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The World Trade Center is a complex of buildings under construction in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States, replacing an earlier complex of seven buildings with the same name on the same site. The original World Trade Center featured landmark twin towers, which opened on April 4, 1973 and were destroyed in the September 11 attacks of 2001, along with 7 World Trade Center. The other buildings in the complex were damaged in the attacks, and their ruins were eventually demolished. The site is being rebuilt with five new skyscrapers and a memorial to the casualties of the attacks. As of November 2011, only one skyscraper has been completed; the other four are expected to be completed before 2020. One World Trade Center will be the lead building for the new complex, reaching more than 100 stories at its completion. It became the tallest building in New York City on April 30, 2012, and is expected to be finished by 2013. A sixth tower is awaiting confirmation. At the time of their completion, the original 1 World Trade Center (the North Tower) and 2 World Trade Center (the South Tower), known collectively as the "Twin Towers", were the tallest buildings in the world. The other buildings included 3 WTC (the Marriott World Trade Center), 4 WTC, 5 WTC, 6 WTC, and 7 WTC. All of these buildings were built between 1975 and 1985. The cost for the construction was $400 million ($2,300,000,000 in 2013 dollars). The complex was located in the heart of New York City's downtown financial district and contained 13.4 million square feet (1.24 million m2) of office space. The World Trade Center experienced a fire on February 13, 1975, a bombing on February 26, 1993 and a robbery on January 14, 1998. In 1998, the Port Authority decided to privatize the World Trade Center, leasing the buildings to a private company to manage, and awarded the lease to Silverstein Properties in July 2001. On the morning of September 11, 2001, Al-Qaeda-affiliated hijackers flew two Boeing 767 jets into the complex, one into each tower, in a coordinated terrorist attack. After burning for 56 minutes, the South Tower (2) collapsed, followed a half-hour later by the North Tower (1), with the attacks on the World Trade Center resulting in 2,753 deaths. Falling debris from the towers, combined with fires that the debris initiated in several surrounding buildings, led to the partial or complete collapse of all the other buildings in the complex and caused catastrophic damage to ten other large structures in the surrounding area. The process of cleanup and recovery at the World Trade Center site took eight months. Over the following years, plans for a rebuilt World Trade Center took form. The first new building at the site was 7 World Trade Center, which opened in May 2006. The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC), established in November 2001 to oversee the rebuilding process, organized competitions to select a site plan and memorial design. Memory Foundations, designed by Daniel Libeskind, was selected as the master plan, but this went through substantial changes in design. The new World Trade Center complex will include One World Trade Center, three other high-rise office towers, and the National September 11 Memorial & Museum.
Planning and construction
The idea of establishing a World Trade Center in New York City was first proposed in 1943. The New York State Legislature passed a bill authorizing New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey to begin developing
the Port Authority offered to take over the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad to have it become the Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH). 1964. Tobin and newly elected New Jersey Governor Richard J. 1962. Located on the 44th and 78th floors of each tower. agreed to support the World Trade Center project. Meyner objected to New York getting a $335 million project. made public in 1961. requiring more space-consuming elevator banks. 1966. inspired by the New York City Subway system. an agreement was reached that the Port Authority would make annual payments to the City in lieu of taxes for the portion of the World Trade Center leased to private tenants. On August 3. the more elevators are needed to service the building. In subsequent years. called for a square plan approximately 208 feet (63 m) in dimension on each side. The Port Authority also decided to move the World Trade Center project to the Hudson Terminal building site on the west side of Lower Manhattan. Initial plans. the payments would rise as the real estate tax rate increased. The buildings were . Yamasaki's original plan called for the towers to be 80 stories tall. To help stimulate urban renewal in Lower Manhattan. Yamasaki's design for the World Trade Center. increasing the amount of usable space on each floor from 62 to 75 percent by reducing the number of elevator shafts. Yamasaki devised the plan to incorporate twin towers. David Rockefeller suggested that the Port Authority build a World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan. New Jersey. the Port Authority required approval for new projects from the governors of both New York and New Jersey. the buildings would each have to be 110 stories tall. During the late 1940s and 1950s. In a December 1961 meeting between Port Authority director Austin J. Disagreements with the city centered on tax issues. the sky lobbies enabled the elevators to be used efficiently.000 m2) of office space. the Port Authority announced the selection of Minoru Yamasaki as lead architect and Emery Roth & Sons as associate architects. ridership on New Jersey's Hudson and Manhattan Railroad (H&M) had declined substantially from a high of 113 million riders in 1927 to 26 million in 1958 after new automobile tunnels and bridges had opened across the Hudson River. A major limiting factor in building height is the issue of elevators. Toward the end of 1961. the taller the building. With the new location and Port Authority acquisition of the H&M Railroad. Yamasaki and the engineers decided to use a new system with two "sky lobbies"—floors where people could switch from a large-capacity express elevator to a local elevator that goes to each floor in a section.plans for the project but the plans were put on hold in 1949. the World Trade Center had 95 express and local elevators.000. Approval was also needed from New York City Mayor John Lindsay and the New York City Council. As a bi-state agency. Altogether. economic growth in New York City was concentrated in Midtown Manhattan. New Jersey Governor Robert B. negotiations with outgoing New Jersey Governor Meyner reached a stalemate. but to meet the Port Authority's requirement for 10. unveiled to the public on January 18.000 square feet (930.[ Architectural design On September 20. This system. At the time. allowed the design to stack local elevators within the same elevator shaft. identified a site along the East River for the World Trade Center. Hughes. a more convenient location for New Jersey commuters arriving via PATH.
The core of each tower was a rectangular area 87 by 135 feet (27 by 41 m) and contained 47 steel columns running from the bedrock to the top of the tower. Loring & Associates as electrical engineers. The tubeframe design. the Port Authority's Chief Engineer. Monti. A grid of lightweight bridging trusses and main trusses supported the floors. Helle & Jackson worked to implement Yamasaki's design.03 m) centers. rigid wall structure. the main World Trade Center complex occupied a 16-acre (65. supporting virtually all lateral loads such as wind loads. the plan for the World Trade Center complex included four other low-rise buildings. The floors supported their own weight as well as live loads. Baum & Bolles as mechanical engineers. to the north of the main complex. Yamasaki's design included building facades sheathed in aluminum-alloy. The core of the towers housed the elevator and utility shafts. Nonetheless. column-free space between the perimeter and core was bridged by prefabricated floor trusses. was a new approach that allowed more open floor plans than the traditional design that distributed columns throughout the interior to support building loads. Joseph R. and Rino M. The joints between modules were staggered vertically so the column splices between adjacent modules were not at the same floor. the Port Authority was not subject to local laws and regulations of the City of New York including building codes. The floors were . Tozzoli.designed with narrow office windows 18 inches (46 cm) wide. In addition to the twin towers. and sharing the gravity load with the core columns. and it was the seminal expression of Yamasaki's gothic modernist tendencies. and Jaros. The World Trade Center towers used high-strength. earlier introduced by Fazlur Khan. providing lateral stability to the exterior walls and distributing wind loads among the exterior walls. The World Trade Center was one of the most-striking American implementations of the architectural ethic of Le Corbusier. load-bearing perimeter steel columns called Vierendeel trusses that were spaced closely together to form a strong. Altogether. The spandrel plates were located at each floor. The 47-story 7 World Trade Center building was added in the 1980s. Skilling. the structural engineers of the World Trade Center ended up following draft versions of the new 1968 building codes.[2 Structural design The structural engineering firm Worthington. transmitting shear stress between columns. The floors consisted of 4 inches (10 cm) thick lightweight concrete slabs laid on a fluted steel deck. The top chords of the trusses were bolted to seats welded to the spandrels on the exterior side and a channel welded to the core columns on the interior side. Guy F. allowing them to work together in resisting lateral loads. developing the tube-frame structural system used in the twin towers.000 m2) superblock. and other support spaces. which were built in the early 1970s. The large. oversaw the project. director of the World Trade Department at the Port Authority. three stairwells. connected by spandrel plates. As an interstate agency. The Port Authority's Engineering Department served as foundation engineers. three stories tall. The perimeter structure containing 59 columns per side was constructed with extensive use of prefabricated modular pieces each consisting of three columns. The spandrel plates were welded to the columns to create the modular pieces off-site at the fabrication shop. which reflected Yamasaki's fear of heights as well as his desire to make building occupants feel secure. The trusses connected to the perimeter at alternate columns and were on 6 foot 8 inch (2. Tishman Realty & Construction Company was the general contractor on the World Trade Center project. restrooms. Adjacent modules were bolted together with the splices occurring at mid-span of the columns and spandrels.
the Port Authority awarded $74 million in contracts to various steel suppliers. to clear thirteen square blocks of low rise buildings in Radio Row for construction of the World Trade Center. 1966. wind tunnel tests were done to establish design wind pressures that the World Trade Center towers could be subjected to and structural response to those forces. which plugged holes and kept groundwater out. and Karl Koch was hired to erect the steel. It took fourteen months for the slurry wall to be completed. During the design process. This truss system allowed some load redistribution between the perimeter and core columns and supported the transmission tower. Experiments also were done to evaluate how much sway occupants could comfortably tolerate. Only 1 WTC (north tower) actually had an antenna fitted. many subjects experienced dizziness and other ill effects. carrying PATH trains into Hudson Terminal. . In January 1967. One of the chief engineers Leslie Robertson worked with Canadian engineer Alan G. Construction In March 1965. to keep water from the Hudson River out. When the trench was dug out. The truss system consisted of six trusses along the long axis of the core and four along the short axis. The tube frame design using steel core and perimeter columns protected with sprayed-on fire resistant material created a relatively lightweight structure that would sway more in response to the wind compared to traditional structures such as the Empire State Building that have thick. reduced the building sway to an acceptable level. Demolition work began on March 21. To construct the World Trade Center. a steel cage was inserted and concrete was poured in. used throughout the structures at the joints between floor trusses and perimeter columns along with some other structural modifications. construction on the South Tower was underway by January 1969. filling the space with a "slurry" mixture composed of bentonite and water.000 m3) of material excavated were used (along with other fill and dredge material) to expand the Manhattan shoreline across West Street to form Battery Park City. Kyle..connected to the perimeter spandrel plates with viscoelastic dampers that helped reduce the amount of sway felt by building occupants. the Port Authority began acquiring property at the World Trade Center site. remained in service as elevated tunnels during the construction process until 1971 when a new PATH station opened. Construction work began on the North Tower in August 1968. and as excavation proceeded. The 1. however. The original Hudson Tubes.2 million cubic yards (917. Tishman Realty & Construction was hired in February 1967 to oversee construction of the project. forcing the "slurry" out. John M. it was necessary to build a "bathtub" with a slurry wall around the West Street side of the site. Groundbreaking for the construction of the World Trade Center took place on August 5. it was added in 1978. Hat trusses (or "outrigger truss") located from the 107th floor to the top of the buildings were designed to support a tall communication antenna on top of each building. it was necessary before excavation of material from the interior of the site could begin. The site of the World Trade Center was located on landfill with the bedrock located 65 feet (20 m) below. The slurry method selected by Port Authority's chief engineer. 1966. These viscoelastic dampers. involved digging a trench. Davenport to develop viscoelastic dampers to absorb some of the sway. heavy masonry for fireproofing of steel structural elements. Jr.
but the most notable were the main two towers. many of whom fiercely resisted forced relocation. The first tenants moved into the North Tower in December 1970. Criticism Plans to build the World Trade Center were controversial. the Court refused to accept the case. adding new benches. The trade center's "superblock". The site for the World Trade Center was the location of Radio Row. was regarded by some critics as an inhospitable environment that disrupted the complicated traffic network typical of Manhattan. 1971. which involved replacing marble pavers with gray and pink granite stones. For example. Lewis Mumford denounced the center as an "example of the purposeless giantism and technological exhibitionism that are now eviscerating the living tissue of every great city". Wien. property owners. small businesses. The ribbon cutting ceremony was on April 4.The topping out ceremony of 1 WTC (North Tower) took place on December 23. Private real estate developers and members of the Real Estate Board of New York. criticized the project and described it and other new skyscrapers as "just glass-andmetal filing cabinets". The twin towers' narrow office windows. When the World Trade Center twin towers were completed. home to hundreds of commercial and industrial tenants. Activist and sociologist Jane Jacobs also criticized plans for the WTC's construction. the immense Austin J. The World Trade Center itself wasn't rented out completely until after 1979. author of The City in History and other works on urban planning. 1970. in his book The Pentagon of Power. A group of small businesses affected filed an injunction challenging the Port Authority's power of eminent domain. For many years. and approximately 100 residents. planters. new restaurants. competing with the private sector when there was already a glut of vacancies. only 18 inches (46 cm) wide and framed by pillars that restricted views on each side to narrow slots. In 1999.350 feet (410 m) high. some gusts were so high that pedestrian travel had to be aided by ropes. Tobin Plaza was often beset by brisk winds at ground level. and . arguing that the waterfront should be kept open for New Yorkers to enjoy. 1973. while 2 WTC's ceremony (South Tower) occurred later on July 19. the outdoor plaza reopened after undergoing $12 million renovations. were disliked by many. Lewis Mumford. In fact. expressed concerns about this much "subsidized" office space going on the open market. Others questioned whether the Port Authority really ought to take on a project described by some as a "mistaken social priority". led by Empire State Building owner Lawrence A. food kiosks and outdoor dining areas Complex North and South towers With the construction of 7 World Trade Center in the 1980s. The World Trade Center design brought criticism of its aesthetics from the American Institute of Architects and other groups. The case made its way through the court system to the United States Supreme Court. Each stood over 1. the World Trade Center had a total of seven buildings. replacing a more traditional. the South Tower accepted tenants in January 1972. dense neighborhood. the total costs to the Port Authority had reached $900 million.
The basement concourse of the World Trade Center included The Mall at the World Trade Center. The 110th floor of 1 World Trade Center (the North Tower) housed radio and television transmission equipment. WABC-TV 7. 41/42.000 m2) of the site's land. Aon Corporation. surpassing the Empire State Building after a 40-year reign. to accommodate DTV.728 ft (527 m).occupied about one acre (43. During the early years.000 square feet (3. The South Tower's rooftop observation deck was 1. It was not until the 1980s that the city's perilous financial state eased. Each tower had 3. All the remaining floors were free for open-plan offices. Of the 110 stories. The center mast contained the television signals for almost all NYC television broadcasters: WCBS-TV 2. the highest point of the North Tower reached 1. 2 World Trade Center (the South Tower) became the second tallest building in the world when completed in 1973. Yamasaki was asked. WNYW 5.800 primary voltage to 480/277 volt secondary service.700 m2) of space for occupancy.800.000 square feet (350.450 feet (440 m) at the rooftop.310 ft (400 m) high. Each floor of the towers had 40. WNBC-TV 4.000 m2) of space. The complex also was served by emergency generators located in the sub-levels of the towers and on the roof of 5 WTC. WPXN-TV 31 and WNJU 47 Linden.200. The North Tower became the home of the corporate headquarters of Cantor Fitzgerald. With the 360-foot (110 m)-tall antenna/mast. however.362 ft (415 m) high and its indoor observation deck was 1. During a press conference in 1973. finished in May 1973. Salomon Brothers and the Port Authority itself.000 m2) of office space. "Why two 110-story buildings? Why not one 220-story building?" His response was: "I didn't want to lose the human scale. and it also became the headquarters of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. approximately 500 companies had offices in the complex including many financial companies such as Morgan Stanley.000 square feet (1." When completed in 1972. various governmental organizations became key tenants of the World Trade Center including the State of New York. WNET 13 Newark.800 volts. The substations stepped down the 13. Initially conceived as a complex dedicated to companies and organizations directly taking part in "world trade". The World Trade Center towers held the height record only briefly: Chicago's Sears Tower. the WTC towers had more floors (at 110) than any other building. Electrical service to the towers was supplied by Consolidated Edison (ConEd) at 13. Altogether the entire complex of seven buildings had 11. and then further down to 208/120 volt general power and lighting service. Throughout their existence. The roof of 1 WTC contained a vast array of transmission antennas including the 360 ft (approx 110 m) center antenna mast. This service passed through the World Trade Center Primary Distribution Center (PDC) and sent up through the core of the building to electrical substations located on the mechanical floors. which are four two-floor areas that evenly spaced up the building. which opened in 2010. after which an increasing number of private companies—mostly financial firms tied to Wall Street—became tenants. This number was not surpassed until the advent of the Burj Khalifa. eight were set aside for technical services in mechanical floors Level B5/B6 (floors 7/8. along with a PATH station. During the 1990s. 75/76. 1 World Trade Center (the North Tower) became the tallest building in the world for two years. It also had four . and 108/109).368 feet (417 m) tall and featured a telecommunications antenna or mast that was added at the top of the roof in 1978 and stood 360 feet (110 m) tall.040. rebuilt in 1999 by Dielectric Inc. WPIX 11.560 square feet) of the total 16 acres (65. they at first failed to attract the expected clientele. reached 1. The North Tower stood 1.
 The 1995 PCA world chess championship was played on the 107th floor of the South Tower February 13. as shown in the documentary film Man on Wire. WKCR 89. the South Tower featured an indoor and outdoor public observation area called Top of the World Trade Center Observatories on its 107th and 110th floors. French high wire acrobatic performer Philippe Petit walked between the towers on a tightrope in 1974. unlike the observation deck of the Empire State Building Life and events On a typical weekday 50. Top of the World observation deck Although most of the space in the World Trade Center complex was off-limits to the public. Attractions added to the observation deck included a simulated helicopter ride around the city. Weather permitting. on Memorial Day. then leased it to Ogden Entertainment to operate.310 feet (400 m). The columns on each face of the building were narrowed on this level to allow 28 inches of glass between them. The towers offered expansive views from the observation deck atop the South Tower and the Windows on the World restaurant on top of the North Tower.1. fueled by cabinets filled with paper. requiring only an ordinary railing and leaving the view unobstructed.000 people worked in the towers with another 200. The complex was so large that it had its own zip code: 10048. Most of the damage was concentrated on the 11th floor. 1975.377 ft (420 m). appearing in numerous movies and television shows as well as on postcards and other merchandise. a three-alarm fire broke out on the 11th floor of the North Tower.NYC FM broadcasters: WPAT-FM 93. and other office equipment. with the viewing platform set back and elevated above it. Fireproofing protected the steel and there was no structural damage to the tower.5. The 107th floor food court was designed with a subway car theme and featured Sbarro and Nathan's Famous Hot Dogs.9. high-rise firefighting and rescue advocate Dan Goodwin successfully climbed the outside of the WTC's North Tower. On a clear day. visitors could see up to 50 miles (80 km). Brooklyn toymaker George Willig scaled the exterior of the south tower in 1977. and became seen as a New York icon. 1975 fire On February 13. Visitors would pass through security checks added after the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. An anti-suicide fence was placed on the roof itself.000 passing through as visitors. then were whisked to the 107th floor indoor observatory at a height of 1. . alcohol-based fluid for office machines. In 1983. in the same league as the Empire State Building. WNYC 93. Chrysler Building and the Statue of Liberty. The Twin Towers became known worldwide. His stunt was meant to call attention to the inability to rescue people potentially trapped in the upper floors of skyscrapers. visitors could take two short escalator rides up from the 107th floor viewing area to an outdoor viewing platform on the 110th floor at a height of 1. Areas at the furthest extent of the fire were extinguished almost immediately and the original fire was put out in a few hours. Access to the roof was controlled from the WTC Operations Control Center (OCC) located in the B1 level of 2 WTC. Fire spread through the core to the 9th and 14th floors by igniting the insulation of telephone cables in a utility shaft that ran vertically between floors. and WKTU 103. The Port Authority renovated the observatory in 1995.9.
was heavily damaged. Yousef and Eyad Ismoil were convicted in November 1997 for their carrying out the bombing. and was extradited back to the United States to face trial. The fire alarm system for the entire complex needed to be replaced because critical wiring and signaling in the original system was destroyed. The refrigeration plant on sublevel B5. toppling both landmarks. the Port Authority sought to lease the World Trade Center to a private entity.Other than the damage caused by the fire. Four others had been convicted in May 1994 for their involvement in the 1993 bombing. the Port Authority installed photoluminescent markings in the stairwells. and a joint bid by Silverstein Properties and The Westfield Group. Names of the victims of the 1993 bombing are included in the National September 11 Memorial & Museum January 14. which provided air conditioning to the entire World Trade Center complex.000 other workers and visitors were left gasping for air within the 110 story towers. a joint bid between Brookfield Properties Corporation and Boston Properties. 1998 robbery In January 1998. a reflecting pool was installed with the names of those who had been killed in the blast. detonated in the underground garage of the North Tower. Bids for the lease came from Vornado Realty Trust. it would be added to the city's tax rolls and provide funds for other Port . The slurry wall was in peril following the bombing and loss of the floor slabs that provided lateral support against pressure from Hudson River water on the other side. a Ryder truck filled with 1. However. The blast opened a 100 foot (30 m) hole through five sublevels with the greatest damage occurring on levels B1 and B2 and significant structural damage on level B3. As a memorial to the victims of the bombing of the tower. the Port Authority approved plans to privatize the World Trade Center. Lease In 1998. the World Trade Center had no fire sprinkler systems February 26. According to a presiding judge. the conspirators' chief aim at the time of the attack was to destabilize the north tower and send it crashing into the south tower. floors that were blown out needed to be repaired to restore the structural support they provided to columns. 1993. Yousef fled to Pakistan after the bombing but was arrested in Islamabad in February 1995. a few floors below suffered water damage from the extinguishing of the fires above. arranged a three-man crew for a heist that netted over $2 million from a Brinks delivery to the eleventh floor of the World Trade Center. In 2001.. Mafia member Ralph Guarino. 1993 bombing On February 26. Many people inside the North Tower were forced to walk down darkened stairwells that contained no emergency lighting.m. the memorial was destroyed following the September 11 attacks. Subsequent to the bombing. Following the bombing. Six people were killed and 50.500 pounds (680 kg) of explosives. By privatizing the World Trade Center. Sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman was convicted in 1996 for involvement in the bombing and other plots. who had gained maintenance access to the World Trade Center. planted by Ramzi Yousef. at 12:17 p. some taking two hours or more to reach safety. At that time.
fewer than 700. who died in December 2010 of pulmonary sarcoidosis determined in June 2011 to be the result of dust from the attacks. at 9:03:11 a.22 billion. owing to uncontrolled fires causing structural failure. were killed instantly or trapped. and a single stairwell was left intact. 2001. lost 658 employees. Vornado outbid Silverstein by $600 million though Silverstein upped his offer to $3. was destroyed during the collapse of the two towers.m. who was last seen the day before the attacks. including a shorter 39-year lease. a second team of terrorists crashed the similarly hijacked United Airlines Flight 175 into the South Tower.. striking it between the 77th and 85th floors. and closed on July 24. 2001.344 people.P. 2001. which the Port Authority considered nonnegotiable. and it collapsed completely at 5:21 p. considerably more than any other employer. including one filed for Felicia Dunn-Jones. Three other victims were then added to the official death toll by the city medical examiner's office: Dr. The Deutsche Bank Building across Liberty Street from the World Trade Center complex was later condemned owing to the uninhabitable toxic conditions inside. Islamist terrorists hijacked American Airlines Flight 11 and crashed it into the northern façade of the North Tower at 8:46:40 a. The damage caused to the North Tower by Flight 11 destroyed any means of escape from above the impact zone. 2001 Destruction On September 11. already weakened from the plane impact. . 2. Cantor Fitzgerald L. 2001.000 people could be inside the towers. Although the South Tower was struck lower than the North Tower. Flight 175 had a much more off-centered impact compared to Flight 11. The fire caused steel structural elements. on September 11. Dunn-Jones died five months later from a lung condition linked to exposure to dust during the collapse of the World Trade Center. trapping 1. with work completed in early 2011.. while Marsh & McLennan Companies.25 billion for the 99-year lease. The Borough of Manhattan Community College's Fiterman Hall at 30 West Broadway was also condemned owing to extensive damage in the attacks and is slated for deconstruction In the immediate aftermath of the attacks. who was added to the official death toll in May 2007. a smaller number. only a few people managed to pass through it successfully before the tower collapsed. after burning for approximately 102 minutes.753 death certificates (excluding those for hijackers) were filed relating to the 9/11 attacks in New York. an investment bank on the 101st–105th floors of One World Trade Center.Authority projects. as over 50. Sneha Anne Philip. the aircraft striking between the 93rd and 99th floors. Vornado later withdrew and Silverstein's bid for the lease to the World Trade Center was accepted on April 26. however. Ultimately. At 9:59 a. The 3 World Trade Center. a man who developed lymphoma and subsequently died in 2008 as a result of dust ingestion during the events following the attacks to the Twin Towers. Leon Heyward. However. to fail. At 5:20 p.m.m. and Jerry Borg.. paying $3..m. The North Tower collapsed at 10:28 a.. the South Tower collapsed after burning for approximately 56 minutes.m. The three remaining buildings in the WTC plaza were extensively damaged by debris and later were demolished. On February 15.m. media reports suggested that tens of thousands might have been killed in the attacks. the Port Authority announced that Vornado Realty Trust had won the lease for the World Trade Center. Vornado insisted on last minute changes to the deal. 7 World Trade Center started to collapse with the crumble of the east penthouse. a Marriott hotel. it was deconstructed. thus affecting more floors. Seventeen minutes later.
George Pataki. a design by Michael Arad and Peter Walker titled Reflecting Absence was selected in January 2004. are also making progress. numerous stakeholders were involved including Silverstein and the Port Authority. Both One and Four World Trade Center are on track for completion and occupancy by 2013. On May 30. set to be finished by around 2015. The Memory Foundations design by Daniel Libeskind was chosen as the master plan for the World Trade Center site. 84 were Port Authority employees. this had been considered a priority since restoring the Consolidated Edison Cos. lost 295 employees. Silverstein and Con Edison recognized that the rebuilding of 7 World Trade Center would have to be consistent with the master plan which was expected to re-open the street grid which had been blocked by the original World Trade Center super-block. New buildings After years of delay and controversy.776 feet (541 m) Freedom Tower (now known as One World Trade Center) as well as a memorial and a number of other office towers. which had been blocked by the original 7 World Trade Center. and another 23 were New York City Police Department officers. as well as the Transportation Hub. only 1. Mayor Michael Bloomberg. and 175 employees of Aon Corporation were killed. with the museum set to open in 2013. While 7 World Trade Center was not part of the master plan for the Twin Towers site. Debris was transported from the World Trade Center site to Fresh Kills on Staten Island. 2002. Two and Three World Trade Center. Larry Silverstein was able to proceed without delay on the rebuilding of 7 World Trade Center. Since it was not part of the site master plan. and a transportation hub similar in size to Grand Central Terminal. Of all the people who were still in the towers when they collapsed. History The process of cleanup and recovery continued 24 hours a day over a period of eight months.located immediately below Cantor Fitzgerald on floors 93–101 (the location of Flight 11's impact). Ten years after the attacks. only 20 were pulled out alive. Governor Pataki established the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC) in November 2001 as an official commission to oversee the rebuilding process. where it was further sifted. a ceremony was held to officially mark the end of the cleanup efforts. three other high-rise office buildings. people in the surrounding neighborhoods. A temporary PATH station at the World Trade Center opened in November 2003. which was completed and officially opened in May 2006. reconstruction at the World Trade Center site is now well underway. The LMDC held a competition to solicit possible designs for the site. In 2002. ground was broken on construction of a new 7WTC building located just to the north of the main World Trade Center site. Out of the World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition. and others wanted input. electrical substation in the building's lower floors was necessary to meet power demands of Lower Manhattan. . In addition.629 victims have been identified. The plan included the 1. had some authority. The 9/11 memorial is complete. As a result. a museum and memorial. the design for the new 7 World Trade Center allowed for the re-opening of Greenwich Street. the victims' families. which in turn meant the Governor of New York State. With the main World Trade Center site. In addition. The new complex will include One World Trade Center (formerly known as the Freedom Tower). 7 World Trade Center. it will be replaced by a permanent station designed by Santiago Calatrava. of whom 37 were members of the Port Authority Police Department. 343 of the dead were New York City firefighters.
will have an overall height of 946 feet (288 m).  Because numerous American and Chinese companies are "very interested" in leasing space at the WTC. One World Trade Center is at 80 stories with glass up to the 54th floor. This marked the official start of construction of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum. and the former Deutsche Bank Building has been completely dismantled and the Port Authority is working on their Vehicle Security Center. architects Richard Rogers and Fumihiko Maki were announced as the architects for Towers Three and Four. 2006. Publishing Giant Conde Nast has agreed to move its headquarters to One World Trade Center. In April 2006. As of August 2011. The final designs for Towers Two. On June 22. many more are expected to follow. workers arrived at the World Trade Center site to remove remaining debris and start surveying work. respectively. Tower Two. Tower Four is up around 38 stories with glass up to the 15th floor. or 200 Greenwich Street. This movement was led by an informal organization called the Twin Towers Alliance. who designed the transit hub. Others. Tower Four. did not want anything built there at all or wanted the entire site to become a memorial. and to the general public on September 12. and Kohn Pedersen Fox was selected as the architect for the building. considering the area sacred. 2006. will have a roof height of 1. Four renowned architects.255 feet (383 m). Many wanted the Twin Towers to be rebuilt. though not without controversy and concerns from some family members. Tower Two's foundations are finished and is starting to assemble the frame. the Port Authority and Larry Silverstein reached an agreement in which Silverstein ceded rights to develop the Freedom Tower and Tower Five in exchange for financing with Liberty Bonds for Towers Two. and with this shift. a master plan was agreed upon. or 150 Greenwich Street. 2006.254 feet (382 m) and a 96 feet (29 m) tripod spire for a total of 1. a ground-breaking ceremony was held for the Freedom Tower. World Trade Center Tower Three's foundations are becoming visible. a 42-story building on Site 5 occupied by the Deutsche Bank Building. Disagreement and controversy regarding who owned the property and what would be built there hindered construction at the site for several years. Tower Three. Finally. On April 27. Owings and Merrill. as they very likely will. The World Trade Center Transportation Hub's PATH hall is nearly complete. . which would feature a memorial and museum where the original twin towers stood and six new skyscrapers surrounding it. In May 2006. Three.On March 13. including Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava. In the December of 2011. and the famed British architect Norman Foster of Foster and Partners designed Tower Two and masterminded the iconic diamond design. 2011. 2007. and Four. the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey announced that JP Morgan Chase will build Tower 5. and will be completed in mid 2014 if Silverstein Properties can meet requirements set by the Port Authority. or 175 Greenwich Street will have a roof height of 1. Controversy and criticism There was much debate regarding the future of Ground Zero following the destruction of the World Trade Center. Tower Two will also be completed on schedule according to the construction company.350 feet (410 m). The memorial officially opened to relatives of the deceased on September 11. One WTC designer David Childs of Skidmore.155 feet (352 m) and an antenna height reaching 1. will greatly enhance the street-level atmosphere of the rebuilt site. The projects will be complete between early 2013 to mid 2014. Three and Four were unveiled on September 7. Two World Trade Center is likely to be finished earlier than expected. but stronger and taller.
windowless base. "The Freedom Tower isn't going to be One World Trade Center. was also denounced as looking dreary and unwelcoming. The name change from Freedom Tower to One World Trade Center was met with some criticism. To alleviate this problem. Governor of New York George Pataki stated in 2003 that. Since the failure of that plan. which was asymmetrical. was met with much disapproval. and called for an off-center spire. the fortified. The original design. it's going to be the Freedom Tower. A key feature of the final design. significantly shorter. it is now unclear what the base will be covered with." . the designers decided to clad it with prismatic glass panels.One World Trade Center itself has been met with criticism. causing a new one to be devised.
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