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Diffusion, Osmosis and Active Trasport

For plants to say alive, chemicals (small molecules) must be able to move easily in and out of the cell. The movement may be:  From one part of a cell to another part.  Into and out of a cell  From one cell to another cell For the organism, it is an advantage that the movement does not require energy (expenditure of energy). The movement of molecules without spending energy will happen only in the conditions i.e. favorable conditions.

Diffusion is a kind of movement without spending energy. Definition: Diffusion is the movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of its lower concentration, down a concentration gradient until it reaches equilibrium. Example of diffusion in plants:  The movement of carbohydrates during photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide in solution (dissolved in water), moves from the surrounding mesophyll cells inside the leaf and getting into the chloroplast.  The movement of water vapor during transpiration. Water moves from mesophyll cells and got out through stoma. Example of diffusion in animals:  The movement of oxygen into blood, in lungs (air sacs) during respiration.  During the same process, the movement of carbon dioxide from the cells into the blood.

Dilute solutions which have a relatively large number of molecules are said to have a high water potential. Concentrated solutions, which have a fewer water molecules, are said to have a low water potential. Definition: Osmosis can be defined as the passage of water molecules from a region of high water potential to a region of lower water potential, through a semipermeable membrane.

 Cell placed in a normal neutral solution.  Cells placed in a highly concentrated solution will loss water by osmosis. No overcome organisms are using another kind of transport called active transport. the molecules which are having high concentration inside the cells may also diffuse out. the water molecules move into the vacuole of root hair cells.  Again. Active transport If only diffusion and osmosis is the way of transport. The cell sap of root hair cells has relatively low water potential.Osmosis in plants:  Naturally. the cell will be unchanged. the organism cannot transport anything when there is an equal distribution of materials/molecules. Definition: Active transport is an energy consuming process where substances are transported against the concentration gradient. So. the water potential in the root hair cell is increasing. . The cytoplasm got pulled toward the center (shrinking) and cells became flaccid. the same osmosis causes the movement of water molecules into the next cells and it continues towards the center of the root and towards the center of the stem (xylem vessel). Diagram of cell in solutions Effects of osmosis on animal cells Animal cells placed in a solution of lower water potential lose their shape and turgidity as water moves out of their cytoplasm. Also. all cell membranes are partially permeable. The condition of the cell is turgid and pressure responsible for turgidity is turgor pressure. Soil water has a relatively high water potential. the water got transported throughout the stem and leaf. Because of this. From xylem vessels. Because continuous loss of water. A red blood cell shrinks in size and its membrane becomes unevenly creased. So the cell membrane pressurizes the cell wall outwardly. Effects of osmosis on plant cells  Cell placed in a relatively diluted solution will take up the water and increases in size.

. if the plants need ions/minerals even the soil surrounding the plant may have less ion concentration by spending extra energy. the plant will take up the ions or minerals.  In the small intestine of an animal when digested food is getting absorbed by villi is an example of active transport.Examples of active transport  In plants.