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Chapter 2 Planning a Healthy Diet

Diet Planning Principles Dietary Guidelines for Americans Diet-Planning Guides Food Labels

Setting Nutrition Standards


National Nutrition Policy
RDA / DRI Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2005) Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA)

Establishing the RDAs


Defined: level of essential nutrient intake judged to be adequate for the nutritional needs of practically all healthy Americans
Protein, Vitamins, and some Minerals Different for gender, age, pregnancy, lactation NOT for disease states

Dietary Reference Intakes


Values recommended for the nutrient intakes of healthy people in U.S. and Canada Optimal for a population
Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) Adequate Intakes (AI) Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL)

Revised every 5-8 years


National Academy of Sciences National Research Council

Diet Planning Principles


Adequacy provides sufficient energy, fiber & essential nutrients Balance Kcalorie (energy) Control Moderation

Diet Planning Principles


Nutrient Density
a measure of the nutrients present in a food relative to the energy it contains
ex. Calcium Cheddar Cheese (1.5 oz) 300mg Ca / 170 kcal Skim Milk (8 oz) 300mg Ca / 90 kcal

Variety
Assures a wide variety of nutrients Prevents monotony

Dietary Guidelines -1995


Eat a variety of foods Balance the food you eat with physical activity, maintain or improve your weight Choose a diet with plenty of grains, vegetables, and fruits Choose a diet low in fat, sat fat, and cholesterol Choose a diet moderate in sugars Choose a diet moderate in salt and sodium If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation

Dietary Guidelines for Americans-2000


Eat a variety of foods. Balance the food you eat with physical activity; maintain or improve your weight. Choose plenty of grain products, vegetables, and fruits.

Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2000


Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol. Choose a diet moderate in sugars. Choose a diet moderate in salt and sodium. If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation.

Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005


Adequate nutrients within calorie needs. Weight management Physical activity Food groups to encourage. Fats Carbohydrates Sodium and Potassium Alcohol Food Safety

Diet Planning Guides


Food Guide Pyramid

Evolution of Food Guidance at USDA 90 years of food guides


Food for Young Children

1916

1940s 1950s-1960s

1970s

Exchange System
2005

1992

2002 Wadsworth Publishing / Thomson Learning

Figure 2-5 Eating From the Bottom Up: The Food Guide Pyramid

Food Guide Pyramid


Foods organized into 5 groups:
Breads, Cereals, and Other Grain Products Vegetables Fruits Milk, Cheese, and Yogurt Meat, Poultry, Fish, Beans and Protein Alternatives

Foods vary in energy, fat, and nutrients within groups Serving recommendations given for each food group

Breads, Cereals, and Grains

Figure 2-4 Fiber in Selected Foods (contd)

Vegetables
Vit A, vit C, folate, potassium, magnesium, and fiber
2002 Wadsworth Publishing / Thomson Learning

Figure 2-4 Fiber in Selected Foods (contd)

2002 Wadsworth Publishing / Thomson Learning

Bread, Cereal, Rice, and Pasta Group

Vegetable Group

Complex CHO, riboflavin, thiamin, niacin, iron, protein, magnesium and fiber Grains Group includes all foods made from wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barley, such as bread, pasta, oatmeal, breakfast cereals, tortillas, and grits. In general, 1 slice of bread, 1 cup of ready-to-eat cereal, or 1/2 cup of cooked rice, pasta, or cooked cereal can be considered as 1 ounce equivalent from the grains group. At least half of all grains consumed should be whole grains.

Vegetable Group includes all fresh, frozen, canned, and dried vegetables and vegetable juices. In general, 1 cup of raw or cooked vegetables or vegetable juice, or 2 cups of raw leafy greens can be considered as 1 cup from the vegetable group.

2002 Wadsworth Publishing / Thomson Learning

Fruits
Vit A, vit C, potassium, and fiber
Fruit Group

Milk, Cheese, and Yogurt


Figure 2-4 Fiber in Selected Foods (contd)

Fruit Group includes all fresh, frozen, canned, and dried fruits and fruit juices. In general, 1 cup of fruit or 100% fruit juice, or 1/2 cup of dried fruit can be considered as 1 cup from the fruit group.

Calcium, riboflavin, pro, vit B12 (vitamins A and D) Milk Group includes all fluid milk products and foods made from milk that retain their calcium content, such as yogurt and cheese. Foods made from milk that have little to no calcium, such as cream cheese, cream, and butter, are not part of the group. Most milk group choices should be fat-free or low-fat. In general, 1 cup of milk or yogurt, 1 1/2 ounces of natural cheese, or 2 ounces of processed cheese can be considered as 1 cup from the milk group.

Meat, Poultry, Fish, and Protein Alternatives


Protein, Vitamins. B6 and B12, Zn, Fe, Niacin, and Thiamin (fiber, folate, vit E, potassium, Mg) Meat & Beans Group in general, 1 ounce of lean meat, poultry, or fish, 1 egg, 1 Tbsp. peanut butter, 1/4 cup cooked dry beans, or 1/2 ounce of nuts or seeds can be considered as 1 ounce equivalent from the meat and beans group.

Food Labels
NLEA (1990) Provide consumers with information Properly using food labels can help to
decrease fat intake, especially saturated increase calcium intake increase fiber intake meet the dietary guidelines

2002 Wadsworth Publishing / Thomson Learning

What is on the food label?


Serving Size
based on an average amount people actually eat, may not be the amount you eat! listed in household measures and grams

Servings per Container

Figure 2-8 Anatomy Of A Food Label

What is on the food label?


Nutrition Facts for a single serving
Calories (kcal) and calories from fat Macronutrients:
Fat
total fat (g and %DV) saturated fat polyunsaturated fat monounsaturated fat trans fat

2002 Wadsworth Publishing / Thomson Learning

Carbohydrates (CHO)
dietary fiber sugars

Protein
Figure 2-11 Checking Out The Food Label For Fat Information

What is on the food label?


Nutrition Facts for a single serving
Cholesterol
Sodium Vitamins and Minerals
Vitamins: A and C Minerals: Calcium and Iron

2002 Wadsworth Publishing / Thomson Learning

Figure 2-12 Checking out the Food Label for Vitamins and Minerals

What is on the food label?


Percent Daily Value (% DV)
-shows how nutrients fit into the overall daily diet -based on a 2000 calorie diet

2002 Wadsworth Publishing / Thomson Learning

Daily Reference Values


-based on 2000 and 2500 calorie diets -gives example of good diet structure -adjustable depending on individuals kcal needs Figure 2-10 Types of food labels

Caloric Value of the Macronutrients


-CHO = 4 kcal / gm -PRO = 4 kcal / gm -FAT = 9 kcal / gm

2002 Wadsworth Publishing / Thomson Learning

What is on the food label?


Ingredient List
if more than one ingredient in descending order by weight
Figure 2-9 Using The Ingredients List On Food Labels

Oatmeal cookie example

What is on the food label?


Nutrient Content Claims
Free
practically none in product ex: < 5 kcal / serving

2002 Wadsworth Publishing / Thomson Learning

Low
very little; specific for each nutrient ex: 40 kcal / serving

Reduced
at least 25% less of the nutrient

Light
33% less calories or 50% less fat than normal product Figure 2-13 Percent Fat Free

What is on the food label?


Health Claims must:
be validated by scientific research describe an association between
a disease or health condition
&

a nutrient or food substance Examples:


Calcium and Osteoporosis Folic Acid and Neural Tube Defects Sodium and Hypertension Dietary saturated fat and cholesterol and Cardiovascular Disease