+PA = 17.1 + (50 + I) [ Let 0.55 k n R = Rs in parallel with (R' + Re2 ) 1.457.R s = (23.S) = 9.83 1.25 =0. A I =.2+1.= V0 -Ie 2 .457) (50) (0.50) (.6XO.R e2 V Vs Is. Ri2 = hie + (1 +h fe ) (Re2 II R').040)(406) = 17.61 + 1.25 (Re2 = 0. (For emitter follower corfiguration this is the input resistance).2 . = 1. .55 = .05 k n) = 3.250 = 0.2 =23.25 = 1. (l + I 13 A) = I + (0.358 Q 0.612kn 0.358) =+406 50 = 1.6.0.1 AI = (.Feedback Amplifiers 415 fI = + hfe = + 50 (common emitter configuration) bJ IC!.0.05 x 1. current gets divided depending upon RCJ and RI2 of transistor Q2' 1b2 # -3 = 3 + 3.04.20] 1.

= RoL(I+PAJ . the signal generator will act as a current source or voltage source. 7. The current source will supply sufficient current to drive the resistance.29 Equivalent circuit. = Ro in parallel with RC2 = RC2 . Because. with feedback considering RL. So thus AI will not be the same if R' is actually connected between E2 and B I.1) = 1. We are taking into account the effect of R' and not the feedback effect.6 IX1. R' is represented on the input side leaving E2 terminal open and on the output side shorting BI to ground (to make 10 and Is = 0) . In practice for shunt or series feedback.. 1+ PAl = Ro = RC2 = 500 When we represent R on the input side and output side and calculate the value of AI' it is not the current gain with feedback.= (0.5 is also = -PR. Ra= r 200 0 = =20 I+PAo 10 Fig. . Therefore for shunt feedback we must have a current sources irrespective of input voltage. RI = (1 +9) 20 kO = 200 kO Rs is negligible compared to 200 kO.394 kO .040X1.' Ro is large R~ = "hIe 1 = a.71 = 0.2) = lOA] S Ri = Input resistance without feedback = R in parallel with hi e (0. Therefore it is capable of supplying current or voltage required .416 Electronic Devices and Circuits ~A'v R C2 0. RI 394 RI = 1+PA = 17.2 = 23.00 I ROL = Output resistance considering RL.In theory we assume ideal voltage and current sources.

A. V. but Rj will be R' J . II . .: negative current series feedback] (lb) R =R. ' V... [With feedback. = hie + (1+ hfe ) Re Ifwe consider the bias resistor also.10.Feedback Amplifiers 417 7. I. RL will not change. Vf = Ie Re .Ie [.+-- leRe Ie -Ie Dividing II term by Ie' -=a= . A. + VI' I.R L R.- Ie Ie P 1+ P -= Ie Ie Ie le+lb .R L [This is the general expression for Av interms of Ai] . . Re 1-~ 1+ h fe R: But Rj = = RI + (l + hfe)·Re hie for the transistor R.3 CURRENT SERIES FEEDBACK INPUT RESISTANCE (R'I) VI = V/ . V.. R) and R2 will come in parallel with Rj ' = R j II R)II R2 VOLTAGE GAIN (A'y ) I A v = Ay=~ . f =-+I. V V. . I = Ie . -I =R I .= -fe - IelIb Ie 1 -+ Ib I h I+hfe' R'=R+ .V f R =-= 'I. AI will not change.

hfe A Electronic Devices and Circuits . ~ h fe RL This is the actual expression for f3 f3 = 1+ hte ..e + (1 + hfe)Re A~ <Ay OllTPllT RESISTANCE (R'o) 1+ h fe R without feedback::: .. Ay) Ay= R j . Taking into effect. = RI + (1 +hfe)·Re ..hfe · R L · The expression we get for = f3 . (2) Comparing (l) and (2). 7..3 R Re L ClJRRENT SERIES FEEDBACK (TRANS CONDlJCTANCE AMPLIFIER) Consider the circuit shown in Fig. we find that (1 + htJ .. R't = ~ (1 + f3.::: 1. R'o = Ro II RL = _1_ Ro ACTlJAL EXPRESSION FOR h _ hfeh re oe h.h oe This will be very large. the feedback. V = -hfe·R L h.... I With negative feedback.418 AI::: . fe f3::: 7.30 output is taken between collector and ground. Because V f is in series with Vj' It is current series feedback. .e + Rs P THE FEEDBACK FACTOR: -hfe·R L R.10.h . The drop across Re is the feedback signal V f' The sampled signal is the load current 10 and not Vo' This is current series feedback. (1) R'.

[13 must be independent of Rs or RL] Vf = -Io·R e =_ Re Vo Io·R L RL The basic amplifier circuit without feedback is shown in Fig.32. + 13= vs R e Re + vf Fig. G M is considered.Feedback Amplifiers cc 419 + ~_J Fig. 13 is taken as VI' Vo It depends. Since.7. Re is constant.31 Circuit without feedback. Y fa 10 .7. . This has to be considered as Transconductance Amplifier. Y f = 10 Re . on R L . Y f = Ie Re' Ie ::::: Ie = 10 .31 below. The equivalent circuit when the active device is replaced by h-parameter circuit is shown in Fig.30 Current series feedback.7. because for this circuit. 7.

hfe · Ib (Input current gam) .---=--"--""7 m Ib(Rs + hIe + Re) Rs + hIe + Re D = 1+ I3.RL -hfe·R L Rs + hIe + (I + hfJR e (1 +h fe ) Re » Rs + hie· Since hte is a large quantity. Vf -'o·R e 13 = .420 Electronic Devices and Circuits ~s Rs I ~I~I=II I R. .= y=G Mf s s A yf = OM f .32 h .parameter equivalent circuit.Re · o 0 C: the sampled signal is 10 and not V0. 10 VI 10 = . = I = . GM = 1 + hfe·R e Rs + hIe + Re Rs + hIe + (1 + hfJR e Rs + hIe + Re G = GM = -hfe Mf D Rs + hIe + (I + hfe)Re Voltage gain 10·R L 10 A yf = -V. Denominator::: (1 +h fe ) Re· hfe » 1. 7.-.) GM = Since. Vi = Ib (Rs+ hi e + Re) -h fe .Ib G = -----.. 8 b ~ . hIe + Fig.

7. So it is voltage shunt feedback.33. the feedback current through R8 is proportional to the output voltage or it is in shunt with the input. But the feedback signal is proportional to output voltage.4 VOLTAGE SHlJNT FEEDBACK (TRANS RESISTANCE AMPLIFIER) This is voltage shuntfeedback because. So it is voltage feedback] The circuit can be written as. c~ Fig. Fig. [We are not interested whether voltage is fed or current is fed. Rlf = RI D = Rs + hIe + (1+ h fe ) Re' 7.Feedback Amplifiers :. 7.34 Redrawn circuit for voltage shunt feedback. Denominator::: h fe · Re' 421 RI = Rs + hIe + Re (without feedback). 7.10. shown in Fig. .33 Circuit for voltage shunt feedback.

35 h-parameter equivalent circuit.h fe • R~ without +" =_ leedback . shown in Fig. 7..=-Is·R s .R V. Fig.422 Electronic Devices and Circuits The low frequency h-parameter equivalent circuit is.-. = Input resistance with feedback AYf = V Vo S = --.35. V o » Vi . B ~=- -If Vo -1 ~=- RB A Y V0 = . Amplification is there. -V If::: ~. Rs V. 7.~Rs Rs Yo -RB . hie v (AIRL) R' 1_ I Ay -AY • R +R' S I R'..

i 7. + E I = S Vs Rs t vo F.36 For Problem 7. Rc = 4 kO. Prohlem 7. hre = ho e = O. Find Avf ' Rlf .9 For the circuit shown. Rs = 40 k. s- RB R. hI e = 1.9.If or (3 = . = hIe in parallel with I _ ~ v R Transresistance Where R = Rs II Rs .Feedback Amplifiers 423 Is = If+ lb' Ib is negligible -1 I .. Rs = 10k.1 kO. hfe = 50. .

M R' 32 A'v = -. Though gain reduces due to negative feedback.e = 8 + I.4 + 40 .e 8xl.0kO =-= R Vo ' Is . low distortion._ Ie Rc . .968 kO. But the other desirable characteristics of the amplifier circuits are high Z.02SmAIV -I R~ = I+PR RM M -160 = 5. = I+PR 968 = 5.l RI = R + h.Rs" _ IOx40 _ RB .424 Electronic Devices and Circuits Solution .2L =-10 =-3. it is employed in amplifier circuits to get the other advantages. So it is negative feedback.0 = 1930 SUMMARY • An Amplifier circuit is to provide voltage gain or current gain or both in the form of power gain. low noise and high stability.8 kO (R+hJ Is = RIb. Large B. RM =-160 k ~=-R8 =-0.Rc" _ Ie _ 4x40 _ RB .I = 0.10 + 40 .3. to oppose in phase with (V). W. Rj M R.00 =-32. I 0 . Low Z .64 kO R .2. Rs Rxh. To achieve these characteristics a part of output signal is feedback and coupled to input.

(ii) current series With voltage feedback (series or shunt) output resistance Ro decreases. 5.. IfVj is in phase with V" adding to it or aiding V" it is positive feedback.. If the feedback signal is porportional to current. 2. it is desirable that R is Ro is Voltage sampling is also known as . 7. f2' stability improve by (l + I3A). distortion. 13.. 3. 11... 12.Feedback Amplifiers • • • • • • • • 425 Feedback factor 13 = V ~V o' The product I3A is called returned ratio. If the feedback signal V] is coming in series with input signal V" it is series feedback. (1 + I3A) is called return difference D or desensitivity factor. it is voltage feedback.. The different types of feedback are (i) voltage series (iii) voltage shunt and (iv) current shunt. (series or shunt). If the feedback signal is proportional to voltage. With current feedback (series or shunt) Ro increases. 9. With series feedback (current or voltage) R I increases. ------= _______ and . Bandwidth.... With shunt feedback (current or voltage) Ro decreases.. it is current feedback. 8.. 10.. noise. with negative feedback and J.Characteristics of ideal voltage amplifier are: _ _ _ _ _ __ Desirable characteristics of practical current amplifier are = I3A in feedback amplifier circuits is called _ _ _ _ _ __ --------- With voltage feedback. 4.. it is shunt feedback.. If V] is in parallel with V. With negative feedback..' without negative feedback isJ.Relation between upper cut-off frequency J. The disadvantage of negative feedback is _ _ _ _ _ __ The expression for sensitivity of an amplifier with negative feedback The expression for Desentivity of negative feedback amplifier is D = IS ------- The relation between bandwidth of an amplifier without feedback and with negative feedback is . If the feedback signal VI is out of phase with V" opposing it is negative feedback. output resistance Ro of an amplifier . gain reduce by a factor (1 + I3A). • OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS 1...I For practical transresistance amplifier.' = _ _ _ _ _ __ Negative feedback is also called as For Ideal transconductance amplifier R. 6..

Cunent shunt feedback amplifier. Define the terms Return Ratio.) in the case of (a) (b) (c) (d) Voltage series feedback amplifier. Vo v. Current series feedback amplifier. Why negative feedback is used in electronic amplifiers eventhough closed loop voltage gain decreases with this type of feedback ? 5. Voltage shunt fec'lback amplifier. (ii) Current amplifiers. Derive the expression for the input resistance with feedback Rlf (or R. (voltage or current). What type offeedback is used in electronic amplifiers? What are the advantages of this type of feedback ? Prove each one mathematically. Transres i stance .) and output resistance with feedback ROf (or R. Electronic Devices and Circuits With series feedback. Give the equivalent circuits. 15. closed loop voltage gain and open loop voltage gain. 3. of an amplifier Expression for reverse transmission factor or feedback factor Identify the type of feedback. Return Difference feedback factor. ~ = _______ V. What are the advantages and disadvantages of positive and negative feedback? With the help of a general block schematic diagram explain the term feedback. 6.426 14. 16. Explain the concept of feedback as applied to electronic amplifier circuits. (iv) Transconductance amplifier. (i i i) amplifier. 4. 2. (i) (ii) ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS 1. and characteristics of ideal and practical amplifiers of the following types (i) Voltage amplifier. input resistance R.

Positive feedback is also known as (a) (c) regenerative feedback Loop feedback (b) (d) degenerative feedback return feedback 3. Derive the expressions for A'v ' f3. Draw the circuit for Voltage series amplifier and justify the type of feedback. 427 In which type of amplifier the input impedance increases and the output impedance decreases with negative impedance? Prove the same drawing equivalent (·. and R~ for the circuit.. f3. the linearity of operation of the amplifier circuit (a) deteriorates (b) improves (c) rem ian same (d) norw of these 5. Draw the circuit for Current series amplifier and justify the type of feedback. Derive the expressions for A'v . 10. R.. 8. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. R. Derive the expressions for A~ .rcuit.f3. Equation for feedback factor 'P' is . Draw the circuit for Current shunt amplifier and justify the type of feedback.Feedback Aml!iijiers 7. 9. and R~ for the circuit. Draw the circuit for Voltage shunt amplifier andjustify the type of feedback. (a) Va V f (b) _0_ V' Vf (c) V f V' a (d) V f Va 4.. R. Derive the expressions for A'v ' f3. With negative feedback. 11. Loop sampling is also known as (a) (c) Voltage sampling Power sampling (b) (d) Current sampling Node sampling 2. and R~ for the circuit. with usual notation is D' == (a) (b) D(l-f3A) (c) (d) D(I+f3A) . Expression for distortion D' with negative feedback. R. and R~ for the circuit.

428 Electronic Devices and Circuits 6.. output ressitance R ••.. (b) (d) 9. Ro = 0 Rj=O.=oo R =00 I '0 return ratio shunt ratio 8. (a) (c) R j = 00. Characteristics of ideal voltage amplifier are .. (a) decreases (b) increases (c) remains same (d) non of these .Ro=oo (b) (d) R j = 0.•. Ro = ° R. Expression for densitivity of an amplifier circuit with negative feedback is. The product of feedback factor (a) (c) return difference series ratio '13' and amplification factor' A' is called ..•• input resistance (a) decreases (b) no effect (c) can't be said o (d) increases 10... Negative series feedback voltage or current . With voltage feedback series or shunt. (a) D = (l-I3A) (b) D = ~A 1 (c) D=(l+I3A) (d) D= (1+~A) 7.

Hartley oscillator. crystal oscillator. input is explained. R-C phase shift oscillator circuit. Barkhausen criteria to be satisfied for generation of oscillations is given. Colpitts oscillator. • • . Generation of sinusoidal waveforms by the oscillator circuits without external A.In this Chapter. Resonant oscillator circuits are given.C. • Basic principle of oscillator circuits is explained.

So an amplifier effectively converts DC to AC . Class C gives largest output power but harmonics are more. . Harmonic Oscillators produce sine waves. But there is no AC input signal. IfR changes with T. Capacitors should be of high quantity with low leakage.2 . only output power is the criterian and not the actual shape of the wave form .c. Harmonic Oscillators 2. 8. But in oscillators. But it needs AC input. it is not so. We get A. Band C operations can be done.430 8. There are two types of oscillators circuits: I. Harmonics: Undesirable frequency components are harmonics.1 PERFORMANCE MEASURES OF OSCILLATOR CIRCUITS: 1.1 i output DC input (a) Amplifier circuit (b) Oscillator circuit For an amplifier. 4.I below: Input _I IL-. But an oscillator doesn't need any external AC signal.S. Without AC input. So silver mica and ceramic capacitors are widely used. Stability: This is determined by the passive components. Relaxation Oscillators. 2. S. the electric energy in the form of DC is converted into electric energy in the form of AC. An elementary sinusoidal oscillator circuit is shown in Fig. hSignal output Oscillator I--~. In the oscillator circuits that we are describing now. there is no AC output. Oscillator circuits employ both active and passive devices.1.fchanges so stability is affected . R. Relaxation Oscillators produce sawtooth and square waves etc.output from the oscillator circuit. Active devices convert the DC power to AC. the DC power conversion to AC is controlled by the AC input signal. In the oscillator circuits also DC power is converted to AC. In alternators (AC generators) the thermal energy is converted to electric energy at 50Hz. 3. 'Invertors ' in electrical engineering convert DC to AC. Passive components determine the frequency of oscillators. This is shown in Fig. amplification is to be done. Output Power: Class A. 8.C. AC DC power Fig.C and L determine frequency of oscillations. So the difference between amplifier and oscillator is in amplifiers circuits. input which will be amplified. An amplifier is different from oscillator in the sense that an amplifier requires some A.1 OSCILLATORS Electronic Devices and Circuits Oscillator is a source of AC voltage or current. but there. the additional power due to amplification is derived from the DC bias supply.___-:--__ Amplifier i ----J. Amplitude stability: To get large output voltage. Class A gives less output power but hormonics are low.

What we have done is depositing some charge on C.Oscillators S ---. current through the inductor is maximum. from the circuit. So the charge across Capacitor C decreases. current flows. When switch is closed. Y t ---"t Fig. 8. Voltage across C decreases. Both C and L are lossless. They can store energy. energy has to be extracted. Suppose at t = to' switch'S' is closed. As we draw energy from the circuit.t - Fig.. So output also decreases or the voltage across C and L decreases so we get damped oscillation as shown below. 431 v 1+ t C i F f V ~ Fig. Thus we are getting sinusoidal variations without giving anyone input. Thus we get sinusoidal oscillations from LC circuit. the energy stored in C and L decreases. C cannot discharges because there is no path for discharge current to flow. the current starts charging C in the opposite direction. Because we have to take output from the circuit. because current is flowing through L Thus total energy in the circuit remains the same as before. But why should we get sinusoidal wave and not triangular or square wave? Sinusoidal function is the only function that satisfies the conditions governing the exchange of the energy in the circuit. Then the current in L starts charging C in the opposite directions. i. 8. Then current flows.e. Yp t V C':'\ 'CO? <=> <=> ---.2 LC Tank circuit. as shown in the waveform. So at t = t\ current in L is maximum and for t > t\. The capacitor stores energy whenever there is voltage across its plates. so that the circuit operates on its own. So as the energy stored in Capacitor decreases.3 Waveform. When V across C becomes 0. Inductor stores energy in its magnetic field whenever current flows. the energy stored in inductor L increases. Land C are reactive elements. At t = to' the Voltage across C is V volts. So quality factor is infinity 00 • Energy is introduced into the circuit by charging capacitor to 'V' Volts.4 Damped oscillations. energy in L is maximum. 8. Voltage across L will be V. If switch is open. ideal devices. But the above circuit is not a practical circuit. When the energy in C is 0. So V across C becomes negative as shown in the wavefrom. .

. Thus without external AC input we get sinusoidal oscillators. VI is provided from the feedback signal of V 0 itself.5 Amplifier response. so that oscillations are obtained continuously. If a negative resistance R is connected in the circuit. UJT. If we connect V ° through a feedback network to VI as shown in Fig. The energy supplied by the -ve resistance to the circuit actually comes from the DC bias supply.6 so that after feedback. v v t ---. VI Vx Fig. whatever energy that is lost in the circuit. the feedback signal V x = VI' and also. Av= Vx x Vo Vo VI .6 Feedback network. Certain devices like tunnel diode. after feedback the feedback signal Vx will be removed. Thus. Another method of producing sinusoidal oscillations is: Suppose we have an amplifier with gain Av and phase shift 180°.432 Electronic Devices and Circuits The energy lost by the elements must be replenished. V Fig. To get initially Yo. 8. exhibit -ve resistance. without any input we get sinusoidal output. the noise signal of transistor after switching itself is sufficient. A = Vo V VI' VX=VI ~.8.. v t ---. it replenishes. the feedback network provides 180°. 8. phase shift.. etc. Av » 1.

The frequency of a sin'lNiOidal oscillator is determined by the condition that loop gain. The condition that. . the loop gain must be 1.PA = 1 means. to get sustained oscillations. For a sinusoidal wave form. X~. 2.. the feedback network must produce another 180° phase shift so that net phase shift is 0° or 360° and V [is in phase with VI to make it positive feedback. The amplifier provides an output signal X o' as a consequence of the signal XI applied directly to the amplifier input terminal. For oscillator circuits positive feedback must be there i. Therefore. -PA should be = 1. is X. if XI = X~ . When active device BJT or FET gives 180° phase shift. (Amplifier circuit produces 180° phase sh ift and feedback network another 180°. 8. Oscillations will not be sustained if. I. phase and frequency of Xi and X~ be identical. 7 Block schematic.. If X~ were to be identically equal to XI' input signal.AP = 1 is called Barkhausen criterion i. so the output will be X o. IPAI = 1 and phase of . V[must be in phase with VI to get added to VI .AP = o.e. = - X f = -APX I = Loop gain. The loop gain must be unit I.2 SINUSOIDAL OSCILLATORS Figure 8. a feedback network and input mixing circuit not yet connected to form a closed loop. and the amplifier feedback network contains reactive elements. 8.e. The conditions . Phase shift is zero at that frequency. at the oscillator frequency the magnitude of the product of the transfer gain of the amplifier and of P are less than unity. even if the input source is removed.Oscillators 433 Total phase shift = 360° (180 + 180). Output of feedback network X X'f=Xf Mixing on inverting network X f = PXo I Base Amplifier I-I_-r---I~---o X o =AX I Feedback network P V0 Fig.3 BARKHAUSEN CRITERION We make an asssumption that the circuit operates only in the linear region.7 shows an amplifier. the amplitude. is X[= PX o = A PX i and the output of the mixing circuit. 8. Total Loop phase shift must be 0° or 360°. XI = - A~XI XI = -~A.

IfPA < 1. This larger voltage will then reappear as a still larger voltage and so on. = .8 JFET R . The FET amplifier shifts the phase of voltage appearing at the gate by 180°. At some frequency. Johnson noise or Thermal Noise: Due to temperature. there exists an output voltage even in the absence of an externally applied voltage.C phaseshift oscillator circuit. At this particular frequency. so that with incidental variations in transistor circuit parameters.C PHASE-SHIFT OSCILLATOR (USING JFET) This is voltage series feedback. At that frequency. (Fig.180 = 0°.1. But practically.Vf 180° out of phase. after a trip around the loop and back to the input terminals. I~AI shall not fall below unity. the phase-shift introduced by this network will be exactly 180°. to limit the increase of amplitude of oscillations. The type of noise in electronic circuits and the causes are: 1. FET amplifier is followed by three cascaded arrangements of a capacitor C. This forms the feedback connection. appear there. But which implies that. Fig. If PA = .. from the gate around the circuit and back to the gate is + 180 . to achieve a sinusoidal osciallation practically I~AI > 1 to 5%. I~AI will become larger or smaller than 1. V. i R V.-I = 1. 8. resistor R. IfPA > 1. . voltage etc. The output of the last RC combination is returned to the gate. The total phase-shift at this frequency. the oscillations will stop.434 Electronic Devices and Circuits A Af = 1+ ~A . A I-V signal appearing initially at the input terminals will. the amplitude practically will increase. Schottky noise or Shot noise: Because of variation is concentration in the Semiconductor Devices. 2. nonlinearity ability of the circuit will be set in. 8. temperature. .8). than Af ~ 00. since circuit components and transistor change characteristics with age. 8. the circuit will oscillate.4 R . the amplitude of oscillations will continue to increase without limit. Though a circuit has been designed for I~:. So if I~AI is larger than 1. So. with an amplitude larger than 1V. The RC network shifts the phase by additional amount.

9.8. C 435 C C G v.. Therefore. o •• A tJ = Yf Yo an d y'f = .a 3 ) • a = (ORC' V' -¢ is 180°.. Y The transformation of RC net work is yf = -p.1 TO FIND THE OF THE RC PHASE-SHIFT NETWORK (JFET) C C C Each RC network introduces a phase-shift of 600 .+ 1.4. total phase-shift = 1800 . (See Fig.10 R C phase shift network. 8.Yf .Sa 2 .L is ~ ~~ 29 1 ·1 8. . i 1. - ~= 1 1.2rtRCf6' It ~ 2'R~~·1 when a 2 = 6.S x 6 _ S(6a .= . Therefore j (6a .1 _I Fig.. =-v S ~----------~----~--~~~------~----~----~-4S f S Fig. show below in Fig. 8..9 Equivalent circuit.j(6a . 1 IpAI is not les than unity.Oscillators The equivalent circuit is. 1 f.a 3) = O.1 0). So select FE T whose f.+ 1.~= where The phase-shift of -v: I Yf' 1 = 1 . 8.6a) -1 29 or In order that atleast 29. for a o 2= 6 or ~ must be real. A should be atleast 1291.

. (d) Vfb 12 = V fb (~ + Jro~R 2) _ (1 2 +1))+1 13 .. (e) Substitute c.....jroCR 2 1= ~(~+_1_)+ V tb (~+ 1 ) 3 jrocR R jrocR 2 R jroCR 2 .. (3 ) . (a) ..436 Electronic Devices and Circuits ... . (1) . and 13.. (2) .. and e equation in (b) and simplify V= 3Vtb + 2Vtb (~+_l_)+ Vtb Vtb(l I) +Vtb +-+-o R(jroc) jroc R jrocR 2 jroc R jrocR 2 (jroc)2R R (~+ jrocR 2 1) ....... d.... (c) I) Vfb 12 = jrocR + I) = jrocR2 +T ......... II=T Vtb ... (b) To eliminate II' 12..

'6 The gain A.=-mCR ~ = 1'.J6CR It ~ 2.50. But or or mCR .) 1 13 = 1. 8.0.j(6a _ 0.11(b». 2 + j(a 3 P or But 60. the resistance offeedback network will be shunted by the low 'R' of the transistor. 3 = O. I 0. Ib C = Collector C B2 Rc ~ C C t 3 R3 R3 hfe Ib RI (a) (b) Fig. 3 ) 13A=1 13 is a complex number. = . corresponding to this frequency will be 29. 8. I 0)= .50. Ifvoltage series feedback is employed.5 TRANSISTOR RC PHASE-SHIFT OSCILLATOR For transistor circuit. 6 a . because the input impedance of transistor is small. voltage shunt feedback is employed. (Fig.11 Transistor phase shift oscillator. or a = I a = meR' 1 . 60. 8. Therefore equating imaginary part to zero. 2 . = a 3.Oscillators Vo Vtb 437 =~=1- P 5 + m2c 2 R 2 j( I __ 6_) m3C 3R 3 mCR Let. .8.- .c~.J6.ll(a) and Fig.J6.

hfe Ib = 0 -II + (2 .ja.. (2) .roc) 12 ..ja.. .-h fe Ib ..13 Input current Xl = Ib (Negative sign is because it is negative feedback) ... Ib can be found out....... The feedback current x f = .ja.12 R . (6) (2 . where Ri :::: hie' the input resistance of transistor..) II -12 = . (3) Loop 2 : -RI I + (2R ..roc) 13 = 0 By taking 'R' as common.13 = 0 -12 + (2 . 8.) 12 .438 Electronic Devices and Circuits The value of R3 = R .. R Fig.. (5) .... '.roc) II .. R j .. The three RC sections of the phase-shifting network are identical RI R2 and Re are biasing resistors.. the modified given by equations are Rc +1 __J_') ro II ( R RC _ Rc 12 .. (1 ) .RI3 = 0 j Loop 3 : -R12 + (2R .R 12 = . (8) ..... Loop current gam . j Loop 1 : (Rc + R ..) 13 = 0 .ro~C}3 =0 1 R Rc = K and a.... (7) ..!J.C Equivalent circuit.R i.h fe Ib Rc . (9) . = roRC' the equations are (1 + K .. (4) -I I + (2--)1 2 -13 roRC ...... =- -Xf = -I b 13 Xi By writing K V L for the three nodes. =0 -1 2"+ Let j .

ja3 - :.ja -I o tl. .r. Hence a 3 = (6 + 4K) a a 2 = 6 + 4K a Since phase shift must equal zero.ja] [4 .a 2K + 3K + 1 tl.5a2 .1] + [.. = -(5 + K) a 2 + 3K + 1 + j [a3 .. (11 ) 1 f----=== .j4a .ja -1 I 3 -1 2.. The frequency of oscillation fis given by . I / I = 3 b -hfe K -(S+K)a2+3K+l+j[a3-(6+4K)a] I f ..ja)2 . = [1 + K .j4Ka .)6+4K 1 a = roRC' ro = RC...)6 + 4K For mantaining the oscillations at the above frequency. the optimum value ofK should be determined by differentiating hfe w.ja -1 -1 439 [ 2..I] . 113 / Ibl > I 1 ~: 1-1-(5 + K)(~:f~~) + 3K + 11 > I \-hfeK\ > 1-(5 + K)(6 + 4K) + 3K + II l-hfeKI > 1-4K2 .(2 . (12) To determine the minimum value ofh fe . (10) The Barkhausen condition that the loop gain shift equals zero provided imaginary part is zero.23K ...2nRC.291 h fe K > 4K2 + 23K + 29 29 hfe > 4K + 23 + K ..Oscillators 1+ k..t K and equate it to zero. I l-k.(6 + 4K) a] =.ja] [(2 .a 2 .ja -1 o =tl.)6 + 4K :..2 + ja j6a . The phase b = .ja)] = [I + K .

S.. (13) Substitute the optimum K = 2. each sections must produce 45 0 phase shift. h fe > 44. each RC network produces 60 0 phase shift.5 . transistor or operational amplifier. In R-C phase shift oscillator circuit. 8..7 + 23 + e 2. 90 0 phase shift must be produced.. But more number of components are to be used. which is not possible for practical R-C network.13(b) shows the equivalent circuit using an amplifier with negative gain Av and output resistance Ro. Fig. If there are 4-sections. (14) The BJT with a small-signal common-emitter short-circuit gain hfe lessthan 44. Thus 3 sections produce the required lSOo phase shift.7 . Z3 Z2 ZI Vo Ay V 8 Vc Z2 i L (b) L .. (12) 29 hfi > 4 x 2.6 A GENERAL FORM OF LC OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT 2 Ro Many Oscillator Circuits fall in to the general form as shown in Fig. This is Voltage Series Feedback.. 8. 8.S.13 (a) and (b)..7 :.(4K+23 + .5 cannot be used in this phase shift oscillator..) dk dk K Electronic Devices and Circuits 0>4:.13 General form of oscillator circuit The active device can be FET.. If only 2 sections are these.. K < 2.7 LOOP GAIN . K2 < K2 4' 29 29 :.L (a) Fig.7 in eq.440 dh fe d 29 -> .

or for zero phase-shift. 8.Oscillators 13=-= Vo ZI +Z3 The load impedance. XI + X2 + X3 = 0 -Aj3=---~~~'---- If 13 A = or AyXI X2 _ Ay~ .14).14 Potential divider network.ZL Gain without feedback A = Z R L+ 0 (Z2(ZI +Z3) +R )(Z +Z ) (zI +Z 2 +Z) 3 (ZI + Z2 + Z3) 0 I 3 Z2 -13 A = . AvXI . Than XI and X2 must have the r-----------------------------------------------~ So if XI and X2 are capacitive. imaginary part must be zero. .(See Fig. XI+X3=-X2 -Aj3= . and at least unity in magnitude.Aj3 must be positive. then ZI = j XI' Z2 = jx2. -Vf 441 i Fig. X3 should be inductive and vice versa. AyXI X2(j)2 jRo(XI +X2 +X 3)-X 2(X I +X 3) 1.. jRo (XI + X2 + X3) = O..' --AY'ZI ---'---=--- Ro(ZI +Z2 +Z3)+Z2(ZI +Z3) If the impedances are pure reactances... X2 same sign. -AV.Aj3 = -X 2(X I + X3 ) But = XI + X3 X I +X 2 +X3 =O :.. ZL = (Z3 in series with ZI) parallel with ZL' Ro is the output resistance. 8.

-~F(L=1=+=L=2=)C= = ro 8.15(a)) If XI and X2 are inductors..2 FOR COLPITTS OSCILLATOR j -j X =._1Jro C =0 or roL + roL I 2 =roC 1 1 1 2 ro (LI + L2) = C .. X3 =jroL. X2 = .7. the circuit is called Colpitts Oscillator (Fig.---=-L + roC I roC 2 jro L = 0 or .15 8.1 FOR HARTELY OSCILLATOR (b) Hartely oscillator circuit Condition for oscillations. the circuit is called Hartely Oscillators (Fig.L . 8. XI + X2 + X3 = O. 8.7. ---=-. 8. where jroL I + jroL2 + -.15(b)) L C (a) Colpitts oscillator Fig.. I roC I roC 2 XI + X2 + X3 = 0.442 Electronic Devices and Circuits If XI and X2 are capacitors.

So I leads V.16.roC) roC 2 443 1 1 roL ~ ro~~~ ~~' ~~~ ~. It employs lead-lag Network.8. I lags with respect to V.Oscillators roL= . +c~' 1 t~ where 2. External voltage V 0' is applied betweeen 3 and 4. 8. C Lag Network : ~ 1 Fig.17 .16 Wien bridge oscillator circuit. c~. Lead Network: I~ ~A.+ . Frequency fo can be varied in the ratio of 10 : 1 compared to 3 : 1 in other oscillator circuits. V 1 + i i Fig.kl = C1C2 C)+C-) c T 8. (-sign because phase-shift feedback) I C ~ II I R YIv V ~I Same I is passing through C and R. The active element is an operational amplifier. or ro = (F. 8. a balanced bridge is used as the feedback network. To find loop gain.8 WIEN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR In this circuit.. as shown in Fig.

VI is(V 2 -V I)..9 EXPRESSION FORI V.----y:--.: o V Yr =\.VI· -13 = Vi. .. Fig. Fig. 8. A=A.444 Electronic Devices and Circuits Frequency variation of 10: I is possible in Wein Bridge compared to 3 : 1 in other oscillator circuits. c~ v..18 8. :.V I = V 2 . . Vo=AyVI.. 8.19 Wien Bridge oscillator circuit.. (1) 0 VI and V 2 are auxiliary voltages. VI=V f · Loop gain _ Vo _ Av·VI _ ~A y. o .

so that ~A is always constant. it changes ~. R J R2 coC + R2 coCR = R J ReoC Equating real parts. orl f~ 2n~C 1 This is the frequency at which the circuit oscillates. 8. So R increases because mobility decreases. or -R2 --=roCRR 2 roCR . 8. Such a device is called Sensistor.Oscillators 445 RJR = (R2 R+ . Ex : NiO. If ~ is fixed.R2 ) (1 + jwCR) JWC R2 · R + j:~ C+~:CR) = [(R R2) (jCOC) + R2] R2 jcoCR .10 THERMISTOR Conductivity of Germanium and Si increases with temperature. Continuous variation of frequency is accomplished by using the capacitors 'C'.11 SENSISTOR A heavily doped semiconductor can exhibit a positive temperature coefficient of resistance because under heavy doping. 8. Mn20 3 etc. These are used for temperature compensation in oscillator circuits. as A increases. as its 'R' changes with temperature..2 ~ (R~)' .C02c2R2R2 = R J R jcoC Equating imaginary parts. If a senistor is introduced.12 AMPLITUDE STABILIZATION The amplitude of oscillations can be stabilized by replacing R2 with a senistor. amplitude of oscillations increases. A = 1 + ~+S R = eo 2 C2 R2 R R2 C2 ' 2 2 or If~ 2n~C I So the minimum gain of the amplifier must be 3. (when A changes). A semiconductor when used in this way.co2 C2 R2 R2 = R J RjcoC (R J R2) (jCOC) + R2 + R2 jeoCR . taking advantage of this property is called a Thermistor. semiconductor acquires the properties of a metal. . These are also used for temperature compensation like thermistors.

In the mega hertz range. If the direction of winding of the secondary connected to the gate is such that it introduces another 1800 phase-shift. The change in frequency causes further electronic action or alarm signal. tuned LC circuits are more advantageous. but the imaginary part will be zero. The input is amplified and obtained as output.eral hundred kilohertzs. Oscillations are sustained. 8.20. The ratio of the amplitude of secondary to the primary voltage is MIL where M is the inductance. V=L=~ o .13 ApPLICATIONS Elevation levelling systems. Frequency of oscillators can be changed by changing Rand C.. Amplitude of oscillations will not vary if any C is varied.20 Resonant circuit oscillator. 8. Vf M I. then at ro = ~ 1 Re C" Fig. These are feedback to the transistor as input. 8.446 By equating the imaginary part to zero we get f = Electronic Devices and Circuits 21t RC 6+4K ~ where K = RR C Forward Current Gain I h fe = 4k + 23 + ¥·I Practically RC phase-shift oscillators can be used from several hertz to sev. Output is coupled to the base oftransistor through L\. R represents the resistance in series with the winding in order to account for the losses in the transformer shown in Fig. because Xc varies. Or' is very small. 8.e. Burglar detection: frequency of oscillators change as a result oflocal disturbance. Then voltage drop across inductor is "LC 1800 out of phase with the applied input voltage to the FET. Phase-shift oscillator is operated in class A in order to keep distortion minimum. the total phase-shift is zero.14 RESONANT CIRCUIT OSCILLATORS Initial transient due to switching will initiate electrical signals. . LL\ is a transformer. If the Z is purely resistive.

and for Quartz. the material will mechanically deform in response. spring constant. an electric charge. if a charge is applied. If the crystal is properly mounted.21. 1 Il= 13 Il= - L M Il= LIM If we consider resistance 'r' also. with respect to time. a . 002 = L~ (l + ~) I~~~L·I 8. With these.21 . L.C.R are analogous to mass.000 can be obtained.8. PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate). The frequency stability will be ± 0. very stable oscillators can be designed. Quartz 2. and viscous damping factor of the mechanical system.------a c:::J C lb Crystal b Electrical Model Fig.. Synthetic materials: 1. Ammonium-di-hydrogen phosphate..15 CRYSTAL OSCILLATORS When certain solid materials are deformed. they generate within them. Naturally available materials: 1. The resonant frequency and Q depend upon crystal dimensions etc. The electrical equivalent circuit of a crystal is as shown in Fig. Rochelle salt..00 I %. 8. frequencies from few KHz to MHz and Q in the range from 1OOOs to 100. deformations take place within the crystal. This is called Piezoelectric effect. This effect is reversible in that. temperature etc. Lithium sulphate 2. Since Q is high. BaTi03 (Barium Titanate). the characteristics are extremely stable. It is same as ± 10 parts per million (l0 ppm). and an electro mechanical system is formed which will vibrate when properly excited.Oscillators Voltage gain Av =-Il 447 f3 Av =-1 -1lf3 = -1.

22). to keep crystal vibrating. By keeping crystal in an oven.c. the circuit becomes an oscillator with precise stability. In order to increase the stability the factors which effect the 'f largely should be taken care of.1 to 20 MHz.c.448 Electronic Devices and Circuits Values for a 90 kHz crystal are L = 137 H. R = 15kO corresponding to Q = 5.8.5 pF and is larger than C. Also temperature compeilsating elements are to be employed.500. And if the slab is placed in an electrostatic field. a potential difference exists between the faces ofthe crystal slab when pressure is brought to bear on them.01 % 'f range is 0. Such a crystal can be employed to maintain an oscillation of great frequency stability. transistor parameters. (Fig. of the FET amplifier. supply voltages temperature. C' is the electostatic capacitance 3. between electrodes with the crystal as a dielectric. But actually in many circuits the 'f will not remain fixed but it drifts from the designed frequency continuously. circuit components.023pF. voltage from the output. By placing crystal between the gate an~ source. . Accuracy::::: 0. These are maintained by C whose oscillations value is small. stray capacitances etc. with regard to the crystal axis. C' = When the crystal slabs are cut in proper directions. with a frequency which sets the slab into mechanical resonance. When the L. accuracy can be improved to 0. the slab will physically vibrate vigorously. 8. steady oscillations will be established. and feeding back a small A.16 FREQUENCY STABILITY It is a measure of the ability of the circuit to maintain exactly the same frequency for which it is designed over a long time interval. 8. the slab undergoes deformation. The dimension of a crystal will be 30 x 4 x 1.00 I %. If the electric field is an alternating one.5 mm.22 Crystal oscillator circuit. Effect of temperature on inductors and capacitors amounts to more than 10 parts per million per degree change. C C ·r---G XTAL 10M Fig. This is because of variations of number of parameters. C = 0. . If 'f depends only on Rand C high precision Rand C should be employed. circuit in the plate circuit is tuned close to the crystal resonant frequency.

1_ JroC Z = ----"--(R + jroC)+ _. In the oscillator circuits. elasticity and damping. ZI+Z2 +Z3 = o.000. So parallel tuned circuits are employed. or This is the expression for frequency of oscillations. i. The crystal is coupled with external C. crystal is connected.Oscillators 449 Crystal will have mass. Amplitude of oscillator will be very small (v is Less) for series resonance circuit. So 'f' is fixed by crystal itself.1_ JroC R + jroC Total admittance At resonance. instead of external Land C.e. Crystal will have very high mass to elastic ratio (~) and to a high ratio of mass to damping (high Q).18 I-MHz FET CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT In the basic configuration of oscillator circuit. and the LC circuit oscillates.17 FREQUENCY OF OSCILLATIONS FOR PARALLEL RESONANCE CIRCUIT (R _ jroC)x _. . imaginary part is zero R ~oo. Zl is crystal Z2 is Land C combination. 'f' will not vary with temperature. To change 'f' another crystal is used.000 to 30. 8. crystal Land C are being used. 8. Its value is of the order of 10.

.C phase shift oscillator circuit.1o = 21tRC. But the crystal is being considered as an inductor capacitor combination only. So it acts like a I~ Ro L. .450 Electronic Devices and Circuits Z3 is C gd ..1o = 21t-y L J + L2 C 3 l( 1 ) .C phase shift oscillator circuit.-----.- Fig. SUMMARY • • • • • Oscillators generate A. 1 In the case of JFET.j6 In the case BJT. The range of frequency signals generated by the circuit can be high and output power is small. For sustained oscillations.. as their values are less compared to L.C power from Vee or V DD is converted to A. 10 = 21tRC. due to piezoelectric effect. C combination. mechanical vibrations are set in the crystal. Other Land Cs are insignificant.23 Crystal oscillator circuit. . the conditions known as Barkhausen criterion to be satisfied are (i) II3AI?: I (ii) Total loop phase shift must be 0° or 360° (or phase shift of feedback network must be 180° when the amplifying device produces another 180°). Frequency of oscillations depend only on crystal. When electrical input is given.23.. D.C input by using Noise A.J6+4k where Rc K=R For Hartley oscillator circuit which employs two inductors and one capacitor in the feedback network is. Z2 and Z3 values are insignificant compared to Zj of the crystal.. power... The frequency of oscillator essentially depends up on crystal only as shown in Fig.22V 0-1 221lH C gd C -+-----' 300pF ill. Therefore the stability is high. 8. R . 8. C and R ofthe crystal.C signal generated in switching..C. output without external A. R .c.

- . 6. 9. II3AI must be _ _ _ _ _ __ The range of frequencies over which R . Oscillator circuits employ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ type of feedback. 8. output signal is generated by the oscillator circuits without external A. The specification parameters of oscillator circuits are (i) Amplitude stability (ii) Frequency stability (iii) Frequency range (iv) Distortion in output waveform etc.C input. Itcan produce variations in fo in the ratio of I 0 : I compared to a variation of3 : I in other types of oscillator circuits.C phase shift oscillator circuit is used is In the Mega Hertzs frequency range. • • • Thermistors with (NTCR) and sensistor with positive temperature coefficient of resistance (PTCR) are used for frequency stability in oscillator circuits... . OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS 1. 2...Oscillators • 451 For Colpitts oscillator circuit with two capacitors and one inductor in the feedback • For Wein Bridge oscillator circuit. 2. As per Berkauhsen criteria for sustained oscillations.. is .C.. 5.. Crystal oscillators produce highly stable output waveform in the high frequency range of MHz also.. 10. exhibiting piezoelectric effect are I. by amplifying signal. the oscillator circuit is IS ------- The oscillator circuit which employs two capacitors and one inductor in the feedback network.oscillator circuit... the minimum gain of amplifier must be 3. 4. 11.. the type of oscillator circuit used The range of frequency over which Wein Bridge oscillator used is _ _ _ _ _ __ In the feedback network if two inductors and one capacitor elements are used. Naturally occuring materials used for in crystal oscillator circuits... The difference between an amplifier circuit and oscillator circuit is _ _ _ _ _ __ A. One condition for sllstained oscillations is total loop phase shift must be 3.....degrees. 7. .

7.452 Electronic Devices and Circuits Synthetic materials which exhibit piezoelectric effect are. 2. Oscillator Circuits? Deduce the Barkausen Criterion for the generation of sustained oscillations. (a) (c) Humidity Temperature (b) (d) Atmospheric conditions Interference 2. 2. Derive the expression for the frequency of We in Bridge Oscillators.. 4. The ratio of frequency variation possible with Wein Bridge Oscillator circuit is _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is compared to the ratio of with others oscillator circuits. Derive the expression for the frequency of Hartely oscillators.. 3. 5. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. How are the oscillations initiated? Draw the circuit and explain the princple of operaiton of R.. Derive the expression for the frequency of Colpitt Oscillators. The noise that arises in electronic circuits due to variation in concentrations of carriers in semiconductor devices is (a) shot noise (b) thermal noise (c) Johnson noise(d) None of these 3. 8.. 4. fo = (a) I 2rcRC (b) (c) (d) 2rcRCJ6 . Expression for frequency of oscillations for the R-C phase shift oscillator circuit using JFET is.C. Johnson Noise is due to . 10. 15. Derive the expression for the frequency of Crystal Oscillators. Explain how better frequency stability is obtained in crystal oscillator? Draw the equivalent circuit for a crystal and explain how oscillations can be generated in electronic circuits. Thermistors have temperature coefficient and the materials used are _ _ _ _ _ __ Typical values of L. 3... C. 1. What are the considerations to be made in the case of practical L. 6. using crystals.C....- ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS 1.phase-shift oscillator circuit. Explain the basic principle of generation of oscillations in LC tank circuits. Rand Q of a crystal used in oscillator circuits are L= C= R= Q= . What is the frequency range of generation of oscillations? Derive the expression for the frequency of oscillations. _ _ _ _ __ 12. 13. Why three identical R-C sections are used in R-C phase-shift oscillator circuits? Consider the other possible combinations and limitations. 14. 9.

ofthe above is correct For Wein Bridge oscillator circuits..0235IlfR= 15 KQ=5. 0. (a) They have low mass to elastic ratio (b) They have high mass to elastic ratio (c) They have low Q (d) None. ?scillator circuit in which the reactances o. 9. Il of JFET must be at least (a) 16 (b) 92 (c) 29 (d) None of these 5...02~lfR=10KQ=1 (d) None of these One characteristic feature of crystals is .500 (b) L= 1 HC=0. is inductive IS •••• AI t 2 3 6.. . 8. are capacitive and 0. 10... (a) 3: 1 (b) 10: 1 (c) 6: 1 (d) None of these Example for naturally occurring piezoelectric crystal material is . in order that I~ is not less than unity.Oscillators 453 4. the minimum gain of amplifier must be (a) 1 (b) 3 (c) 10 (d) None the these . In the case of JFET R-C phase shift oscillator circuit.02fR= lQQ= 10 (c) L=137HC=0. 7. (a) Colpitts oscillator (b) Hartelyoscillator (c) Crystal oscillator (d) None of these In wein bridge oscillator circuits the range over which frequency of oscillations can be varied is .. (a) BaTio3 (b) Rochelle salt (c) PZT (d) None of these Typical values for 90 KHz crystal are: (a) L= 137HC=0.

the collector junction is _ _ _ _ _ _ _ biased and the emitter junction is biased. It is therefore a device. 5. In the active region of common base output characteristics. between . . A MOSFET of the depletion type may also be operated in an mode.. (b) reverse biased. the transistor is said to be operating the region. 4. 8... the transistor is said to be operating in the regIOn.. In an type of pnp transistor two small dots of indium are attached to opposite sides of a semiconductor. The operation of a FET depends upon the flow of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ carriers only. In a BJT the arrow on the emitter lead specifies the direction of _ _ _ _ _ __ where the emitter-base junction is biased. type of npn junction transistor is made by drawing a single crystal from a melt of silicon whose concentration is changed during the crystal drawing operation by adding n or p type atoms as requires. If both emitter and collector junctions are (a) forward biased. Some times the symbol for the JFET is also is used for the MOSFET with the understanding that is internally connected to source.. 7. 6. 9. The emitter efficiency of a BJT is defined as the ratio of current of injected carriers at _ _ _ _ _ _ _ junction to total current.- 10.454 Electronic Devices and Circuits Additional Objective Type Questions (Chapter 1-8) 1. The emitter diode of a UJT drives the junction of RBI and RB2 and RBB = RBI + RB2 • The intrinsic stand off ratio is defined as 11 = and its value usually lies. 3. The maximurll voltage that can be applied between any two terminals of the FET is the _______________ voltage that will cause avalanche breakdown across the 2.

Oscillators 455 [ 1. 8. 6.O. forward Emitter base. drain-source junction Enhancement. Unipolar Breakdown. 3. 7.82 RBB . Forward Saturation. Answers toAdditional Objective Type Questions J Holes or conventional current. 10. s. Cut-off Majority.S & 0. + RB2 . 4. doping Alloy junction Reverse. emitter Grownjunction. 9. the gate RB1 2.

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II Appendix .V Appendix .Appendix .VII Appendix .IV Appendix .I Appendix .VI Appendix .VIII Colour Codes for Electronic Components Resistor and Capacitor Values Capacitors Inductors Miscellaneous Circuit Symbols Unit Conversion Factors American Wire Gaugcy Sizes and Metric Equivalents .III Appendix .

.1 9 JO 5 20 ."t d.I Fourth Band F.01 0.. !II!I~:""Second digit Capacitance In pF ber of zeros ."n.'."". 1111T-----l~ ..g.1 Gold ±5% Violet .7 White . First Three Bands Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green .APPENDIX-l Colour Codes for Electronic Components RESISTOR COLOUR CODE: Number of zeros (except when Second digit .0 ." (%) dc working voltage (x 100V) Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey White Silver Gold No Band Figure Significant Tolerance (%) 0 I 2 3 4 20 I 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 6 7 8 9 0.0\ 0...t ~_ I 01d silver or g 7 ) Tolerance Blue Grey Silver Gold -6 -8 0.9 Silver ± 10% None ±20% ----tm""""-=Ir"T'rT-' .2 -3 -4 -5 CAPACITOR COLOUR CODE: Colour Black Brown digit } .

..01 0 ...1 10% 5% .... / 5 6 7 8 White 9 Silver Gold Decimal point No Band 10 5 20 COLOUR CODE MEMORY AID: W G VIBGYOR BB (WG Vibgyor BB) Memory aid Black Bruins Relish Ornery Young Greenhorns Blue Violets Growing Wild Smell Good Color Black Hrown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey White Silver Gold Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0.APPENDICES INDUCTOR COLOUR CODE: Color Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey Significant Figure 0 1 459 Tolerance (%) 2 3 4 Inductance in IlH Decimal point or first digit ._ .... / { Number of zeros ~ . Tolerance (%) .+ Decimal point or second digit ..

08 ' 8 2.5 15 30 Darlington Pair 2N6052 2N6059 PNP NPN 150 150 12 12 100 100 100 100 750 750 - 4 4 .460 APPENDICES In "'f2!1g \W ) « !!.} Relative size of carbon composition resistors with various power ratings Specifications of Power Transistors Device Type PD(W) 200 117 120 30 Ic(A) VCEO{V) Vcoo(V) hJlEMIN Max f T M. ! Fig. A-i. .HZs ~ 2N6688 2N3442 BUX39 ECP149 NPN NPN NPN PNP 20 10 30 4 200 140 <Xl 40 300 160 120 50 ~ 80 70 45 - ~ 0.

2 2.6 6.9 4.8 27 120 150 180 220 270 330 390 470 560 680 820 1.6 6.7 3.2 1.7 5.7 3.7 5.7 5.5 1.APPENDIX-2 Resistor and Capacitor Values Typical Standard Resistor Values <± 10% Tolerance) n n 10 n 100 ill ill ill Mn 1.2 33 39 47 56 33 39 47 56 68 82 68 82 .9 4.7 3.6 6.2 12 15 18 22 27 120 150 180 220 270 330 390 470 560 680 820 15 22 2.8 2.3 3.8 Mn 10 10 100 12 15 18 22 2.5 1.3 3.9 4.8 2.2 1.8 8.3 3.

7 3 303 3.8 2 15 18 20 68 0.462 Typical Standard Resistor Values (± 10% Tolerance) APPENDICES P' 5 P' 50 P' 500 510 560 620 680 750 820 910 1000 1100 1200 1300 1500 1600 1800 2000 2400 2500 2700 3000 3300 3600 3900 4000 P' 5000 5100 5600 6000 ~F ~F ~ ~F ~F ~F ~F 0.47 4.6 6 56 5600 6000 62 6200 6800 7500 8000 8 0.56 5.047 47 .2 1.12 0.15 0.5 5 50 50 5000 51 56 0.082 O.000 150 180 200 240 1500 2000 24 025 0.039 0.012 O.068 0.02 0.9 4 0.03 0.027 0.7 25 27 250 270 300 330 2500 27 270 300 330 360 390 430 470 30 33 36 30 33 39 3000 3300 39 43 47 400 4300 4700 0.Q4 027 OJ 0033 0039 2.05 0.06 0.056 0.oJ 0.oJ5 O.8 75 80 '75 82 8200 9100 0.82 82 10 82 91 10 12 15 18 20 100 110 120 130 150 160 180 200 240 250 100 1000 10.68 6.oJ8 0.5 1.18 02 1.1 0.033 0.

12 F/m 1.APPENDICES 463 Physical constants Charge of an electron Mass of an electron elm ratio of an electron e m 1.85 = '0 n. r.60 9. mn x 10.381 x 10-23 JfOK 8.1 ev.626 x ClKg Plank's constant Soltzman's constant 10-34 J-sec K K 1.257 x 10-6 Him 8.09 x 10.023 x 1023 moiecules/mole 3 x Avogadro's number Velocity oflight Permeability offree space Permittivity offree space Intrinsic concentration in silicon at 300 oK Intrinsic resistivity in silicon at 300 oK Mobility of electronics in silicon Mobility of holes in silicon Energy gap at in silicon at 300 OK NA c mo 108 m/sec 1.759 x 6. = .5 x 1010 Icm 3 = 230.62 x 10-5 ev/oK 6.19 coulombs 10-31 Kg lOll x elm h 1.000 W--cm =1300cm2/V-sec = mp 500 cm 21 V-sec 1.

A-3.. This usually limits their application to situations where the polarity of the applied voltage 'viII not change. Polarization Electrolytic capacitors normally have one terminal identified as the most positive connection. they are said to be polarized. However. with only 10 V applied to its terminals. A-3. Usually. The parallel Rc circuit in. This is further discussed for electrolytic capacitors.1(b). This cannot normally be done for electrolytic capacitors. and the capacitor is then treated as an ideal capacitor. At the other extreme. an electrolytic capacitor may have a microamp (or more) of leakage current. The actual level of leakage current depends on the insulation resistance of the dielectric. With capacitors that have a very high leakage resistance (e. which have relatively low leakage resistances. and in parallel with a resistance RL representing the leakage resistance of the dielectric. Plastic film capacitors. for example. small leakage currents flow between the plates of a capacitor. Thus. an ideal capacitor does not exist. mica and plastic film capacitors). the plate resistance can be completely neglected. / . as all dielectrics have some leakage current and all capacitor plates have some resistance.g. The complete equivalent circuit for a capacitor [shown in Fig. The farad is the capacitance of a capacitor that contains a charge of 1 coulomb when the potential difference between its terminals is 1 volt. 1(a)] consists of an ideal capacitor C in series with a resistance RD representing the resistance ofthe plates. and the equivalent circuit becomes that shown in Fig. Leakage Current Despite the fact that the dielectric is an insulator. may have insulation resistances higher than 100 000 MW. the parallel resistor is frequently omitted in the equivalent circuit.APPENDIX-3 Capacitors Capacitance The farad (F) is the Sf unit of capacitance. for example. Capacitor Equivalent Circuit An ideal capacitor has a dielectric that has an infinite resistance and plates that have zero resistance.

3 . Because a capacitor's dielectric is largely responsible for determining its most important characteristics. A..-- . as illustrated in Fig. Fig.3. A variation of this is the metalized paper construction. A.. and the complete assembly is dipped in wax or plastic.1 (b) can be shown to have an equivalent series RC circuit. as in Fig. . the leakage resistance RL in parallel with C.. as is the case with virtually all air capacitors. external connections are brought out from the foil layers.. There are two sets of metal plates. Thus. so that it can be grounded to avoid pickup of unwanted signals. Air Capacitors A typical capacitor using air as a dielectric is illustrated in Fig. The metal foil and paper are rolled up. A.3. A. The movable plates can be adjusted into or out of the spaces between the fixed plates by means of the rotatable shaft.2. Movable \Plates -Fig.- APPENDICES 465 c c (a) Complete equivalent circuit (b) Parallel equivalent circuit (c) Series equivalent circuit Fig. the area of the plates opposite each other is increased or decreased.------------- . A.2 A variable air capacitor is made up of a set of movable plates and a set of fixed plates separated by air Paper Capacitors In its simplest form. a paper capacitor consists of a layer of paper between two layers of metal foil..3 (a). A variable air capacitor is made up of a set of movable plates and a set of fixed plates separated by air... One end of the capacitor sometimes has a band around it [see Fig. A. This is treated in Section 20-6.. capacitors are usually identified by the type of dielectric used..1 (c). and the plate resistance Ro in series with C and RL. one set fixed and one movable.. 3. and the capacitance value if altered.. This does not mean that the device is polarized but simply identifies the terminal that connects to the outside metal film.. A. 3.3. 3.1 A capacitor equivalent circuit consists of the capacitance C. in which the foil is replaced by thin films of metal deposited on the surface of the paper...3 (b)]. The capacitance is variable.

produces'capacitors that are rela~ively . Plastic film capacitors are physically smaller but more expensive than paper capacitors. mica capacitors consist of layers of mica alternated with layers of metal foil.4(a). A. Foil Band identifies outer foil terminal (a) Construction of a paper capacitor (b) Appearance of a paper capacitor Fig. and the entire assembly is dipped in plastic or encapsulated in a molded plastic jacket. Becaus.4(b).lue ofcap<lC}tance.466 APPENDICES Paper capacitors are available in values ranging from about 500 pF to 50llF. except that the paper is replaced by a thin film that is typically polystyrene or Mylar. .the order. One disadvantage of . Mica Capacitors As illustrated in Fig. Plastic Film Capacitors The construction of plastic film capacitors is simi lar to that of paper capacitors. Capacitance tolerances of ± 2. Two different types of ceramic are used. Precise capacitance values and wide operating temperatures are obtainable with mica capacitors.47 IlF. . External connections are made to the foil sheets.leakage . A.its.1ower Another ! .. type . this'Cetamic . .of 7500 MW. 3. as are temperature coefficients of 60 to 150 ppm/oC.I' jiF. one of which has extremely high relative permitivity. Typical capacitance values range from I pF to O. Films of metal are deposited on each side of a thin ceramic disc. much smaller than paper or mica capacitors having the same capacitance value.resistances on . with the capacitor surviving 1500 V surges for a brief period. Connections are made to the metal foil for capacitor leads. \ The range of capacitance valuesavaihiblewith·cetamic capaciforsistYilicaUy tpFto·O.3.of. The entire units is then encapsulated in a protective coating of plastic. They are among the lower-cost capacitors for a given capacitance value but are physically larger than several other types having the same capacitance value. and copper wire terminals are connected to the metal. They are typically available in values ranging from 5 pF to 0.hlfgefor a giYen ~a. In a variation of the process. .r:esistance is not as high as with other types. A. Ceramic Capacitors The construction of a typical ceramic capacitor is illustrated in Fig. This type of dielectric gives insulation resistances greater than 100 000 MO. 3.e .ofcerarnic gives .5% are typical. This gives capacitors that are .permitiyity. silvered mica capacitors use films of silver deposited on the mica layers instead of metal foil. two sheets of metal foil separated by a sheet of paper are rolled up together. Working voltages are as high as 600 V..IIlF. with dc working voltages up'to 1000 V.3 In a paper capacitor. and voltage ratings as high as 35 000 V are possible.. this particular ceramic dielectric. is that its leakage . and in dc working voltages up to about 600 V.

5(b». When assembled. and the electrolyte and positive sheet of foil are the capacitor plates. Typical values for electrolytic capacitors range from I J-lF through 100000 J-lF. 3. In this case the dc working voltage is only voltage is only lOY. 3. and this causes a thin layer of aluminium oxide to form on the surface of the positive plate next to the electrolyte (Fig. in a ceramic trimmer. When incorrectly connected. Similarly. a 1 F capacitor is available in a 22 cm by 7. The extremely thin oxide dielectric gives the very large value of capacitance. This could have tragic consequences for the eyes of an experimenter who happens to be closely examining the circuit when the explosion occurs. a direct voltage is applied to the capacitor terminals. gas forms within the electrolyte and the capacitor may explode! Such an explosion blow§ the capacitor apart and spreads its contents around. By means of a screwdriver. with a working voltage of only 3 Y. Fig. A.4(c) shows a variable ceramic capacitor known as a trimmer. a capacitance of 5000 J-lF can be obtained in a cylindrical package approximately 5 cm long by 2 cm in diameter. the area of plate on each side of a dielectric can be adjusted to alter the capacitance value. A. For example. Electrolytic Capacitors The most important feature of electrolytic capacitors is that they can have a very large capacitance in a physically small container.3. A ceramic disc silvered on each side m akes a ceramic capacitor. The terminal designated as positive must be connected to the most positive of . the plates area is screwdriver adjustable. Two sheets of aluminium foil separated by a fine gauze soaked in electrolyte are rolled up and encased in an aluminium cylinder for protection.APPENDICES Metal film _ Ceramic disk 467 (a) Construction of mica capacitor (b) Ceramic capacitor Electrolyte Tantalum (c) Ceramic trimmer (d) Construction of tantalum capacitor Fig.5(a». The construction of an electrolytic capacitor is similar to that of a paper capacitor (Fig.3. It is very important that electrolytic capacitors be connected with the correct polarity.4 Mica capacitors consist of sheets of mica interleaved with foil. The aluminium oxide is the dielectric. A. A.5 pF to 3 pF and 7 pF to 45 pF. A tantalum capacitor has a relatively large capacitance in a small volume.5 cm cylinder. Typical ranges of adjustment available are 1.

-+-gauze (- plate) Foil (a) Rolled-up foil sheets and electrolytesoaked g:. 3../ Foil (+ plate) ======'. A.7 V and a grounded ac voltage source Fig. + 5 V t--------+ (a) Capacitor connected between +5 V and ground (b) Connected between +7 V and +5 V ~------O+12 V 1----~5V ac voltage (c) Connected between + 5.5 An electrolyte capacitor is constructed of rolled-up foil sheets separated by electrolytesoaked gauze.6 illustrates some circuit situations where the capacitor must be correctly connected. The capacitor positive terminal voltage must be more positive than the voltage at the negative terminal.. 3. so one of the oxide films is always correctly biased.. Nonpolarized electrolytic capacitors can be obtained. A. 3. Fig. the dielectric is a layer of aluminium oxide at the positive plate the two points in the circuit where the capacitor is to be installed. .468 APPENDICES --. They consist essentially of two capacitors in one package connected back to back. Another disadvantage of electrolytic capacitors is their relatively high leakage current. = = == =="". Electrolytic capacitors are available with dc working voltages greater than 400 Y. A. but in this case capacitance values do not exceed 100 mF. ~---O + 12V +5 Vt-----.6 It is very important that polarized capacitors be correctly connected.lUze (b) The dielectric is a thin layer of aluminium oxide Fig. In addition to their low working voltage and polarized operation.

Other types are available with a working voltage up to 630 V. again. Capacitor Color Codes Physically large capacitors usually have their capacitance value. Like aluminium-foil electrolytic capacitors. the coil inductance is variable. The result. Note the graphic symbol for an inductor with an adjustable core [Fig. Small capacitors (like small resistors) use a code of colored bands (or sometimes colored dots) to indicate the component parameters. 3.01 0.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 5 20 A typical tantalum capacitor in a cylindrical shape 2 cm by I cm might have a capacitance of 100 mF and a dc working voltage of20 V. . Powdered tantalum is sintered (or baked). A. Here is one of the most common. so that when immersed in a container of electrolyte. The resulting solid is quite porous.6(b)]. Color Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey White Silver Gold No band Significant Figure 0 I Tolerance (%) 20 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0.5 mF. There are several capacitor color codes in current use. typically into a cylindrical shape. a thin oxide film is formed throughout the electrolyte-tantalum contact area.APPENDICES Tantalum Capacitors 469 This is another type of electrolytic capacitor. The tantalum then has a large surface area in contact with the electrolyte (Fig. When a dcforming voltage is applied. tolerance and dc working voltage printed on the side of the case.5). 3. the electrolyte is absorbed into the tantalum. The core in such an inductor may be made adjustable so that it can be screwed into or partially out of the coil. but with capacitance values on the order of 3. is a large capacitance value in a small volume. A. tantalum capacitors must be connected with the correct polarity size of the inductor. Thus. the maximum current can be anything from about 50 mA to I A.

The tesla is the flux density in a magnetic field when 1 Wb offlux occurs in a plane of 1 m2.2(c). in 'Which precision inductors are switched into or out of a circuit by means of rotary switches. two coupled coils can be employed as a variable inductor. Molded Inductors A small molded inductor is shown in Fig. The weber is defined as the magnetic flux which. and the total inductance is controlled by adjusting the position of one coil relative to the other. A.lH to 10 mH. 4. . the tesla can be described as 1 Wblm 2. similar to molded resistors. 4.2(d) shows a tiny-film inductor used in certain types of electronic circuits.APPENDIX-4 Inductors Magnetic Flux and Flux Density The weber* (Wb) is the Sf unit of magnetic flux. The values of molded inductors are identified by a color code. Inductance The Sf unit of inductance is the henry (H). The. The inductance of a circuit is 1 henry (1 H) when an emf of 1 V is induced by the current changing at the rate of 1 Als. Alternatively. In this case the inductor is simply a thin metal film deposited in the form of a spiral on ceramic base. Laboratory Inductors Laboratory-type variable inductors can be constructed in decade box format. that is. A. maximum currents of about 70 rnA. produces an emfof 1 V when the flux is reduced to zero at a constant rate in 1 s. linking a single-turn coil. The coils may be connected in series or in parallel. tesla* * * (T) is the Sf unit of magnetic flux density.2 J. Typical available values for this type range from 1. Fig.

. // ..2. The coil is wound on a bobbin. With an air core. Coil . Three different types of low-current inductl)rs are illustrated in Fig.. Inductance in IlH Decimal point or fir: Decimal point or sec ( Number of zeros Tolerance (%) ~~~.~ Color Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey White Silver Gold No band Significant Figure 0 I Tolerance (%) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 to decimal point 5 20 t J"_/ . 4.APPENDICES Color Code For Small Inductors 471 ~ . . high-frequency inductors are wound on bobbins contained in a fer· rite pot core.. so its number of turns is easily modified. A 4. A.-. Depending on the thickness of wire used and the physical..K ~ V . __ \ ' ) Ferrite pot core I / Fig. The ferrite core increases the winding inductance and screens the inductor Coil to protect adjacent components against flux leakage and to protect the coil from external magnetic fields. Fig.1 Some low-current.2(a) shows a type that is available either as an air-cored inductor or with a ferromagnetic core. the inductance values up to about 10 mH can be obtained. A.. BobbIn ~'--~=1 ' .--. 4.

4. L=L+L . Therefore. Stray Inductance Inductance is (change in flux linkages) / (change in current). but in radio frequency ac circuits it can be considerable nuisance. Stray inductance is normally minimized by keeping connecting wires as short as possible. although they are sometimes used as components in a circuit design . L=L+L+2M a I 2 for series-aiding for series-opposing and Subtracting.472 APPENDICES /'t. So every current-carrying conductor has some self-inductance. 11 II 11 II 11 II (a) Inductor with air core or ferromagnetic core (b) Circuit symbol for an inductor with an adjustable ferromagnetic core (c) Molded inductor (d) Thin-film inductor Fig. or deposited as a conducting film on an insulating material If the mutual inductance between two adjacent coils is not known. In dc applications. it can be determined by measuring the total inductance of the coils in series-aiding and series-opposing connections. molded like small resistors. These stray inductance are usually unwanted. the coefficient of coupling of the two coils can be determined.L a b = 4M M = k~LIL2 From these two equations.. and every pair of conductors has inductance.2M b I 2 L . A. stray inductance is normally unimportant.2 Small inductors may be wound on an insulating tube with an adjustable ferrite core. Then. .

..Induced emf Induced emf Inductance Inductance Flux change Self ......+ .lO L = L+L + L + ..l...+ .... Lp LI L2 L) L = L +L +2M I :2 L = L +L .inductance Mutual inductance Induced emf Mutual inductance Mutual inductance Mutual inductance Energy stored Energy stored Inductances in series Inductances in parallel Total inductance (series-aiding) Total inductance (series-opposing) Mutual inductance e L =-- ..Summary of Formulae ..1i I ~t ill e L ~<1>N\ =-- M = ~<l>N..l ........ M M = k ~<l>N..l 0 N.lo ~i N ~i ? A t L = J.+ ...1<1> ll! e = -- ~<l> L ll! L=~ MIll! ~<1>N ~i L = -~<1> = J.2M I 2 M = ---"'4 Lo -Lb . J.= .....APPENDICES 473 ...-t A M=~ .. J.... 5 I 2 3 I I I I . M M= k~LIL2 W= - I 2 U2 B2AI W=-2J...

Electric cable usually consists of conducting copper wire surrounded by an insulating sheath of rubber or plastic. 5. those which gave up electrons have become positive ions. Ionic bonding is found in such materials as glass and porcelain. flat cables of fine wires and thin printed circuit conductors are widely used. notably rubber and plastics. some atoms have parted with outer-shell electrons. the bending process is also covalent.. Conductors The function of a conductor is to conduct current form one point to another in an electric circuit. Because there are virtually no free electrons. and the material is an insulator. As discussed. _. electric cables usually consist of copper conductors sheathed with rubber or plastic ... 5..1 Insulation --. the atoms are ionized.1 Conductors employed for industrial and domestic purposes normally have stranded copper wires with rubber or plastic insulation . A. of course. termed ionic bonding. This creates an electrostatic bonding force between the atoms. Insulators Fig. and these are. individually insulated. In electronics equipment. ~ II Ii :' Printed copper conductor Insulation Protecti ve _ sheath --- Fig. no current can flow. A. and those which accepted the electrons become negative ions. In other types of insulating materials. Conductor ' '--'''. but these have been accepted into the orbit of other atoms. Thus. so the possibility of current flow is virtually zero.APPENDIX-5 Miscellaneous Ionic Bonding In some insulating materials.1 shows some typical arrangements of conductors and insulators. The valence ~Iectrons in these bonds are very strongly attached to their atoms. Sometimes there is more than one conductor.

5. Power (12 R) is also dissipated in every current-carrying conductor. A. A. Between these two extremes. The other two are multi conductor cables.2 conductor and a circular plated conducting screen. . 5.2 Many different types of cables are used with electronics equipment. 5. the conductor may be a thin strip of copper or ~en an aluminium film.3 Conductor resistance (R) is determined by applying the voltage drop and current level to Ohm's law. When conductors arel long and/or carry large currents. one circular. Where very small currents are involved. Cables that have to carry large currents must have relatively thick conductors. as wen as an outer insulating sheath. I (a) Current flow through a conductor produces a voltage drop along the conductor ~ o~--~~~~~~------o f:E~ Cable resistance ~ R~ R=- Conductor resistance E I (b) Conductor resistance causes voltage drop when a current flows Fig. and one flat. a wide range of conductors exist for various applications.3)./ ' Conductor Screen Circular multi conductor cable Flat multiconductorcable Fig. insulating material. The resistance per unit length (R/I) is then used to select a suitable wire gauge. and this is. 5. wasted power. A.APPENDICES Screened coaxial cable 475 aA_~ /A/ . ofcourse. a current passing through it causes a voltage drop from one end of the conductor to the other (Fig. the conductor voltage drop may cause unsatisfactory performance of the equipment supplied. A. Three different types of cables used in electronics equipment are illustrated in Fig. Because each conductor has a finite resistance.

As illustrated. A. The illustration in Fig. 5.. Using the adjustable contact.5(c). ± 5% or ± I %. The movable contact can be set to any point on a connecting track that extends over one (unisulated) edge of the coil.10% (i. Resistor Tolerance Standard (fixed-value) resistors normally range from 2. 90n). and a third terminal is connected to a movable contact with a shaft adjustment facility. Obviously. Other decade boxes are available with different resistance ranges..4 Individual resistors are typically wire-wound or carbon composition construction . A. Another type of variable resistor.7n to 22Mn.e.. lIon) or as low as lOon . the resistance from either end terminal to the center terminal may be adjusted from zero to the maximum coil resistance. Wirewound resistors are used where high power dissipation is required.t.476 APPENDICES Porcelain coating Nickel resistance / wire Connecting wire.5.e. The coil has a low-resistance terminal at each end.. A tolerance of + 10% on a lOon resistor means that the actual resistance may be as high as loon + 10% (i.5(a) shows a coil of closely wound insulated resistance wire formed into partial circle. . The decade box shown can be set to within + I n of any value from on to 9999n. known as a decade resistance box. 20n. Carbon composition type is the least expensive. ± 10%. and so on. A. The resistance tolerances on these standard values are typically ± 20%. Metal film resistance values can be more accurate than carbon composition type. resistance element (a) Wire-wound resistor (b) Carbon composition resistor Ceramic base Metal film I Protective insulating cover • (c) Metal film resistor Fig. the first switch (from the right) controls resistance values in I n steps from on to 9n and the second switches values of lOn. the resistors with the smallest tolerance are the most accurate and the most expensive. Color bands to identify resistance value . 30n. This is a laboratory component that contains precise values of switched seriesconnected resistors. 5..:-=-=== Carbon rArnne. is shown in Fig.

A. Large decade resistance boxes are employed in electronics laboratories. .APPENDICES Moving End 477 Shaft for adjustment Moving contact terminal . _.. h : } I U 1 I (b) Circuit symbols fora variable resistor (c) Decade resistance box Fig.5 Small variable resistors are used in electronic circuit construction .5.End termin al Resi stance wire (a) Typical construction of a resistor variable resistor (and potentiometer) o ! .

One construction method uses a thick film techniqu in which conducting solutions are deposited in the required form. . Sliding contact Wire terminals High Power Resistor High power resistors are usually wire-wound on the surface of a ceramic tube. Air flow through the tube helps to keep the resistor from overheating. set the position of the moving contact on a resistance wire.478 More Resistors 14 pin dual-in-line package . A threaded shaft. the cell resistance is very high. . When illuminated. Photoconductive Cell This is simply a resistor constructed of photoconductive material (cadmium selenide or cadmium sulfide).1 . '. '''. . When dark.<' '" . Resistance wire Contact ajusting screw Low Power Variable Resistor A small variable resistor suitable for mounting directly on a circui board."" Resistor Networks • Internal resistor arrangement Resistor networks are available in integrated circuits type dual-in lin package. the resistance decreases in proportion to the level of illumination.- APPENDICES '. which is adjustable by a screwdriver.

In this case the flux generated by each of the individual current-carrying turns tends to link up and pass out of one end of the coil and back into the other end.".6. d t on uc or (same as direction of motion of screw) (a) Right-hand screw rule Thumb points in current direction -I Conductor Fingers point in direction of lines of force t (b) Right-hand rule Fig.. when two current-carrying conductors are brought close together there will be interaction between the fields. and the circular motion of the screw shows the direction of magnetic flux around the conductor. f .. 5. A. obviously has a magnetic field pattern very similar to that of a bar magnet. -Therefore. the one-turn coil acts like a little magnet and has a magnetic field with an identifiable N pole and S pole. In the right-hand rule. Direction of rotation Direction of motion Direction of lines offorce (same as d' .7(c).APPENDICES 479 Two memory aids for determining the direction of the magnetic flux around a current-carrying conductor are shown in Fig.6(b). 5.o" em. A.~'. f C §)"j'cY§~y d. The right-hand-screw rule as illustrated in Fig. A. This type of coil. known as a solenoid.ointing in the (conventional) direction of current flow. The directions of the magnetic passes through the center of the coil. Because a current-carrying conductor has a magnetic field around it. Instead ofa single turn. A. illustrated in Fig. a right hand is closed around a conductor with the thumb p.6(a) shows a wood screw being turned clockwise and progressing into a piece of wood. 5. . A. The fingers point in the direction of the magnetic lines of force around the conductor. Fig.7(a) shows the effect on the fields when two conductors carrying in opposite direction are adjacent.6 The right-hand-screw rule and the right-hand rule can be used for determining the direction of the magnetic lines of force around a current-carrying conductor. The horizontal direction of the screw is analogous to the direction of current in a conductor. 5. 5. 5. A. as illustrated in Fig. the coilIrulY have many turns.

'conductor /~ (a) All of the flux passes through the center of the coil turn (b) Side view of coil turn and flux .e.--- I. toward the Npole end of the solenoid)..480 APPENDICES The right-hand rule for determining the direction of flux from a solenoid is illustrated in Fig.. • (d) Right-hand rule for solenoid flux direction (c) A solenoid sets up a flux like a bar magna Fig.._ . 5.. that is.--..7(d).7 In current-carrying coils. Electromagnetic Induction It has been demonstrated that a magnetic flux is generated by an electric current flowing in a conductor. the magnetic lines of force around the conductors all pass through the center of the coil. 5. Flux around .-.. When the solenoid is gripped with the right hand so that the fingers are pointing in the direction of current flow in the coils. . a magnetic flux can produce a current flow in a conductor. The converse is also possible.. t ... A. the thumb points in the direction of the flux (i. A.

This produces a current flow in the conductors proportional to the total flux that cuts the coil.8 An electromotive force (emf) is induced in a coil when the coil is brushed by a magnetic field.8(a). . As the bar magnet approaches the coil. a current flows. an electromotive force (emf) can be measured at the coil terminals.APPENDICES 481 Consider Fig. A. the flux from the magnet brushes across the coil conductors or cuts the conductors. This effect is known as electromagnetic induction. The magnetic field may be from a bar magnet or from a current-carrying coil. S. in which a handled bar magnet is shown being brought close to a coil of wire. If the coil circuit is closed by a resistor (as shown broken in the figure).5. A. Whether or not the circuit is closed. (a) emf induced in a coil by the motion of the flux from the bar magnet (b) emf induced in a coil by the motion of the flux from the solenoid when the current is switched on or off Fig.

. 1 ... .. 5.. -.__ .'.~ //0 \... --.....+. .........." --.... \' "". ... ~ ....-.. '" -~ ..... \ \' \.. \ \ \:l)+ \ "\:......". .. A. ----. .\ ' . \ \ \ / ----..... ..-+-....._ ...... \.....' ..J / \ ___ .--+--. .. . ... --+. \ -..'...-. __ . .... r-'. -' /"" / ..... This force tends to cause the coil to rotate ... / / " --+--' __ + __ / N I /'/" --+--....--""" // (b) Showing the force on each side of a single-turn pivoted in a magnetic field Fig. //// /' -..-..._ .Ii II( +." ' / / . ""... .482 APPENDICES N (a) Single-turn coil pivoted in a magnetic field /"...' ......... I ---... " ..... ~.-... " / / // f---"" .'-______ \' . .. '--.... ...9 A force is exerted on each side of a current-carrying coil pivoted in a magnetic field.

They shine out. damp or damage.APPENDICES Fibre Optic Cables: Lij!ht and Other Rays 483 • / The parts of the eit:ctromagnetic spectrum have different wavelengths and different names .. or radiate. l'\\ V i f Light waves IV·I " Radio waves Micro-waves Infra-red waves Ultra-violet waves X-rays Gamma rays . Outer sheath protects from dirt. • Inside an optical tibre cable . Light rays are just a tiny pari of a huge range of ra) s and waves called the c1c..: called electromagnetic radiation . so they ar. Core Glass cladding Glass cladding +~Sheath (I Enlarged view of an optical tibre Laser light . \ Light rays or waves are a type of energy called electromagnetic energy. .<! • Light shines from optical tibres. making their tips glow. from tht:i l source. Twisted steel centre gives the cable strength Optical fibre s are colour-coded . so that tho y can be correctly connected to other macilines.:tromagnetic spectrum (EMS) \ ! I .

APPENDIX-6 Circuit Symbols 1 i dc voltage source or single-cell battery ~ -- I Multicell battery Generator Current source ac voltage source Lamp Voltmeter Ammeter ell Wattmeter Chassis Unconnected crossing conductors Ground Conductor connection or junction +++ Fuse .

I Resistor Variable resistor Potentiometer Capacitor Variable capacitor f . . t .0 10 )0 ~ ~ )0 1 Variable inductor Inductor Air-cored inductor Iron-cored inductor .-------'C . J } jll r Iron-cored inductor jll r" Variable inductor Air-cored inductor ~ Capacitor j~ r 1 ~lli r '-I .0 P I~ f? <> p G i'> p .APPENDICES 485 1 de voltage source or single-cell battery 1j1 Two-way switch Double-pole switch ~1 .

APPENDIX-7 Unit Conversion Factors The following factors may be used for conversion between non-SI units and SI units.(cm~) hectares (h2.59 0. To Convert Area Units acres acres circular mils square feet square inches square miles square miles square yards To Multiply By square meters (m 2 ) hectares (ha) square meters (m:!) square meters (1112) square centj"n"wr:. inch Maxwells mhos Oersteds amperes/meter (A/m) teslas (T) ampere (turns) (A) teslas (T) webers (Wb) Siemens (S) amperes/meter 39.8 2. square kilomdcrs (km:!) square meters (m:!) 4047 0.4047 5.928 x 10-4 10-7 0..10 0.55 x lO-5 10-8 1 79.067 x 10.2778 x lO-13 1.1383 .577 Energy and Work Units Btu Btu ergs ergs foot-pounds foot-pounds joules (J) kilowatt-hours (kWh) joules (J) kilowatt-hours (kWh) joules (J) ki logram meters (kgm) 1054.37 10-4 0.0909 6.7958 1.452 259 2.356 0.8361 Electric and Magnetic Units amperes/inch gauses gilberts lines/sq.

8288 2.10 0.325 100 1.32)/1.APPENDICES Force Units dynes dynes pounds poundals grams grams (g) newtons (N) newtons (N) newtons (N) newtons (N) 1.8 273.7 Pressure Units atmospheres atmospheres bars bars pounds/sq.807 x 10-3 Illumination Units foot-candles lumens/cm2 10.meter (kg/m 2) ki lograms/sq. meter (kg/m 2 ) kilopascals (kPa) kilopascals (kPa) kilograms/sq.54 x 10-3 0.853 1.3048 1.meter (kg/m 2 ) 10332 101.8 .32)11.764 To Convert Linear Units angstroms feet fathoms inches mIcrons miles (nautical) miles (statute) mils yards To Multiply By meters (m) meters (m) meters (m) centimeters (cm) meters (m) kilometers (km) kilometers (km) centimeters (cm) meters (m) 1 x 10.9144 Power Units horsepower watts (W) 745.1383 9.54 10-6 1. inch kilograms/sq.882 703 Temperature Units degrees Fahrenheit (OF) degrees Fahrenheit (OF) degrees celsius (0C) degrees kelvin (K) (OF .02 10-5 x 487 10-3 4.meter (kg/m 2 ) kilograms/sq.15 + (OF .02 x 10-4 4.448 0.609 2. foot pounds/sq.

02832 16.5 4 3.609 1.) pints (imperial) cubic meters (m 3) cubic meters (m 3) cubic centimeters (cm 3) liters (I) cubic meters (m 3 ) cubic meters (m 3 ) cubic meters (m 3) liters (I) liters (I) liters (I) liters (I) liters (I) 0.546 0.488 Velocity Units miles/hour (mph) knots kilometers/hour (km/h) ki lometers/hour (km/h) APPENDICES 1.5683 Gauge 36 37 38 39 40 Copper Wire Resistance Diameter (mm) (O/km) 0.4732 0.18 The siemens* is the unit of conductance.9463 1.7853 4.090 0.1183 0.35 0.5 3.101 0.7853 x 10-3 4.I37 Weight Units ounces pounds tons (long) tons (short) grams (g) kilograms (kg) kilograms (kg) kilograms (kg) 28.853 Volume Units bushels cubic feet cubic inches cubic inches cubic yards gallons (U.) gallons (imperial) gallons (U.S.1 Copper Wire Resistance (O/km) 415 523 655 832 1044 To Convert quarts (U. conductance = ---resistance .S.127 0.080 1360 1715 2147 2704 3422 Diameter (mil) 5 4.7646 3.387 0.03524 0.546 x 10-3 3.) gallons (imperial) gills pints (U.45359 1016 907.) quarts (imperial) To liters (I) liters (I) Multiply By 0.S.113 0.01639 0.S.

15 1.30 2.316 0.26 1.8 72 0000 000 00 0 I 11.906 2.83 1.9 289.078 0.1 16.1 50.498 0.3 40.4 101.39 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 64.1 57.255 0.115 3.8 45.348 6.8 324.40 9.628 0.406 0.160 0.02 5.827 5.06 2.20 6.4 204.05 1.18 4.10 5.511 0.9 90.999 1.620 4.252 7.0 Copper wire Diameter (mill) Resistance (Q/1000 ft) 460 409.63 1.395 0.197 0.062 0.APPENDIX-8 American Wire Gauge Sizes and Metric Equivalents Gauge Diameter (mm) Copper wire Resistance (Q/km) 0.026 1.645 0.588 2.3 .156 0.792 0.59 2 2.313 0.68 10.3 181.27 4.665 3.543 5.45 1.049 0.813 1.6 21.098 0.124 0.189 4.266 8.3 128.52 3.06 6.59 3.3 257.26 10.7 80.29 1.4 13.9 162 144.02 0.5 114.248 0.203 0.63 2.6 364.29 1.6 229.264 2.55 8.

255 0.7 83.3 33.9 52.3 22. .7 32.4 103 130 164 206 261 329 .723 0.321 0.455 0.9 8 7.405 0.9 32 28..9 15.912 0.2 12.9 81.9 106 134 168 213 267 337 425 537 676 855 1071 35.490 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 0.3 5.8 66.180 0.511 0.5 25.05 10.573 0.286 0.813 0.4 64.3 25.3 10 8.1 12.2 41.6 11.6 20.644 0.227 0.143 26.4 41 51.1 17.361 0.1 6.202 0.9 14.8 16.160 0.6 APPENDICES 8.1 20.

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6. a d 3. a 4. ~I_ V 2 C 2 Answers to Multiple Choice Questions 1. 9. 15. -Be mv Be /xD 21tm 17. emN 9. c 5. &= - V d 12. 20. Sawtooth Wave form. 23. 18. Graticules Acquadag Coating 25. 5. d 6. 11. 3. 7. S = M g. 22.492 Electronic Devices and Circuits Chapter-1 Answers to Objective Type Questions I. 4. The deflection produced when the deflectin~magnetic field intensity is I wblm . < a = Circle T = r m 16. c 8. /xL 2m x . d 2.JVa 10. 8. SE = 2sV. The deflection produced when the deflecting voltage is I V. a 10. a 7. Vim or V/cm Nickel Cylinder with a coating of Barium and Strontium. V = f m = ~2X:XV B x I x L Newtons Ee 13 . 21. b . Electron volt 2. NIT Parabolic path 3000 BIL Circular Electrostatic Electrostatic Lissajous mO 19. 24. 14.

29. 21. 7. 16. 18. 13.E J = (nell + pell ).026V T 0 26. It gets doubled for every 10 rise in temperature V = 0. I o High 28. Immobile. 9 18. 25. 13. Space 2 I J = cr. 23. Insulator Lower than. Conduction 30. c c 8. oc T I o 22. 5. 2.E. n. 15. d c 6.5eV 6. < 1028/m 3 and> 107 electrons/m 3 10 Q-cm. T 11. 24.600 Negative Resistance Characteristic Answers to Multiple Choice Questions 1. 3. e P(0) n NA + n =ND + P Decreases Decreases as V Valance Band Con'duction Band mcreases v I (e1'\VT_1) o Germanium = O.Answers 493 Chapter-2 Answers to Objective Type Questions 1.5V Silicon 10. 10. 14. 16. 14. 11. 8. 17. 11. 12. 12.leV E E o KTln( N~~A 1 0. a b b 5. 20. b . Impurities added in. d d 17. 19. 4. a a 7. b b 3. 27. d c 4. 9.e n p Eo = l.IVand = 0. n x p = n2 i 3/2 n. a 2. 9. b 15.

4. 5. Good regulation and conduction angle of 0 180 for the diode Answers to Multiple Choice Questions 1.21 Inductance varies with current permissable limits. d 4. 2. 111 3.494 Electronic Devices and Circuits Chapter-3 Answers to Objective Type Questions 1. AC to unidirectional flow Unidirectional flow to DC Ripple Factor = 1. c . c 3. a 2.

c b 4. IpC 4. (I + 13) 24. d a 15. b 2.Answers 495 Chapter-4 Answers to Objective Type Questions I. a b a 7. 5. l3' = 8I e I 8I B VC'E=K 27. 14. IpE ::1. i. a a 3. 3. d 5. 2.VGS)2 Vp 10. I DS = IDSS(I. 22. P a 7.E Pinch off Voltage Pinch off Voltage few tens of ohms to few hundred ohms. c 6. 13. 16. 31. 12. a = 13* y a = 6. 13. 19. d 16. 30. c c 8. J IS. V GS = 0 voltage variable /-l = rd * gm JFET Depletion MOSFET ( DMOSFET ) Answers to Multiple Choice Questions 1. 17. the saturation value of the drain current when gate is shorted to source. C. 20. d 20. J 8.B.Vp a 9 . I CEO - {I-a} 26. 17. Small Signal Common Emitter Forward Current Gain 28. h fe and hFE Large Signal Current Gain Small Signal Current Gain Change in base width with the change in the base voltage V BE MOSFET UNIPOLAR gain band width product is less. d 10.e. NPN the direction of conventional current when the E-8 Junction is forward biased. 13= {I-a} 8. II. 18. 23.. Ic = IE: V GS 13 I B + (13 + I )I CBO --leBo 25. b a c 19. . 11. 29. 9. =(J_~)2. 14.

ale I s--- 7 I-P(~:. b 4. aiel S" = 13 10. Co. 2. leo = K The centre of the active region on the load line. 15. Emitter bias. 3.) l+~( RE RE +RB II. Mn. 4.5mv/oC Negative (NTCR) Sensistors Oxides ofNi. 10. c b 2. ale S'= -aV BE I". semiversal bias or Voltage divider bias circuit. d 5. 14. 12. Quiescent point. VCE = 0. a 3. VAl = K 13. S ~ 7 ) 7.point.496 Electronic Devices and Circuits Chapter. 9. Biasing point Ico' V BE' 9. 6. aleo 2.5 Answers to Objective Type Questions 1. a 6. 8.J3=K Answers to Multiple Choice Questions 1. I =K. S= a~ VSE = K. 5. J3 = K. a 7. Q .5 Vee' Base bias circuit. c 8. b d .

-4 Audio h. 10. 14. c 7. 9. 17. 2. 20. b d 11. a c 8. 5. d . 9. 13. Answers to Multiple Choice Questions 1.5 x 10 . 11. Common Base configuration Common Collector Configuration Voltatge follower/buffer 4. 18. a 6. Ie re 6. n. aVe IB=K 16. hoe = 6)lmhos. d d 3. htle = 200 7.Answers Chapter-6 Answers to Objective Type Questions 1. 16. c b 20. 19. c c 4. 12. Decreases Low Large <1 3. 13. = 1KO. a c b 14. x \00 h~e Leekage current is more High Common Emitter and Common Base Configuration High voltage gain and high current gain No units (constant) AC Signal Power Dehvered to the Load DC Input Power h fe 1+ hoeRL 8. 17. mhos and constants the units of different parameters are not the same hllll +h 12V 2 h21 I I + h22 V 2 aVB 10. 15. 12. 21. 18. 19. h = 1. b a c 5. 22. 15. b 2.

3. b 5. 13. d a 4. c 6. R = I 7. 6. Low. 8. 10.Low Node sampling AV = 00 9. • (i) voltage-series (ii) voltage-shunt Answers to Multiple Choice Questions 1. a 3. S= l+~A R=oo R0 =0. c 7. 11. 4. 14. 00· ' R=oo 0 16. = (1 + f3A) B. 10. 12. a d . Gain is n.W f~ = f2 (1 + f3A) Degenerative feedback 15. 5. .498 Electronic Devices and Circuits Chapter-7 Answers to Objective Type Questions 1. D=(I+f3A) High current gain.W). 2. 9.:duced 1 8. Low R" High Ro Return ratio Decreases Increases f3 = V) V0 = feedback signal/output signal (B. b b 2.

input. 13. a 6. c a 2. Collpitts oscillator circuit Quartz and Rochelle salt 1. b 8. 14. R= 15K Q = 5500 Answers to Multiple Choice Questions 1. d b 4. Oxides of Nickel and Manganese L = 137 H C = 0. 4. Rochelle salt 3. 7.3: 1 Positive.Answers 499 Chapter-8 Answers to Objective Type Questions 1.0235 flF 15. 9. 11. 9. c 5.C. Oscillator circuit doesn't need external A. 10: 1. Internally generated Noise Signal Positive feedback Zero or 3600 I(3AI ~ 1 Few 100 Hz to KHz range Tuned oscillator circuit 5 Hz to 1 MHz Hartley oscillator 10. PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate) 4.) 2. 6. 12. 5. b 7. a b 3. Baaium titanate (Batio. . Amplifier needs external A. Lithium sulphate 2.C. 10. 3. input. 8.

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62 B Band structure 44 Barrier potential 56. 273 BJTs 386 F Feedback amplifier 276.284. 257. 322. 322.272. 83 Electron emission 28. 189.27. 43 . 200. 323. 169. 272. 89.41. 56 Electron volts 7 Energy band 40. 64. 411 Cathode ray tube 26. 309 Distortion 382. 196. 445 H Hartley oscillator 429 h-parameter 406 h-parameters 316. 322 Input impedance 214. 57 Base spread resistance 375. 87. 406 Field Effect Transistor (FET) 213 Filters 143. 153 c Capacitance 366. 64 Conversion efficiency 329. 420.371 Alloy junction 197 Amplification 189. 453 Crystal oscillators 447. 269. 452 Current amplification 342 Current gain 182. 322.32. 330 Amplifier 268 Amplifiers 359.452. 76. 276. 62. 280 Cascade 410. Input resistance 257.406 Feedback amplifiers 381.502 Electronic Devices and Circuits A Acceptor impurities Active region 257. 390. 195.449. 376 Crystal oscillator 429. 369. 335 Common emitter 410. 42. 268. 88. 163. 56 FET 63. 417 Ionization potential 47 .366. 409 Capacitor 4. 319. 10.451. 314. 424 Cut off region 371 G Germanium 40.448. 408. 382 Fermi dirac function 75 Fermi energy level 99 Fermi level 54. 415 Conduction band 62. 416. 54. 404 Drift current 84. 368. 377 Atom 40.37 CMOS 234 Common base amplifiers 377 Common base configuration 321 Common collector 366 Common collector configuration 321. 62. 389. 320. 3 18 I Input characteristics 194.268. 366. 365. 62. 283.281 .42 Avalanche 63 D Diffusion 87.271 Diffusion current 88 Diode 27. 451. 450.337. 318. 378 Basewidth 187 Bias 270. 325 hybrid parameters 314. 81 Conductivity 61 . 258 E Effective mass 39.370. 183 Frequency 143. 270. 54.152.34.

254.341.261.445 MOS 213. 191.54.62.210. 62. 129. 302. 209.262.281. 130. 285. 225.Index 503 J JFET 257.392 n-type 66. 95. 433 .120. 311. Peak Inverse Voltage (PlY) 151 Photo diode 256 Plank's constant 42 Poisson's equation. 197. 67.235 MOSFET 257. 88.71. 253. 432 NMOS 234 Noise 63.345. 130.228 Resonant circuit oscillators 446 N Negative resistance 122. 133.258. 251. 298. 122. 370 Semiconductors 40.268. 320 R Radiation 41 Radiation energy 41 Relaxation oscillators 430 Resistivity 61. 227. 287. 234. 293.258 Quality factor 431 Qui\scent point Q ~.240 Mass action law 70 Mean free path 63 Metal 98. 126.259. Stability factor 279. 217 Power amplification 314 Power gain 328.424 p-type 66. 71.387. 30 I.219. 260. 239.238.270.382.133.213. 222. 311 Low frequency equivalent circuit 365 M Majority carriers 67. 177 Sensistor 285. 195.119. 185 Micron 97 Minority carrier 68 Mobility 64. 275.334.420 Peak detector 167 Silicon diode 129.213.130. 69.62. 73.131.272.216.125. 254.131.269.135 Sinusoidal oscillators 432.329. 309 Silicon 40. 299.371 Schottky diode 133 Schottky effect 56 Self bias 241.195.377. 67 n-type impurities 190 s Saturation region 193.225.132.347.265 Junction diode 39. 84. 276.214. 68.283.236. 68 p-type impurity 191 L LEDs 255 Load line 269.285.297. 293 .337.85 o Oscillators 430 p Parameter 419.257.

56. 264 Transconductance 229.50.504 Electronic Devices and Circuits T Temperature 54.49. 120. 136 Valance 79 Valance band 62 Varactor diode 62 v Voltage amplification 314 Voltage gain 268. 384.47. 300. 445 Threshold voltage 252.49. 121. 120 .62. 120. 287 Thermistor 285.62. 298. 88 Thermal energy 64 Thermal resistance 286.57 Work function 54 z Zener diode 39. 424. 45. 78 Thermal 66.123. 130 Zener breakJown 118. 131. 426 w Wavelength 45.370 Tunnel diode 39. 286. 392 Transistor (BJT) 345. 305. 304. 410. 312 Thermal runaway 286. 382. 119.122. 385. 287. 315. 70. 84.126.

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