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CHASSIS DYNAMOMETER TESTING OF AQUEOUS ETHANOL IN A TRANSIT VAN

Final Report KLK342 N06-12A

National Institute for Advanced Transportation Technology University of Idaho

Jeffrey Williams; Daniel Cordon; and Steven Beyerlein November 2006

DISCLAIMER
The contents of this report reflect the views of the authors, who are responsible for the facts and the accuracy of the information presented herein. This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the Department of Transportation, University Transportation Centers Program, in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the contents or use thereof.

1. engine operations 19. Performance. Distribution Statement Unrestricted. efficiency. A six-mode test was designed to simulate a variety of typical driving conditions using a steady state chassis dynamometer. Price … Reproduction of completed page authorized . 20. The van has been converted to catalytic igniters or use with a 90/10 mix of ethanol/water (Aquanol). 5. Key Words Demonstration vehicle. Recipient’s Catalog No. VT. Report No. Performing Organization Name and Address National Institute for Advanced Transportation Technology University of Idaho PO Box 440901. No. Jeffrey Williams. DC 20509-0001 N06-12A 10. Type of Report and Period Covered Final Report: Sept. Daniel Cordon. (of this page) Unclassified 21. Contract or Grant No.7 (8-72) 18. of Pages 25 22. 115 Engineering Physics Building Moscow. Abstract This project advanced NIATT’s goal of using aqueous ethanol in vehicle transportation. Title and Subtitle Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Aqueous Ethanol in a Transit Van 6. Government Accession No. (of this report) Unclassified Form DOT F 1700. fuel consumption. Security Classif. 2. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address US Department of Transportation Research and Special Programs Administration 400 7th Street SW Washington. Work Unit No. engine testing. Document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service. Security Classif. Springfield. Sponsoring Agency Code USDOT/RSPA/DIR-1 Supplementary Notes: 16. alternative fuels. (TRAIS) 11. Performing Organization Report No. ID 838440901 12. Report Date 4. This report describes initial chassis dynamometer testing of transit van converted to aqueous ethanol. Steven Beyerlein 9. DTRS98-G-0027 13. January 2006 Performing Organization Code KLK342 5. 3. and emissions were all gathered under these six modes and compared to the previous gasoline data.Author(s) 8. Previously the transit van was testing using gasoline fuel and spark plugs. 03-July 06 14. 17.

............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2 Description of Problem ......................... 5 2.......... Recommendations..Table of Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ......... Dynamometer Facility ............................... Experimental Design............... 19 REFERENCES ...... Conclusions............................................... Findings........................ Recommendations...... 7 3......................................................................................................................................................................................... 13 1.......................... Conclusions.................................................. 9 D.... Performance Testing ............................................................................................................................................................................. 2 Approach/Methodology .............. 21 Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Aqueous Ethanol in a Transit Van page i ............................................................... 13 2.................................. 5 1................... C............. 15 3.. 18 4...................... Emissions Testing .......................................... B.................................................. Modal Testing ....... Introduction................... 1 A...........................................................................................

fuel consumption. A six-mode test was designed to simulate a variety of typical driving conditions using a steady state chassis dynamometer. efficiency. The report describes initial chassis dynamometer testing of transit van converted to aqueous ethanol. Performance.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This project advanced NIATT’s goal of using aqueous ethanol in vehicle transportation. Previously the transit van was testing using gasoline fuel and spark plugs. The van was converted to catalytic igniters for use with a 90/10 mix of ethanol/water (Aquanol). Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Aqueous Ethanol in a Transit Van page 1 . and emissions were all gathered under these six modes and compared to the previous gasoline data.

alcohol fuels have shown similar levels of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon emissions along with significant decreases in nitrogen oxide (NOx) [1]. Description of Problem Aquanol is a chemically stable blend of alcohol and water. Figure 1 Dual-fuel 1985 Ford van. renewable sources. Introduction Accumulation of atmospheric pollutants as well as concerns about depleting fossil fuel reserves has created demand for alternative automotive power sources. In other studies. 1. The use of alcohol-based fuels as an alternative to gasoline is appealing because of the ability to derive these fuels from organic. B. This research focuses on the azeotrope containing ethanol. The converted vehicle is shown in Fig. Similar bond angles and the polarity of both the water and Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Aqueous Ethanol in a Transit Van page 2 .A. This work demonstrates the feasibility of operating a dual-fuel platform to compare the performance and emission characteristics of ethanol/water mixtures versus gasoline.

ethanol molecules make them completely miscible in all proportions [2]. Conventional distillation can produce only about 95 percent pure ethanol while further purification is done at great expense through a molecular sieve [6]. this hydroscopic property also makes it difficult to predict the exact composition after exposure to the atmosphere as it will further absorb water from the air to some extent. The lower heating value of Aquanol fuel means that provisions for supplying greater fuel flow rates need to be implemented to Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Aqueous Ethanol in a Transit Van page 3 . However.e. Increasing use of ethanol as an oxygenate in reformulated gasoline and as an alternative fuel in some markets will likely decrease the price further as ethanol becomes more economical to produce. Although ethanol costs more than gasoline to produce at this time. Ethanol’s ability to homogeneously absorb and suspend water makes it a successful component of aqueous fuels. 10 percent water).. This is highlighted in Table 1. net cost is below wholesale gasoline cost as it is taxed at a much lower rate [7]. However. Another advantage of adding water to ethanol is from an economic perspective. and sugarcane. Aquanol (90/10) is 90 percent ethanol. Adding water to ethanol can result in significant reductions of NOx by decreasing combustion temperatures. Previous work done at the University of Idaho demonstrated the ability of Aquanol-fueled engines to run on mixtures up to 50 percent ethanol and 50 percent water with cold starting capabilities [5]. blends of 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline— E85--are commercially available [3]. Currently about 95 percent of ethanol is produced from agricultural crops [8]. Currently. cold-starting capabilities using Aquanol containing more than 35 percent water are generally poor and greater dilution will result in incomplete combustion of in-cylinder hydrocarbons [4]. There is a significant difference between Aquanol and conventional fuels in terms of their energy content. Percentages of the constituents vary for testing so the composition will be denoted following the term to avoid confusion (i. Ethanol can also be produced from papermill by-products. sorghum. The most common include high-starch crops such as barley.

Inc. Table 1 Heating Value of Fuels on Mass and Volume Basis Fuel Lower Heating Value on Mass Basis Lower Heating Value on Volume Basis 19. Figure 2 provides an exploded view of the ARI catalytic igniter along with a typical torch ignition emanating from the igniter.2 MJ/Liter 31. (ARI) has held the patent on catalytic ignition in a pre-chamber since 1990 [11]. This work uses the ARI catalytic igniters to initiate combustion of Aquanol. Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Aqueous Ethanol in a Transit Van page 4 . For this reason major modifications to the fuel delivery and metering system were required for this work to proceed. Automotive Resources. An ignition source using a catalytic reaction in a pre-chamber provides a high-power torch ignition that has proven successful at igniting mixtures previously unignitable by spark or compression ignition [10].56 MJ/Kg 27 MJ/Kg 43 MJ/Kg The primary drawback to Aquanol is the difficulty of initiating and sustaining combustion [9]. Over the last decade ARI has made many improvements in the robustness and reliability of catalytic ignition for a variety of engines.1 MJ/Liter 21.match power output.8 MJ/Liter Aquanol (90/10) Ethanol Gasoline 23.

an approximation using the steady-state chassis dynamometer was used. The FTP driving cycle is a speed-time trace that a vehicle must follow while a transient chassis dynamometer mimics road power requirements.Figure 2 Components of the catalytic igniter and flame exiting the pre-chamber. Modal Testing A primary thrust of this research was to accommodate a test protocol that would allow local testing of the vehicle that would mimic the FTP driving cycles. Approach/Methodology 1. and is shown in Figure 3. A six-mode test was created to collect data at four steady state points and two mock-acceleration points. With no transient dynamometer existing in the Northwest. The FTP-72 trace imitates city driving. weighting factors are applied to each data point representing percent time of each point in the FTP-72 and Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Aqueous Ethanol in a Transit Van page 5 . These are shown in Table 2. To estimate driving cycle performance. Approximating a FTP driving cycle allows the fuel mapping and exhaust after treatment to be evaluated and modified for best possible vehicle emissions and performance. C. while the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET) is shown in Figure 4.

HWFET driving cycles. Figure 4 Highway driving cycle. Other countries still use weighted steady-state modal tests for new vehicle certification [12]. Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Aqueous Ethanol in a Transit Van page 6 . Figure 3 FTP Urban driving cycle.

Figure 5 presents a rendering of the chassis dynamometer and experimental equipment used during testing.10 2. In the final testing configuration. Martin Laboratory in a sub floor configuration.25 0. Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Aqueous Ethanol in a Transit Van page 7 . The dynamometer is installed in the J. a Truck Chassis Dynamometer. Load is controlled during testing by a pneumatic valve that controls water flow into a water break absorber attached to the roll. allows operation of a wide range of power and speed modes and performs a critical role in testing equipment for this research.10 0. the wheels are located forward of the center of the rolls.35 0.05 0. Dynamometer Facility Performance and emissions comparisons were made on a SuperFlow model SF602 steady-state chassis dynamometer located in UI’s J. Martin Laboratory The SF602. Steel plates covering the rolls and wheel channels must be removed and safely stored using a forklift before a vehicle can be loaded on the rolls. The SF602 is capable of absorbing 550 horsepower from each of two three-foot diameter rolls at a maximum test speed of 80 mph [13]. A handheld controller can be set to monitor and change the water flow based on a variety of control parameters including wheel speed and percent flow. the vehicle chassis is centered and backed onto the rolls.Table 2 Description of the Six-Mode Points with Weighting Factors Mode 1 2 3 4 5 6 Speed Idle 25 mph 20 mph 45 mph 40 mph 60 mph Load --Road Load 50% throttle Road Load 50% throttle Road Load Weighting 0. With the SF602 system power on.15 0. The rolls must be in the locked configuration on the handheld controller to prevent them from spinning and ensure proper chassis alignment.

allow the vehicle to roll forward until the rear tires stop forward of roll centers but clear of the floor with the chain taught. Back the vehicle onto the rolls such that the tire centers and roll centers are vertically aligned.Figure 5 Experimental equipment used during dynamometer testing. The following checklist should be observed before running the vehicle for safety and quality of testing. Avoid crushing the brake lines that run on the axle housing when the chain becomes tight. 2. Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Aqueous Ethanol in a Transit Van page 8 . The following three step procedure outlines the procedure to obtain proper chassis positioning. 3. With approximately one foot of slack in the attached chain. Operation and preparation of the chassis dynamometer should only be performed with two or more persons present. 1. Attach the chain between the floor anchor and the differential housing only (this is important not only from a strength and safety standpoint but also to minimize vibration during operation).

NO. Exhaust ducting is attached to tailpipe and exhaust fan is on. horsepower. Dynamometer rolls are clear of tools. Comparisons were made in the dual-fuel transit van on both gasoline and Aquanol. and fuel rate. Optical Pyrometer An infrared pyrometer was used to verify that all cylinders were running with consistent fuel ignition and fuel delivery through the injectors. The emissions parameters used to compare the two fuels were CO2. 3. 4. Temperatures were to establish relative comparisons only as there was no surface emissivity correction taken into account for absolute temperatures. avoid touching the brake pedal or locking the rolls with the handheld controller until they have came to a complete stop. when the rolls are spinning. hoses and cables. torque. Eight temperatures were taken on the exhaust headers two inches downstream of the engine heads. equipment. avoid turning the steering wheel to prevent loosening the ratchet straps. CO. 3. 2. The performance parameters used to compare the two fuels were throttle position. or anything that could become caught during operation. HC. Front tire ratchet straps and the rear differential mount chain are securely attached and tightly bound. Once the vehicle’s front tires are secured to the floor. Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Aqueous Ethanol in a Transit Van page 9 . Patton Industrial fan is positioned in front of vehicle to pull fresh air from open bay door and cool radiator. Experimental Design The objective of this research was to use test protocols involving a steady-state dynamometer to rigorously evaluate vehicle performance and emissions under six modal conditions. Tables 3 and 4 show typical temperatures under operating conditions when engine coolant temperatures peaked at about 195 degrees Fahrenheit. Secondly. wheel speed.1.

As expected. The Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Aqueous Ethanol in a Transit Van page 10 . The x-axis represents the duration of fuel flow in milliseconds. Fuel Maps The fuel maps were programmed into the onboard electronic control unit (ECU) with a laptop computer. fuel flow duration can be adjusted during dynamometer operation or over-the-road driving. Figure 6 below shows a typical three-dimensional fuel map for Aquanol under start-up conditions.Table 3 Typical Header Temperatures during Operation on Gasoline Driver Cylinder Bank Cylinder No 5 6 7 8 Pyrometer Temp (F) 976 1018 1076 950 Passenger Cylinder Bank Cylinder No 4 3 2 1 Pyrometer Temp (F) 910 998 960 1000 Table 4 Typical header temperatures during operation on Aquanol (90/10) Driver Cylinder Bank Cylinder No 5 6 7 8 Pyrometer Temp (F) 603 586 632 616 Passenger Cylinder Bank Cylinder No 4 3 2 1 Pyrometer Temp (F) 550 524 595 610 The optical pyrometer was also used to determine catalytic converter temperatures and compare to manufacturer light-off temperatures. allowing for quick response and feedback. Using this method. header temperatures experienced during operation on Aquanol are significantly lower than with those temperatures associated with gasoline. Aquanol header temperatures are also significantly lower than manufacturer light-off temperatures.

The z-axis represents engine speed from 0 to 5500 rpm. giving a correction factor on the dynamometer wheel speed. coolant temperature. The van was then run on the chassis dynamometer under no load conditions. Figure 6 3-D fuel injector maps from start-up to 5500 rpm. Road Load Replication Since performance measurements were dependent on the inputs of dynamometer speed control and vehicle throttle position. First. air temperature. a procedure was developed to calibrate wheel speeds. In addition to controlling fuel flow. Throttle position readings were taken from an onboard programmable control module while vehicle speed was calibrated as compared to speed read from a Garmin E-trex GPS with accuracy of +/. The corrected dynamometer wheel Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Aqueous Ethanol in a Transit Van page 11 .1 mph.y-axis represents the load in inches of mercury.0. a road test was performed. Six calibrated speeds taken from the road tests were compared to the dynamometer speed readings. and battery voltage can be monitored through the ECU. manifold pressure.

If the concentrations recorded by the 5-gas analyzer match those being supplied by the cal-gas tank further calibration is unnecessary. The manufacturer recommends calibration every three months using a known mixture of gases called ‘cal-gas’. oxygen (O2). Exhaust Measurements Exhaust gas species were recorded using an EMS model 5001 five-gas analyzer. The five-gas analyzer cannot measure aldehyde emissions. Table 5 shows the composition of the calibration gases used. The five-gas analyzer has the ability to accurately measure carbon dioxide (CO2). The dynamometer’s speed control was set to the six modal points and the matching throttle positions were held constant. When steady-state was reached. NOx. To ensure the accuracy of measured emissions. the 5-gas analyzer must be calibrated on a regular basis. achieving steady state conditions is constrained by the dynamometers speed control not the five-gas s analyzer. a torque reading measured at the wheels was recorded. Table 5 Composition of Calibration Gas Propane NO CO CO2 Nitrogen 202 ppm 298 ppm 0. Although transient response of this unit is slow. CO. Emissions were recorded about 15 inches from the output of the tailpipe.05 percent Balance Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Aqueous Ethanol in a Transit Van page 12 .5 percent 6.speed along with throttle positions determined from the road tests then became the input. and hydrocarbons (HC).

Recommendations At this time. Mode three shows a 31 percent decrease in torque and a 28 percent Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Aqueous Ethanol in a Transit Van page 13 . Performance Testing Performance was measured at the wheels in terms of torque and horsepower. Readings in mode five were not obtained for operation on Aquanol.5 percent 25 PPM 25 PPM 0. chassis dynamometer data has been collected on gasoline and Aquanol (90/10) and extensive baseline fuel mapping has been performed. Findings. Conclusions.1 GPH 5F 10 F 2 percent 1. Under the idle conditions represented by mode one. This was due to an inability to maintain a consistent dynamometer roll speed while still keeping up with the large fuel flow requirements at 50 percent throttle.5 percent . Table 6 Measurement Errors for Data Collection Equipment TEST EQUIPMENT TORQUE and HORSEPOWER CO2 FIVE-GAS ANALYZER CO NOx HC FUEL METER PYROMETER Engine HALTEC temperature Throttle position ERROR 1-2 percent . Table 6 documents errors attributable to each piece of test equipment. torque and horsepower were negligible with any forces due only to inertia in the vehicle’s drive train and the dynamometer rolls.D. At modes three and five. throttle position was the same for both fuels as defined by the six modes derived from the FTP Urban Driving Cycle.

The fuel injectors used in this testing were capable of maintaining required flows at 15 percent throttle so there was no loss of power due to insufficient fuel.decrease in horsepower at 50 percent throttle position with a wheel speed of 20 mph for operation on Aquanol (90/10) versus gasoline. Though a definitive conclusion cannot be drawn from such a small sampling of data. While the energy in Aquanol is more than 30 percent less than that in the same volume of gasoline. four. Torque and horsepower reading were higher with Aquanol (90/10) than with gasoline in all three of these modes. one must look at the increases in fuel flow as a result of fuel mapping and not at throttle position alone. and six. Under the road load conditions of modes two. Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Aqueous Ethanol in a Transit Van page 14 . The fuel needed to overcome road load forces at this speed are predictably more for operation on Aquanol (90/10) than on gasoline. The increases in torque and horsepower may be the result of decreased engine temperature and increase engine rpm. throttle position for Aquanol (90/10) is somewhat higher than gasoline. Here the sixmode approximation defines only wheel speed. this increase in power does make sense. Operating temperatures were significantly less during operation on Aquanol (90/10) than on gasoline. Mode six represents the highest throttle position at 15 percent for Aquanol (90/10).

Larger decreases in CO have been documented for engines burning Aquanol with water content above 20 percent [5] as increasing the fuels water content allows for more CO destruction by conversion to CO2. This result is consistent with other studies involving alcohol based fuels [14]. Additionally. CO concentrations were on the order of 20 percent less during Aquanol operation. Emissions Testing CO2 concentrations were on the order of 70 percent higher during Aquanol operation. as the fuel maps were not designed to provide lean- Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Aqueous Ethanol in a Transit Van page 15 .Table 7 Torque and Horsepower over the Six Modal Points MODE FUEL 1 Gasoline Aquanol (90/10) THROTTLE POSITION (%) 0 0 3 4 50 50 7 9 50 50 11 15 DYNO SPEED (MPH) 0 0 25 25 20 20 44 45 39 40 58 57 TORQUE (FT*LB) 0 0 155 164 1823 1254 128 137 842 ** 216 228 HORSEPOWER 0 0 7 8 62 45 10 12 58 ** 23 25 2 Gasoline Aquanol (90/10) 3 Gasoline Aquanol (90/10) 4 Gasoline Aquanol (90/10) 5 Gasoline Aquanol (90/10) 6 Gasoline Aquanol (90/10) 2. an increase in CO can be attributed to incomplete combustion at modes three and five.

A large increase in HC production was recorded during Aquanol (90/10) operation. NOx production was on the order of 25 percent less during Aquanol (90/10) operation.burn conditions at these modes. these differences should disappear. CO2 emissions comparing gasoline and Aquanol (90/10) 20 18 16 14 12 % CO2 10 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Modes 1 through 6 Gasoline Aquanol (90/10) Figure 7 Bar chart comparing CO2 emissions of gasoline and Aquanol (90/10). Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Aqueous Ethanol in a Transit Van page 16 . However. By adding a catalytic converter with lower light-off temperature. both cylinder banks were well above light-off temperature during operation on gasoline. Further decreases can be expected with increasing water content. The catalytic converters installed on the test platform never reached light-off temperatures during operation on Aquanol.

4 1.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Modes 1 through 6 Gasoline Aquanol (90/10) Figure 8 Bar chart comparing CO emissions of gasoline and Aquanol (90/10).4 0.8 0.6 0.8 1. Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Aqueous Ethanol in a Transit Van page 17 .CO emissions comparing gasoline and Aquanol (90/10) 2 1.6 1.2 % CO 1 0. NOx emissions comparing gasoline and Aquanol (90/10) 20 18 16 14 12 NOx (PPM) 10 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Modes 1 through 6 Gasoline Aquanol (90/10) Figure 9 Bar chart comparing NOx emissions of gasoline and Aquanol (90/10).

(b) insuring proper igniter performance by monitoring individual cylinder temperatures with an optical pyrometer. Fuel mapping is much more sophisticated than the approach used previously. and (c) implementing a fuel injector flushing procedure to prevent long-term exposure to ethanol/water. As part of this work. Prior fuel maps were based on a constant off-set from gasoline maps. Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Aqueous Ethanol in a Transit Van page 18 . 3.HC emissions comparing gasoline and Aquanol (90/10) 450 400 350 300 250 HC (PPM) 200 150 100 50 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Modes 1 through 6 Gasoline Aquanol (90/10) Figure 10 Bar chart comparing HC emissions of gasoline and Aquanol (90/10). Conclusions This work has provided infrastructure for comparing performance and emissions data from a dual-fuel passenger van operating on Aquanol (90/10) versus gasoline. fuel maps were tuned specifically for Aquanol (90/10) in response to manifold pressure and engine speed. Major refinements to this platform included: (a) facilitating cold-starting on Aquanol (90/10) by installing an engine coolant heater and boosting igniter amperage.

A major change in testing procedures should be a redesign of the modal comparison scheme. During dynamometer operation. it is advisable to keep high load runs to a minimum. however. expected uncertainty will increase at higher load points. In addition to linear errors associated with performance and emissions data collection equipment. At the same throttle position. emissions data was collected using the five-gas analyzer. Test Protocol In this work. 4. allowing greater time spent collecting data without encountering engine overheating. Further. Recommendations This section gives recommendations for more accurate dynamometer testing as well as more robust operation of the dual-fuel platform. cold-starting issues. Ethanol emissions. and better understanding of exhaust clean-up requirements. These recommendations respond to lessons learned in data collection with the steady-state dynamometer. Test modes defined by wheel speed and throttle position do not account for differences in fuel energy content.This work has revealed a number of issues associated with alternative fuel testing that we did not anticipate. This can be attributed to increased settling time during dynamometer operation and difficulty in maintaining steady state operation under conditions requiring high heat rejection. This is the thrust of continuing work by Dan Cordon. modes three and five should be eliminated because these refer to constant throttle positions which do not correspond to the same vehicle performance with different fuels. a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) should be used and is recommended in future work for more complete emission detection. Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Aqueous Ethanol in a Transit Van page 19 . operation on Aquanol (90/10) will produce considerably less power than gasoline. contain substantial levels of aldehydes especially acetaldehyde which cannot be detected by the five-gas analyzer [15]. To record the levels of aldehydes produced by this platform.

Cold-starting would be improved by allowing for 100 percent ethanol to be used until the engine has reached operating temperature. Catalytic converters with reduced light-off temperatures or with an option to externally add heat may prove beneficial in exhaust cleanup. Another necessary hardware modification involves the catalytic exhaust cleanup. Similarly. Over-the-road operation would benefit by increased vehicle range and smoother acceleration. under high-load conditions. Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Aqueous Ethanol in a Transit Van page 20 . However.Dual-Fuel Platform Hardware modifications to allow for realtime adjustment to the ethanol/water concentration entering the fuel injectors would improve the platform in many ways. This would allow the fuel injectors to be sized with a more narrow operating range thus increasing their resolution and response. exhaust created during operation on Aquanol (90/10) exits the vehicle without catalytic cleanup due to extremely low operating temperatures. In the current configuration. allowing for changing water concentrations would require separating the ethanol and water tanks and other hardware in the fuel handling system. the water content could be decreased to allow for more power output at a lower throttle position.

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