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Science

This article is about the general term, particularly as it refers to experimental sciences. For other uses, see Science (disambiguation). Science (from Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge"[1]) is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.[2][3] In an older and closely related meaning, "science" also refers to a body of knowledge itself, of the type that can be rationally explained and reliably applied. Since classical antiquity, science as a type of knowledge has been closely linked to philosophy. In the early modern period the words "science" and "philosophy" were sometimes used interchangeably.[4] By the 17th century, natural philosophy (which is today called "natural science") was considered a separate branch of philosophy.[5] However, "science" continued to be used in a broad sense denoting reliable knowledge about a topic, in the same way it is still used in modern terms such aslibrary science or political science. In modern use, "science" more often refers to a way of pursuing knowledge, not only the knowledge itself. It is "often treated as synonymous with 'natural and physical science', and thus restricted to those branches of study that relate to the phenomena of the material universe and their laws, sometimes with implied exclusion of pure mathematics. This is now the dominant sense in ordinary use.[6] This narrower sense of "science" developed as scientists such as Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton began formulating laws of nature such asNewton's laws of motion. In this period[vague] it became more common to refer to natural philosophy as "natural science". Over the course of the 19th century, the word "science" became increasingly associated with the scientific method, a disciplined way to study the natural world, including physics, chemistry, geology and biology. It is in the 19th century also that the term scientist was created by the naturalist-theologianWilliam Whewell to distinguish those who sought knowledge on nature from those who sought knowledge on other disciplines. The Oxford English Dictionary dates the origin of the word "scientist" to 1834. This sometimes left the study of human thought and society in a linguistic limbo, which was resolved by classifying these areas of academic study as social science. Similarly, several other major areas of disciplined study and knowledge exist today under the general rubric of "science", such as formal science and applied science.

History

Both Aristotle and Kuan Tzu (4th century BCE), in an example of simultaneous scientific discovery, mention that somemarine animals were subject to a lunar cycle, and increase and decrease in size with the waxing and waning of the moon. Aristotle was referring specifically to thesea urchin, pictured above.[7]Science

in a broad sense existed before the modern era, and in many historical civilizations, but modern science is so distinct in its approach and successful in its results that it now defines what

In many societies. known as pollution. crafts. it was believed that the development of technology was restricted only to human beings. usage. Technology has affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways. and deplete natural resources. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity. to the detriment of the Earth and its environment. and similar movements criticise the pervasiveness of technology in the modern world. However. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products. and knowledge of tools. The prehistorical discovery of the ability to control fire increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans in travelling in and controlling their environment. achieve a goal. in order to solve a problem. the telephone. The human species' use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. techniques. and the challenge of traditional norms. opining that it harms the environment and alienates people. have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale.science is in the strictest sense of the term. and methods of organization. and information technology. The word technology refers to the making. arrangements and procedures.[8] Much earlier than the modern era. a term originally applied only to machines. Technologies significantly affect human as well as other animal species' ability to control and adapt to their natural environments. medical technology. modification. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition. It can also refer to the collection of such tools. not all technology has been used for peaceful purposes. Neo-Luddism. with disagreements over whether technology improves thehuman condition or worsens it. until recently. another important turning point was the development of the classical natural philosophy in the ancient Greek-speaking world. machines. including the printing press. and the Internet. from clubs to nuclear weapons. technology has helped develop more advancedeconomies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Philosophical debates have arisen over the present and future use of technology in society. modifications. including machinery. Indeed. handle an applied input/output relation or perform a specific function. anarcho-primitivism. but recent scientific studies indicate that other primates and . the development of weapons of ever-increasing destructive power has progressed throughout history. improve a preexisting solution to a problem. Recent technological developments. systems. The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples include construction technology.

[14] for example atomism. Natural philosophy has its origins in Greece during the Archaic period. while opening new avenues of research in areas such as mathematics and philosophy. from υύσις. Galileo and more specifically Newtondiscovered and unified the different laws of motion. Physics also makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs. For example. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms of other sciences. "knowledge. it is the general analysis of nature. Physics (from Greek υυσική (ἐπιστήμη).[11] Over the last two millennia. such as biophysics and quantum chemistry. as energy needs increased. (650 BCE – 480 BCE). physis.[13] They proposed ideas verified by reason and observation and many of their hypotheses proved successful in experiment. physics was a part of natural philosophy along with chemistry. chemistry and electromagnetics. such as television. and biology. and continued in quantum mechanics pioneered by Heisenberg. Modern physics started with the works of Max Planck in quantum theory and Einstein in relativity. but during the Scientific Revolution in the 17th century. advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization. domestic appliances. and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus. computers.[15][16] Kepler. i. i.[12] Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research.e. . Schrödinger and Paul Dirac.e. "nature"[1][2][3][4][5]) is a part ofnatural philosophy and a natural science that involves the study of matter[6] and its motion through space and time.[17] During the industrial revolution. the natural sciences emerged as unique research programs in their own right. perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy.certain dolphin communities have developed simple tools and learned to pass their knowledge to other generations. so did research.[7] More broadly. Classical physics became a separate science when early modern Europeans used these experimental and quantitative methods to discover what are now considered to be the laws of physics. advances in the understanding of electromagnetism or nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products which have dramatically transformed modern-day society. which led to the discovery of new laws in thermodynamics. certain branches of mathematics. along with related concepts such as energy and force. and nuclear weapons. science of nature". when Pre-Socratic philosophers like Thales rejected non-naturalistic explanations for natural phenomena and proclaimed that every event had a natural cause.[8][9][10] Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines. conducted in order to understand how theuniverse behaves. and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined.

perhaps I know something about Jupiter's orbit around the sun. Outside of this domain. quantum field theory unified quantum mechanics and special relativity. General relativity allowed for a dynamical. several candidate theories of quantum gravity are being developed. its theories lie in explicit domains of applicability. General relativity has not yet been unified with the other fundamental descriptions. a probabilistic notion of particles and interactions that allowed an accurate description of atomic and subatomic scales. Physics is a framework for gathering information about how things work in a useful and reproducible way. Albert Einstein contributed the framework of special relativity. observations do not match their predictions. Why? It is to understand the way things work in the world we live in.While physics aims to discover universal laws. curved spacetime. If I understand why the moon stays in orbit. It also gives you a road map for how to answer new questions based on old observations. Erwin Schrödinger. Knowing physics will (hopefully) make you a more well rounded and curious person. with which highly massive systems and the large-scale structure of the universe can be well-described. Loosely speaking. Later. Max Planck. . Curiosity makes life interesting. the laws ofclassical physics accurately describe systems whose important length scales are greater than the atomic scale and whose motions are much slower than the speed of light. which replaced notions of absolute time and space with spacetime and allowed an accurate description of systems whose components have speeds approaching the speed of light. and others introduced quantum mechanics.