Explain why the weather changes with the passage of a depression.

Temperature – cool initially and then getting warmer as warm front approaches. Cloud – cloud thickens, layer cloud – stratus and cirrus as warm air rises over cold, then thins and possible breaks as warm sector passes to be followed by thick, vertical, cumulus clouds as cold front approaches and cold air forces warm air to rise quickly. Precipitation – prolonged, relatively light rain as the wider warm front passes, then drier, possibly drizzle and breaks in rain and heavy rain, possibly snow with cold front. Wind increases as warm front approaches and pressure falls as warm front approaches, steadies as warm sector passes and increases to be at its strongest as cold front passes. Pressure starts to fall ahead of the warm front, continuing to do so as the warm front passes. It then steadies before rising as cold front passes. Outline one possible cause of global climate change Changes in way earth orbits around the sun will lead to closer proximity and so greater warmth Burning of fossil fuels such as coal and oil leads to the release of carbon dioxide which is a greenhouse gas. Describe and explain the global response(s) to the threat of climate change. Reference should be made to international agreements such as Kyoto and strategies for looking at worldwide emissions via carbon credits. Explanation should relate to the way in which all countries must take responsibility as atmosphere does not recognise political barriers. There is no point some countries reducing levels of greenhouse gases and others not. However, within this context, more national/regional strategies may also be appropriate – i.e. a recognition of how targets to reduce emissions may be reached, Thus, switching to renewable sources of energy, use of vehicle excise tax in UK, recycling, traffic management To try and reduce greenhouse gas omissions, 37 countries signed the Kyoto Protocol. These countries must reduce their 1990 carbon emissions levels by 5.2% by 2012. This is a step to reducing emissions worldwide where all countries need to take part as gases are not contained by political boundaries. Carbon credits aim to identify an overall amount of emissions by allowing countries to trade in amounts. Local strategies are also important as ‘every little helps’ so turning lights off, using buses rather than cars will reduce our use of fossil fuels. Governments switching to wind power and introducing transport strategies such as congestion charging all play a part. Weather in the UK latitude which means that the angle of the sun is higher/insolation greater so rays travel through less of the atmosphere; are spread over a smaller area of the land; impact of the sea in summer as sea warms up more slowly than land it has a cooling effect in western areas; (which can be linked to); continental

benefiting farmers. there are no clouds in the sky. clear skies lead to frost and fog at night and early morning whilst in summer. During both a summer and winter anticyclone. Low-lying islands like the Maldives and islands in the Pacific would disappear and areas of tropical rainforest would be under threat. Another problem would be the cost of trying to protect major cities like London and Hull from the rising sea levels What is the difference between weather and climate? Weather is the day-to-day variation of features such as rainfall. Skies are clear. However in winter. Economic effects – likely to include loss of earnings. This makes for sunny weather. changing conditions will mean changes in vegetation – warmer conditions in parts of northern Europe may see coniferous forest disappear or adapt. some crops will increase in yield like potatoes and outdoor tomatoes. there are hot. parts of southern England growing more crops linked to Mediterranean areas such as vines. costs of sea defences. Similarly. so dry conditions are present in winter and summer. as ice melts and skiing cannot occur. Environmental effects – loss of coastal areas and habitats. some people would lose their jobs as warmer temperatures mean the ski resorts in the Alps in Switzerland around Interlaken don’t have enough snow. wind. impact on farming – different crops grown as climates change e. but not a summer feature. A wider variety of crops could be grown such as vines. average of at least 30 years. hurricanes and extreme weather will become more common. Describe the environmental and economic consequences of climate change for the world.g. loss of businesses/livelihood e. However. Lots of low-lying coastal areas will be flooded. giving sunny days. increasing farmer’s profits. olives whilst part of southern Europe may become too dry if deserts spread. dry days. If it gets hotter. Compare and/or contrast the weather during a summer anticyclone with that of a winter anticyclone. icebergs will be more apparent. areas will flood especially low lying coastal areas. whilst climate represents the average weather conditions – over a period of time. Ground frost is common and fog is a winter. relief areas that are higher are cooler at a rate of 1 degree per 100 metres. Icebergs would break off from the Antarctic ice sheet. There will be many environmental changes. There would be a greater risk of forest fires and the Houses of Parliament could be flooded. There is no rain. As well as these environmental changes. conditions are calm – there is little wind or no wind. Use a case study to describe the responses to a tropical revolving storms .influence in east – areas nearer Europe where air coming from here will be warmer due to continental influence as land warms up faster than water. such as in East Anglia in UK and much of the country of Bangladesh.g. the weather is usually hot and sunny in a summer anticyclone whilst a winter it is often cold and frosty. temperature. oranges in the south.

Others were given shelter – many in a sports stadium. burying dead. faced nearly complete destruction. Economic effects: Hurricane Katrina affected 19% of US oil production. protecting areas. The tourist industry. . which had become an important export. Economic effects: The heavy rain associated with the storm caused widespread flooding and landslides resulting in over 70-80% of the transportation infrastructure of the entire country being wiped out. treating injured. Most people in New Orleans left before Hurricane Katrina struck. This caused oil and gas prices to rise. bridges. in particular the Mississippi coast with 12 casinos was devastated. They were given drinking water and food supplies. providing clean water. They have tried to strengthen the levees. further developing warning systems and evacuation routes.Hurricane Katrina and Cyclone Nargis. displacing 368 300 of the population. Katrina struck the heart of Louisiana’s sugar cane industry. Shrimp production. rescuing people. Mitch Social effects: Officials put the death toll at 18 000 dead or missing with over one million made homeless. Hurricane Katrina caused $260 million of damage to the port of New Orleans disrupting imports and exports. In Nicaragua heavy rains damaged 17 600 houses and destroyed 23 900. Long term responses likely to refer to rebuilding homes/businesses. describe the contrasting economic and social effects. Chemical plants producing 25% of the nation’s chemicals were affected. 340 schools and 90 health centres were severely damaged or destroyed. Mitch’s rainfall and associated flooding resulted in 70% of the country’s crops being lost. People injured were taken to hospitals and given emergency treatment. (In the long term) Much money has been spent rebuilding New Orleans and making people’s homes inhabitable again. including the death of 50 000 cattle and the loss of 60% of the poultry population. Over 4 million people were affected with landslides washing away whole villages. Katrina Social effects: Officials put the death toll at 1836 mainly from the state of Louisiana with over 300 000 houses being destroyed or otherwise made uninhabitable. repairing roads. Katrina destroyed over 100 offshore oil and gas platforms and damaged 457 oil and gas pipelines. medical attention. Short term responses are likely to refer to evacuation. providing shelters. Using case studies of hurricanes in rich and poor parts of the world. Responses will vary depending on whether example is taken from a richer or poorer area of the world. Large amounts of animal losses occurred as well.

The first years of the twenty-first century continued this trend and global warming has probably become the major environmental issue of our time. Allow reference to any large city or cities in the MEDW or the LEDW. More sophisticated responses will explain the greenhouse effect. outlining how growing levels of carbon dioxide. which results in the production of ozone. nitrous oxides and ozone in the atmosphere result in more long-wave radiation being trapped than previously. in recent years both glaciers and ice margins have retreated and sea levels have risen. together with increases in levels of other greenhouse gases such as methane and nitrous oxides. As LEDCs start to develop. but present rises appear too rapid to be the result of natural reasons. which increase the volume of particulates in the air in the confined space of the city. Large-scale pastoral farming and intensive rice cultivation in deforested areas also contribute to an increase in emissions of methane. in particular the release of huge amounts of carbon dioxide from fires. Possible causes: Climatic changes have happened in the past. Sunlight reacts with nitrogen oxides (NOx) and hydrocarbons from vehicle exhaust gases. as once the air has descended it is relatively static due to the absence of wind. they too are beginning to generate energy as cheaply as possible. Although the overall rise seems small (1°C). the top ten hottest years have all occurred since 1980. chlorofluorocarbons. such as China there are fewer restrictions on factories/cars to ensure better air quality. Explain how human activities affect urban air quality in large cities during the summer months. such weather systems tend to be relatively stable. At the present time this means consuming huge quantities of fossil fuels. Although scientists have been slow to commit themselves about the causes and effects. (and some countries such as China are well along the road). methane. Credit those who refer to more natural causes. motor vehicles and factories. and can persist for weeks at a time during the summer months.4% per year.Examine the evidence for and possible causes of global warming Evidence for: Average world temperatures have risen since records were first kept in 1860. there is no doubt that the planet is heating up. but present evidence seems to suggest that the recent increase in temperature has been brought about by pollution of the atmosphere. • One of the most striking features of the Cool Temperate Western Maritime climate is its unpredictability due in part to the overall dominance of low-pressure weather systems. Describe the climatic conditions typical of Cool Temperate Western Maritime regions. Additionally. has upset the natural balance and led to global warming. Additionally. dust from building work and factory emissions. In NICs. and the 1990s was the hottest decade. Most cities will experience frequent sunshine in the summer. such as sunspot activity. thereby adding to the problem. The atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has increased by about 15% in the last 100 years and the current rate of increase is estimated to be 0. Most large cities like Beijing are likely to have serious problems with photochemical smog because of the high density of vehicles. power stations. causing a chemical reaction. Evidence shows that temperature variations have occurred in the past. . Photochemical smog is a particular hazard during anticyclonic conditions. This. Additionally large-scale deforestation of areas such as the Amazon Basin have also contributed as trees act as a major carbon sink and store of carbon dioxide.

The annual range of temperature within the CTWM is relatively small but increases with distance away from the west coast. yet a short distance further east on lowland in the shadow of the mountains. in particular those close to western coasts. average monthly values seldom exceed 20 °C. (because the depressions during these seasons can track further north or south). • Rainfall is generally experienced throughout the year but within the climate zone it tends to vary according to relief. High-pressure weather systems (anticyclones) are more likely to become established during these seasons and they block the approaching fronts. the summer tends to be the driest season. In winter the average temperatures are generally above freezing. annual totals can be as little as 500 mm. This minimum temperature value is influenced by the warming effect of the sea. rainfall totals can exceed 2500 mm.• Temperatures are lower than average for the latitude in summer. In upland areas. In general. followed by winter. . Most of the rainfall experienced is brought in by frontal systems.

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