Managing Tourism and the Environment: Conflict or Consensus?

Challenges and Opportunities posed by tourism operations in Antarctica.
On a holiday, people expect to see beaches, enjoy the sun, searching for challenge, education and excitement, including relaxation. Antarctica being exactly the opposite of a fantasy holiday destination, has still managed to capture the attention of tourist. The world's extreme conditions aren't usually spots for tourist attraction. Antarctica, with extreme physical conditions is an incredibly amazing tourist destination. The polar region being covered with snow, unique wildlife, huge mountains, valleys, icebergs etc. are the factors for the increase in the number of people visiting the Antarctica. The number of tourists to Antarctica has increased quite considerably, during the past decade, according to International Association of Antarctica tour operators (IAATO) in 2009-2010, around 37,000 tourists visited Antarctica compared to just 6000, a decade ago. Antarctica is completely different to any other holiday destination in the world. With no malls, no shopping complexes, no restaurants, no bar's. All it has to offer is its amazing scenic beauty and its unique wildlife. However many believe that the natural wilderness of Antarctica is under threat from mass tourism, with wildlife colonies being overwhelmed by the growing number of visitors, according to conservation groups. In this essay I shall discuss the various impacts tourism has on the future of Antarctica, I shall then discuss the various initiatives that have been placed to protect its environment and to conclude I shall give my own personal opinion on the matter. Antarctica has an attraction since the early 19th century with the first expeditions arriving in xyz. Today Antarctica is still host to many scientific expeditions. They are studying the geography, the geology the wild life. Many of the scientific expeditions based in Antarctica want to study the change of climate, the global heating due to carbon increase in the atmosphere, other scientific bases want t study it due to. What they expect could be similarities wildlife on some distant planet. Antarctica is one of the few remaining destinations where you can observe polar animals (such as penguins and polar bears) in their natural environment. Some of the best wildlife viewing exists in Antarctica, with birds, seals, and whales being the most popular creatures. As the Antarctic area has become an object of interest to the whole of humanity, it comes as no surprise that every season more people visit Antarctica to marvel at its assorted fauna and stunning landscapes, to walk over its ice-covered surface, to participate in a mountaineering journey or any other nature-based activity. Nevertheless, along with the advantages, concerns have arisen with regards to its potential effects on the environment, ongoing scientific research, and ultimately the stability of the

000+ tourists each year. however little is said or even mentioned about the positive impacts tourism has. Environmentally friendly tourism provides money for conservation projects. which could fund research or protection… Negative Impacts: Tourist interactions with wildlife during breeding season Human structures in the landscape Cultural and Historic Heritage Intrusions on work of scientific bases . Since then tourism in Antarctica has rocketed to a staggering 40. Increases revenue. Simon Jenkins: ‘Antarctica is for all of us’: Argues that tourists are the best guardians of the environment. It was the famous Simon Jenkins who once said. at the time it consisted of 12 nations who pledged to maintain Antarctica as a realm of peaceful scientific co-operation. Frozen Planet and March of the Penguins have shown to increase awareness and tourism to the continent. and help protect it. This rise in tourism has triggered a lot of international criticism on the potential negative impacts tourism might have on the environment in Antarctica. even today scientists and other staff members at research stations are only temporary residents. It is often talked about the negative impacts tourism has on Antarctica. representing the large majority of the world’s population. Today the Antarctic Treaty system consists of over 46 countries. Movies such as Happy Feet. The Antarctic Treaty was set up in 1959. “Antarctica is for all of us”. Raising awareness of Antarctica means that the wider world will realise how fragile it is. It was only in 1957/58 when the first tourist ships from Argentina and Chile came to Antarctica.Antarctic Treaty System. governs Antarctica. and since then the region has been governed under international law through Antarctic Treaty System. Antarctic wildlife is still unafraid of people. The treaty went into affect in 1961. the legal and political regime that has governed activities on the continent for more than fifty years. People should be allowed to see the area as the world belongs to us. The destruction of Spain's coastline for mass tourism (as an example) is a terrible warning and the countries responsible for Antarctica are heeding the lessons! Because the continent has never had a native population. Internationally agreed guidelines reduce the effect that tourists have Positive Impacts of Tourism in Antarctica: Raises awareness. with around 200 tourists. and he argues that tourism is the best guardian of the environment.

the impact made by tourism is minimal when compared to that made by scientific activities on the continent. revealed much information regarding our history. is the impact of human activities on Antarctica. One possible solution is that of marketable visitor rights. As soon as the demand for holiday days in Antarctica is higher than the maximum. and pesticide residue has been found both in seabird and in penguin tissues. organized tourist activities. Antarctica.Demand for on-site facilities Safety and Liability (cost of rescues). studied wildlife located here. which plays a major role today. a pristine place created by nature. First of all a maximum annual number of tourist days in Antarctica will be set. Plastic and other rubbish washes up on Antarctica’s beaches in everincreasing amounts. To ensure a smooth transition. mankind has explored its most of parts. denies the claim for exploitation of Antarctica for past few decays. Studies have found that lead particles from gasoline combustion are blown to Antarctica as soon as one month after they leave exhaust pipes in South America. one of the last true wilderness left on the planet. . Although tourism to Antarctica is often criticized as being harmful to the Antarctic environment. Reviling the present situation of Antarctica shows that it is becoming a tourist destination place. The major impacts on the Antarctic environment are caused by people who have never visited it. Antarctica. which initializes further debate on the issue. However the issue. as is already used in the climate policy by means of trading in CO2 emission rights. After Antarctica was discovered. this maximum will be set higher than the actual number of tourists days used. which is governed by many countries. Climate change and ozone depletion are prime examples of the way human activity elsewhere affects Antarctica. Australia and New Zealand. Antarctica’s most pressing issue is its environment and how best to protect it. the rights to the days will have a certain value.

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