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Translated Report,

November 2000.

Internet:

http://dutw189.wbmt.tudelft.nl/~johan

http://www.shipmotions.nl

Report 0267, J une 1970,

Delft University of Technology,

Ship Hydromechanics Laboratory,

Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft,

The Netherlands.

E-mail: J .M.J .J ournee@wbmt.tudelft.nl

A Simple Method for Determining the Manoeuvring

Indices K and T from Zigzag Trial Data

J.M.J. Journe

Delft University of Technology

Abstract

Nomotos first order model is the simplest mathematical model to describe ship manoeuvres.

Calculated manoeuvring data have been analysed here to determine the relation between the

manoeuvring indices K and T of Nomoto (1960) and zigzag manoeuvring characteristics.

The results have been reflected in graphs, which can be used then to determine these indices

from actual zigzag manoeuvres. This report is a translation in English of a report in Dutch of

the author, J ourne (1970), on this topic.

1 Introduction

The horizontal motions of a vessel due to a

rudder deflection can be described by

using mathematical models. The most

simple system, the first order model of

Nomoto (1960), is a compromise between

the demand for a simple mathematical

model and a fair approximation of the

actual manoeuvres of the ship.

Nomoto has published some methods to

estimate the manoeuvring indices K and

T from (full-scale) zigzag trial data. But,

using these index estimators, it appears

often that the calculated manoeuvres

deviate considerably from those measured

on the ship. Because of this, a method has

been developed to determine these indices

in such a way that the differences between

calculated and measured data, as far as

yaw period and overshoot are concerned,

are as low as possible.

Using Nomotos first order model, a large

number of zigzag manoeuvres have been

calculated here at a practical range of K

and T values. These data have been

analysed and the relation between the

zigzag manoeuvring characteristics and the

Nomoto indices K and T have been

reflected in graphs. Reversed, these graphs

2

can be used then to determine these indices

from actual zigzag manoeuvres.

2 Equation of Motion

The first order model of Nomoto (1960)

reads as follows:

( )

r

K T + ! ! !

Equation (1)

In here:

! ! Yaw angular acceleration

! Yaw angular velocity or

rate of turn

(deg/s

2

or rad/s

2

)

Yaw angle

(deg/s or rad/s)

Actual rudder angle

(deg or rad)

r

Effective rudder angle

(deg or rad)

K Proportionality constant

(1/sec)

T Time constant

(s)

3 Actual and Ideal Kempf Zigzag

Manoeuvres

An ideal Kempf zigzag manoeuvre has

to fulfil the following requirements here:

equal absolute values of rudder angles,

equal absolute values of rudder angle

velocities and

rudder-order when .

It is obvious that an actual zigzag

manoeuvre cant fulfil these specific

demands exactly. It is possible however, to

transform an actual manoeuvre to an ideal

manoeuvre with sufficient accuracy.

Therefore, computed ideal Kempf zigzag

manoeuvres have been analysed here.

4 Analysis of First Order Model

Using Nomotos first order model, a large

number of zigzag manoeuvres have been

calculated at a practical range of K and T

values, with the following parameters:

a

the level of the rudder angle,

r

the rudder angle at which the ship

sails a straight course and

!

the rate of turn of the rudder.

The following parameters have been

obtained from the computed course

histories:

p

t the period,

g

the mean course and

a

the maximum course deviation

relative to

g

.

To avoid transient effects, the third period

has been used to determine these

magnitudes, see figure 1.

Figure 1 Ideal Kempf Zigzag Test

The following relations have been found

by analysing these calculated data:

1

2

2

2

1

1

1

0

C t

C

t t

r

r

a

p p

+

'

,

_

Equation (2)

4

2

3

2

2

1

0

C C T K

t K

a

r

a

r

a

a

a

a

,

_

+ +

Equation (3)

3

r

r

g

t K C

2

1

09 . 1

5

Equation (4)

In here:

a

,

g

,

a

and

r

in degrees

p

t ,

0

p

t and

r

t in seconds.

!

/ 2

a r

t is the time of rudder

action

0

p

t is the period for manoeuvres with

!

and 0

r

0

a

is the yaw amplitude for

manoeuvres with

!

and 0

r

T t

p

/

0

,

a a

/

0

,

1

C ,

2

C ,

4

C and

5

C

are functions of the product T K

3

C is a function of

!

T

These relations are given in the figures 5, 6

and 7 as will be described further on.

5 Transformation of Actual Zigzag

Manoeuvres to Ideal Manoeuvres

The largest deviation of an actual zigzag

test from an ideal one is generally caused

by not fulfilling the requirement

0

ex

, see figure 2.

Figure 2 Manoeuvre Transformation

Because of transient effects, the second

and the third period of the time history has

to be used to determine mean values of

a

,

!

,

a

,

g

and

p

t , being the values

for an ideal manoeuvre.

However, when supposing that 0 ! ! at

1

t t , two additional corrections have to

be used to obtain the values

a

and

p

t for

an ideal manoeuvre:

( ) ( )

( )

1 2 ideal -

0 max ideal - max

t t t t

p p

ex

6 Determination of K and T from a

Zigzag Trial

As the ideal values of

a

,

!

,

a

,

g

and

p

t are known, the unknowns in the

three equations (2), (3) and (4) are K , T

and

r

. These equations can be solved in

an iterative way.

Doing this manually, is very time

consuming. Without a large influence on

the accuracy however, these equations can

be simplified by assuming that:

0

25 . 0 4

3

1

<<

C

T K C

a r

Then, equations (2) and (3) reduce to:

r r p p

t T K t t t + 125 . 0 2

0

Equation (5)

and

r

a

a

a

a

t K

2

1

0

Equation (6)

From derivations in the Appendix follows:

4

,

_

,

_

T K

T K t t t

T K

t

T

r r p

p

1

4

125 . 0 2

1

4

0

Equation (7)

In equation (7) is a function of T K

only, see figure 4. Also follows from the

derivations in the Appendix that

a a

/

0

is

a function of T K only, see figure 4.

Thus, with known ideal values of

a

,

a

,

p

t and

r

t , the coefficients K and T

can be found from equations (5), (6) and

(7) by a simple and fast iteration.

The following procedure provides the

coefficients K and T in a very quick and

simple way:

1. As a first guess for

a a

/

0

: ignore

r

t K 5 . 0 in equation (6).

2. At

a a

/

0

, figure 4 provides now

T K and .

3. Equation (7) provides T .

4. From T K and T follows K .

5. Using equation (6), this procedure will

be repeated from step 2 with a new

guess for

a a

/

0

.

The procedure will be terminated as K

and T do not change anymore.

7 Acknowledgement

The author is very grateful to Mr. G. van

Leeuwen for his support when solving

mathematical problems during the analysis

of this first order system.

8 References

Journe (1970)

J .M.J . J ourne, Een eenvoudige methode

ter bepaling van de manoeuvreer-indices

K en T uit zig-zag proeven, Report 267,

1970, Ship Hydromechanics Laboratory,

Delft University of Technology, The

Netherlands.

Nomoto (1960)

K. Nomoto, Analysis of Kempfs Standard

Manoeuvre Test and Proposed Steering

Quality Indices, First Symposium on Ship

Manoeuvrability, DTRC Report 1461,

October 1960.

9 Appendix

From the equation of motion, given in

equation (1), it can be found for

!

and 0

r

(see figure 3):

( )

T t T t

e K e

/

0

/

0

1

+ ! !

Equation (8)

and

( )

( ) T t e T K

e T

T t

T t

/ 1

1

/

0

/

0 0

+

!

Equation (9)

From equations (8) and (9) follows:

( )

( ) T t e T K

e T

T t

T t

/ 1

1

/

0

/

0

+

!

Equation (10)

5

Figure 3 Infinite Rudder Rate of Turn

Values at t

2

:

From equation (8) follows:

( )

T t

a

T t

e K e

/ /

0 2

2 2

1

+ ! !

Ignoring the transient effects yields:

0 2

! !

Thus:

T t

T t

a

e

e

K

/

/

0

2

2

1

1

!

Equation (11)

From equation (9) follows:

( )

( ) T t e T K

e T

T t

a

T t

/ 1

1

2

/

/

0 0 2

2

2

+

!

Because

a

+

0

and

a

2

is:

( )

( )

T t

T t

a

e T

T t e T K

/

2

/

0

2

2

1

/ 1 2

!

Equation (12)

From equations (11) and (12) follows:

T t

T t

e

e

T K T

t

/

/

2

2

2

1

1

2

2

When renaming:

+

T t

T t

e

e

/

/

2

2

1

1

, then is

a function of

T

t

p

0

, because:

2

2

0

t t

p

.

Then the following relation appears for

0

p

t :

+

4

4

0

T K T

t

p

Equation (13)

From the equations above follows that ,

T

t

2

and

T

t

p

0

are functions of the product

T K .

In figure 5,

0

p

t has been plotted against T

with K as parameter. Equation (13) and

this figure show that

K

t

p

4

0

for 0 T

and that

0

p

t for 0 K .

Values at t

1

:

From equation (8) follows:

( )

T t

a

T t

e K e

/ /

0 1

1 1

1

+ ! !

Because 0

1

! is:

( ) 1

/ 0

1

T t

a

e K

!

Equation (14)

Then, from equations (11) and (12)

follows that:

1

1

1

/

/

/

1

2

2

+

T t

T t

T t

e

e

e

T K , also T t /

1

will be a function of

T K .

From equation (10) follows that:

6

( ) T t e T K

T t

a

/ 1

1

/

0 1

1

Thus, because

a

+

0

and

0

1 a

is:

( ) T t e T K

T t

a

a

/ 1 1

1

/

1

0

Equation (15)

Because T t /

1

is a function of T K , also

a

a

0

will be a function of T K .

Figure 6 shows

a

a

0

as a function of

T K . Equation (15) and this figure show

that 1

0

a

a

0

a

a

for 0 K .

However, from the previous follows too

that both T K and are functions of

a

a

0

.

In figure 4,

T K

1

and have been

plotted against

a

a

0

.

7

Figure 4 Parameters and

T K

1

as a Function of

a

a

0

8

Figure 5 Period

0

p

t as a Function of K and T

9

Figure 6 Transfer Function

a

a

0

as a Function of T K

10

Figure 7 Correction Coefficients

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