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# Measurement of Osmotic Potential (Ψπ ) by Incipisnt Plasmolysis

GROUP III Yunandar/1114040181 Surhayanti Amir/1114040192 Sri Vianita/1114040195 Sri Wahyuningsih/1114040199

BIOLOGY ICP

UNIVERSITAS NEGERI MAKASSAR TAHUN AJAR 2012/2013

the water potential of a plant system can be arithmetically represented by the equation: Ψw = Ψs + Ψp + Ψm B. Although it is often small enough to be ignored.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. negative or zero. also lowers the water potential. is always negative in sign. The contribution due to the binding of water to colloidal particles (matric) and surfaces. termed matric potential (Ψm). Background Water potential (Ψw. solutes decrease the water potential. termed osmotic potential (Ψs ). Purpose Measurement of osmotic potential by incipisnt plasmolysis . pressure and matrix particles. matrix potential is important when considering soil water relations. The contribution to water potential by dissolved solutes. psi). but is generally positive since most plant cells are turgid (turgor pressure). Thus. In other words. The contribution of pressure (Ψp) may be positive. which is a measure of the energy state of water is affected by dissolved solutes.

Ψρ = 0).. water will move from the pure water to the solution. the weight of the water will exert a backpressure on the solution. and add sugar to one side. At incipisnt plasmolysis. over time. under that condition. Over time. However. there is no longer a pressure potential exerted by the wall (i. and separate them by a semi-permeable membrane (one that allows water to go through its pores. 2013). and become more diluted. 2013). If a cell is placed in a solution which has a Ψ that is higher than that of the cell. a concentration of bathing solution can be found that just produces plasmolysis. It is a special case of diffusion (Anonymous. Of course some water molecules do go the other way. Thus. there will be a net movement of water into the cell. 50% ̴ of the cells are plasmolyzed. If this latter situation continues. if we were to take two containers of water. but the net exchange favors movement into the solution. a condition known as 3 plasmolysis. Thus. since the cell we use are highly vacuolated. there will be a net movement of water out of the cell. the plasma membrane and cytoplasm will pull away from the cell wall. Thus. if the surrounding solution has a lower Ψ than in the cell. this would result in a lowering of the kinetic energy of the water-sugar solution. This is known as osmosis. and therefore. Ψ = Ψп. However. By trial and error. Ψ = Ψп. A solution which just causes incipisnt plasmolysis thus has a water potential (and osmotic potential) of the cell cytoplasm. this will slow the flux of water into the solution. if given enough time (and large enough container) will increase the pressure on the membrane and force water molecules to go back into the pure . we would expect the molecules of pure water to encounter the membrane more often than the lower energy water molecules on the solution side. eventually. which. Finally. from a statisticalprobability point of visw.CHAPTER II BASIC THEORY Now. It should also be noted that for solutions. dkk.e. but not solutes like salt or sugar). and this is known as “incipisnt incipisnt plasmolysis is defined as when plasmolysis”. and thus. but not stop it entirely. it can also be assumed that the osmotic potential of the cell is basically the vacuolar osmotic potential (Ismail. the solution will increase in volume.

and the net flux of water will cease. 117) is the “bound water” explanation.g. the water molecule has several unique characteristics.water. 1998. According to this explanation. This says that any hydrophilic solute (like sucrose or NaCl) will bind up hydrating water and prevent it from moving freely. atmospheres. Therefore. In fact. 2013). Weiss. In spite of the simplicity of the composition of the constituent atoms and small molecular size. p. “free” water moves into hypertonic solutions simply because it is diffusing down its concentration gradisnt. Megapascals) (Anonymous. A slightly more complex theory that is often found in general biology books (including your text. 1996. If the bound water explanation were true. consisting of one atom of oxygen (0) and two hydrogen atoms (H). we would expect that a greater mass of hydrophilic solute would bind more water. 216-222). the side of a semipermeable membrane with pure water has a higher “free” water concentration than the side with the solute molecules. Also. The amount of pressure needed to totally balance the flows of water is known as the osmotic pressure and symbolized aswith units of pressure (e. so that the molecular weight of only 18 g / mol. and we can predict osmosis without considering how hydrophilic the solute molecules are (Anonymous. Whether a certain mass of solute is present in a few large molecules or in many small ones shouldn’t matter. These characteristics caused by a seriss of two H atoms on atom 0 (in center) do not form a straight line. we would have to carefully consider how hydrophilic the solute is (that is. pounds per square inch. pp. Water is a simple molecule.. but rather variss if water is in liquid . The magnitude of this angle is always the same if the water is in solid form (ice). when predicting osmosis. this theory is not even mentioned in several revisws (Baumgarten and Feher. Although it is popular in introductory texts. how many water molecules it binds per molecule). 2013). it can totally balance the number coming in. bars. This circuit makes an angle of 1050. If the pressure is great enough. the number of molecules present does affect osmosis.

This stage is used to find the water potential of a particular cel (Anonymous. This is why plant cell can become turgid and flaccid because their walls (plasma membrane) can stretch. which is the capacity to perform work when water moves from areas with higher Ψ to areas with lower Ψ (Campbell. eventually equilibrium will be reached and water will enter and leave the cell at the same rate. both types of gradisnts influence transport. Potato cell contain polysaccharides starch and glycogen they are good for storage. water will initially move into the cell. Water enters in the cell through phospholipids (Anonymous. The potato cell is surrounded by plasma membrane it is a fluid mosaic model. in pressure-driven bulk flow. osmosis occurs spontaneously in response to a driving force. substances move down a concentration gradisnt. diffusion. The plasma membrane is a selectively permeabel barrisr between the cell and the extra cellular environment. At first most water movement is into the cell. In the water potential is important to understand is the water will move through the membrane from a solution with high water potential to a solution with a lower potential IAR. If plant cell are placed in pure water. In simple. 2011). but by the sum of these two driving (Finkelstein. Intake or water net expenditure by a cell occurs by osmosis.form. is passive transport of water through a membrane. 1987). Components potential in water potential refers to the potential energy. 2013). in osmosis. Water can dissolve more types of chemicals compared to other liquids (Lakitan. Benjamin. Turgor pressure is the pressure exerted against the cell wall by contents of the cell. Like molecular diffusion and pressure –deriven bulk flow. The combined effect of these two factors solute concentration and pressure are called water potential. 2000). . 2013). substances move down a pressure gradisnt. After are period of time the cell will become turgid. As the turgor pressure increases water will begin to diffuse out of the cell at a greater rate. although the average angle remains 1050. he is say the direction and rate of water flow across a membrane are determined not solely by the concentration gradisnt of water or by pressure gradisnt. which is mosaic of phospholipids and proteins moving around they are not solid.

March 21st 2013 : 10. Prepare 6 petri dish and label each petri dish by concentration sucrose solution to be used.30 Wita : Biology Laboratory third floor at west FMIPA UNM B. Microscope b. Tools a. Object and deck glass d.50 Wita – 12. Place and Date Day / date Time Place : Wednesday. Leaf of Rhoeo discolor C. . Tweezers 2. Cutter c. Petri dish e. Solution of sucrose b.CHAPTER III PRACTICUM METHOD A. Tools and Materials 1. Work Procedure 1. Material a.

20. 0:25. fill each petri dish with a solution sucrose 0.1. 0:15. Taking epidermis Rhoe discolor. 3. 0:30. . 0.2. then slashing or slicing the epidermal layer purple with a knife or razor blade and slashed seek only the cell layer. 0:40 m.

After 15 minutes. Submerge the epidermis slashes on a petri dish that already contains a certain concentration of sucrose solution with the same number of incisions for 15 minutes. . 5.4. take the cuts that have been soaked in a petri dish and examined under a microscope.

the amount of cell is happened plasmolisis and the percentage of cells that happened plasmolisis the total number of cells.6. Result of Practicum Table Effect of sucrose concentration on epidermal cells Rhoe discolor . Counting the total number of cells in one area of the fisld of vision. CHAPTER IV RESULT A.

25 70 % 30 % 0.082) (273+27) -Ψπ = -3.20M in 27°C : -Ψπ = miRT -Ψπ = (0.46 Ψπ = 2.25)(1)(0.15 M in 27°C : -Ψπ = miRT -Ψπ = (0.082) (273+27) -Ψπ = -2.15)(1)(0.15 Ψπ = 6.10 Plasmolisis Happen % 60 % Not Happen Plasmoliss % 50 % Pictures osmotic potential (Ψπ) for 0.46 osmotic potential (Ψπ) for 0.96 Ψπ = 4.20 40 % 60 % 0.30 80 % 20 % 0.1)(1)(0.69 osmotic potential (Ψπ) for 0.082) (273+27) -Ψπ = -9.1M in 27°C : -Ψπ = miRT -Ψπ = (0.40M in 27°C : -Ψπ = miRT -Ψπ = (0.84 Ψπ = 9.69 Ψπ = 3.30M in 27°C : -Ψπ = miRT -Ψπ = (0.96 osmotic potential (Ψπ) for 0.082) (273+27) -Ψπ = -7.30)(1)(0.15 20 % 80 % 0.20)(1)(0.84 0.25M in 27°C : -Ψπ = miRT -Ψπ = (0.082) (273+27) -Ψπ = -4.38 osmotic potential (Ψπ) for 0.40)(1)(0.Caption Concentration 0.40 80 % 20 % .38 Ψπ = 7.082) (273+27) -Ψπ = -6.15 osmotic potential (Ψπ) for 0.

In accordance with the principle of osmosis. soaked in a solution of sucrose 0:10. Discussed When Rhoeo discolor under normal circumstances.10 m sucrose solution. 0:20. 0:30. Epidermal cells Rhoe discolor experisnced plasmolisis with the percentage of cells is happened plasmolisis by 80% and 20% were not plasmolisis.15 m sucrose solution. visible cell parts hexagonshaped cavity with cytoplasm of the cell wall purple meet. the movement of water or solvent from a more dilute solution to a more concentrated . At a concentration of 0. 3. 0:15. 6. Epidermal cells Rhoe discolor experisnced plasmolisis with the percentage of cells is happened plasmolisis by 20% and 80% were not plasmolisis. At a concentration of 0.30 m sucrose solution.20 m sucrose solution.40 m sucrose solution. At a concentration of 0. 4. At a concentration of 0. Epidermal cells Rhoe discolor experisnced plasmolisis with the percentage of cells is happened plasmolisis by 40% and 60% were not plasmolisis. At a concentration of 0. 2.25 m sucrose solution.B. 5. Epidermal cells Rhoe discolor experisnced plasmolisis with the percentage of cells is happened plasmolisis by 70% and 30% were not plasmolisis. At a concentration of 0. so that the normal cell shape. 0:40 m. 0:25. Epidermal cells Rhoe discolor experisnced plasmolisis with the percentage of cells is happened plasmolisis by 60% and 50% were not plasmolisis. Data Analysis Based on the data that have been obtained can be analyzed as follows: 1. Water dripped form an isotonic environment both inside and outside the cell. C. Epidermal cells Rhoe discolor experisnced plasmolisis with the percentage of cells is happened plasmolisis by 80% and 20% were not plasmolisis. So the solution is more concentrated outside the cell than inside the cell. At the time of incision Rhoeo discolor leaves.

the events that occur in epidermal cells Rhoe discolor is commonly called the Plasmolisis. Gradually the cytoplasm fade into purple blotches. As a result. Conclusion Plasmolisis event is the release of the cell membrane in plant cells due to the cell is in an environment that is hypertonic. CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. the solution whose concentration is lower than the fluid inside the cell. the osmotic potential in the cell is greater than the osmotic potential that exists outside the cell. shrink volume (cells become wrinkled) and finally detached from the cell wall. This happens because the solution sucrosa acts as a hypertonic solution. the water potential is proportional to the osmotic potential. Potential water in the cell is greater than the existing water potential outside the cell. From the analysis above. it can be derived that the dense concentration of sucrose solution is used to soak the incision epidermis Rhoe discolor the more the epidermal cells that undergo plasmolisis. This can be the result of differences in water potential inside and outside the cell. Conditions hipotonis cells resulting environmental occurrence osmosis from the cells into the environment. water levels dropped dramatically in the cell and the cell membrane detached from the cell wall. This has led to the migration of water molecules in the cell to outside the cell in the lab this time the water molecules move from epidermal cells Rhoe discolor leading to the solution of sucrose. .solutions. water will flow out of the cell vacuoles heading out because of the pressure of osmosis. resulting protoplasts epidermal cells lose water. Consequently Rhoeo discolor leaf cells lose water so purple cytoplasm away from the cell walls shrink and as if out and rupture of the cell. Therefore.

edu. http://courseworkbank. B. 3.edu. Accesed 26th march 2013 Anonymous. . http://employees. Laboratory should provide tools that fit the needs of that practice can be implemented with a conducive and comfortable. 2.info/journal. Jakarta: Erlangga.edu.clemson. Suggestion 1. Accesed 26th march 2013. http://appstate. Biologi Campbel edisi 3. Accesed 26th march 2013 Anonymous. 2013. http://biology. Campbell. It also means that the osmotic potential that is inside the cell is greater than outside the cell. 2013. Accesed 26th march 2013 Anonymous.csbsju. Lecture Water.A cell will undergo plasmolisis if the water potential in the cell greater than the existing water potential outside the cell. 2013. 2000. 2013. Assistant should accompany each group to support the implementation of practical activitiss in accordance with the desired. My frisnds should understand the working procedures before entering the lab room BIBLIOGRAPHY Anonymous.

Jakarta: Rajawali Pers Finkelestein. 2002. Dasar-dasar Fisiologi Tumbuhan. Sinauer Associates: England . Zeiger. Taiz. (1987) Water Movement through Lipid Bilayer. Wiley. A. Benyamin. Pores. and Plasma Membranes: Theory and Reality. 2011. New York.Lakitan. Plant Physiology edtion 3.

Experisncing the highest plasmolisis is sucrosa solution 0:30 and 0:40 then sequentially is 0:25. What were possible sources of error in this experiment? Answer 1.082)(273+27) -Ψπ = -3. 3.69 . In our observation.We known plasmolisis happen becouse the water molecules move from epidermal cells Rhoe discolor leading to the solution of sucrose. But the presentation of the different plasmolisis. What concentration of surcose resulted in incipisnt plasmolysis.15)(1)(0. Observation result of with use abbreviation: osmotic potential (Ψπ) for 0. 2. 0:20 and presentations that have the lowest plasmolisis is 0. shrink volume (cells become wrinkled) and finally detached from the cell wall. and how did you know when it occurred? 2. of all the sucrose concentration given all the impact plasmolisis. the events that occur in epidermal cells Rhoe discolor is commonly called the Plasmolisis. resulting protoplasts epidermal cells lose water. what was the osmotic potential of the cells? Show your calculation.15 M in 27°C : -Ψπ = miRT -Ψπ = (0. Based on the above.69 Ψπ = 3.15 m sucrose solution. 0:10.Questions: 1.

30)(1)(0.46 -Ψπ = (0.46 -Ψπ = miRT Ψπ = 2.84 -4.20M in 27°C : -Ψπ = (0. Sucrose solution used was not valid due to the mixture of sucrose solution with each other this is caused by the use of a Pasteur pipette solution simultaneously for all becouse Pasteur pipette is used only one solution for all.15 3.25)(1)(0. Aprentice inaccuracy when determining or calculating the number of cells undergoing plasmolisis and the number of cells that do not undergo plasmolisis.082)(273+27) -Ψπ = miRT osmotic potential (Ψπ) for 0.082)(273+27) Ψπ = 4.38 osmotic potential (Ψπ) for 0.1)(1)(0. Errors that may occur in this lab are: a.30M in 27°C : -Ψπ = -2.38 Ψπ = 7. possible incision epidermis has taken bold measures to normal size in the experiment to be performed.1M in 27°C : -Ψπ = miRT -Ψπ = (0.082)(273+27) -Ψπ==-9.40)(1)(0.96 -Ψπ (0. .15 Ψπ = 6. b.25M in 27°C : -Ψπ (0.osmotic potential (Ψπ) for 0.20)(1)(0.40M in 27°C : -Ψπ = miRT osmotic potential (Ψπ) for 0.082)(273+27) -Ψπ = -7.96 -Ψπ -6.84 miRT Ψπ == 9. Errors in taking the epidermis rhoe discolor.082)(273+27) osmotic potential (Ψπ) for 0. c.