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FKM-Guideline ANALYTICAL STRENGTH ASSESSMENT OF COMPONENTS IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
5th, revised edition, 2003, English Version Translation by E. Haibach

Title of the original German Version: RECHNERISCHER FESTIGKEITSNACHWEIS FÜR MASCHINENBAUTEILE 5., überarbeitete Ausgabe, 2003

Editor: Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau (FKM)
Postfach 71 08 64, D-60498 Frankfurt / Main Phone ρ49 - 69 - 6603 - 1345

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Preface of the English Version of the 5th Edition.
For engineers concerned with construction and calculation in mechanical engineering or in related fields of industry the FKM-Guideline for analytical strength assessment is available since 1994. This guideline was elaborated by an expert group "Strength of components" of the “Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau (FKM), Frankfurt/Main,” with financial support by the Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft (BMWi), by the “Arbeitsgemeinschaft industrieller Forschungsvereinigungen ´Otto von Guericke´" and by the “Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau. Based on former TGL standards and on the former guideline VDI 2226, and referring to more recent sources it was developed to the current state of knowledge. The FKM-Guideline - is applicable in mechanical engineering and in related fields of industry, - allows the analytical strength assessment for rod-shaped (1D), for shell-shaped (2D) and for block-shaped (3D) components under consideration of all relevant influences, - describes the assessment of the static strength and of the fatigue strength, the latter according to an assessment of the fatigue limit, of the constant amplitude fatigue strength, or of the variable amplitude fatigue strength according to the service stress conditions, - is valid for components from steel, cast steel, or cast iron materials at temperatures from -40 ºC to 500 ºC, as well as for components from aluminum alloys and cast aluminum alloys at temperatures from -40 ºC to 200 ºC, - is applicable for components produced with or without machining, or by welding, - allows an assessment in considering nominal stresses as well as local elastic stresses derived from finite element or boundary element analyses, from theoretical mechanics solutions, or from measurements. A uniformly structured calculation procedure applies to all of these cases of application. The calculation procedure is almost completely predetermined. The user has to make some decisions only. The FKM-Guideline is a commented algorithm, consisting of statements, formulas, and tables. Most of the included figures have an explanatory function only. Textual declarations are given where appropriate to ensure a reliable application. Its content complies with the state of knowledge to an extend that may be presented in a guideline and it enables quite comprehensive possibilities of calculation. The employed symbols are adapted to the extended requirements of notation. The presented calculation procedure is complemented by explanatory examples. Practically the described procedure of strength assessment should be realized by means of a suitable computer program. Presently available are the PC computer programs "RIFESTPLUS" (applicable for a calculation using elastically determined local stresses, in particular with shell-shaped (2D) or block-shaped (3D) components) and "WELLE" (applicable for a calculation using nominal stresses as it is appropriate in the frequently arising case of axles or shafts with gears etc).

For ease of application each of these chapters gives a complete description of the particular calculation procedure. and the fatigue assessment of extremely sharp notches. respectively. Concerning an analytical strength assessment of components from aluminum alloys or from cast aluminum alloys this guideline is delivered to the technical community by supposing that for the time being it will be applied with appropriate caution and with particular reference to existing experience so far. Moreover the interest of users was confirmed by the well attended VDI conferences on "Computational Strength Analysis of Metallic Components". and with the experimental determination of component strength values. that some of the relevant factors of influence were not yet examined with the desirable clearness or that available results could not be evaluated objectively due to large scatter. The major change in the forth edition from 2002 is the possibility of considering structural components made from aluminum alloys or cast aluminum alloys by applying the same calculation procedure that was developed for components from steel. that were organized for presentation of the FKM-Guideline at Fulda in 1995. with the fatigue limit of grey cast iron and of malleable cast iron. 1998 and 2002. Chapter 3. with the technological size factor. with additional fatigue classes of welded structural details and with the local stress analysis for welded components. The decisions necessary to include aluminum materials were derived from literature evaluations. . although this results in repetitions of the same or almost the same parts of text in the corresponding sections. In these cases the decision was based on a careful consideration of substantial relations. however. Last not least the fifth edition of the FKM-Guideline is a revision of the forth edition and it is presented in both a German version and an English version with the expectation that it might observe similar attention as the preceding editions on a broadened international basis of application. An essential formal change in the third edition was a new textual structure providing four main chapters. that describe the assessment of the static strength or of the fatigue strength with either nominal stresses or local stresses. The contents-related changes introduced with the third edition from 1998 were mainly concerned with the consideration of stainless steel and of forging steel. with the section factor for assessing the static strength. The involved research institutes and the “Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau (FKM)” will appreciate any reports on practical experience as well as any proposals for improvement. It had to be recognized. with the assessment of multiaxial stresses. with the specification of an estimated damage sum smaller than one for the assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue strength. cast steel and cast iron materials so far. Further improvements may also be expected from ongoing research projects concerning the procedure of static strength assessment using local elastic stresses.3 The preceding editions of the FKM-Guideline observed a remarkably great interest from which the need of an up to date guideline for analytical strength analyses becomes apparent.

has not been modified in order to insure identity with the German original in this respect. If the given translation is different from a literal one. The translation observes an almost identical structure of the headlines. indices and formulas. of the chapters. however. . In particular the applier is pointed to the speciality. but by using a common vocabulary and simple sentences.4 Notes of the translator The English translation is intended to keep as close as possible to the original German version. hence 1. Also the tables and the figures as well as their numbering and headlines are adapted as they are. that a comma ( . while only the verbal terms have been translated. the technical meaning of the sentence and/or of the paragraph is maintained. and even of the numbering of the pages. The applier of this guideline is kindly asked to accept the more or less unusual kind of notation which is due to the need of clearly distinguishing between a great number of variables.5 equals 1.5 for example. as well as their numbering. ) is used with numerical values instead of a decimal point ( . ). of the paragraphs and of the sentences. In particular the original German notation of the mathematical symbols.

1 4.0 3.5 1.2 1.5 Contents Page 0 0.4 1.6 4 4.1 0.3 4.3 2.6 2 2.3 1.5 4.4 2.3 1 1.4 3.3 3.5 3.2 2.1 1.1 2.0 4.6 3 3.6 General survey Scope Technical background Structure and elements Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses General Characteristic stress values Material properties Design parameters Component strength Safety factors Assessment Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses General Parameters of the stress spectrum Material properties Design Parameters Component strength Safety factors Assessment Assessment of the static strength using local stresses General Characteristic stress values Material properties Design parameters Component strength Safety factors Assessment Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses General Parameters of the stress spectrum Material properties Design parameters Component strength Safety factors Assessment 97 103 106 113 125 127 73 76 85 89 90 93 41 47 50 57 68 70 19 22 30 33 34 36 9 .5 2.0 2.4 4.2 3.1 3.2 4.0 1.2 0.

2 6.3 5.3 7.4 6.1 7.4 7.3 6.6 5.6 Page 5 5.5 6.5 7.2 5.1 6.4 5.5 5.1 5.10 5.9 5.11 5.12 6 6.2 7.6 8 Appendices Material tables Stress concentration factors Fatigue notch factors Fatigue classes (FAT) for welded components of structural steel and of aluminum alloys Comments about the fatigue strength of welded components of structural steel Adjusting the stress ratio of a stress spectrum to agree to that of the S-N curve and deriving a stepped spectrum Assessment using classes of utilization Particular strength characteristics of surface hardened components An improved method for computing the component fatigue limit in the case of synchronous multiaxial stresses Approximate assessment of the fatigue strength in the case of non-proportional multiaxial stresses Experimental determination of component strength values Stress concentration factor for a substitute structure Examples Shaft with shoulder Shaft with V-belt drive Compressor flange made of grey cast iron Welded notched component Cantilever loaded by two loads Component made of a wrought aluminum alloy Symbols and basic formulas Abbreviations Indices Lower case characters Upper case characters Greek alphabetic characters Basic formulas Subject index 259 260 261 262 263 231 236 241 245 250 256 131 178 187 195 209 216 218 222 223 226 227 230 .7 5.6 7 7.8 5.

in particular the former TGLStandards.11 "Experimental determination of component strength values" is not the realization of an experimental assessment of strength. . as well as the regulations of DIN 18 800.1 Scope This guideline is valid for components in mechanical engineering and in related fields of industry. material and workmanship. are not subject of this guideline. 0. . 1 Subject of Chapter 5. for components with welded joints. cast iron materials as well as aluminum alloys or cast aluminum alloys. or of deformation under load. from − 25°C to 500°C for cast iron materials and from − 25°C to 200°C for aluminum materials. for fatigue loading with more than about 104 constant or variable amplitude cycles. and in detail for components with geometrical notches. also stainless steel. but the question how specific and sufficiently reliable component strength values suitable for the general procedure of strength assessment may be derived experimentally. For components subjected to mechanical loadings it allows an analytical assessment of the static strength and of the fatigue strength. as for example for bolted joints. the latter as an assessment of the fatigue limit or of the variable amplitude fatigue strength according to the service stress conditions. Other analytical assessments. Moreover the guideline was developed to the current state of knowledge by taking into account the results of more recent investigations.for component temperatures from − 40°C to 500°C for steel.for a non-corrosive environment. The guideline is valid for components produced with or without machining or by welding of steel. iron or aluminum materials that are intended for use under normal or elevated temperature conditions.2 Technical Background Basis of the guideline are the references listed on page 7. . rules or guidelines. The guideline is not valid if an assessment of strength is required according to other standards.7 0 General survey 0. and that they are faultless in a technical sense. It is presupposed. the former VDI-Guideline 2226. of stability. for static loading. the IIW-Recommendations and Eurocode 3. as well as an experimental assessment of strength *1. . or if more specific design codes are applicable. Its application has to be agreed between contracting parties. that the components are professionally produced with regard to construction.for milled or forged steel. for example of safety against brittle fracture. If an application of the guideline is intended outside the mentioned field of application additional specifications are to be agreed upon.

what service loadings are to be considered.3.4. The service loadings are to be determined on the safe side.3. Chapter 1 0.3. with a sufficient probability they should be higher than most of the normally occurring loadings *3.3.3. The strength values are supposed to correspond to an anticipated probability of 97. Chapter 4 0.1 0.2 General Procedure of calculation Stress parameters 11 Page 9 10 0.4.3 Methods of strength assessment 0. Chapter 3 0.what cross-sections or structural detail of the component shall be assessed *2 and .3.4.4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses.3.3.0 0. however.5 %).3.0 0.1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses.5 Kinds of components General Rod-shaped (1D) components Shell-shaped (2D) components Block-shaped (3D) components Uniaxial and multiaxial stresses 12 13 13 14 15 16 0.3.0 General An assessment of the static strength is required prior to an assessment of the fatigue strength.3.3.0 General 0.5 % (average probability of survival PÜ = 97. what critical points of the considered cross-sections or component.1 0.3.3. Chapter 2 0.4 0.2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses. .3. 2 In particular.3.3 Structure and elements Contents 0. 3 Usually this probability can hardly be quantified.4.3.3.3 0.3.8 0. Before applying the guideline it has to be decided .3.3 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses. that is.2 0.3.

6. the almost identical procedure for an assessment of the fatigue strength in Figure 0. .2 Procedure of calculation for an assessment of the fatigue strength. 4 A more detailed survey on the procedures of assessment referring to the equations of the guideline may be found in the Appendix. Figure 0.1 Procedure of calculation The procedure of calculation for an assessment of the static strength is presented in Figure 0.0.2 *4. Chapter 7.3.1. Figure 0.1 Procedure of calculation for an assessment of the static strength.0.0.0.9 0.

are combined with a sign. In Figure 0. 6 The elastic notch root stress exceeds the nominal stress by a stress concentration factor. . where the degree of utilization is defined by the ratio of the characteristic service stress to the component strength value that has been reduced by the safety factor. in shell-shaped (2D) or in blockshaped (3D) components. The stresses are to be determined according to known principles and techniques: analytically according to elementary or advanced methods of theoretical mechanics. of the effective notch stress or of the structural stress.2 the arrangements of the individual boxes from top to bottom illustrate the sequential procedure of calculation. that is the potential point of fatigue crack initiation at the cross-section or at the component under consideration. that may act in rod-shaped (1D). except the stress amplitudes.3. With the procedures of calculation structured uniformly for both types of stress determination it is intended that more or less identical results will be obtained from comparable strength assessments based on either nominal stresses or local stresses. In case of doubt several reference points are to be considered.as nominal stresses *5 (notation S and T).as local strength values of the elastic local stress.1 and Figure 0. There is a need to distinguish the names and subscripts of the different components or types of stress.2 Characteristic service stresses For an application of the guideline the stresses resulting from the service loadings have to be determined for the so-called reference point of the component.00 . or experimentally by measurement. also termed geometrical or hot spot stresses. All stresses.0.as elastically determined local stresses. in particular compressive stresses are negative. In specifying component fatigue strength values the mean stress and the variable amplitude effects are regarded as essential factors of influence. for example in the case of welded joints the toe and the root of the weld. In the case of welded joints effective notch stresses are applied to the assessment of the fatigue strength only. . 5 Nominal stresses can be computed for a well defined cross-section only.10 At the assessment stage (box at bottom of either Figure) the characteristic values of service stress occurring in the component (box at top on the left) and the component strength values derived from the mechanical material properties and the design parameters (middle column) are compared by including the required safety factors (box at bottom on the right). 0. The assessment of strength is successful if the degree of utilization is less or equal 1. numerically after the finite element or the boundary element method. For further information see Chapter 5. Correspondingly the component strength values are to be determined .5. Structural stresses. To perform an assessment it is necessary to decide about the kind of stress determination for the reference point considered: The stresses can be determined . effective notch stresses or structural (hot spot) stresses *6 (notation σ and τ). are normally in use with welded joints only.0.as nominal strength values or . respectively.

Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses. it is organized in four chapters.0 General In order to present the guideline clearly arranged and user-friendly. Sb. if stress concentration factors or fatigue notch factors are not known.3. Figure 0.Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses. shell.3 Methods of strength assessment 0. Figure 0. The influence of an 7 According to rod-. . or (concerning the assessment of the static strength) in the case of brittle materials.4.1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses.3. Relevant material properties are the tensile strength and the yield strength (yield stress or 0. Chapter 1. nominal values of the axial (or tension-compression) stress.1. Chapter 3.3. Chapter 1.3. 0.Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses.3 Organization of the guideline.3.11 0. The procedure of calculation using nominal stresses is to be preferred for simple rodshaped (1D) and for shell-shaped (2D) components. e.or block-shaped components. Chapter 0. . The procedure of calculation using local stresses has to be applied to block-shaped (3D) components. In particular the procedure of calculation is completely presented in everyone of the four chapters. and moreover in general.0. Chapter 2. .2 proof stress) as well as the strength values for shear derived from these. Chapter 1 Relevant nominal characteristic service stresses are the extreme maximum and extreme minimum values of the individual types of stress or stress components. respectively. A technological size effect is taken into account if appropriate.3. if there are no well-defined cross-sections or no simple cross-section shapes.0. and so forth *7 *8.Assessment of the static strength using local stresses. Szd.3: .g. even if this results in repetitions of the same or almost the same parts of text in Chapter 1 and Chapter 3 or in Chapter 2 and Chapter 4. Chapter 4. if the stresses are determined by a finite-element or a boundary-element calculation. that are determined from the largest amplitude and the related mean value of a stress spectrum. . 8 The extreme maximum or minimum stresses for the assessment of the static strength may be different from the maximum and minimum stresses for the assessment of the fatigue strength. of the bending stress.

By specific combination of all these factors a summary design factor is calculated. From the section factor and from further parameters an overall design factor is derived.strength at elevated temperature and creep strength.5 against the yield strength. and for the throat section with an equivalent nominal stress.3. Design parameters to be considered in particular are the fatigue notch factors.2. A technological size effect is taken into account where appropriate. which follows from the nominal static component strength divided by the safety factor. type of loading. Chapter 1. and so forth *7 *8.0. The nominal values of the static component strength are derived from the tensile strength. amplitudes and mean values of the nominal axial (tension-compression) stresses. Chapter 2. Chapter 1. shape of crosssection.2. Chapter 2. Chapter 2. Design parameters are the section factors. e.3. allowing for the design of the component (shape.2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses.5.g. by which an experienced partial plasticity of the component is allowed according to yield strength. Chapter 2 Relevant nominal characteristic service stresses are the largest stress amplitudes in connection with the respective stress spectra and the related mean stress values. that is computed from the components of nominal stress acting in the weld seam *9. As common in practice the safety factor against the tensile strength is 2. Chapter 1. For materials with a yield strength less than 0. The interaction formula to be applied to that combination allows for the ductility of the material in question. the safety factor is 1. Under favorable conditions these safety factors may be reduced.1. as well as the roughness factor and the surface treatment factor. They are determined for the individual stress components or types of stress.zd. 0. The influence of an elevated temperature is allowed for by means of temperature factors.4.4. and stress concentration factor. size and type of loading).6. Chapter 2.1. If there are several stress components or types of stress their individual degrees of utilization are combined to obtain an entire degree of utilization. by which the respective surface properties are accounted for. Relevant material properties are the fatigue limit for completely reversed axial stress and the fatigue limit for completely reversed shear stress of the material in question. divided by the respective design factors.00 . Sa. Chapter 1. The degree of utilization for an individual stress component or type of stress is the ratio of its nominal characteristic service stress value. divided by the respective overall design factor.is allowed for by means of temperature factors.3. divided by the allowable nominal static component strength value. The assessment is carried out by proving that the degree of utilization is less or equal 1.75 times the tensile strength. Chapter 1. however.3. From these fatigue limit values the amplitudes of the . yield strength at elevated temperature and 1% creep limit . The nominal values of the component fatigue limit for completely reversed stresses follow from the derived fatigue limit values of the material.zd and Sm.12 elevated temperature on the material properties . For welded components the assessment of the static strength has to be carried out for the toe section as for non-welded components.

Chapter 3. Chapter 3.2. Chapter 2. As far as conditionally weldable steel.5. They are independent of the tensile strength of the base material (which is different to nonwelded components).3. Chapter 3. weldable cast iron materials or weldable aluminum alloys are concerned this kind of calculation is provisional and may be applied with caution only. 9 The assessment of the fatigue strength for welded components makes reference to the IIW-Recommendations and Eurocode 3.2. that is in the same way as for the assessment of the static strength. Relevant material properties are to be determined as for nominal stresses. Chapter 3 Relevant characteristic local service stresses are the extreme maximum and extreme minimum stresses of the individual types of stress or stress components.4. The allowable amplitude value follows from the nominal amplitude of the derived component fatigue strength divided by the safety factor.g. Chapter 2. stainless steel. Chapter 2.4. For the assessment of the fatigue strength of welded components using nominal stresses basic fatigue limit values for completely reversed stress are given. Under favorable conditions this safety factor may be reduced. The amplitudes that specify the variable amplitude fatigue strength of the component are obtained from the fatigue limit values multiplied by a factor depending on the parameters of the stress spectrum (total number of cycles and amplitude frequency distribution). The local values of the static component strength are derived from the tensile strength. The section factors are calculated on the basis of Neuber's formula. local values of the normal (axial and/or bending) stress. Chapter 3. 0.13 component fatigue limit according to the mean stress values (or the stress ratios) are to be derived. but by observing an individual upper bound value that follows from the plastic limit load (plastic notch factor).00 .3. and shape of the component. by which an experienced partial plasticity of the component is allowed according to yield strength. σ. They are converted by design factors that follow from a classification scheme of structural weld details.4. The assessment is carried out by proving that the degree of utilization is less or equal 1.3 *10. If there are several stress components or types of stress their individual degrees of utilization are combined to obtain the total degree of utilization.5.3 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses.3. divided by the allowable amplitude of the component fatigue limit or of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength.6. . The interaction formula to be applied to that combination allows for the ductility of the material in question. The combined effect of mean stress and of residual stresses in welded components is considered by means of a mean stress factor together with a residual stress factor *9. e. divided by the respective overall design factor. Chapter 2. 10 The assessment of the static strength using local stresses on the basis of Neuber's formula and the plastic limit load is an approximation which has to be regarded as provisional and is to be applied with caution only. Design parameters are the section factors. and of the shear (shear and/or torsional) stress *7 *8. The basic value of the safety factor is 1. type of loading.1. The degree of utilization for an individual stress component or type of stress is the ratio of its nominal characteristic service stress amplitude. From the section factors and from further parameters an overall design factor is derived.

By specific combination of all these factors a summary design factor is calculated. . Chapter 4. Chapter 4.5. Chapter 4 Relevant local characteristic service stresses are the largest stress amplitudes in connection with the respective stress spectra and the related mean stress values.4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses. Chapter 4.6. e. Chapter 3. but with the respective local values of the characteristic service stress and the local component strength values.g. divided by the respective design factors. The combined effect of mean stress and of residual stresses in welded components is to be considered as for nominal stresses by means of a mean stress factor together with a residual stress factor *10. The safety factors are to be determined as for nominal stresses. They hold for effective notch stresses without conversion. as well as the roughness factor and the surface treatment factor. Chapter 4. and so forth *7 *8. They are determined for the individual stress components or types of stress. Design parameters to be considered in particular are the Kt-Kf ratios. The relevant material properties are determined as for nominal stresses. but with the respective local values of the characteristic stress amplitude and the value of the component fatigue limit or of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength. 0. The assessment is carried out by means of the degree of utilization as for nominal stresses. amplitudes and mean values of the local normal (axial and/or bending) stress. Chapter 3.3.3.3. The local values of the component fatigue limit for completely reversed stresses follow from the derived fatigue limit values of the material. For welded components the assessment of the static strength using local stresses is carried out using structural stresses (not with effective notch stresses). The conversions to the amplitude of the component fatigue limit and to the amplitude of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength are as for nominal stresses.5.6.1.4. Chapter 4. σa and σm . that is to be derived from the structural stress components acting in the weld seam *9. Chapter 4. for the root of the weld using an equivalent structural stress.4. For the assessment of the fatigue strength of welded components using structural stresses or effective notch stresses the same basic fatigue limit values for completely reversed stresses apply as for nominal stresses. Chapter 4.3. allowing for the design of the component (shape and size). but for structural stresses they have to be converted by factors given for some typical weld details.4.2 to 4. by which the respective surface properties are accounted for.2.14 The safety factors are to be determined as for nominal stresses. The assessment by means of the degree of utilization is as for nominal stresses.1. for the weld toe as for non-welded components.

3. bar.z . In case of rotationally symmetrical cross-sections with circumferential notches a resultant bending stress and a resultant shear stress can be calculated from these stress components.4 Kinds of components 0. Figure 0. y. however. Otherwise stress components Sb.4. are of concern.3. or beam for example . 2 Sb = S 2 + S b. and the procedure of calculation is the same in all cases.0.y 2 Ts = Ts2 + Ts.15 0. .1 Rod-shaped (1D) components For rod-shaped (1D) components – rod. identified by differing symbols and subscripts. shell-shaped (2D) and block-shaped (3D) components are to be distinguished. b. Chapter 1 and 2. Ts from a shear load.z are to be considered *11. as in each case other stress components or types of stresses. and/or Tt from a torsional moment acting at the respective section. The distinction is only a formal one. Specific particulars apply to welded components.and z-axes are the main axes of the cross-section that are to be specified so.3. Figure 0. Calculation using nominal stresses If the assessment of rod-shaped (1D) components is carried out by using nominal stresses.the following system of co-ordinates is introduced: x-axis is the longitudinal center line of the component.4 Rod-shaped (1D) component (round specimen with groove) in bending. shaft. the nominal stresses to be computed at the reference point are Szd from an axial load. 11 The indices y and z describe the direction of the related vectors of the bending moments My. Mz and of the lateral loads Fy.4.0 General Rod-shaped (1D).4.y (0.y and Sb. that for the moments of inertia Iy ≥ Iz is valid. that both the bending stress Sb and the shear stress Ts act in the x-z-plane. Sb from a bending moment. 0. Fz .z . Ts.0.y and Ts. Nominal stress Sb and maximum local stress σmax at the reference point W. The equations given in Chapter 1 and 2 may be applied to Sb and Ts.1) . For the equations given in Chapter 1 and 2 it is provided.3. z .

The normal stress and the shear stress in thickness direction are supposed to be negligible.and y-axis are placed in the surface at the reference point.5. see Chapter 0. if the calculation yields the complete local state of stress at the reference point (as for example a finite-element calculation does). tube. Rod-shaped (1D) welded components For rod-shaped (1D) welded components *14 the notations σ and τ apply to structural stresses and the notation σK and τK apply to effective notch stresses *15. σ3 are computed *13 and treated as described for block-shaped (3D) components. but not to the assessment of the static strength. Calculation using local stresses If the calculation of rod-shaped (1D) components is carried out using local stresses *12.the following system of coordinates is introduced: The x. the z-axis is normal to the surface in thickness direction. the nominal stresses at the reference point to be computed are the normal stresses Szdx = Sx and Szdy = Sy from loadings in the x. the principle stresses σ1.3. 0. σ2.3.16 In the general case of not rotationally symmetrical cross-sections a calculation using local stresses is normally to be preferred. the equations given in Chapter 3 and 4 are applicable. Additional stresses at notches (as for example the circumferential stress associated with an axial stress of a shaft with groove) may be included in the stress concentration factor.0. Effective notch stresses can be applied to the assessment of the fatigue strength. 14 Rod-shaped (1D) welded components are rolled sections with circular. 13 Principle stresses are independent of the chosen coordinate system.5. In the more general case of non-proportional loading the directions and the amounts of the three principle stresses will change with time. I-. 15 Structural stresses can be applied to the assessment of the static strength and to the assessment of the fatigue strength.and y-directions and Ts = T from a shear loading. the local normal stresses at the reference point from axial and from bending loading (in x-direction).disk. However. . Chapter 3 and 4. Calculation using nominal stresses If the assessment of shell-shaped (2D) components is carried out using nominal stresses. or shell for example .4. plate. otherwise they will be neglected. Figure 0. σzd = σ as well as the local shear stresses τs = τ from shear and from torsion (normal to the x-direction) are considered. Chapter 1 and 2. In the special case of a proportional loading the directions of the principle stresses remain fixed to the coordinates of the component.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components For shell-shaped (2D) components . 12 The assessment of rod-shaped (1D) components should preferably be carried out using nominal stresses whenever possible. box or other cross-sections connected or joined with butt welds and/or fillet welds. If the local stresses are calculated from the nominal stresses by multiplication with the respective stress concentration factors.

.x. the local stresses at the reference point σzdx = σx and σzdy = σy in the x.x at the reference point W (peak value) and σa. see Figure 0.and y-directions and the local shear stress τs = τ are considered. Calculation using local stresses If the assessment of shell-shaped (2D) components is carried out using local stresses. After Radaj /11/. Calculation using effective notch stresses: Maximum stress σKx. the equations given in Chapter 3 and 4 are applicable. σ2. σ3 are computed *14 and treated as described for block-shaped (3D) components. if the calculation yields the complete local state of stress at the reference point (as for example a finite-element calculation does). the principle stresses σ1. Relevant is the stress at the reference point W (at the toe line of the weld).7.∆s at the neighbouring point B. Example: Strap with longitudinal stiffner. Local stresses σa.6 Shell-shaped (2D) welded component. 0. Calculation using structural stress: Maximum stress σx. Figure 0.17 Figure 0. 5 Shell-shaped (2D) component (shell with cutout detail). However. Chapter 3 and 4.0. Bottom: Profile.0. Top: Joint. Centre: Stress distribution.max obtained from extrapolating the stress distribution towards the weld toe. If the local stresses are computed from the nominal stresses by multiplication with the respective stress concentration factors.max occurring at the weld toe. Calculation using nominal stresses: Stress Sx .

. Chapter 3 and 4 *17 For block-shaped (3D) components the coordinate system at the reference point may be of cartesian. From that the principle stresses σ1.0. although this has to be considered as a preliminary specification for welded aluminum materials so far. while the stress gradients for σ1 and σ2 in any directions of the surface and the gradients of σ3 can not.0. In general stress gradients exist for all three principle stresses. However. Effective notch stresses can be applied to the assessment of the fatigue strength. however. σKy and τK apply to effective notch stresses *16 . Figure 0. The calculation is supposed to yield the complete state of local stress at the reference point (as for example a finite-element calculation does). Example: Cruciform joint and butt weld. 16 Structural stresses can be applied to the assessment of the static strength and to the assessment of the fatigue strength. σy and τ apply to structural stresses and the notations σKx . Figure 0.8. it is supposed that σ1 and σ2 are the principle stresses at the surface. The fictitious notch radius r = 1 mm applies to welded joints from structural steel.3.max occurring at the toe or at the root of the weld has to be computed by introducing a fictitious effective notch radius r = 1 mm.3 Block-shaped (3D) components In the general case block-shaped (3D) components are to be calculated using local stresses. If the reference point W is located at a free surface of a block-shaped (3D) component. σ3 are computed *14 . cylindrical or spherical type.4. 17 For block-shaped components the determination of a nominal stress is not possible since there is no well defined cross-section. 0. only the stress gradients for σ 1 and σ2 normal to the surface can be considered in the procedure of calculation. σ2. After Radaj /10/. while the principle stress σ3 is supposed to point normally to the surface inwards the component. It is supposed. Calculation using effective notch stresses: The maximum stress σKx. but not to the assessment of the static strength. unless the real radius is r > 1 mm (the fictitious notch radius is intended for the assessment of the fatigue strength only). and for these the degrees of utilization are determined.18 Shell-shaped (2D) welded components For shell-shaped (2D) welded components the notations σx . both normal to the surface and in either direction of the surface.7 Shell-shaped (2D) welded component. that it is applicable for other kinds of material as well.

0. as for example in a tension loaded prismatic bar.9. In both cases . σy and τ apply to structural stresses and the notations σKx . or at an unloaded edge of shell-shaped (2D) or block-shaped (3D) components.5 Uniaxial and multiaxial stresses The stresses occurring in the cross-section or at the reference point of a component may be caused . the latter even if several loads act on these components simultaneously. σKy and τK apply to the effective notch stresses at the surface.multiaxial stresses may result at the reference point. Then the notations σx . Figure 0. Figure 0. s at neighboring point B. σy and τ at the load free surface are of concern only. 0. Figure 0.by a single load or . Local longitudinal stress σ1 and circumferential stress σ2 at the reference point W (peak values).6.19 Block-shaped (3D) components can be calculated as shell-shaped (2D) components if the stresses σx .8 Block-shaped (3D) component (flange). . In addition an uniaxial stress may be assumed at the reference point if.0. stresses σ1. by comparison.0. any further stresses are small. An uniaxial stress occurs under special circumstances only.by several loads acting simultaneously. Block-shaped (3D) welded components Welds at a load-free surface of block-shaped (3D) components having no inner defects can be assessed as shell-shaped (2D) welded components.3.an uniaxial stress or . s and σ2.

In general components are subject to multiaxial stresses. However. 18 Both for the assessment of the fatigue limit and for the assessment of the variable amplitude strength.non-proportional stresses. Right: uniaxial stress in a sheet section at the edge of a cutout. Left: multiaxial stresses in a sheet section. Then two or three normal stresses. Accordingly the entire degree of utilization has to be computed.thereafter these individual degrees of utilization will be combined by means of an appropriate interaction formula to obtain the entire degree of utilization for assessment. Nominal stresses Sx. stresses of different sign that will decrease the entire degree of utilization are to be included only if they definitely occur together with the remaining stresses.proportional stresses. however.9 Uniaxial and multiaxial stresses. Assessment of the static strength For the assessment of the static strength the most unfavorable case to be considered is that the extreme values of all maximum and minimum stresses occur simultaneously. .synchronous stresses.20 Figure 0.the individual degrees of utilization for everyone of the computed types of stress or stress components have to be determined and assessed separately in a first step. Chapter 1. In this guideline a basic principle is defined both for an assessment of the static strength and of the fatigue strength in case of multiaxial stresses: .6.6 or 3. . Assessment of the fatigue strength For the assessment of the fatigue strength *18 multiaxial stresses varying with time have to be distinguished as follows: . and . or normal stresses and shear stresses occur at the reference point.0. or . Sy and T.

because they are applied to the stress amplitudes. may be converted by constant factors. different kind of loading. Additional rules for considering the mean stresses are required. Further. however non-proportional with regard to their mean values. lying cylindrical vessel under pulsating internal pressure. all multiaxial stresses are varying proportionally to that loading and proportionally to each other. . Examples of proportional stresses are the circumferential and the longitudinal stresses of a cylindrical vessel loaded by internal pressure. which are proportional to each other.are valid as a useful approximation. that is varying with time. change proportionally with time as well. the interaction formulas given in Chapter 2. however. In particular the amounts and the directions of the principle stresses are variable with time. Normally synchronous stresses result from a combined action of a constant loading with a second. if the related rules of signs are observed. Examples are a shaft with a non-changing torsional loading and a rotating bending loading. Non-proportional stresses Non-proportional stresses result from the action of at least two loadings that vary nonproportionally with time in a different manner. Proportional stresses my also result from several loadings that act on the component simultaneously and. The amounts of the stresses.21 Proportional stresses Normally proportional stresses result from a single loading acting on the component.6 are exactly valid in the sense of material mechanics. They are proportional with regard to their amplitudes. the interaction formulae given in Chapter 2. and because the fatigue strength is determined by the stress amplitudes in the first place. For proportional multiaxial stresses.6 and 4. as a consequence. Synchronous stresses Synchronous stresses are a simple case of non-proportional stresses. Hence all stress spectra are of similar shape.6 and 4. also in the stress amplitude spectra.9.if observing the related rules of sign .6 . If this single acting loading is varying with time. which also is true with regard to their amplitudes and their mean values. or the bending and torsional stresses of a round cantilever loaded eccentrically by a single load. where the longitudinal stress is non-proportional to the circumferential stress because of the bending stress from the dead weight which is additively overlaid. Or a long. An improved procedure for the assessment of the component fatigue limit in the case of synchronous multiaxial stresses is presented in Chapter 5. For synchronous multiaxial stresses. In this most general case of non-proportional loading different spectra apply to the individual types of stress that result from the combined loadings. the principle stresses observe non-changing directions relative to the component. but may differ in intensity (amount of their characteristic maximum stress). for their part. Then several stresses of the same kind are to be overlaid additively.

however. This is because the most damaging stresses from the combined loadings may occur at positions different from the positions of the maximum stresses from the individual loadings. ▬▬▬ ● ▬▬▬ ● ▬▬▬ ● ▬▬▬ ● ▬▬▬ ● ▬▬▬ ● ▬▬▬ . that a thorough stress analysis is performed in every case and that careful evaluation of the result is performed finally. respectively. By the above mentioned approximation. an experimental assessment of the fatigue strength has to be recommended according to the contemporary state of the art.6 and 4. 19 For non-proportional multiaxial loadings the reference point may be at different positions in the case of the combined loadings and in the case of each of the individual loadings. Chapter 5.10: As proportional stresses result from each of the acting loadings the degrees of utilization of these individual loadings can be correctly computed and assessed as described in Chapter 2.6. In order to reach an optimum degree utilization of the component fatigue strength in the case of non-proportional multiaxial stresses. that have been developed from a material mechanics point of view. Therefore only an approximate way of calculation for the assessment of the fatigue strength in the case of non-proportional multi-axial stresses can be given. A necessary reservation for applying this approximate way of calculation is. Their plausibility is currently subject of investigations. The so determined degrees of utilization for the individual loadings are then added linearly in order to estimate the entire degree of utilization.6 and 4. require much computing effort and are applicable with computer programs for short stress sequences only. Appropriate methods of calculation proposed for the assessment of the fatigue strength in the case of non-proportional stresses. Compared to usual interaction formulas developed for proportional stresses the linear addition may be assumed to produce results on the safe side *19.6. the full damaging effect of each loading may be assumed to be superimposed at the reference point in question.22 The case of variable directions of the principle stresses can not be considered with the interaction formulas given in Chapter 2.