You are on page 1of 43

 What

is the difference between the active and the passive voice?

• In an sentence using the active voice, the subject of the sentence does the action. Example Active: The explorers climbed the tallest mountain in the range.

• In a sentence using the passive voice, the subject of the sentence receives the action. Example Passive: The tallest mountain in the range was climbed by the explorers.

.

When do we use it? • When we want to say that the subject of a sentence is doing the action. (Active) ‘A man’ = subject. we use the verb of that sentence in its Active form Example: A man is cutting down a tree. doing the action (cutting) .

not doing anything. (Passive) „A tree‟ = subject. (Passive) .  When the agent is unknown Example: Flats are sold by unknown. we use the Passive Voice form Example: A tree is being cut down by a man. but allowing „a man‟ to cut it. When we want to say that the subject of a sentence is not doing anything but is allowing something to be done to it by somebody else.

(Passive) . (Passive)  When the description of the agent is very long Example: A charity record has been made by many famous names in the world of pop music. To make the object of the active verb more important Example: America was discovered in 1492 by Christopher Columbus.

(Passive) A mistake was made by us. BE(is/was/havebeen. past participle etc) + Example: We made a mistake. (Passive) General Structure .

Active-Passive -example 1 • The boy is carrying the girl. (Active) The boy = subject is carrying = verb the girl = object of the verb ‘The boy’ is doing the action of carrying .

Active-Passive -example 2  The girl is being carried by the boy. (Passive) The girl = subject is being carried = verb by = preposition the boy = object of the preposition „by‟ „the boy‟ is doing the action of carrying (object) Not „The girl‟ (subject) .

(Passive) „by Johny‟ is object of the preposition „by‟ . (Active) „Johny‟ is the subject of the Active sentence. A book is read every day by Johny.The subject of the Active sentence becomes the object of the preposition in the Passive sentence! Example: Johny reads a book every day.

(Passive) .Example: Johny reads a book every day. (Active) „reads‟ are verb of the Active sentence A book is read every day by Johny.

. (Active) „a book‟ is object of the verb A book is read every day by Johny.THE OBJECT OF THE VERB IN THE ACTIVE SENTENCE BECOMES THE SUBJECT OF THE PASSIVE SENTENCE. Example: Johny reads a book every day. (Passive) „A book‟ is subject of the passive sentence.

so ‘is cooked’ is verb (singular) .When the subject of a sentence is singular. (Passive) ‘Food’ is subject of the passive sentence (singular). the verb must also be in singular Example: He cooks food. (Active ) ‘food’ is object of the verb (singular) Food is cooked by him.

(Passive) „were carried‟ is verb (plural) . the verb of that sentence must be Plural Example: He carried some books. (Active) „some books‟ are object of the verb in Active (Plural) Some books were carried by him.When the subject of a sentence is Plural.

(Active) ‘ten letters’ are object of the verb in Active (plural) Ten letters have been signed by her.Example: She has signed ten letters. (Passive) ‘Ten letters’ are subject (plural) .

(Active) ‘bakes’ is verb Cakes are baked by her.Simple Present Tense  MainVerb -> Is/are + PastParticiple Example: She bakes cakes. (Passive) ‘are baked’ is verb .

(Passive) „is being built‟ is verb .PRESENT CONTINUES TENSE -Is/are + Verb(ing) -> Is/are + Being + Past Participle Example: He is building a sand castle. (Active) „is building‟ is verb A sand castle is being built by him.

(Active) „has drawn‟ is verb A picture has been drawn by him. (Passive) „has been drawn‟ is verb .Present Perfect Tense Have/has + Verb(participle) -> Have/has + Been + PastParticiple Example: He has drawn a picture.

there are occasions where the present perfect continues tense is used in the Passive Voice.Present Perfect Continues Tense  According to the traditional grammar rules. however. the present perfect continues tense is not used in PASSIVE VOICE FORM. (Passive) . Example: He has been mowing the lawn. in the contemporary English. (Active) The lawn has been being mowed by him.

Main Verb -> Was/were + PastParticiple Example: She told me a secret. (Passive) ‘was told’ is verb .Simple Past Tense . (Active) ‘told’ is verb A secret was told (to) me by her.

 Was/were + Verb(ing) -> Was/were + Being + PastParticiple Example: The postman was delivering the post. (Passive) ‘was being delivered’ is verb . (Active) ‘was delivering’ is verb The post was being delivered by the postman.

Past Perfect Tense Had + Verb(participle) -> Had + Been + PastParticiple Example: She had eaten several peas before she offered him any. (Passive) „had been eaten‟ is verb . (Active) „had eaten‟ is verb  Several peas had been eaten by her before she offered him any.

there are occasions where the past perfect continuous tense is used in the Passive Form. however. too! Example: He had been writing letters for half an hour before somebody called him out. in the contemporary English. (Active)  Letters had been being written for half an hour (by him) before somebody called him out. the past perfect continuous tense is not used in Passive form.Past Perfect Continuous Tense According to the traditional grammar rules. (Passive) .

Simple Future Tense .Will + MainVerb -> Will +be + Past Participle Example: They will give the beggar some money. (Active) will give’ is verb The beggar will be given some money by them. (Passive) ‘will be given’ is verb .

Example: They will be playing with fireworks by the time their father reaches home.FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE  According to the traditional grammar rules. the future continuous tense in the Active is not used in Passive Voice Form. (Active) „will be playing‟ is verb NO PASSIVE .

Example: Sue will have sewn two dresses by 12 O’ clock. (Active) ‘will have sewn’ is verb Two dresses will have been sewn by 12 O’ clock by Sue. (Passive) ‘will have been sewn’ is verb Future Perfect Tense .

According to the traditional grammar rules. the future perfect continuous tense is not used in the Passive Voice Form: Example: You will have been working on the course material for 2 hours by 6 in the evening. ‘will have been working’ is verb NO PASSIVE .

(Active) A number can be picked by them. (Passive) We must finish this job.Modal + Verb(participle) -> Modal + Be + past participle Example: They can pick a number. (Passive) The Modal Auxiliary (helping) . (Active) This job must be finished by us.

(Passive) . (Active) This room should have been cleaned.• Modal + Have + Verb(participle) ~> Modal + Have + Been + PastParticiple • Example: Somebody should have cleaned this room.

. (Passive): I do not like being told what to do. (Passive): They don’t like being asked questions.• Examples: (Active): I do not like people telling me what to do. (Active): They don’t like people asking them questions.

It is said that… -> He is said to… Examples: Jane works very hard… It is said that Jane works 16 hours a day. (Passive) . (Active) Jane works very hard… She is said to work 16 hours a day.

The window got broken.Get It describes the subject of the sentences. Examples: -The window was broken by some kids who were playing ball. The glass got shattered. -The glass was shattered by a baseball. .

(idea: people expect it to rain today) Alice was supposed to be home at ten. Examples: It is supposed to rain today. (idea: someone expected Alice to be home at ten) .BE SUPPOSED TO • Used to talk about an activity or event that is expected to occur.

His flesh turned to goose bumps and his very blood curdled. His body was gripped by a paroxysm of horror. He jerked upright and his eyes sprang open. He was even more terrified by what he saw then.• Sometimes the passive voice is appropriate in a story because it is used to describe a person being affected by events. just like in this passage: Example: In the middle of the night Sebastian was woken by the most hideous scream. .

. we can change that active sentence into passive in two way : using the first object in one sentence and the second object in the other.NOTE 1 When there are two objects of the verb in the active voice sentence.

(Passive) . because they are understood: Example: The cook made me an omelette.Note 2 • In writing the Passive Voice. the preposition – ‘by’ or ‘with’ – and its object are not used. (Active) An omelette was made for me . in most cases.

Example: The teacher teaches you a lesson. (Active) ‘you’ – object of the verb / ‘a lesson’ – object of the verb (A)You are taught a lesson by the teacher. (Passive) (B)A lesson is taught to you by the teacher. (Passive) .

(active) The leter was mailed by BOB. Example: S V O Bob mailed the letter. A transitive verb is a verb that is followed by an object. (passive) .Note 3 Transitive and Intransitif • Transitive verbs: only transitive verb can be used in the passive.

Example: S V An accident happened.• Intransitive verbs: An intransitive verb is a verb that is not followed by an object. (active) Not possible (passive) . An intransitive verb CANNOT be used in the passive.