You are on page 1of 40

Section 6

Fracturing Fluids and Materials
Table of Contents
Fracturing Fluids and Materials .................................................................................................................6-3 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................6-3 Topic Areas ............................................................................................................................................6-3 Learning Objectives ...............................................................................................................................6-3 Unit A: pH Control Agents ........................................................................................................................6-3 Unit A Quiz ............................................................................................................................................6-4 Unit B: Clay Control..................................................................................................................................6-5 Clay Characteristics................................................................................................................................6-5 Clay Control Additives...........................................................................................................................6-5 Unit B Quiz ............................................................................................................................................6-7 Unit C: Fluid Loss Control Additives ........................................................................................................6-8 Fluid Loss Approaches...........................................................................................................................6-8 Fluid Loss Control Additives .................................................................................................................6-8 Unit C Quiz ..........................................................................................................................................6-10 Unit D: Surfactants ..................................................................................................................................6-11 Surfactant Definition ............................................................................................................................6-11 Surfactant Usage ..................................................................................................................................6-11 Surfactant Composition........................................................................................................................6-12 Surfactant Mechanisms ........................................................................................................................6-13 Blending of Surfactants ........................................................................................................................6-14 Summary ..............................................................................................................................................6-14 Unit D Quiz: Surfactants ......................................................................................................................6-15 Unit E: Gelling Agents.............................................................................................................................6-16 Water-Based Gelling Agents................................................................................................................6-16 Oil Gelling Agents ...............................................................................................................................6-18 Additional References ..........................................................................................................................6-20 Unit E Quiz: Gelling Agents ................................................................................................................6-21 Unit F: Complexors/Crosslinkers.............................................................................................................6-22 Unit F Quiz...........................................................................................................................................6-25 Unit G: Breakers/Stabilizers ....................................................................................................................6-26 Breakers................................................................................................................................................6-26 Breaker Types ......................................................................................................................................6-26 Enzyme Breakers..................................................................................................................................6-26 Oxidizing Breaker ................................................................................................................................6-27 Acid Breakers.......................................................................................................................................6-28 Gelled-Oil Breakers..............................................................................................................................6-30 Breaker Activators................................................................................................................................6-30

6•1
© 2005, Halliburton

Stimulation I

Fracturing Fluids and Materials

Stabilizers .............................................................................................................................................6-30 Unit G Quiz ..........................................................................................................................................6-32 Unit H: Bactericides/Biocides..................................................................................................................6-33 Bacteria Conditions ..............................................................................................................................6-33 Bacteria Types......................................................................................................................................6-33 Bactericides ..........................................................................................................................................6-33 Additional References ..........................................................................................................................6-34 Unit H Quiz ..........................................................................................................................................6-35 Unit I: Conductivity Enhancers................................................................................................................6-36 SandwedgeXS ......................................................................................................................................6-36 Unit I Quiz............................................................................................................................................6-37 Answer Key .............................................................................................................................................6-38

© 2005, Halliburton

6•2

Stimulation I

Fracturing Fluids and Materials

Fracturing Fluids and Materials
• pH control agents Clay control agents Fluid loss control additives Surfactants Gelling agents and friction reducers Complexors and crosslinkers Breakers and stabilizers Bactericides Conductivity Enhancers

Introduction
Fracturing chemicals are used to make up the fluid systems for stimulation treatments. A great number of fracturing fluid systems is available to the petroleum industry. The selection of a fracturing fluid depends upon the particular formation to be treated and the tubular goods in the well. Considerations in fluid selection are: • • • • • the formation rock properties the formation fluid properties friction properties of the treating fluid fluid loss properties of the treating fluid proppant transport

• • • • • • • •

Learning Objectives
Upon completion of this section, you will be familiar with: • • • Classifications and usage for chemicals blended into fracturing fluids Reactions of these chemicals Actions that each chemical will have in a formation

Topic Areas
Chemical additives generally used in fracturing can be grouped into nine classifications. The following sections will explain these types and their uses:

Unit A: pH Control Agents
Most aqueous based stimulation fluids contain a nominal amount of chemicals (common acids and bases) for the sole purpose of obtaining the proper fluid pH. These chemicals are referred to as pH control agents or buffers. pH expresses the degree of acidity or basicity of a solution. The pH scale extends from 0 to 14 (Figure 6.1). A pH of 7 is neutral (neither acidic, nor basic). An acidic solution will have a pH value lower than 7. If it is basic (or alkaline) it will have a pH value above 7.
Acidic 0 Neutral 7 Basic 14

Table 6.1 - pH Scale

The pH scale is useful in evaluating solutions which are slightly acidic or basic. A 0.1% solution of HCL will have a pH of 1, while a 1% solution of caustic soda (NaOH) will have a pH of 14. The strength of higher concentrations of

© 2005, Halliburton

6•3

Stimulation I

Fracturing Fluids and Materials

hydrochloric acid (HCL) or caustic are expressed as percent rather than pH. Measuring pH is done with narrow range pH paper or pH meters. The pH of a fluid is a significant factor in stimulation treatments because it controls variables such as crosslinker function, temperature stability, iron control problems, polymer hydration, clay control, and gel break. Compatibility of stimulation fluids with the formation is an important consideration since the effect of fluid pH on clays and the resulting formation permeability can be significant. Clay and shale formations are best protected in a low pH environment. Rates at which gelling agents develop viscosity are a direct function of the pH of the liquid system. Adjusting the pH of the liquid system also controls bacteria. Commonly used pH control additives include: • • • • • • • sodium bicarbonate fumaric acid acetic acid formic acid sodium diacetate monosodium phosphate sodium carbonate

sodium hydroxide.

pH control agents used to adjust pH are listed along with their values:
STRONG ACID pH

Hydrochloric Acid Hydrofloric Acid
WEAK ACID

0-2 0-2
pH

HYG-3 (Furmaric Acid) FE-1A (Acetic Acid)
WEAK BASE

3.5-4 2-4
pH

K-34 (Sodium Bicarbonate) K-35 (Sodium Carbonate)
STRONG BASE

8.5 10.5
pH

NaOH (Caustic Soda)

14

Buffers are mixtures of acids and salts of these acids and are resistant to pH change. By using a buffer listed below, rather than an acid or base, the fluid pH can be maintained even though contaminants from formation water or other sources tend to try and change it.
BUFFER pH

BA-2 BA-20 BA-40 / BA-40L

1.5-3 6-8.5 7-11

Unit A Quiz
Fill in the blanks with one or more words to check your progress in Unit A. 1. Clay and shales can best be protected in a ____________________ pH environment. 2. pH is a means of expressing the degree of ____________________ or ____________________of a solution. 3. On the pH scale, ____________ is neutral. 4. Buffers are mixtures of ____________________ and _____________________ of these ____________________. 5. To maintain a pH of 10, you could use ________________ as a buffer. Now, look up the suggested answers in the Answer Key at the back of this section.

© 2005, Halliburton

6•4

Stimulation I

sodium chloride (NaCl) and ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) are used to maintain the “status quo” of clays to minimize permeability damage. mixed layer. such as potassium. The additive can be added to the mixing water while batch mixing or it can be metered into the flow stream before the other ingredients are added. and CLAYFIX (NH4Cl) as a temporary clay protection additive. The clay composition and its location in the rock matrix can vary extensively. Sodium Chloride (NaCl) and Clayfix (NH4Cl) The main method of minimizing clay damage through contact with fracturing fluids is by adding a chemical that will not alter the natural water retention characteristics of the clay. and thus decrease the effective permeability of the producing zone. particularly where stimulation processes are employed. ClayFix II CLAYFIX II is a liquid replacement for the various salts used in aqueous fracturing treatments. The primary application for CLAYFIX II is in propped fracturing treatments. Potassium Chloride (KCL). illite. sodium and ammonium. an increase in clay swelling can reduce the size of flow channels and decrease the flow capacity of the rock. 7% KCL. CLAYFIX II is not recommended for matrix treatments. any appreciable change in the swelling characteristic of the clay may cause some of the clay to be detached from its original position. The clays most commonly found in hydrocarbon-producing formations are smectite. An acid or buffering agent can protect clays best at a pH range of 3 to 7. kaolinite and chlorite. form bridges at flow restrictions in the formation. CLAYFIX II is compatible will all present LGC formulations. * All clays swell to some degree. thus complicating control and treatment when clay minerals are present. Recent studies have indicated that for maximum clay stability through ion exchange. Clay Smectite Mixed Layer Illite Kaolinite Chlorite Damage method* Swelling Swelling Migrating Migrating Migrating Clay Control Additives Acids and Buffers As discussed in the previous unit. pH can be used to control formation clays. Clays have a negative charge on their surfaces. and they can all break loose and migrate. 6% NaCl or 5% NH4Cl is needed. To minimize the possibility of clay crystals or packets of crystals breaking loose and migrating. © 2005.Fracturing Fluids and Materials Unit B: Clay Control Clay Characteristics Clays are present in almost all oil and gas bearing formations and their presence can cause many problems in the production of hydrocarbons. The salts potassium chloride (KCL). possess the proper ionic size for absorption onto clay platelets and are compatible with most water based fracturing fluid systems. any water that may contact a clay-bearing formation should contain a chemical that will not alter the natural water retention characteristics of the clay. Where water-swelling clay is contacted by foreign water in the formation. In addition. Fine particles may be released which can migrate with fluid flow. One of these two processes will usually be dominant for any given clay. Cations. It offers an alternative to KCl. NaCl. Halliburton 6•5 Stimulation I .

like oil and water. and gravelpack operations and is preferred over other ClaSta products for formations with permeability less than 30 millidarcies. They are most effective if used in a “pre-pad” or thin fluid pumped before the main fracture treatment and become much less effective when blended with other gelling agents. This additive also is not a substitute for permanent clay control additives. migration may be greatly reduced. Cla-Sta® XP is compatible with many aqueous stimulation fluids and can be batch mixed into the base fluid or continuously mixed at the blender. Methanol (Methyl Alcohol) The addition of methanol to a fracturing fluid reduces the fluid’s surface tension. This fines stabilization is long lasting. Halliburton 6•6 Stimulation I . It is readily adsorbed on the formation surfaces. It is intended for use in formations with permeability of 30 millidarcies (mD) or less but is not limited to that permeability. thus reducing the amount of water retained by the formation. An emulsion is a suspension of small globules of one liquid in a second liquid with which the first will not mix. such as salts. It also absorbs moisture on clay particles and helps protect the clay from the swelling caused by water base fluids. Hydrocarbons One method to effectively control clay problems is to not allow the formation to come into contact with water. Cla-Sta® XP Cla-Sta XP clay stabilizing agent is designed to be resistant to both acid and chemical removal. ® Foams and Emulsions Foams and emulsions have excellent fluid loss properties resulting in the reduction of water contact to the natural permeability of the formation. Cla-Sta® FS Cla-Sta® FS mineral fines and clay stabilizing additive is a new polymer designed to stabilize fines commonly produced from a variety of formations. like shaving cream.Fracturing Fluids and Materials NOTE: CLAYFIX II cannot be premixed in LGC concentrates. and permeability impairment caused by fines. By substantially stabilizing mineral fine particles. ® their dislodgment or movement when exposed to very high rates of fluid flow. Cla-Sta Compounds The Cla-Sta® compounds are cationic polymers or oligomers that may be used with fracturing fluids and acids to stabilize clays. Foams and emulsions also reduce the total water required to formulate a fracturing fluid. Cla-Sta® XP is an oligomer which provides clay and fines control in most fracturing. Oil-based fracturing fluids do not allow water to be introduced into the formation. reducing © 2005. ClaSta Compounds can even plug pore spaces if used above recommended concentrations. solids production. Cla-Sta® XP is not a substitute for salts. Foam is a suspension of gas bubbles inside a liquid. Both of these result in faster cleanup and retained permeability. such as KCl or NaCl and will not provide the immediate clay protection needed during treatment. Hydrocarbons such as diesel can be blended with water based fluids to control leak off into the fracture face and minimize water contact. acidizing. Cla-Sta® FS effectively stabilizes mineral fines that do not respond to treatment from conventional clay stabilizers.

6. 1. Now. pH ranges at which clays can best be protected are from __________ to ___________. Clays are present in ________________ _______________ oil and gas bearing formations. Cla-Sta® materials are most effective when added to a ________________-_________________. © 2005.Fracturing Fluids and Materials Unit B Quiz Fill in the blanks with one or more words to check your progress in Unit B. 8. 2. ClayFix II is a ____________________ clay protection additive. One method to effectively control clay problems is not to let the formation come into contact with ____________________. Maximum protection from clay swelling can be achieved when using a concentration of __________% potassium chloride (KCL). 10. 3. Foams and emulsions reduce the total ____________________ required to formulate a fracturing fluid. 4. Halliburton 6•7 Stimulation I . Cla-Sta® materials should not be used above recommended concentrations because excess material can cause ____________________ of the pore spaces. 7. 9. Clay swelling can reduce the size of ____________________ channels. __________% sodium chloride (NaCl) or __________% ammonium chloride (NH4CL). look up the suggested answers in the Answer Key at the back of this section. 5. Released fine particles can reduce effective ____________________.

the additive degrades to low residue material in an aqueous environment. It is an excellent fluid loss additive that can be used with water.Fracturing Fluids and Materials Unit C: Fluid Loss Control Additives In any fracturing operation. the fluid loss additives build up on the fracture face and form a filter cake. However. Another requirement is that a large percentage of formation permeability needs to be regained after being treated by the additive. finely powdered solids have been used to control fluid loss. WLC-6 WLC-6 is a non-damaging fluid-loss additive that helps in reducing gel filter cakes. WLC-4 may be used to control leakoff in formations up to around 50 md or with 100mesh sand to help control leakoff in natural fractures. Typical concentrations usually range from 20 to 50 lb/Mgal. WLC-5 can be used at temperatures from 75° to 350°F and permeabilities up to around 50 md. As it dissolves. since it is silica. helping to remove the filter cake and improve fracture conductivity. medium or high permeability sections. Different approaches have been taken to establish fluid loss control. It contains an enzyme breaker that allows it to be more degradable than other starch additives such as Adomite Regain and WLC-4 at low temperatures. Ground to an appropriate particle size for fracturing. Fluid loss reduces the size of the fracture as well as the fluid pressure inside the fracture. Halliburton 6•8 Stimulation I . Traditionally. WLC-4 WLC-4 is a particulate fluid loss additive developed for use with water-based gelled fracturing fluids at temperatures of 140° to 350°F. acid or oil based fluids. WLC-5 WLC-5 is a fluid loss additive for use in aqueous fluids. WLC-6 is slowly soluble in water and should be applied in low-tomoderate temperature wells up to 150°F. it does not dissolve or degrade over time. The amount of fluid lost in this way and the rate at which it is lost has a pronounced effect on the shape of the fracture. WLC6 can also be used with FracPac treatments in Fluid Loss Control Additives Water Based Fluids WAC-9 WAC-9 is finely powdered sand. such as low. At temperatures above 140°F. it reduces the surface tension of the filter-cake residue. Some of the solids are inert while others go into solution and/or degrade. Another approach to fluid loss control uses liquid additives that deposit droplets along the fracture fact to control the loss of fluid. and the enzyme breaker in Adomite Regain is not as effective as the breaker in WLC-5. © 2005. A major advantage of this approach is that no solids that might impair productivity are left in the formation or fracture. This reduces fluid loss. As the fluid moves into the pores of the formation. The additive should be applied at 20 to 50 lb/Mgal to aid leakoff control. WLC-4 does not contain this enzyme breaker. Fluid Loss Approaches Fluid loss additives are required to function across a wide range of pore size distributions. then dissolves in the produced water to ensure cleanup. it remains solid long enough to function as a fluidloss additive. especially from borate-crosslinked fluids. a portion of the fluid in contact with the formation penetrates into the pores and is lost as leak-off.

Use WLC-6 at concentrations of 25 to 50 lb/Mgal of fracturing fluid. Adomite®Aqua is not recommended in hydrochloric acid solutions stronger than 3%. Concentrations used are normally in the 20 to 50 lb/Mgal range. Laboratory tests are required to determine the concentrations used. Pore spaces or “vugs” are usually large enough that the larger particle size found in 100 Mesh Sand is required to bridge the openings. It should be used in concentrations from 25 – 50 lb/Mgal of fracturing fluid. an organic solid. Normally. Because of its solubility. Laboratory tests show that WLC-7 is beneficial up to 320 md. it is active at low temperatures. meaning some residue will be left after treatment. WLC-7 is nondamaging. Although it is compatible with most stimulation chemicals. Oil Based Fluids WLC-7 WLC-7 fluid loss additive. Adomite®Aqua Adomite®Aqua is an older fluid-loss additive for use in water-based fracturing fluids and was originally developed by Continental Oil Company. is a finely ground powder that dissolves slowly in water as the water temperature rises. There are a variety of fluid loss additives applicable to oil-based fracturing fluids. Laboratory tests indicate that WLC-7 helps reduce the potential damaging effects of borate crosslinked gel filter cakes. WAC-9 WAC-9 may be used for fluid loss control with any oil or water base fracturing fluids or acids. The amount of 100 Mesh Sand used for fluid loss control depends on formation rock properties. Designed with an internal enzyme breaker system. It is compatible with most water base gelling agents and testing has shown some benefit in formations up to 200 md. it can be cleaned up as water is produced from the well. Halliburton 6•9 Stimulation I . WLC-7 can be used in wells up to 180° F. to 350°F. it contains solids that are inert. 100 Mesh Sand 100 Mesh Sand may be used in highly permeable limestone or dolomite formations to control fluid loss. at temperatures up © 2005. K-34 K-34 (Bicarbonate of Soda) is used in My-T-Oil IV gels as both a breaker and a fluid loss control additive. 100 Mesh Sand can be used with other fluid loss additives. Adomite Regain Adomite Regain is a starch-based particulate fluid loss additive used for water-based fracturing fluids. Normal concentrations used are from 20-50 lb/Mgal.Fracturing Fluids and Materials formations with up to 300 md of permeability. additional fluid loss control additives are not required for foam or emulsion applications in formations with permeability of less than 1 md. Foams and Emulsions Gas bubbles present in foams and oil droplets found in emulsions provide excellent fluid loss control. including MY-T-OIL IV. It is currently manufactured by Nalco Chemical Company and is available from all service companies. therefore. It can be used in formations up to 10 md.

1. 9. 100 Mesh sand is typically used in ____________________ _____________________ limestone or dolomite formations. WAC-9 can be used as a fluid loss additive with ____________________. Fluid loss reduces the ____________________ of the fracture and the fluid ____________________ inside the fracture. ____________________ or ____________________ base fluids. WLC-4 can be used at concentrations from __________ to __________ lb/Mgal of fracturing fluid. 5. 3. Halliburton 6 • 10 Stimulation I .Fracturing Fluids and Materials Unit C Quiz Fill in the blanks with one or more words to check your progress in Unit C. An advantage of a liquid fluid loss additive is that no ____________________ are left in the formation or fracture. WAC-9 is a finely powdered ____________________. 8. One requirement of fluid loss additives is that a high percentage of formation ____________________ be regained after being treated by the additive. 7. WLC-5 contains an ____________________ ___________________ that allows it to be more degradable than other starch additives. 10. Now. look up the suggested answers in the Answer Key at the back of this section. © 2005. 6. Finely powdered ____________________ have been used to control fluid loss. 2. 4. ____________________ additives deposit droplets along the fracture face to control fluid loss.

these chemicals can aid in stimulation fluid recovery and reduce the possibility of emulsions forming in the formation. a surfactant incorporated in the injected fluid can help prevent the formation of emulsions during © 2005. kerosene. It tries to pull the fluid into a form with the least surface area. The surface tension of most liquids can be changed by the addition of surfactants. If properly used. Figure 6. especially in contact with oily surfaces. when added to a liquid. so it always tends to form itself into balls (Figure 6. diesel oil. Figure 6. resulting in a partial or complete block. Through the wise use of surfactants. Water can reduce the sand’s effective permeability to oil. Emulsifiers. Surface tension is composed of the forces present in the surface film of all liquids. changes the surface tension of the liquid.Fracturing Fluids and Materials Unit D: Surfactants A major obstacle to oil production is the infiltration of water into oil-bearing formations. Emulsions in the fracture may limit the flow of fluid through the fracture itself. Many crude oils and waters form emulsions that are more viscous than crude oil.” This means a chemical which. Mercury has a very strong surface tension. the term is limited to those chemicals that lower the surface tension of liquids. This would be a sphere or a round droplet The particles in the surface film are attracted inwardly.2 . non-emulsifiers. Halliburton 6 • 11 Stimulation I . They tend to spread out on a solid surface to form a film (Figure 6.1 .1) . causing tension. There are four important effects of these chemicals in fracturing: • • helps prevent water blocks helps prevent the creation of emulsions between the injected fluid and the formation fluid helps stabilize emulsions when using an emulsified treatment fluid aids in fluid recovery • • Emulsions that are accidentally created in the formation and do not break spontaneously may reduce the flow of fluid into the fracture. Breaking or preventing these emulsions can be of great benefit in increasing the productive flow of oil to the wellbore. Some emulsions have a fluid viscosity that is several thousand times that of oil. In a practical sense. gasoline) used in fracturing will have low surface tensions. Both blocking water and water-oil emulsions can be present near the wellbore. Surfactant Usage Surfactants have been used in conjunction with fracturing treatments for several years.Liquid with a low surface tension Surfactant Definition A surfactant is defined as a “surface active agent.2).Liquid with a high surface tension Water has a strong surface tension and also tends to form balls. Alcohol and the common liquid hydrocarbons (xylene. Surfactants (“surface active agents”) have been developed to reduce fluid retention in a formation. and anti-foaming agents are all examples of surfactants.

negatively charged. will block the flow of well fluids more so than water. or uncharged.4) are organic molecules whose water-soluble group is negatively charged. The selection of the most effective type and concentration of surfactants for the prevention of emulsions or fluid blocks can be determined by emulsion and flow tests.5) are organic molecules whose water-soluble group is positively charged. These emulsions may be very thick and. Amphoteric surfactants (Figure 6.Nonionic Surfactant The following model (Figure 6. depending upon the nature of the water-soluble group. certain surfactants can be used to develop emulsions that can be used to fracture oil-bearing formations. Acidfrac is an acid-in-oil emulsion prepared with a specific type of surfactant.Fracturing Fluids and Materials the treatment.5 . Figure 6.3) will be used to simplify this discussion. Surfactants vary in chemical composition and the effects they have on oil-water mixtures. Surfactants of this type exist naturally in some crude oils.4 . when formed in a formation.7) are organic molecules whose water-soluble group can be positively charged.Cationic Surfactant Nonionic surfactants are (Figure 6. © 2005. These divisions are: • • • • Anionic Cationic Nonionic Amphoteric Cationic surfactants (Figure 6. Surfactants are classified into four major groups.6 . Halliburton 6 • 12 Stimulation I .3 . Figure 6. The actual charge of an amphoteric surfactant is dependent upon the pH of the system. Figure 6. These chemicals have the ability to lower the surface tension of a liquid by adsorbing at the interface between the liquid and a gas. Surfactants lower the interfacial tension by adsorbing at interfaces between two immiscible (unmixable) liquids.Surfactant Molecule Anionic surfactants (Figure 6. Figure 6.Anionic Surfactant Surfactant Composition Surfactants are composed of an oil soluble group (lipophilic group) and a water-soluble group (hydrophilic group).6) organic molecules that do not ionize and therefore remain uncharged. Some cause the formation of oil-water emulsions. It has been successfully used in many fracture treatments. They are the cause of common oil field emulsions. Although emulsions formed in a formation may block the flow of oil. They also reduce contact angles by adsorbing at interfaces between a liquid and a solid.

77 dynes/cm 28. it is possible to get surface tensions below 20 dynes/cm. Therefore. The “water-loving” group is more soluble in water than the “oil-loving” group.Amphoteric Surfactant Benzene Carbon Tetrachloride 26 Surfactant Mechanisms Surface Tension Because surfactants are composed of watersoluble and oil soluble groups. Halliburton 6 • 13 Stimulation I . Therefore.1 – Surface tension of various liquids Some effective hydrocarbon surfactants will reduce the surface tension of distilled water to about 27 dynes/cm when used in relatively low concentrations.Fracturing Fluids and Materials Surface Tension Water Octane 71. the positive water-soluble group is adsorbed by the negative silica particle. limestone and dolomite.97 dynes/cm 21. clay. Using this type. Therefore. Sand and clay usually have a negative surface charge.1). With cationic surfactants.Surfactant Interaction The ability of a surfactant to adsorb at interfaces between liquids and solids and to alter the wettability of solids is usually explained by an electrochemical approach. With anionic surfactants. Most formations are composed primarily of mixtures containing sand.7 . Depending on the effectiveness of the surfactant. they will absorb at interfaces between a liquid and a gas.8 . the surface tension of a water/surfactant mixture will be lower than the surface tension of pure water. the negative silicate electrically repulses the negative water-soluble group.8 illustrates how surfactants function to lower surface tension. Wettability indicates whether a solid is coated with oil or water. the interface now is a combination of an “air-wateroil” interface. Surfactants will also lower the interfacial tension that develops between two immiscible liquids by absorption of the surfactants at the oil-water interface. © 2005.90 dynes/cm 0. Another type has been used as an aid for stimulating tight gas wells. cationics generally oil wet sand. Thus the surfactant is not usually absorbed by sand. Figure 6. Therefore. or two immiscible liquids. anionics generally leave silica minerals in a natural water wet state. a surfactant molecule orients itself at the air-water interface with the oil soluble group in the air and the water-soluble group in the water. leaving the oil soluble group to influence wettability.66 dynes/cm Figure 6. Wettability Figure 6. perhaps as low as oil. This alters the nature of the air-water interface. Oil has a much lower surface tension than water (Table 6. Table 6. This type of surfactant is based on an oil soluble group composed of a fluorocarbon chain.

additional tests will be required to determine a second choice for the surfactant. Therefore. Because of this. it is not yet possible to have one surfactant that will always satisfactorily perform in every field. Great care should always be observed in their selection and use for particular conditions. most cationics will leave limestone and dolomite naturally water wet. By selectively blending surfactants.9 .9. Anionic Non-Emulsifiers Amphoteric Non-Emulsifier Table 6. In the case of nonionic surfactants. Halliburton 6 • 14 Stimulation I .2 lists a number of surfactants commonly used by Halliburton and their charges. Blending of Surfactants Most surfactants used by the petroleum industry are blends of several surfactants with a solvent present. Since anionic surfactants have a negative charge. Even by blending surfactants. This is very important since there are no two producing formations exactly alike. Check with the engineering staff in your district for help in making selections. Under oil field conditions most limestone and dolomite formations will have a positive surface charge. selection of the most effective type and concentration of surfactants for the prevention of emulsions or fluid blocks should be determined by emulsion and flow tests. the wettability of silicates and carbonates depends primarily on the weight ratio of the watersoluble group to the oil soluble group.2 – Charges for commonly used surfactants Summary In summary.Wettability Characteristics Limestone has a positive surface charge at a pH below 8 and a negative surface charge at pH values above 9. therefore. anionics usually oil wet limestone and dolomite formations. Having made these tests and selected the correct type and concentration for the surfactant. © 2005. no single surfactant is universally applicable. An illustration of the mechanism governing wettability characteristics exhibited by anionic and cationic surfactants on silicates and carbonates is shown in Figure 6. Composition Non-Ionic Surfactant for Water and Acid Systems Cationic Non-Emulsifiers LoSurf – 259 LoSurf – 300 LoSurf – 357 LoSurf – 396 17N 19N 20N LoSurf – 400 LoSurf – 2000S NEA-96M HC-2 (AQF-4) Figure 6. There are many surfactants available for oil field work. it is the responsibility of the frac operator not to substitute for the type or change the concentration of surfactant. If the selected type surfactant is not available. Carbonates do not adsorb cationics.Fracturing Fluids and Materials Table 6.5. it is possible to obtain a mixture with more universal properties. the water soluble group will be adsorbed by the positive carbonate particle leaving the oil soluble group to influence wettability.

3. Four important effects of chemicals used as surfactants in fracturing fluids are: 1.__________________________________________________________________________ 4. Now. Selection of the most effective type and concentration of surfactant can be determined by ____________________ and flow tests. Surface tension is ____________________ for water than surface tension is for oil. 2.Fracturing Fluids and Materials Unit D Quiz: Surfactants Fill in the blanks with one or more words to check your progress in Unit D. Surfactants incorporated in the injected fluid can __________________ the formation of emulsions if ____________________ selected. 7.__________________________________________________________________________ 2. © 2005. Surfactants can be classified into four major groups. Halliburton 6 • 15 Stimulation I . Emulsions that are accidentally created in the formation may __________ the flow of fluids. 6. look up the suggested answers in the Answer Key at the back of this section. 5. 1.__________________________________________________________________________ 3. depending upon the nature of the ____________________ ____________________ group.__________________________________________________________________________ 4. Surfactants can be defined as ____________________ ____________________ agents.

10 . etc. Water-soluble polymers commonly used in oilfield applications are: • • guar and its derivatives cellulose and its derivatives • © 2005. Gelled fluids are classified as semi-solids. • • xanthan polyacrylamides. Viscosity (resistance to motion) is the most important condition derived from the use of gelling agents. Several factors will affect the hydration rate of polymers: • • • • • • pH of the system amount of mechanical shear applied in the initial mixing phase polymer concentration salt concentration of the solution particle size and chemical treatment of polymer presence of special additives Water-Based Gelling Agents Gelling agents are generally high molecular weight polymers. Guar Guar and its derivatives are the most extensively used polymers in fracturing fluids. When dry. Some entanglement of the hydrated polymers occurs and reduces freedom of motion. polymers are twisted into coils. is a polysaccharide with one of the highest molecular weights of all naturally occurring water-soluble polymers. which is grown primarily on the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. Halliburton 6 • 16 Stimulation I . Hydration of polymers reduces available water in the solution. The average molecular weight is believed to be in the range of 1 to 2 million.Fracturing Fluids and Materials Unit E: Gelling Agents Gelling agents are divided into two categories: those for water base fluids and those for oil or hydrocarbon base fluids. Figure 6. which is used as a viscosifier. The guar bean. The guar bean's hull is removed and the endosperm (inside portion) is ground into a fine powder. Polymers contain functional groups that interact with water and each other. Gelling agents are used for increasing viscosity. The guar molecule is in a coiled state in the powder form. Guar molecules absorb water (a process referred to as hydration) upon being placed in an aqueous media and uncoil.3). elongate. and become linear. but swell or hydrate in water and develop a more relaxed configuration (Figure 6.Polymer Configurations Some of the general properties for guar gums include: • Contains 10 to 13% residue by weight Easy to crosslink Yields 40 lb gel viscosities of 32 to 36 centapoise (cp) at 511 sec-1 (reciprocal seconds) Can be used with brines • • A number of water-based gelling agents have been developed for use in the fracturing process (Table 6. The two categories will be discussed separately in this unit. controlling fluid loss.10). reducing friction.

General properties of HEC include the following • • • • • May be used with brines Stable at high temperatures Residue-free Yields high viscosity gels – 40 lb gel viscosities of 45 to 50 cp at 511 sec-1 Expensive Derivatized Guars Derivatized (modified) guar gelling agents are also manufactured from the guar bean. These agents are subjected to additional chemical processing. Halliburton 6 • 17 Stimulation I . Derivatized guars. HEC is most commonly used for sand control operations. which limits its application Characteristics of CMC include: • • • • Maximum viscosity and stability with CMC occurs at pH 7 to 9 with fresh water Extremely sensitive to divalent metal salts such as CA+2. They are chemically modified natural products designed for applications that require a highly efficient gelling agent that contains no solids and leaves no residue when broken properly. however. CMC is extremely salt sensitive. CMHPG is a double derivatized material. Cellulose derivatives are polymers made from cotton. The characteristics of HPG are: • • • • • • Contains 1 to 3% residue by weight Higher crosslink viscosities than guar Fewer crosslink sites Yields 40 lb gel viscosities of 32 to 36 cp at 511 sec-1 Can tolerate 80% by volume methanol with some HPG derivatives More expensive than guar. This processing reduces the residue that remains after the gelled fracturing fluid is broken and improves dispersion to enhance mixing characteristics. It is similar to HPG with some additional versatility in crosslinking via the carboxyl groups. CMHEC has both nonionic and anionic substituent groups. such as hydroxypropyl guar (HPG) are commonly used in the oilfield.Fracturing Fluids and Materials • • Has low methanol tolerance Least expensive gelling agents Cellulose All cellulose compounds used as fracturing fluid gelling agents are derivatized forms of cellulose. Unlike guar and its derivatives.0. HEC only hydrates rapidly at a pH of over 7. Some characteristics of CMHPG include the following • • • • • • • More sensitive than guar and HPG to brines and electrolyte solutions Hydrates well in cold or warm water Yields 40 lb gel viscosities of 30 to 32 cps at 500 sec-1 in 2% KCl Anionic derivative 1 to 2% residue by weight Easy to crosslink Equivalent in cost to HPG The primary advantage of HEC and the other derivatized celluloses is that they are residue free after degradation. Zn+2 Low salt tolerance Relatively expensive The double derivatized carboxymethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose (CMHEC) has found acceptance as a gelling agent in stimulation fluids. Carboxymethyl hydroxypropyl guar (CMHPG) is another commonly used guar derivative in the oilfield. © 2005. which adds to its cost. Hydroxyethel cellulose is currently the most commonly used form of derivatized cellulose products in the oil field. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is a residue-free polymer that can be crosslinked.

In the dry form these are used at concentrations of 2 to 5 lb per 1. viscosity derived from a surfactant rather than a polymer will minimize the potential for additional damage. Produce the greatest friction reduction (anionic polymers) Used in low concentration. Halliburton 6 • 18 Stimulation I . while deep penetration is not the objective.5. viscosity can be an advantage in fines removal. in a matrix treatment. the concentration of the acid gelling agent will be much less than a similar application in fracture acidizing. Properties of polyacrylamides include: • • • • • Relatively expensive Hard to mix without creating gel balls Extremely high molecular weight – 1 to 20 million.000 gal fluid. However. Water Base Polymers Chemica l Name Gel System Xanthan Biopolymers have been used in drilling fluids for a number of years. If used for this purpose. however. xanthan has been introduced in fracturing and sand control applications.3 – Gel names and their uses © 2005. Maximum freshwater solution viscosity occurs at a pH of 5. each one is specially formulated to tailor its performance to meet particular needs. WG-17 WG-24 WG-20 FR-26LC FR-28LC FR-38 FR-48 SGA-HT SGA-I SGA-II SGA-III SGA-IV Table 6. Anionic Friction Reducing Polyacrylamide Cationic Friction Reducing Polyacrylamide Liquid viscosifier for acid WG-18 Polyacrylamides Polyacrylamides (PAM) are used in fracturing fluids as friction reducers. Properties of xanthan include: • • • • Residue 3% by weight Expensive Can crosslink Excellent proppant transport. it does have excellent proppant transport characteristics. Xanthan yields much less viscosity per pound of polymer when compared to guar and cellulose. Recently. PAM's can be cationic or anionic and are residue free.Fracturing Fluids and Materials Characteristics of CMHEC include: • • • • Residue free Can be used with brines Can be crosslinked Relatively expensive Acid Gelling Agents Gelling agents are normally found in fracture acidizing treatments where viscosity is used to help achieve deeper acid penetration. Although the fluid systems using the same base polymers are composed of the same base materials. In addition. Guar WG-19 WG-22 WG-26 WG-31 WG-35 WG-11 FracGel BoraGel Hybor-G DeltaFrac WaterFrac-G Hybor-H Delta-H WaterFrac-H SeaQuest PurGel III ThermaGel Sirocco SilverStim HEC Liquid Sand AlcoGel III AlcoFoam Non-acid WaterFrac Acids WaterFrac Sand Stone 2000 Carbonate 20/20 Hydroxypropyl Guar (HPG) Carboxymethyl Hydroxypropyl Guar (CMHPG) Hydroxyethyl Cellulose (HEC) Xanthan Chemically modified natural polymer for methanol. chrome or aluminum will crosslink xanthan gum solutions. At pH values of less than 7.

the risk of paraffin and/or asphaltene precipitation in the formation is greater than with refined fluids such as diesel. However. My-T-Oil V is capable of viscosities over 600 cp at 170 sec-1 depending on temperature. This system can reduce the time on location caused by batch mixing. as well as eliminate waste and disposal problems caused by leftover gelled fluid in the storage tanks. The four basic fluid systems below are available for oil base fracturing fluids and are a culmination of years of research. The use of surfactant chemistry prevents damage by polymer residue. However. MISCO2 FRAC is used with up to 50% CO2 by total volume. condensate. or crude oil) and an external water phase containing a gelling agent such as WG-22. gelling agents have been developed to give structure to oil base fluids. The emulsion is stabilized with an emulsifier such as © 2005. WG-31 or WG-11. To meet the needs of treating water sensitive formations. an oil base fluid should be considered. Crude oils that gel easily may be effectively used in this application to reduce costs. The final viscosity of this system will vary greatly depending on the type of hydrocarbon used and the chemical concentrations. In such cases. The chemicals are added at a 1:1 ratio with the normal usage concentration being 4 to 6 gal/Mgal. In this application. MY-T-OIL IV is effective at temperatures up to 200 degrees. Halliburton 6 • 19 Stimulation I . This can usually be determined from laboratory tests on formation cores or from field treating results. safety to prevent fires on location is a main concern and good fire fighting equipment is a must. including those which are low pressured and/or water sensitive. MY-T-OIL IV MISCO2 FRAC Earlier gelled oil systems had to be batch mixed prior to pumping the fracture treatment. MY-T-OIL V’s counterpart. For refined hydrocarbons such as diesel or kerosene. even the use of potassium chloride. anionic surfactant. additive concentration and hydrocarbon used. calcium chloride and sodium chloride solutions may not be effective in reducing clay swelling or formation particle migration. the system provides excellent fracture and formation conductivity with rapid load fluid recovery. The components are MO-75 gelling agent and MO-76 activator. Super Emulsifrac (Oil Internal Gelled Water External Emulsion Fracturing Fluid) Super Emulsifrac is the Halliburton name for a fracturing process developed by Exxon Production Research Company (EPR). but the MY-T-OIL V system will gel a wide range of crude oils. The chemicals are added at a 1:1 ratio with the normal usage concentration being 4 to 9 gal/Mgal.Fracturing Fluids and Materials Oil Gelling Agents In the fracturing of certain extremely watersensitive formations. oil-gellant system. when using a hydrocarbon-based fluid system. This process uses an emulsion composed of an internal hydrocarbon phase (such as diesel. MY-T-OIL V A recent extension of the MY-T-OIL series. The My-T-Oil IV system uses a two-component system. MISCO2 FRAC fracturing system. MISCO2 FRAC employs the same gelling system used in MY-TOIL V. the viscosity should be in the range of 100 – 400 cp at 170 sec-1. The system is designed for continuous-mix stimulation of oil reservoirs over a wide temperature range up to 275 degrees. depending on temperature. provides similar benefits for gas reservoirs. MY-T-OIL V is a crosslinked. Extensive laboratory research and field-testing have resulted in the development of a continuously mixed gelled oil system. kerosene. It uses MO-85 anionic surfactant and MO-86 crosslinker.

Fracturing Fluids and Materials SEM-5. Additional References Fracturing Service Manual – HalWorld. © 2005. and other additives. Halliburton 6 • 20 Stimulation I . emulsifier. Super Emulsifrac fluids are similar to N2. foams. With the application of constant internal phase principles to emulsion fluids. friction pressures can be controlled resulting higher sand concentrations. SEM-6. The internal hydrocarbon phase is between 50 and 80% of the total volume. except that a hydrocarbon constitutes the internal phase of the two-phase fluid rather than gas. or SEM-7 that is contained in the gelled water phase. Super Emulsifrac can be used up to 300 degrees with the proper emulsifier concentrations. and the remaining volume is composed of the gelled water. or CO2.

Gelled fluids are classified as ____________________ . Polyacrylamides are mainly used in fracturing as ____________________ ___________________. it does have excellent ___________________ ____________________ characteristics. The guar bean’s hull is removed and the ____________________ is ground into a fine powder which is used to create viscosity. 12. 10.Fracturing Fluids and Materials Unit E Quiz: Gelling Agents Fill in the blanks with one or more words to check your progress in Unit E. 6. MY-T-OIL V uses ________________ surfactant and ________________crosslinker in a _____:_____ ratio. 2. however. The amount of residue resulting from the use of guar gelling agents is __________ to __________%. 8. © 2005. 5. etc. Gelling agents are generally high molecular weight ____________________. 7. Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) is extremely ____________________ ____________________. controlling fluid loss. 9. 4. Cellulose derivatives are chemically modified ____________________ and contain ________________ solids and leave no ________________ upon breaking. Derivitized guar gelling agents will give __________ to __________% residue after break of the gelled fluids.____________________. ___________________ is the most important condition derived from using gelling agents. 3. 11. reducing friction. Now. Xanthan yields much less ____________________ per pound of polymer when compared to guar and cellulose. SUPEREMULSIFRAC is composed of an internal ____________________ phase and and external ____________________ phase. Gelling agents are used for increasing viscosity. 1. Halliburton 6 • 21 Stimulation I . look up the suggested answers in the Answer Key at the back of this section. which limits its application.

the higher the viscosity will be. also called Polybor. the greater the concentration. water-sensitive. pH .an optimum crosslinker concentration exists. above or below which unacceptable viscosities or gel stability results for each crosslinker and gel concentration. CL-28M is a waterbased slurry of borate minerals. titanate complex crosslinker for use in the VersaGel HT fluid system.Fracturing Fluids and Materials Unit F: Complexors and Crosslinkers Complexors or crosslinkers can provide additional viscosity in a fracturing fluid system. the crosslinker used (Figure 6.??). Crosslinking agents commonly used in stimulation fluids are metals (antimony. Variables such as pH. High shear generally degrades viscosity. © 2005. like titanium. chromium. tolerate a wide range in pH. alkaline liquid. whereas others. pump time. This concern led to the development of delayed crosslinkers that are designed to inhibit crosslinking in the tubulars. Crosslink time testing should be conducted with actual source water before performing the stimulation treatment. It contains a titanium-ion complex in an alcoholic solution. low shear mixing generally yields more viscous gelled fluids. zirconium.The amount of shear a gelled fluid is subjected to during mixing will influence the viscosity of the system. aluminum. Shear . It was developed to give the highest concentration of borate ions in solution per weight of borate source and is highly effective as the primary crosslinker in BoraGel or as a crosslink accelerator in the Hybor and DeltaFrac fluid systems. They are added to the base gel fluid. Metal ion type and concentration . CL-11 CL-11 is a light yellow. It is a yellow-gold colored liquid and is flammable. • • CL-22 CL-22 is an oil-base slurry of borate minerals used in Hybor fluid systems.generally. K-38 K-38 is a white powdered borate crosslinker. thus increasing the effective molecular weight and viscosity. Halliburton 6 • 22 Stimulation I . A major concern with crosslinked fluids is their shear stability (ability to resist a decrease in viscosity under shear) while pumping down the tubular goods and through perforations. K-38 is usually dissolved in water at a 1 lb/gal concentration for ease of mixing and metering. • CL-18 CL-18 is an older. similar in apparent viscosity to the non-delayed borate crosslinked BoraGel fluid. Factors which influence crosslinking • Polymer concentration . for example borate (requires pH > 8). titanium) and boron. It is a delayed crosslinker which can be accelerated with temperature or the addition of CL-11.Some crosslinker systems are highly pH sensitive. polymer type. Both CL-22 and CL-28M provide delayed crosslink to borate crosslinked fluids. Small amounts of these crosslinkers chemically link two or more polymer chains. with a flash point of 74°F. and fluid temperature will dictate to a large extent. CL-11 can be added to Thermagel or VersaGel HT or it can be mixed with the primary crosslinkers in these systems (CL-24 and CL-18) to achieve accelerated crosslink times.

CL-23 is used in the PurGel III fluid systems. The suspension properties of CL-28M have been improved to provide better stability. BC-140 (formerly BC-2) BC-140 is a dark-colored. CL-28M CL-28M is a water-based suspension crosslinker of a borate mineral used in Hybor fluid systems and was developed as a low cost alternative to CL-22 (see above). One gallon of CL-31 contains the equivalent of 2. Halliburton 6 • 23 Stimulation I .0 lb of K-38. Crosslinker concentration used depends upon the buffering system employed. It is an aqueous. specially formulated crosslinker/buffer system for use in Delta Frac fluid systems. liquid zirconium-ion complex that is used as a delayed temperatureactivated crosslinker in the Thermagel fluid system. or bases are required to adjust the pH of the fluid system. Each drum of CL-24 is dated and the oldest stock should always be used first. it provides the convenience of a concentrated.10 gal per 10 lb of base gel per 1. It can also be used as a stand-alone crosslinker. colorless liquid containing a zirconium complex. containers should be inspected for solids settling and remixed if needed. it does not have the flash point concerns associated with CL-22. However.11 – Upper Limit Temperature Ranges for Specific Crosslinking Agents in their Usable pH and Concentrations Range. has a high pH and is highly caustic. CL-31 can be used as a self-buffering crosslinker. If diluted with water or aqueous sodium hydroxide. Since CL-28M is waterbased. CL-31 will freeze above -5°F. acids. stable crosslinker solution. CL-29 CL-29 is a fast acting zirconium complex that was introduced as an accessory crosslinker for the PurGel III fluid system. The base gel fluid will crosslink rapidly at 140°F. The concentration range of BC140 that provides the best viscosity performance © 2005. CL-29 provides a more rapid crosslink time when used with CL23. CL-23 is a delayedcrosslinking agent that is compatible with CO2. Titanium (IV) Antimony (III) Chromium (N) Boron (III) Antimony (V) 100 150 200 250 300 CL-24 CL-24 is a pale yellow. Because of its high pH. Figure 6. No additional buffering agents. It may be diluted with fresh water for convenience of metering.000 gal of fluid. Also used to control crosslink time for Hybor fluids. CL-31 CL-31 is a concentrated solution of non-delayed borate crosslinker originally designed for use in BoraGel fluid systems. CL-24 is a flammable liquid.Fracturing Fluids and Materials CL-23 The crosslinking agent. CL-31 has no flash point and has a pour point of -5°F. The crosslinker begins activation at 100° to 110°F. Material loss could occur if the suspension adheres to the sides of the container. The recommended concentration of CL-24 is 0.

adding caustic or a buffer to raise the pH of the fluid out of the proper range will ruin the fluid by over-crosslinking. Used at the proper concentrations. In fact. The resulting design raises the pH of the fluid but does not increase crosslink time.Fracturing Fluids and Materials for the Delta Frac fluid system is 1. alcohol based system with a flash point of 81°F. In 2% KCL or brine waters.2 gal/Mgal). Although the crosslink time of the system cannot be increased. It is a dark brown suspension of fine particles in a hydrocarbon. acids. Halliburton 6 • 24 Stimulation I . © 2005. The final pH of this system should be approximately 9 to 9. The concentration used is a function of the temperature and pH of the final fluid system (generally 1 to 2. or bases are required to adjust the pH of the fluid system. It is a yellow. resulting in much lower viscosity. BC-140 or CL-31.5 to 2 gal/Mgal for 15 to 25 lb gel loading between 80° and 120°F. it can be decreased by adding an instant borate crosslinker such as K-38. BC-140 concentration is decreased while at higher temperatures it is increased. CL36 is a delayed crosslinker that can be accelerated with the addition of CL-31. BC-200 buffers fluids to the proper pH.5. CL-36 CL-36 is a new mixed metal crosslinker specifically designed for the Delta 275 fluid system. Crosslinker concentration is temperature and water dependent. BC-200 BC-200 is a delayed crosslinker and functions as both crosslinker and buffer for use in the Delta Frac fluid systems. No additional buffering agents.

© 2005. alkaline. 6. CL-11 is a light yellow. One gallon of CL-31 contains the equivalent of __________ lb of K-38. Halliburton 6 • 25 Stimulation I . and it is highly ____________________. _____True _____False: The crosslinking time of the BC-200 buffer crosslinker can be increased. ___________________-ion complex that is added to the Thermagel fluid system to achieve an ____________________ crosslinking time 4. List four factors that influence crosslinking: _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ 3. Small amounts of crosslinkers chemically link two or more ___________________ ____________________. specially formulated ____________________/____________________ system for use in the Delta Frac fluid systems. BC-140 is a dark-colored. 2. 5.Fracturing Fluids and Materials Unit F Quiz Fill in the blanks with one or more words or mark the best answer to check your progress in Unit F. look up the suggested answers in the Answer Key at the back of this section. thus increasing the effective ___________________ ____________________ and ___________________. 1. Now.

time. and acids. GBW-3™ / GBW-30™ GBW-30 is a white powdered enzyme breaker. pH. A breaker should be selected based on its performance in the temperature. Once the connective bonds in the polymer are broken.8°C).5. All of these materials reduce the viscosity of the gel by breaking connective linkages in the guar polymer chain.Fracturing Fluids and Materials Unit G: Breakers and Stabilizers Breakers The viscosity of fracturing fluids is increased when gelling agents and crosslinkers are used to aid proppant transport and placement. allowing the fluid more mobility with controlled and predictable viscosity decrease. However. The stimulation fluid must have the capability to decrease in viscosity (break) following proppant placement. Halliburton 6 • 26 Stimulation I . they are only effective in a relatively narrow range of temperatures and pH levels. and desired viscosity profile for each specific treatment. The gel breaker functions by breaking the long chain polymers into shorter chain segments. The degree of reduction in viscosity is controlled by the breaker type. This causes viscosity to decrease. The decrease in fluid viscosity is necessary to • • minimize return of proppant maximize return of stimulation fluids to the surface Figure 6. Enzyme Breakers Enzymes are referred to as Nature's catalysts because most biological processes involve an enzyme. Enzymes are large protein molecules. pH. It is used below 120°F and below pH 8.12 The decrease in the fluid viscosity is usually achieved using chemicals referred to as gelling agent breakers or gel breakers. Like GBW-3. time. because of the characteristics of enzymes. to the guar polymer. breaker concentration. Proteins consist of a chain of building blocks called amino acids. gel concentration. if this viscosity is not reduced the treated well may not flow. enzymes. or the addition of water. and temperature. In Oilfield applications. Breaker Types Chemical breakers used to reduce viscosity of guar and derivatized guar polymers are generally grouped into three classes: oxidizers. the resulting pieces of the original polymer chain are the same regardless of the type of breaker used. However. breaker enzymes cause hydrolysis. Its reactive © 2005. This increased viscosity is desirable during pump-in procedures. GBW-30 is a water-soluble enzyme breaker for aqueous-based gelling agents at temperatures below 120°F (48.

Although ViCon-NF is compatible with GEL-STA in dilute fluids. potassium. Oxidizing Breaker Sodium. N-Zyme 3. OptiFlo-HTE OptiFlo-HTE is an encapsulated.13 . The controlled release rate of an encapsulated breaker allows higher concentrations to be placed throughout the stimulation treatment.13. Under lower temperature conditions. HPH HPH breaker is an enzyme breaker specifically designed for borate fracturing fluids up to approximately 140°F. The encapsulation of OptiFlo-HTE allows the enzyme to be shielded from the fluid environment and can delay denaturization due to temperature exposure when compared to a liquid enzyme breaker as shown in Figure 6. high temperature.5 is suitable for BoraGel and Delta FracSM fluids. and ammonium persulfate have been used effectively as breakers for over 30 years. delayed release. Vicon can also be run below 200°F with an activator. It is a reddish colored granular solid. oxidationreduction chemical reactions occur as the polymer chain is broken. NZyme 1 and N-Zyme 3 breakers can be used in place of GBW-3 breaker. HPH breaker will function at even higher pH values. Between 70 and 140°F. Above 180 deg. and is the premiere breaker at temperatures above 200°F. It may be used below 120°F in conjunction with an activator. This pH range contrasts with the pH range of GBW-30 breaker which displays its maximum activity below pH 7. HPH breaker’s pH range of 8. which is three times more concentrated than N-Zyme 1. Halliburton 6 • 27 Stimulation I .Fracturing Fluids and Materials strength is approximately 10 times that of GBW3. between pH 7 and pH 10. and HPH breaker.5 to 9. HPH breaker is a highpH.Liquid vs encapsulated enzyme breaker. transport proppant. GBW-30 breaker. The recommended temperature range for application is from 75 to 175°F The merits of an encapsulated enzyme breaker are many. N-Zyme 1 / N-Zyme 3 N-Zyme 1 enzyme breaker and N-Zyme 3 enzyme breaker are new breakers for use with fracturing fluids at temperatures up to 140°F. Liquid enzyme or solid un-encapsulated enzyme breakers cause an almost immediate reduction in viscosity when added to stimulation fluids. such as fracturing fluids. SP SP Breaker is a white granular oxidizing material used as a breaker at temperatures above 120°F. Figure 6. In these types of breakers. OptiFlo-HTE is the direct replacement for the obsolete OptiFloE. this can lower the ability of the fracturing fluid to ViCon HT or ViCon NF Powder form ViCon-HT or liquid form ViConNF is a powerful oxidizing breaker for use with GEL-STA in fracturing fluids. ViCon-NF should not be mixed with GEL-STA or GEL-STA L liquid © 2005. enzyme breaker. is specifically formulated for lower-temperature applications. persulfate breakers become highly unstable and create unpredictable breaks. stable enzyme breaker solution that generally maintains its activity at higher pH than GBW-30 enzyme breaker.

poses various difficulties for practical applications. OptiFlo III contains ammonium persulfate (AP breaker) as the active component. © 2005. Deposition of filter cake during a job can decrease the conductivity of the generated fracture. high pH fluids. Acid is not used as a guar polymer breaker very often because of cost. GELSTA concentration. and required break time. The coating on OptiFlo II allows the breaker to be released slowly by diffusion across the slightly permeable coating. Optiflo III OptiFlo III is a delayed release breaker that has improved performance as a result of a new. poor break rate control. 100 Released (%) 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 OptiFlo II @ 120°F OptiFlo III @ 175°F OptiFlo HTE @ 75°F 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Time (hr) Figure 6. Delayed release breakers help improve fracture conductivity by cleaning up the filter cake and proppant pack. but at least 70% of breaker is released in 24 hours. the application of OptiFlo II can be extended to jobs with bottomhole static temperatures (BHST) above 125°F using formation cool down. However. The release profile of OptiFlo II at 80°. The required concentration of ViCon-NF depends on the temperature. Field experience and temperature programs can aid in the prediction of downhole fluid temperatures during the job. Limiting the breaker contact with the fracturing fluid allows increased breaker concentration without sacrificing fluid performance. therefore. but complete breaks occur as the fluids reach formation temperature. low temperature oxidizing breaker. Optiflo II In low temperature. innovative coating technology that provides less early time release of the breaker than previous delayed release breakers. improves proppant pack cleanup and results in improved proppant conductivity of the created fracture.Fracturing Fluids and Materials concentrate. Fann Model 50 viscometer data can be generated in the desired temperature range for varying amounts of GEL-STA and ViCon-NF. Halliburton 6 • 28 Stimulation I . data. This product is not designed to be used in applications where the actual fluid temperature is above 125°F. enzyme breakers are not effective. OptiFlo III improves gel breaking technology by limiting the contact time of the breaker with the fracturing fluid and concentrating the breaker in the fracture. as well as concentration of the breaker in the fracture. A high retained viscosity is maintained at the cool down temperature.14 . however. but OptiFlo II can be added to the pad fluid in jobs where static break tests. • The capability of adding higher breaker concentrations allows enough to be added to break the filter cake and gel remaining in the proppant pack. This breaker is designed to be used in actual fluid temperatures of 130°F to 200°F.Release Profile of Encapsulated Breakers Acid Breakers Acid also provides the same break via hydrolysis as an enzyme. The addition of OptiFlo II to the pad is not recommended. OptiFlo II delayed breaker is coated ammonium persulfate that is designed to be used in low temperature applications. there is a need for a delayed release. This cleanup is accomplished by two beneficial features of delayed release breakers. Higher breaker concentrations. 100°. and fluid rheology data support its use. • The breaker is a solid and cannot be lost to the formation during fluid leak off. and 120°F show less than 10% of the breaker is released in 1 hour. Acid.

MatrixFlo II breaker significantly improves the regained permeability of the fluid system. the use of enzymes in borate crosslinked fluids is often effective. This impairment is most pronounced at low proppant concentrations. 3/7 = the ratio of void volume to proppant volume based on an MatrixFlo II MatrixFlo II is a liquid. it will also lower the pH of the system and initiate enzyme breaker activity to degrade the polymer backbone further. Unlike previous delayed release additives. Especially at low temperatures. OptiFlo LT was © 2005. In general. To allow the enzyme to be effective in the pH 9 to 11 borate fluid. MatrixFlo II breaker can be used effectively at temperatures up to 180°F. It can be used in other fluids where a delayed decreased in fluid pH is desired. OptiFlo LT can be used in BoraGel and Hybor fluids to decrease fluid pH to initiate enzyme breaker activity (to degrade gel polymer) and to reverse the borate crosslink. The minimum recommended volume of fluid with which to treat a fractured well is the void volume of the proppant bed. the breakers OptiKleen and OptiKleen LT have been developed for posttreatment filter cake removal. has been developed for use in wells with bottomhole temperatures below 130°F. The applications for acid breakers are limited. however. Moreover. The combination of OptiFlo LT and OptiFlo HTE offers an alternative to the use of oxidizing breakers. developed to be used in conjunction with enzyme breakers at temperatures below 120°F. A low temperature version. At 100°F it is ineffective. OptiFlo LT itself will not break the gel polymer of a borate crosslinked fluid. First. a broken gel will result. BoraGel. Simple breakers in the usual amounts are sometimes not effective in breaking such a gel. and corrosion of metal goods. This volume can be estimated using the following formula: Minimum volume (gal) = 3/7 (PWT × ABV) Where PWT = total proppant weight (lb) ABV = absolute volume of proppant (gal/lb). OptiKleen and OptiKleen LT Gel filter cake that forms on the fracture face provides desirable fluid loss control. a delayed-release acid may be used to un-crosslink a borate. it becomes only half as efficient in dissolving filter cake. delayed-release acid may also be useful with enzyme breakers. delayed-release acids can be used to lower the fluid pH value to a range where the enzymes are effective. This absorption could quickly change the pH of the fracturing fluid to a point where breaking may not occur. OptiFlo LT has a fast release mechanism. and Hybor fracturing fluids MatrixFlo II breaker can controllably decrease fluid viscosity by lowering the pH and uncrosslinking a crosslinked gel network. When MatrixFlo II breaker is used with enzymes. Halliburton 6 • 29 Stimulation I . At 120°F. OptiKleen is recommended for wells with greater than 130°F bottomhole static temperature (BHST). Another difficulty with acid breakers is that the formation may act as a buffer. A small amount of acid introduced as a breaker may be totally consumed by the formation water and minerals. When used in Delta Frac. OptiKleen-LT. For this reason.Fracturing Fluids and Materials chemical compatibility difficulties. Second. OptiFlo-LT OptiFlo LT is a delayed release acid additive that decreases the pH of fracturing fluids. delayed release acid breaker that deeply penetrates a formation matrix to provide a more complete break and enhanced fracture conductivity. with two exceptions that involve delayed-release type acids. Most formation brines have a pH between 6 and 8. filter cakes containing titanate or zirconate crosslinkers especially resist removal. but when used in conjunction with OptiFlo HTE (encapsulated enzyme). OptiFlo LT is designed to lower the pH value of borate crosslinked fracturing fluid. this filter cake also can impair conductivity by causing loss of effective width on both sides of the fracture.

It is not considered dangerous. However. but below 200°F it reacts too slowly to be useful in the time period desired. The other oxidizing breakers can also be activated to function below their lower temperature limits. MO-IV MO-IV is a white powder breaker developed for the MY-T-OIL V fluid system. It also possesses fluid loss control properties and can contribute fluid loss control in the MY-T-OIL IV fluid. and pH control. Unfortunately. Methanol (Methyl Alcohol) Methanol has found wide spread use in various fracturing fluids and additives. The safety precautions required for the usage of methanol based fracturing fluids are similar to those followed for handling high gravity crude oils and condensates. There three ways to stabilize gels. methanol. Stabilizers Gel breakers historically have been used to accelerate gel degradation. This process is currently proprietary information. either pH or temperature may break the viscosity of the gel prematurely. However. but the persulfate systems may be as effective and more economical. When the flash point of a methanol/water mixture is reached. At high temperatures. ViCon-NF Breaker (or ViCon-HT Breaker) has been very successful as a high temperature breaker. Concentrations range from 5 to 10 lb/Mgal. CAT (catalyst) LT. methanol has been used to form a slurry of gelling agent for easier introduction into a fluid while reducing the tendency for the gelling agent to form lumps. They can also be used as low as 150°F. It is used from 201° to 275°F.Fracturing Fluids and Materials estimate that the void is about 30% of the total proppant bed volume. its largest use has been to extend the upper temperature limit of some gel systems to more effectively maintain downhole fluid viscosity for treatment of wells with high bottomhole temperature. Concentration range is 20 to 50 lb/Mgal based on fluid temperature. Due to the high reactivity and thermal instability of persulfates. CAT-3. unlike high gravity crudes MO-V MO-V is a white powder breaker developed for the MY-T-OIL V fluid system. Gelled-Oil Breakers K-34 K-34 is used as the breaker for MY-T-OIL IV gels. HL Breaker HL Breaker is used as a breaker for the MY-TOIL IV fluid where there are bottomhole temperatures less than 120°F and/or the need for short gel break times. Occasionally. the activated ViCon systems are the breakers of choice for fluids at 170 to 200°F. its lower temperature limit can be reduced. Gel Sta. and CAT-4 are chemicals that are used for this purpose. © 2005. at sufficiently high temperatures. Breaker Activators Just as there is a need to add activators to speed up crosslink times. based on the gel concentration and bottom hole temperature. however. It is effective from 70° to 200°F. there is also a need for activators to better control break times. gel extenders may be needed to increase the temperature stability of gelled fluids. it should be handled as a dusting material. white. This breaker’s makeup is currently proprietary information. By using a catalyst to “activate” the Vicon. Halliburton 6 • 30 Stimulation I . the mixture becomes highly flammable due to the high concentrations of methanol vapors above the fluid. which results in a higher retained viscosity at temperature for a longer period of time. K-34 is a finely divided. free-flowing powder.

The heat from the flame will be the first sign of a methanol fire. although it can be added with methanol for increased stability. and the liquid. GEL-STA. the methanol flame is not visible and no smoke is produced as the material burns. GEL-STA functions by scavenging oxygen from the fracturing fluid’s environment. GEL-STA L contains the equivalent of 3. It is compatible with Vicon-NF and Vicon-HT. There is no premixing required and it is more economical than 5% methanol. GEL-STA is not compatible with oxidizing breakers such as SP. are high-temperature gel stabilizers for use in aqueous fracturing fluid processes. GEL-STA and GEL-STA L The solid.Fracturing Fluids and Materials and condensates. © 2005. but the ViCons should not be mixed with or even placed closely to GEL-STA or GEL-STA L liquid concentrate. GEL-STA L. pH control Maintaining a pH above 7 will also help stabilize water base gels. Halliburton 6 • 31 Stimulation I .5 lbs of GEL-STA per gallon of water.

K-34 is not only a breaker but also a _____ A) fluid loss additive _____ B) liquid _____ C) gelling agent _____ D) surfactant 9. N-Zyme 1 enzyme breaker and N-Zyme 3 enzyme breaker are new breakers for use with fracturing fluids at temperatures up to __________°F. If 100. MatrixFlo II breaker can controllably decrease fluid ____________________ by lowering the pH and ____________________ a crosslinked gel network.0452 gal/lb is pumped into a formation. 1. © 2005. 8. _____True _____ False: Breakers and stabilizers can be run together on a job. List three ways to stabilize a water base gel: __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ 10. Chemical breakers used to reduce viscosity of guar and derivatized guar polymers are generally grouped into three classes: ____________________.000 lbs of proppant with an absolute volume of . 3. Halliburton 6 • 32 Stimulation I . look up the suggested answers in the Answer Key at the back of this section. and ____________________. ____________________. what is the minimum recommended volume of OptiKleen needed for removing filter cake? ____________ 7. OptiFlo II delayed breaker is coated ____________________ ____________________ that is designed to be used in low temperature applications. 6. 2. Now. 5. 4.Fracturing Fluids and Materials Unit G Quiz Fill in the blanks with one or more words or mark the best answer to check your progress in Unit G. When used in Delta Frac and Hybor fluids. A decrease in fluid viscosity is necessary to ____________________ return of proppant ____________________ return of stimulation fluids to the surface. ______ True _____ False: HL Breaker is used from 120-200°F.

BE-3 is an effective. or strains. metallic elements. carbon. and the bacteria absorb the sugar through their cell walls. Caustic Caustic is used to adjust the treating water pH upward and can be an effective bactericide if done properly. Bacteria feed on gel by releasing enzymes. The enzymes released are very similar to the low temperature breaker GBW-3. sufficient numbers of bacteria can be the chief cause of gel degradation.1 gal/Mgal). Anything that can destroy bacteria may be dangerous to handlers. extremely fast-killing biocide at low concentrations (0. of bacteria that have been classified. © 2005.15. When conditions are favorable. Bacteria can be classified by their environmental needs: • Microorganism Polymer Aerobic bacteria grow in the presence of oxygen Anaerobic bacteria grow in the absence of oxygen Some bacteria thrive in very low temperatures. • • • Sugar Figure 6. Add the caustic to each tank of water to be treated until the pH of the water is greater than 11. Bacteria can cause viscosity instability in batch mixed gels. This will control bacteria over extended periods of time and can also be used as an effective quick-kill technique.0 throughout the tank.15 . They can also adapt to changing environments. When the conditions are favorable. BE-3 BE-3 is a biocide that should be handled in a very safe and careful manner. while others do not Various bacteria may thrive in a variety of pH ranges. Maximum effectiveness of BE-3 will be attained if the entire volume of the biocide is placed in the frac Bacteria Types There are thousands of different kinds. Dirty frac tanks often contain several gallons of bacteria-ridden decomposed gel from previous jobs. Bactericides Bactericides should be handled with care. they have the same needs as other forms of life: a source of energy. nitrogen. When new gel is added. Halliburton 6 • 33 Stimulation I . The enzymes degrade the gel to sugar.Fracturing Fluids and Materials Unit H: Bactericides/Biocides Bactericides are used to destroy or control bacteria. Enzyme Many thousands have not. some species may even attain maximum concentrations within twenty-four hours. sulfur and phosphorus.Degradation of Polymer by Microorganisms Bacteria Conditions Some of the most favorable environments for bacteria are dirty frac tanks and mixing water. the bacteria have a new food source. A simplified cycle for the degrading of the polymer by bacteria is shown in Figure 6. Because they are living. They are among the simplest forms of non-vegetative organisms. vitamins and water.

000 gallons of water to be treated. Usually found in concentrations of 10 or 15% sodium hypochlorite.0. board-spectrum biocide packaged in water-soluble bags for safety and ease of use. The water-soluble bag is contained in a protective outer bag that must be removed prior to addition to the frac tank. its use should be restricted to fluid with pH’s less than 7. Addition of the biocide to a full tank will result in killing the bacteria but not affecting the enzymes. our customers have expressed a desire to kill these bacteria if found during bacteria counts. BE-5 is a nonionic. BE-5 is effective against most types of bacteria. The disadvantage of CAT-1 is that because it is an excellent oxidizer. The active ingredient is absorbed into Fullers earth. It controls population growth by acting as a metabolic inhibitor. Although these particular bacteria may not prematurely break the gel. it has proven to be reliable. It is conveniently packaged in a 6 lb plastic bottle containing a sufficient dosage for one 20.Fracturing Fluids and Materials tank with the first load of water as the tank is being filled.000 gal frac tank. BE-6 BE-6 is a new bactericide that addresses the issue of packaging and persistence of kill. Therefore. CAT-1 is available as sodium hypochlorite (household bleach) from most chemical suppliers in major cities.0. it is normally used at 0. However. One container of BE-5 biocide (6 lb) should be added to each 20. degradable biocide with a broad pH stability range. BE-3S provides all the treatment benefits of BE-3 while helping to eliminate handling and disposal problems associated with liquids.000-gal frac tank. it has a slow rate of kill (6 to 10 hours) and controls growth by inhibiting the metabolic pathway of the bacteria. GEL-STA must be added to the treated water to neutralize it prior to adding a gelling agent.5 gallons of a 10% solution or 0. BE-3 degrades rapidly at pH levels greater than 7. solid powder placed in a water-soluble bag to improve handling and ease of addition. fungi. Additional References Chemical Stimulation Manual Sales and Service Catalog Chemical Services Technical Data Sheets Halliburton Services Personnel Training Video Hal World © 2005. It is used to control the growth of microorganism populations commonly found in source waters for fracturing and stimulation processes. The oil phase in the LGC will inhibit the release of the biocide from the Fullers earth. This material is nonionic and provides a broadspectrum control of bacteria. it has recently been determined that even during winter months bacteria can assume a sporulated form that resists the action of biocides such as BE-5.33 gallons of a 15% solution per 1. This procedure places a high enough concentration of biocide in the bottom of the tank where bacteria and a large portion of their enzymes can be destroyed. A powdered version of BE-3. CAT-1 The use of biocides to treat tanks of fluid for bacteria control has been used to control active bacteria particularly during warm weather. Although slower acting than other biocides. Three of the 1-lb water-soluble bags provide the normal dosage for a single 20. BE-6 functions similar to BE-5.000 gal frac tank with the first load of water. BE-3S BE-3S biocide is a rapid killing. BE-6 is a white. nonfoaming. BE-5 may not be premixed in LGC concentrates. which renders the solid product as a nondusting material that is much safer for handling than other solid or liquid biocides. and algae. Halliburton 6 • 34 Stimulation I . BE-5 BE-5 is a broad spectrum biocide.

Halliburton 6 • 35 Stimulation I . caustic should be added until pH of the water is above __________ throughout the tank. BE-3 should be added to the ________________ load of water in the tank. 4. BE-3 degrades at pH’s greater than __________. look up the suggested answers in the Answer Key at the back of this section. 6. Bacteria feed on gel by releasing ____________________.000 gal frac tank with the ________________ load of water. To kill bacteria. 3. ____________________ must be added to ____________________ the treated water prior to gelling. © 2005. BE-6 has a ___________________ rate of kill and controls growth by inhibiting the ____________________ pathway of the bacteria. Now. 1. 8. The most favorable environment for bacteria are ___________________ frac tanks and ____________________ water.Fracturing Fluids and Materials Unit H Quiz Fill in the blanks with one or more words to check your progress in Unit I. 9. 5. 7. _____ BE-5 container(s) should be added to each 20. After treating a frac tank with CAT-1. 2. Bacteria cause viscosity ____________________ in batch mixed gels.

psi • Figure 6. • 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 Conductivity (md-ft) Fibrous Strips 20/40 Sand—No Treatment SandWedge Treatment 6000 2000 3000 4000 Closure Stress. At this pattern. SandWedgeTM NT SandWedgeTM NT. SandWedgeTM NT is allowed to coat the proppant before being introduced to the fluid. The SandWedge materials that were produced and are continuously being improved were found to have the unique property of improving the flow of fluids through proppant. the porosity of the proppant pack.Fracturing Fluids and Materials Unit I: Conductivity Enhancers SandWedgeTM The conductivity enhancement additives came as a direct result of research to find a liquid proppant flowback control additive. The addition of 5% ER-1 will make SandWedgeTM NT 10-20 times more sticky and greatly increase the proppant packs resistance to flow back. SandWedge alters vertical proppant distribution during the settling process. Dry coating means that instead of adding the material to a fracturing fluid with proppant already in it. In closure stresses less than 4. That impacts proppant settling in a positive way. SandWedgeTM NT can thus be used in many more frac fluids because incompatibility issues have been greatly reduced. which uses the dry proppant coating method. therefore.000 psi. This occurrence requires that frac fluid flow through the mass rather than around it during settling. It greatly reduces the sensitivity to high pH fluids and high salt concentrations.000 psi.16 - SandwedgeTMXS SandWedgeTM XS is designed for wells in which proppant flow back is identified as the primary source for declines in production. When the proppant is coated with SandWedge. gel cannot coat the proppant. Porosity improvement in low stress environments. In proppant packs. when treated with SandWedge. A further benefit of SandWedge’s tackiness is that proppant tends to form in clumps or bundles. This has the effect of causing the proppant mass to maintain its cubic porosity shape until acted on by closure forces greater than 4. retains its cubic porosity pattern. the majority of the pack is in a rhombohedral packing and the pack porosity is reduced to 26%. the higher the porosity the higher the permeability of the pack. At 4. the pack has about 48% porosity.000 psi closure. If XS is © 2005. was designed to make SandWedgeTM compatible with most frac fluids and surfactants. This property increases proppant conductivity in two ways. First the breakers are more efficient as they are able to break gels by having more “break” sites available to them and secondly. porosity is directly related to permeability. There are three mechanisms that allow this to happen: • Coating each grain improves breaker efficiency. the proppant pack itself is not susceptible to gel damage. While the core of SandWedgeTM remains the same. Halliburton 6 • 36 Stimulation I . NT uses a safer and more environmentally friendly solvent than the previous version.

more environmentally friendly ____________________. The porosity of a proppant pack may be improved at closure stresses below __________ psi. SandWedgeTM NT is an improvement over SandWedgeTM because it uses a ____________________ _____________________ method and because it has a safer. Typically. If high concentrations of ER-1 resin are used with SandWedge™ polymer (>25%). Now. viscous liquid that is mixed with SandWedge™ polymer before the job. What are three ways SandWedgeTM improves fluid flow through proppant? _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ 2. Halliburton 6 • 37 Stimulation I . Note SandWedgeTM XS is a conductivity enhancer. © 2005. ER-1 resin is used at a concentration of 5%. Unit I Quiz Fill in the blanks with one or more words to check your progress in Unit I. tackiness. SandwedgeTM XS is designed for wells in which ____________________ ____________________ is identified as the primary source for declines in production. and resistance to high-velocity flow. a reduction in conductivity can be expected. SandwedgeTM XS will not stop proppant flowback under harsh conditions of high ____________________ rates or high ____________________. 5. 1. NOT a proppant flowback additive. The resin additive increases the molecular weight of SandWedge™ polymer by partially crosslinking it. in the range of 10-15%. a high-strength thermoplastic polymer can result from the high degree of crosslinking. or added on-the-fly into the blender tub during a SandWedge™ NT dry-coat treatment. 3. ER-1 ER-1 resin is a clear. greatly increasing its viscosity. based on the SandWedge™NT volume. look up the suggested answers in the Answer Key at the back of this section.Fracturing Fluids and Materials run. It will not stop proppant flowback under harsh conditions of high flowback rates or high temperatures. 4.

4. Halliburton 6 • 38 Stimulation I . Which surfactant group will leave sandstone in a water wet condition? ___________________ © 2005. What are they? ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 7.Fracturing Fluids and Materials Self-Check Test for Section 6 Mark the single best answer to the following questions. Surfactants are classified into four major groups depending upon the nature of the water-soluble group. ____________________ 3. 5. Surfactants are ____________________ ____________________ agents. Sandstone is negatively charged and water wet. Wettability indicates whether a solid is coated with ____________________ or ___________________. A buffer is a mixture of ____________________ and ____________________ of these ____________________. 6. List a swelling clay. 8.__________. 2. Fluid loss additives are used to slow down the ____________________ of the fracturing fluid into the formation. 1. Cla-Sta compounds are most effective in a __________ . Surfactants have been developed to ____________________ fluid retention in a formation.

What are 3 ways to stabilize gels? ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ 17. 16. © 2005. ViCon HT is of the group of ____________________ type breakers. Bacteria feeds on gel by releasing ____________________. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 10. 15. 14. CAT-3 can be used to ________________ __________ break times. Name two variables dictate which crosslinker to use? ________________________________________ ________________________________________ 12. Enzyme breakers are only effective in a relatively narrow range of ____________________ and ________________ levels. Name 2 factors that will affect the hydration rate of polymers. Name the 3 classes of chemical breaker we use ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 13. Halliburton 6 • 39 Stimulation I . What does a crosslinker do? _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 11.Fracturing Fluids and Materials 9.

Which Halliburton product should be chosen if a “quick kill” biocide is needed? ________________ 19. not for ____________________ ____________________.Fracturing Fluids and Materials 18. Which SandWedgeTM product is for dry coating proppant? ____________________ © 2005. Halliburton 6 • 40 Stimulation I . SandWedgeTM is sold as a ____________________ ____________________. 20.