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Report on effectiveness of solar panel installation for signaling system. 1.

Introduction:A solar cell (also called photovoltaic cell or photoelectric cell) is a solid state electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect which include the following steps 1. Photons in sunlight hit the solar panel and are absorbed by semiconducting materials, such as silicon. 2. Electrons are knocked loose from their atoms, causing an electric potential difference. Current starts flowing through the material to cancel the potential and this electricity is captured. Due to the special composition of solar cells, the electrons are only allowed to move in a single direction. 3. An array of solar cells converts solar energy into a usable amount of direct current (DC) electricity.

2. Application in signalling system Railway, (Jabalpur Division).

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Indian

In non RE areas the signalling system depends on the state electricity supply, which is non reliable, erratic and is unable to take the load of IPS provided for panel interlocking, so solar panels were commissioned, so that batteries of IPS could be charged through the solar energy. This resulted in increasing the reliability of the power supply, along with the savings on the electricity expenditure, as after one time investment on installation of solar panels the electricity produced is free for the life time of the panels which is usually more than 20 years, if well maintained. This has also resulted in minimizing the use of diesel generators at all the stations.

2.C. 4.). These parameters include 1. SMR input voltage (A. as a result total electricity that might have been consumed at the station prior to installation of solar panels was reflected.).3.C.) SMR output current (D.8 is assumed CASE A :Saving over 24 hours Total no.58 units per day . Battery voltage (D. then these units were doubled. 12. RESULT= 53. RESULT= 42.30 units per day Total no.). various parameters were measured for sample station of ADTL.e.) SOLAR Output current (D. by multiplying the SMR input voltage and current and assumed power factor and considering the total no.C.e. 5. of units consumed at night were calculated.) SOLAR Output voltage (D. of hours in a solar night i. 3.C. 24. 7. of units consumed were calculated by multiplying the SMR input voltage and current and assumed power factor and considering the total no. SMR output voltage (D. 6.C.) Power factor of .C. of hours in a day i. as a result of total electricity consumed at the station with solar panels was reflected.C. Methodology adopted for assessing the savings/effectiveness of the installations and the results obtained On 22nd and 23rd December 2011. SMR input current (A.

4. 2. Very little maintenance is required to keep solar cells running. 3.NET SAVING= 11. in terms of efficiency and costs 5. Renewable source.39% CASE C: Current Savings when DC output current of SMR and DC output of Solar supply are considered (900 hours to 1600 hours) It comes out to be % 4. The percentage saving shown nullify the effect of errors that occur due to assumption of power factor. Almost Zero Costs to run the system after installation. 5. CASE B: Savings when sun light is available (900 hours to 1600 hours) Considering the fact that solar power is available only when effective sunlight is there. so if we calculate net saving over the time period from 900 hours to 1600 hours.05%. It has improved the reliability and quality of power supply for signaling system. Solar power technology is improving consistently over time.28 units per day or 21. Advantages: 1. Conclusion: Though one time investment in solar panels is high but this investment has definitely resulted in the improvement of signalling system . Clean.16 units per day or 67. Net savings come out to be 11.