Trends of Nazm-Al-Qurān

Trends of Nazm-Al-Qurān in Tafsīr Literature in the Sub-Continent
Muhammad Abdullah * Sub-continent is the most important and unique part of South Asia, people of the region had been interconnected with Arabs since ancient times. Trade nexus had been developed between both for long ages. However, this region is enlightened with Islam by Muhammad bin Qasim’s arrival in 91 AH. Indeed, Islamic teachings had been spread and promoted here with the arrival of Arabs. Although it is not known by authentic and certifiable sources that in sub-continent when the Holy Qur'an was first translated? Who wrote the first commentary? However, according to the available sources, we can say that Abd bin Humaid bin Nasr (d.249 AH)(1) was the first scholar who wrote the first Tafsir of Qurān in sub-continent as Ibne Hajar Asqalāni mentioned it in his renowned book ‘’Tahzīb at Tahzīb”(2) After that a series of translation and commentaries have been started in the region. This trend is still in progress. These tafāsīrs have been written not only in Arabic, Persian and Urdu but also in some local languages. It is worth mentioning, that Shah Waliullah Dehlavī (d. 1176 A.H.) and his family has contributed a lot and played a significant role to promote the Qurānic Sciences in Sub-continent. In the region commentaries and interpretations of the Holy Qurān have been written in both forms of tafsir i.e. commentary in the light of Qurān, Hadith and explanations of Sahaba (Tafsīr bil Mathūr) “‫ ”ﺗﻔﺴﯿﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺄﺛﻮر‬and the self explanatory interpretation of Qurān (Tafsīr bir Rai). Here we do not intend to review the evolution of commentary in sub-continent. Our topic is related to appropriateness and coordination first in the verses and secondly in the surah of this Devine Book. The trend of linking surahs with one another of course became popular among Mufassireen of the region through Arabic Tafāsīr. We have divided our paper in the following parts: 1. Meanings of Nazm 2. Synonyms of the Nazm 3. Different Trends of Coherence of the Qur’ān 4. Prominent Commentators of Nazm 5. Conclusion 6. Bibliography
* Associate Professor, SZIC, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

some of these are as follow: i.2 Terminological meaning of Nazm (Coherence) of Qurān: Nazm of the Holy Qurān means that this Holy book is a coherent and systematic collection of words. Hamīd ad Din (d: 1349 A. ii.H. However. ‫ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬Tanāsuq. the terms other than “ ‫ ”ﻧﻈﻢ اﻟﻘﺮآن‬like: Munāsbah. but the most popular term is Nazm that means: “Coherence of The Holy Qurān” Many commentators of The Holy Qurān and scholars wrote their books and named their books containing the same Term. and it is the secret of eloquence to convey its meanings according to the necessity of the situation. . is to know the reasons and sources of interconnections between the parts of the Holy Qurān. Umar al-Baqā’i (d: 885 A. Meanings of Nazm: 1. and will be discussed later.) is defining of Nazm as under: ‫ٓﺧﺮ و ﻧﻈﻢ اﻟﻠﺆﻟﺆ ﯾﻨﻈﻤہ ﻧﻈﻤﺎ و ﻧﻈﻤہ اﻟﻔہ‬ ‫"اﻟﻨﻈﻢ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿﻒ وﺿﻢ ﺷﺊ اﻟﯽ ﺷﺊ ا‬ (3) ".H. ‫ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﻖ‬Rabt ‫ رﺑﻂ‬Tawāfuq ‫ ﺗﻮاﻓﻖ‬are also used. ‫ ﻧﻈﻤﺖ اﻟﻠﺆﻟﺆ‬means: I wired the pearl in thread or something of this kind. iii.‫وﺟﻤﻌہ ﻓﯽ ﺳﻠﮏ ﻓﺎﻧﺘﻈﻢ وﺗﻨﻈﻢ واﻟﻨﻈﺎم ﮐﻞ ﺧﯿﻂ ﯾﻨﻈﻢ ﺑہ ﻟﺆﻟﺆ و ﻧﺤﻮﮦ‬ ‘Nazm means to organize and to link.H.1 Literal meaning of Nazm: Abu Tahir Mujid-ad-Din Ferozabādi (d.) Nazm al-Qur’ān. 1. In literature of Tafsir. Al-Jāhiz (d: 225 A. It does not have disconnected statements. Imam Burhānuddīn al-Buqā’ī defines the term of Munāsabah “ ‫ ”ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬as: ‫"ﻓﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎت اﻟﻘﺮآن ﻋﻠﻢ ﺗﻌﺮف ﻣﻨﮫ ﻋﻠﻞ ﺗﺮﺗﯿﺐ أﺟﺰاﺋﮫ وھﻮ ﺳﺮ اﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ ﻷداﺋﮫ إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﯿﻖ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻧﻲ ﻟﻤﺎ اﻗﺘﻀﺎه ﻣﻦ اﻟﺤﺎل وﺗﺘﻮﻗﻒ اﻹﺟﺎدة ﻓﯿﮫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻘﺼﻮد‬ (4) .(56) AL-ADWA37:27 Trends of Nazm-Al-Qurān 1. and it is useful to comprehend the meaning of all the sentences of the Surah.H. it is the system in which one object is linked to another. And the expertise of this science depends on understanding the central theme of the specific Part of (Surah).) Tafsīr Nizām al Qur’ān. 817 A. It consists of a coordinated and systematic collection of words that are linked to one another.) Nazm ad-Durar Fī Tonāsub al Ayāt wa Sawar."‫اﻟﺴﻮرة اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب ذﻟﻚ ﻓﯿﮭﺎ وﯾﻔﯿﺪ ذﻟﻚ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ اﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮد ﻣﻦ ﺟﻤﯿﻊ ﺟﻤﻠﮭﺎ‬ The science of coherence of The Holy Qurān. Every surah of the book deals with a specific central theme and the book as a whole is also well structured. that is required in that Surah.

According to the concept of coherence. there are some Surahs. Synonyms of the word Nazm: The Muslim Scholars have used four words as the Synonyms of the word Nazm. 1349 A. Hamīdaddīn Farāhi (d.H. 758 A. the whole Qurān looks like one unit."‫ٓﺧﺮ‬ ‫اﻻول اﻟﯽ اﻻ‬ We mean by Nizam that the whole Surah is a complete unit in its meaning and has connection from its proceeding and following Surahs. It’s every verse and every surah is entirely appropriate in its location.) lays the light on the concept of Nazm in Qurān by these words. and it discusses the nature of interconnection between chapters and verses of the Holy Qurān. 885 A. verses and surahs in the Qurān by which all components with the adjustments of their word sync looks like an organized and well structured speech. 2. it means: literal. Burhanu-al-din Buqā’īe (d.H.) had named his book “ ‫ ”اﻟﺒﺮھﺎن ﻓﻲ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ اﻟﻘﺮآن‬. In all components of the Holy Qurān from the beginning of the end. Similarly. Al-Munāsibah ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ Literally means: to look same. By its configuration the Holy Qurān indicates the fact that it is really the speech of such an Absolute Authority Who is Wise and Monitor of everything.(57) AL-ADWA37:27 Trends of Nazm-Al-Qurān The famous commentator and interpreter of coherence of Qurān.) wrote . there is a special kind of connection and configuration. In the terminological meaning the word “al-munāsbah” means: “the knowledge of sequence of the chapters or verses of the Holy Qurān.”(6) Abu Jafar bin Zubair Gharnāti (d. to be relative. the Qurān is well organized book. As we have mentioned in coherence of verses that some verses are related to others and we have explained verses as the outcast of parenthesis. In the literature when the word “ ‫ ”اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬is used. or Synonymous meaning. having the same nature. ‫"ﻣﺮادﻧﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺎم أن ﺗﮑﻮن اﻟﺴﻮرة ﮐﺎﻣﻼ واﺣﺪا ﺛﻢ ﺗﮑﻮن ذات ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒۃ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻮرة‬ ‫ ﮐﻤﺎ ﻗﺪﻣﻨﺎ ﻓﯽ ﻧﻈﻢ‬،‫ أو ﺑﻌﺪھﺎ ﻋﻠﯽ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺎ‬،‫اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ واﻟﻼﺣﻘﺔ أو ﺑﺎﻟﺘﯽ ﻗﺒﻠﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﮑﺬﻟﮏ رﺑﻤﺎ ﺗﮑﻮن اﻟﺴﻮر‬،‫ ﻓﮑﻤﺎ ان اﻻﯾﺎت رﺑﻤﺎ ﺗﮑﻮن ﻣﻌﺘﺮﺿۃ‬،‫اﻵﯾﺎت ﺑﻌﻀﮭﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ٓن ﮐﻼﻣﺎ واﺣﺪا ذا ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒۃ و ﺗﺮﺗﯿﺐ ﻓﯽ أﺟﺰاﺋہ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺘﺮﺿۃ وﻋﻠﯽ ھﺬا اﻷﺻﻞ ﺗﺮی اﻟﻘﺮا‬ (5). When viewed from this perspective.’ Finally the coherence in the Qurān is to search out such a coordination and link among all words. 1. conceptual.H.

Hussain Ali (d. 3.326A.) say the Qurān was revealed in twenty three years in piecemeal style according to the needs and necessities of the first addressees. Twāfiq: ‫اﻟﺘﻮاﻓﻖ‬Means to unite and emerge each other. Abul Qāhir Jurjāni (d471A.(58) AL-ADWA37:27 Trends of Nazm-Al-Qurān a book on the sequence and interconnection of the Holy Qurān. 1362 AH) wrote a book on the topic of coherence of the verses of the Holy Qurān and named it as: “‫”ﺳﺒﻖ اﻟﻐﺎﯾﺎت ﻓﻲ ﻧﺴﻖ اﻵﯾﺎت‬ 4.1: Deniers of coherence They do not prefer this type of arrangement in the Qurān. Ibn e Manzur defined as: (7) "‫ "رﺑﻂ اﻟﺸﻲء ﯾﺮﺑﻄﮫ و ﯾﺮﺑﻄﮫ رﺑﻄﺎ ﻓﮭﻮ ﻣﺮﺑﻮط ورﺑﯿﻂ ﺷﺪة‬: ‫رﺑﻂ‬ To link or to combine something with a particular thing in a strong way.H. They stepped on more speedily in this respect than the others. Different trends of coherence of the Qur’ān: There are three kinds of people opting this style. along with using traditional basic sources.H. is called: coherence. and named his book : " ‫" ﻧﻈﻢ اﻟﺪرر ﻓﻲ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ اﻵﯾﺎت واﻟﺴﻮر‬ 2.H. . 3. They neglecting true sense of Tafsir base on the arrangement of Qurān the coming lines hold a depiction of this comparison in sub continent.H) along with this some commentators explain the Holy Qurān on the basis of this order. Jalaluddin Sāut ī (d 911 AH) wrote a book and named it as: "‫"ﺗﻨﺎﺳﻖ اﻟﺪرر ﻓﻲ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ اﻟﺴﻮر‬ Ashraf Ali Thānvi (d. to be in a row.) named his book on the topic of Nazm as: “‫( ”ﺑﻠﻐﺔ اﻟﺤﯿﺮان ﻓﻲ رﺑﻂ آﯾﺎت اﻟﻔﺮﻗﺎن‬8) 3 Tanasuq: ‫اﻟﺘﻨﺎﺳﻖ‬ " ‫ " ﺗﻨﺎﺳﻖ‬means: to be something in order.H).1250A. 3. Such kind of commentators use the sense of order in the Qurān as a necessity.) and Imam Shokani (d. 1362 A.606A. They are Sheikh Abubakr Neshāpuri (d. It dominates in their explanation made. 3.H. observe coherence in Qurān consciously. or to be the speech in a beautiful sequence.3: Strict supporters of coherence. Scholars of this genre hold the view that neglecting Nazm in the Qurān means the commentator cannot reach the intended meaing. Rabt ‫ اﻟﺮﺑﻂ‬: In the literal meaning the word “‫ ”رﺑﻂ‬is used in the meaning of “strong connection”.2: Supporters of coherence. Imam Fakhrud Din Rāzi (d. Ezuddin bin Abdal Salam (d. so searching of such order is useless.). Most of the commentators in sub-continent belong to this category. They.660A.

explained the Bismillah-al-Rahman-urRahīm in such a detailed way that all the Surah can be understood easily.): The well known scholar and researcher of sub-continent Shah Wali Ullah(14) wrote down appropriateness and arrangement of the Holy Qurān by the name of (Al-Fuz-ul Kabir fi Asūl-e-Tafsir) "‫"اﻟﻔﻮز اﻟﻜﺒﯿﺮ ﻓﻲ أﺻﻮل اﻟﺘﻔﺴﯿﺮ‬ . He writes: “I gathered in my tafsir order of sentences and arrangement of verses and suras. When he was imprisoned at Gawaliyār in Akbar’s period. Allah Almighty blessed me particularly.H. During the late 19th century. orientalist raised an issue regarding the structure of the Holy Qurān.H. 1001 A. ‘unsystematic’. 4. saying.): Manwar(12) wrote by the name of Durar-u-Tanzeem fi Tarteeb-ul Aai wa Sowr ul Karīm “ ‫” درر اﻟﺘﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺮﺗﯿﺐ اﻵي واﻟﺴﻮر اﻟﻜﺮﯾﻢ‬.3 Manwar bin Abdul Hamīd Lahori (d. Sura al-Lail describes Hazrat Abu Bakar’s praise and Zuha of Rasool Allah’s (SAW) So one Surah is of praise and second of Na’at.5: Era ‘Question and Answer’. how they were arranged coherently. that the unveiled aspects were made conspicuous by me.H.” (10) 4.(59) AL-ADWA37:27 Trends of Nazm-Al-Qurān 3. 3.835A. they were not interpreted so before me.): Nagōri(11) “wrote Tafsīr as Mumba ‘Ayunul Ma’ani. ‘disunited’ etc. Prominent Commentators of Nazm: Here we discuss the prominent commentators of Nazm in the sub-continent as under: 4. Keeping in view its structural coherence and named his book ‘tabsir ur Rehman wa Taisīr al Manān’. Their interconnectness is very clear.4: Nazm as the beauty of exegesis. It has five volumes.(13) 5 Shah Walli Allah Delhvi (1114-1176 A. In the same pattern scholars who favour Nazm believe that it is the most important aspect in the beauties of the Qurān.): ‘A’la ad-Din Ahmed9 interpreted the whole Qurān.H. As the commentators of the Qurān observe that the Qurān contains some miraculous aspects under different aspects like its style. Late Nagōri connects Sura Az-Zuha to its first Sura as. syntax.2 Mubarak Bin Khizar Nagōri (d.1 Alauddin Ahmad bn Ali Al-Muhā’imi (d. rhetoric. wa Matla” Shmusal Masani"‫ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﻋﯿﻮن اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻧﻲ وﻣﻄﻠﻊ ﺷﻤﻮس اﻟﻤﺜﺎﻧﻲ‬. 4. He described the connection of verses and Suras. so I could explain the beauty and preciseness of the Holy Qurān. 1011 A. This became a sessions issue and scholars like Hamiddun Farabi took it up seriously and responded it with amazing confidence. meaning etc. He in the very beginning.

saying this. His Persian Tafsir. so the then Arabs did not care for it. 4.): The famous tafsīr of Haqqāni17 has been written in Urdu by the name of Tafsir Fatahul Mannan “ ‫ّﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫” ﺗﻔﺴﯿﺮ ﻓﺘﺢ اﻟﻤﻨﺎن اﻟﻤﺸﮭﻮر ﺑﮫ ﺗﻔﺴﯿﺮ ﺣﻘ‬ commonly known Tafsīr-e-Haqqāni. but He is present a certain wisdom in the Holy Qurān and this was for the concession for the Arabs.(60) AL-ADWA37:27 Trends of Nazm-Al-Qurān He differs in this context Ibnal Arabi and Imam Fakhar ud Din Razi. the knower (Allah Almighty) knows how to train people.” He writes.5 : ‫ﻘﹶﻰٰ —)اﻟﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﭐﺗ‬‫ﻄﹶﻰٰ ﻭ‬‫ ﺃﹶﻋ‬‫ﻦ‬‫ﺎ ﻣ‬ ‫ﻰٰ ﻓﹶﺄﹶﻣ‬ ‫ﺘ‬‫ ﻟﹶﺸ‬‫ﹸﻢ‬ ‫ﻜ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻌ‬‫ﱠ ﺳ‬ ‫™ﺇﹺﻥ‬ • This Sura reveals righteousness people and the second gives collection of wrongdoers. So he writes: “The first addressees of the Holy Qurān are Arabs. (16) So Shah Walli Allah accepts the importance of arrangement but do not feel necessary that there should be arranged style at every Surah or verse nor this is the evidence of its examples. and nothing is impossible for Him. He. Sometimes this is precisely and somewhere in details. Then he will confess. (۸ :‫ﺎ— )ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬‫ﺍﻫ‬‫ﻘﹾﻮ‬‫ﺗ‬‫ﺎ ﻭ‬‫ﻫ‬‫ﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﹸﺠ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻓ‬‫ﻬ‬‫ﻤ‬‫™ﻓﹶﺄﹶﻟﹾﻬ‬ (4. as it should impress the literary comprehension of the book. some receive evils other piety this Sura relates same difference.(15) He compensates. They have been put forward so at every where the arranged manner is not necessary. It is of like a letter or message. He declares that it contains the old literary style of the Arabs. The beginning of the Suras contain same things like: (١ :‫ﻰٰ — )اﻟﯿﻞ‬‫ﺸ‬‫ﻐ‬‫ﻞﹺ ﺇﹺﺫﹶﺍ ﻳ‬‫ﱠﻴ‬ ‫ﭐﻟﹾﻠ‬‫( ﻭ‬۱ :‫ )ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬،‫ﺎ‬‫ﺎﻫ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺿ‬‫ﺲﹺ ﻭ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﭐﻟﺸ‬‫™ﻭ‬ First Sura contains the different kinds of men. His thought was followed by his son Shah Abdul Aziz (d: 1239 AH).H. explanatory and also observes connection between the verses. He writes. There was no competitive or parallel other than Qurān. He should get the knowledge of five sciences.1335A. He says.(18) . the Qurānic methodology is same from the beginning to the end. the first addressees of the Holy Qurān.5 Abu Muhammad Abdul Haq Haqqāni Delhvī (d. this manner is the best that has been opted by Qurān. it were not better revealing it in that manner. Fatahul Aziz “‫ ”ﻓﺘﺢ اﻟﻌﺰﯾﺰ‬is the fine example of relationship between the Suras and verses. then. Though it was not altogether a difficult task before Allah. grammatically. explains why this connection and arrangement has not been observed. For example he writes three kinds of relation between Sura Al-Lail and Surah As Shamas.

3. He gives the reasons of these verses.H. It should not be against prevailing laws of society nor Arabic culture. but from Allah’s commandment.(61) AL-ADWA37:27 Trends of Nazm-Al-Qurān 4. Though. Shah Wali Ullah accepts merely five and Hussain Ali declares these verses Mukams not Mansūkh. It is consisted of on arrangement of Suras and verses. He precisely narrates the connection between Suras and verses in this Tafsir. Every Sura has a central theme. one: ‫ ﻣﻨﻌﻢ ﻋﻠﯿﮭﻢ‬second: ‫ﻣﻐﻀﻮب‬ ‫ ﻋﻠﯿﮭﻢ‬and third one: ‫ اﻟﻀﺎﻟﯿﻦ‬Surat-ul Baqra tells three categories: Believers: this is from beginning to (5 :‫ﹶ— )ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮة‬ ‫ﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺤ‬‫ﻔﹾﻠ‬ ‫ ﭐﻟﹾﻤ‬ ‫ﻢ‬ ‫ ﻫ‬‫ﻚ‬‫ﻟﹶـٰﺌ‬‫ﹸﻭ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫™ﻭ‬ second : rejectors : ( 7. Possibly such meaning should be given that has no exterior objection.(21) 4. Some interpreter reject verse in the context of Nasakh (abrogation). Balghut Hairān fi Rabet. The topic shows not only does it declare the connection of verses but also provides the relationship of Suras. He gives its introduction as: .W). The meaning will be preferred that has been certified by Prophet (S.H. Main points of his Tafsir are: 1. it is described one time or more in this Surah.7 Ashraf Ali Thānvi (1220-1362 A. The arrangement of Surah is not created or accidental. contains three groups. his companions and their successors. It has a relationship between end and beginning verses of the Sura. but he added also. But Allama Sautī accepts only twenty verses that has been changed.A.) Hussain Ali(19) wrote his Tafsīr.(20) Some examples of relationship between the verses. 2. One can mention: Sabqal Ghayāt fī Nasqal Ayāt "‫"ﺳﺒﻖ اﻟﻐﺎﯾﺎت ﻓﻲ ﻧﺴﻖ اﻵﯾﺎت‬ It has been written in Arabic.6: ‫ — )ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮة‬ ‫ﻴﻢ‬‫ ﻋﻈ‬ ‫ﺬﹶﺍﺏ‬‫ ﻋ‬‫ﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﹶﻬ‬‫ﻭﺍﹾ ۔۔۔۔۔ ﻭ‬ ‫ ﻛﹶﻔﹶﺮ‬‫ﻳﻦ‬‫ﱠﺬ‬ ‫ﱠ ﭐﻟ‬ ‫™ﺇﹺﻥ‬ and third one hypocrites from: (8-16 :‫ — )ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮة‬ ‫ﻳﻦ‬‫ﺪ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﻬ‬ ‫ﻮﺍﹾ ﻣ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‬‫ﻣ‬‫۔۔۔۔۔۔ ﻭ‬‫ﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﺎ ﺑﹺﭑﻟﻠ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﹸ ﺁﻣ‬ ‫ﹸﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻘ‬‫ﻦ ﻳ‬‫ﺎﺱﹺ ﻣ‬ ‫ ﭐﻟﻨ‬‫ﻦ‬‫ﻣ‬‫™ﻭ‬ Apparently they are Believers but indeed they are infidels. nor need to be answered forcibly. Surat-al Fātiha. Ayat ul Furqān “‫”ﺑﻠﻐﺔ اﻟﺤﯿﺮان ﻓﻲ رﺑﻂ آﯾﺎت اﻟﻔﺮﻗﺎن‬. 5. Thanvi narrated in it from Surat-al-Fateha to Surat-alNass the connection and explanation points. 4. rest of the verses cover it.6 Hussain Ali (1285-1363A. he merely gives explanatory notes.) It is a great achievement of Ashraf Ali Thānvi(22) to find symmetry between Suras and verses.

Some say it was revealed as and when needed the occasion it got revelation in accordance with the situation not revealed one time which is episodial. He takes care between the relationship of Suras and verses. then found the arrangement of every verse and Surah. one part of it is Tafsīr Suratul Fatihā.1365A. It was smelt its dire need to be written as so many people were to be asked. His Tafsīr. Here are some examples.9 Sanāullah Amratsri (d.H.) Ubaidullah Sindhi(26) mediated on the order of the Qurān for forty years. He also wrote Tarteebu Sowra ul Karima Fil Nazul Wal Masāhif: “‫” ﺗﺮﺗﯿﺐ اﻟﺴﻮر اﻟﻜﺮﯾﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﺰول واﻟﻤﺼﺎﺣﻒ‬.8 Ubāidullah Sindhi (d. "‫اﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﻓﻲ ھﺬا اﻟﺰﻣﺎن ﻟﻜﺜﺮة ﻣﻦ ﯾﻔﺘﺶ ﻋﻦ ھﺬا اﻟﺸﺄن‬ This is a comprehensive book on meanings and connections.(25) 4. I succeeded the connection between Suras. In this Tafsīr he described Nazm between the Verses and Suras. it differs from the revelation order. He used the Term Munasbah for Nazm. Some say the narration of the Qurān is continuous. but we observe it was Prophet Muhammad who gave order to his scribe to write the revealed verses on such and such place in the Qurān. who wrote Amāli Tafsīrul Qurān. Hence.(28) 4. This leads us to this conclusion that it must have some significance that cannot be ignored in the interpretation of the verses and Surahs of the Quran.‫َ— أي ﺧﺬ ﻣﺎ ﺷﺌﺖ ﻣﻦ اﻟﮭﺪاﯾﺔ ﻓﮭﺬا اﻟﻜﺘﺎب ھﻮاﻟﮭﺪاﯾﺔ‬ ‫ِﯿۡﻦ‬ ‫ﱠﻘ‬ ‫ُﺘ‬ ‫ﱢﻠۡﻤ‬ ‫ًی ﻟ‬ ‫ُﺪ‬ ‫ِ ۚۛ ﮨ‬ ‫ِﯿۡہ‬ ‫ﻓ‬ Beside this book Thanvi wrote a Tafsir named ‘Bayān al Qurān.(27) His work has been brought to us by two of his students. He did not divide his book into chapters and sub-chapters. debator and commentator. that is different from the rest of scholars.) Sanaullah Amratsri(29) is a well known religious scholar. He says I set some objectives in the light of Shah Wali Allah’s style. Tafsīr-e-Sanai is very important. His opinion about Nazm stands with Shah Wali Allah.H.(62) AL-ADWA37:27 Trends of Nazm-Al-Qurān ‫"ھﺬا ﻛﺘﺎب وﺟﯿﺰ ﻓﻲ ﺑﯿﺎن اﻻرﺗﺒﺎط ﻓﯿﻤﺎ ﺑﯿﻦ اﻵﯾﺎت اﻟﻘﺮآﻧﯿﺔ واﻟﻤﻌﺎﻧﻲ اﻟﻔﺮﻗﺎﻧﯿﺔ اﺷﺘﺪت إﻟﯿﮫ‬ (23 ). I think both above mentioned thoughts are correct.(30) . Only gave topics regarding connections between them.1367A. one of them is Abdullah Laghāri who wrote Almaqāmul Mahmūd second is Musā Jarullah. He gives the connectivity of Surat-al-Fatehah with Surah al Baqarā: ‫"وﺟﮫ اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺑﯿﻦ آﺧﺮ اﻟﻔﺎﺗﺤﺔ وأول اﻟﺒﻘﺮة أن اﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻟﻤﺎ ﺳﺄل اﻟﮭﺪاﯾﺔ ﻣﻦ اﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫َﯾۡﺐ‬ َ ‫َﺎ ر‬ ‫ُﻟ‬ ‫ِﺘٰﺐ‬ ‫َ اﻟۡﮑ‬ ‫ِﮏ‬ ‫ ™ذٰﻟ‬:‫ ﺳﺆاﻟﮫ ﻓﻘﺎل‬:‫َ— إﻟﺦ أﺟﺎب اﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ِﯿۡﻢ‬ ‫َﻘ‬ ‫ُﺴۡﺘ‬ ‫َ اﻟۡﻤ‬ ‫َاط‬ ‫ﱢﺮ‬ ‫َﺎ اﻟﺼ‬ ‫ِﻧ‬ ‫ِھۡﺪ‬ ‫™ا‬:‫ﺑﻘﻮﻟﮫ‬ (24)". He explains in this way: I have brought the whole topic based arrangement. No doubt the Qurān revealed according to the situation and it is obvious that the Qurān was not written down according to its revelation order.

This is the reply you asked. He describes the relationship of Surah Fatihā in this way. Every partial or collective topic of the Qurān in every Sura or verse get in it. It is a source of light so every verse. He shows it is vivid not a single smallest part differs with each other.1381A. and their important places. 1. 4. (32) He also gives the next coming relation of the summary of Sura. They are connected and arranged like a necklace. This also contained the central verse’s subject. (238 :‫ — )اﻟﺒﻘﺮة‬ ‫ﲔ‬‫ ﻗﹶﺎﻧﹺﺘ‬‫ﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﻮﺍﹾ ﻟﻠ‬ ‫ﹸﻮﻣ‬ ‫ﻗ‬‫ﻄﹶﻰٰ ﻭ‬‫ﺳ‬ ‫ ﭐﻟﹾﻮ‬‫ﻼﹶﺓ‬ ‫ ﻭﭐﻟﺼ‬‫ﺍﺕ‬‫ﻠﹶﻮ‬ ‫ﻠﹶﻰ ﭐﻟﺼ‬‫ﹸﻮﺍﹾ ﻋ‬ ‫ﻈ‬‫ﺎﻓ‬‫™ﺣ‬ Guard strictly (five obligatory) As­Salawât (the prayers) especially the middle Salât (i.(33) The relation between all the Suras has not been written but connection between all the verses has been written he opted the apparent meaning of the verses.11 Abul A’la Mauddūdi (1903-1979 A.(63) AL-ADWA37:27 Trends of Nazm-Al-Qurān 4. the best prayer ­ 'Asr). This commentary adds new concept in this respect. The central subjects of different address and its topic with the Surah. He gave it the name of connection of verses “ ‫”رﺑﻂ آﯾﺎت‬. “law of nipping the moral evils” and then connected all verses and other parts of this Sura. For example he made the topic of the Sura Noor.10 Ahmed Ali Lāhorī (d. Mauddudi. For example he tells the relationship between Sura Noor and Al-Furqan “Sura Noor was preaching towards light which are hurdle to eternal light its centre is in Sura al-Furqan. subject to the Qurān and its parts.H. When a man prays Allah Almighty replies it in the form of whole the Qurān.(35) Mauddūdi writes the Qurān is a unit. It reflects its central approach. One of them is Nazm-al-Qurān’s new concept. central idea. He suggested report topic of every Surah and this was derived from the subjects of that Surah.) Ahmed Ali Lāhori(31) translated the Qurān.) Mauddūdi(34) wrote a Tafsir as Tafhīmul al Qur’an. 2.D.e. the Qurān is its answer. The central topic of Surah has a connection with every verse. 3. Sura. It searches relationship from the topics of Surah and subjects of verses and proselytizing style of Qurān. He narrates the connection between topic. in Urdu and wrote glosses. This Tafsīr ranks first by many rasons among its contemporary commentators. word is connected with each other. This Surah is a pray from man’s side. . He attempts to show connectivity in Suras. It comes out without any difficult. narrates about the verse. He then provided the summary of that chapter (Rukū). he so declares three central subjects of the Qurān.

I affix the meaning of a verse according to the verse having the similar meaning and understood the true sense of that verse.(36) 4. and intelligence. Farāhi founded this type of tafsīr on strong footings in the sub-continent. Without prayer a man cannot remain on God’s given laws. He meditated on the Holy Qurān deeply verse by verse in its structural coherence as it deserved. On the basis of its revealed order it seemed to me that it is a disunited book. But after a thorough study. 4: Dalail al-Nizām. The central theme of the Surah changes different aspects into ‘one unit’ in spite of different meanings of verses of Surah simultaneously. He is considered an expert in this field. 2: Mufr dāt al-Qur’ān. It produces piety and obedience.(40) He writes: By the grace of Allah I explained the coherence of verses of the Holy Qurān. He is misled as the Jews gave up the right path.(39) To Hamid al Din Farahi every Surah of the Holy Qurān has Central Theme which combine the meanings of that Surah and makes beautiful chain by combining scattered beads. social descriptions show the end product of prayer.12 Hamīd ad Dīn Farāhi (1280-1349 A. This is my favorite book. 3: Usūl at-Taveel.): The person who founded trend of coherence of the Holy Qurān in the sub-continent was Hamīd ul Dīn Farāhi. He spent forty years for this purpose. 5: Asaleeb al-Qurān.(41) About the central theme of the Qurān he writes. I used to recite the Holy Qurān regularly. It keeps a man on right path. 6: Hijaj al-Qurān(38) How he initiated this order to answer? The Almighty Allah opened His blessing on me by Surat al Fatiha and Qisas. He topped his contemporary scholars in this field by his deep studies. He spared his life for this purpose.H. He concluded his points in these books: 1: Tafsīr Nizāmal Qurān wa Taweel ul Furqān bil Furqān. I used to heard the Qurān was revealed in piecemeal under different circumstances as was the need. He was a scholar of Arabic and Persian but the Holy Qurān was his central motive of attention.(37) He strengthened this trend and became a leader of constant school of thought.(64) AL-ADWA37:27 Trends of Nazm-Al-Qurān The cultural aspects and. . It was gifted from the inner side not the outside. I found symmetry in two Surahs and this led me to ponder over the rest of the Surah of the Quran.

I feel fear to attach this to his name lest my fault goes to his name. This is like a key though not easy to grasp.A. without this. It concludes as a central unit. and indeed it is a fact. This is why they explained the Qurān a few. This is the casting thing to understand the Qurān It means every surah has its central theme or with a particular order that has been arranged. In this perspective. one should think over it time and again. Farāhi put an interesting question and answered it himself. so how understanding of this order can be common between us?(43) 4. “It comes my forty years labour and the fruits of thirty five years endeavours of my teacher. When one gets the central theme. If the situation would be otherwise there was no need to send these surahs differently. The One and its follower Surah and under discussed Surah should be meditated keenly. not explained this. Repeated studies uncover veil. the whole Surah enlighted like the gem in the ring.13 Amin Ahsan Islāhi (1906 – 1997 A.”(47) Arguing on this coherence Islāhi writes “the Qurān was revealed in different suras big and small. If this coherence in the Qurān was very useful why the companions of the Prophet (S.(65) AL-ADWA37:27 Trends of Nazm-Al-Qurān ‫ وﯾﺤﺘﺎج‬، ‫"اﻋﻠﻢ أن ﺗﻌﯿﻦ ﻋﻤﻮد اﻟﺴﻮرة ھﻮ اﻗﻠﯿﺪ ﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓۃ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﮭﺎ وﻟﮑﻨہ أﺻﻌﺐ اﻟﻤﻌﺎرف‬ ‫ ﺣﺘﯽ‬، ‫اﻟﯽ ﺷﺪة اﻟﺘﺄﻣﻞ واﻟﺘﻤﺤﯿﺺ وﺗﺮداد اﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﯽ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ اﻟﺴﻮرة اﻟﻤﺘﻤﺎﺛﻠۃ واﻟﻤﺘﺠﺎورة‬ ‫ٓﯾۃ ﻣﺤﻠﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﮐﻞ ا‬، ‫ ﻓﯿﻀﯽء ﺑہ اﻟﺴﻮرة ﮐﻠﮭﺎ وﯾﺘﺒﯿﻦ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﮭﺎ‬، ‫ﯾﻠﻮح اﻟﻌﻤﻮد ﮐﻔﻠﻖ اﻟﺼﺒﺢ‬ (42) "‫اﻟﺨﺎص وﯾﺘﻌﯿﻦ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﺄوﯾﻼت اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻤﻠۃ أرﺟﺤﮭﺎ ۔‬ “If someone found this central theme he can easily pick this system of order. it was very clear for us too. style and they know every matter and circumstances. Without it one cannot pick the true meaning of a verse or surah. This also reveals the system of vividness of verses in a Surah and all the verses are resulted in one Surah. The answer is this that they knew the context of every verse. So. If we were luckily in those days.D.W) remained and quiet and. All the surahs can be explained with this well knitted framework.(45) Amin Ahsan Islāhi wrote four principles of his commentary one of them is the order of the verses which is prevailing everywhere in the Qurān. order cannot be found.): Practically introducing of Hamīd ad Dīn Farāhi is Amīn Ahsan Islāhi. It was according to their needs and culture. it shows there is a systematic arrangement in this. I would proud if I could announce it is all due to my teacher.(46 ) To Understand the Qurān.(44) who wrote a complete Tafsīr on the footings of his teacher named Tadabbur e Qurān. . The Qurān was in their language. this coherence is very necessary. Not even a single thing is common between them and us. So many times meanings should be repeated. In the presence of this key nobody needs to provide weak meanings. He writes about his Tafsir.

2. Like every surah this group also has a centre. Conclusion: .(66) AL-ADWA37:27 Trends of Nazm-Al-Qurān Moreover he explains the Qurān is a superior revelation. (First 8 Surah Makki and last one is Madni) Group V Saba to Al-Hujrat (First 13 Makki nad last 3 are Madni) Group VI Qāf to Al-Tahreem (First 7 Makki and 10 Madni) Group VII Al-Mulk to An-nas (Al-Mulk Makki Surah and four others Madni) The obvious aspect of the Qurān is it that seven groups have been told in a few of Makki and Madni suras. This arranged form is like spouse.Interior . (Al0Fatiha Makki Surah and four others Madni) Group II Al-an’am to Taubah.(48) 1. 5.(51) Studying order in the Qurān in sub-continent shows the commentators not only put forward Arabic traditions but also gave some beneficial. it became useless and meaningless. removing it. He points out this as under: 1. Law and jurisprudence providing suras have been put dominated on all the other suras.(49) Group of Suras: He divided the Qurān’s Surah as following order: Group I Al-Fatiha to Al-Māida. Meanings are present in every group but some particularity is there in every group individually. 4.Exterior (Hadith. 3. order and observation to the Qurān) 2. (First two Makki and other two Madni) Group III Younus to Noor (First 14 Surahs are Makki and last one is Madni) Group IV Al-Furqan to Al-Ahzab. Whosoever recites the Quran without its structural integrity.These suras agree the collective merit of rest surahs. without order no narration can be the best one. Collecting it they become sun and moon alike .(50) Islāhi writes the secret of this wisdom in suras is not seen obviously but one needs of hard strive to uncover it. Islāhi suggests two sources for this order. Last Revelation and Tafsir) Beauty of an exalted narration implies in its order and syntax structure. The true and precious core of a writing is its arrangement. All the Madni suras fellow with the rest of all groups . It gets start from one or more than one Makki Suras and ends on one or more than one of Madni Suras.(Language. If some one learn some the other covers. History . he will get maximum some isolated decrees and guidance. Every Sura is in pair form. In short Amin Ahsan Islāhi practically explained the Qurān on the footings of his teacher Hamid ad din Farāhi.

like wise Moatazals (rationalist). Such kind of commentators exaggerate where there is no order they try to arrange order. The natural style of the Qurān gets changes. III. As nature has a natural beauty in its scatteredness so the Qurān does have. Moreover being forwarded this relatively the sayings of the Holy Prophet (S.(67) AL-ADWA37:27 Trends of Nazm-Al-Qurān 5.W) ii. even Hamiduddin Farahi selected nine group and his pupil grouped them seven. some principles. IV. If they themselves are not united how the late comes can be gathered at one point the explanations forwarded by them cannot be unified. II. For this one needs to adopt a new Ijtahadi opinions. .and according to Islāhi only this order explores true meanings. It was Revealed according to Arabs circumstances and their culture so their language usage and overall culture cannot be overviewed. A hadith and Asbab-e-Nazul have been neglected as Islāhi wrote two sources interior and exterior windows he put Hadith on exterior sources. Understanding of Qurān is easy one can find the meanings from verses and suras easily . This way opens the door of (Tafseer bi-Raey) and explores new horizons of Quranic sciences. This kind of attempt is liable to be rejected vi. This form of commentaries opens new debater. this is not fair.1 Commendable Features of Coherence: I. This opens the door of neglecting sayings of Prophet (S. The inimitability of Qurān comes to mind. It shows positive aspects the order of Qurān i. Our respected predecessors are considered unreliable. Scholars who prefer coherence introduces.2 Critical analysis of coherence approach: Basic sources i. iv. iii.e. 5. The Tafāsir by Qurān is considered interior. Order searching needs wisdom and reasoning. explained rationally and made differences in the Ummah so is the case with neglecting Ahadith. so Qurān challenged people to bring even a single sura like this.A.A.e some orientalists declare Qurān disunited. If new generation minimize the importance of this precious material this is not good. Anyhow it can be said coherence should get balance when it is introduced this order is a miracle of the Qurān.W) should not be neglected at any cost! i. Everyone comes up with some new points. v.

227 Nagoor. His Tafsīr is Fathul Manan is in eight volumes. Qidwai.97 Ibn e Manzur al-Afriqi: Lisanul Arab.1425 AH. .12 Ibid. where he got the knowledge from the most renowned scholars. Muqqadma contains the origin of philosophy of it. He also wrote a book on principles of Tafsīr as Al-Fuzul Kabir fi Asōl-e-Tafsir. Tabsir ar-Rehman wa Taysir al-Manan Tazkarh tal Mufassrin. and as an abbreviation is called Abd bn Humaid. Lahore Ibid. in Abul Hassan. p. 6/456 Ferozabadi. For details. He learnt Tafsir from Mahmood Mazhar Nanootvi who was a student of Shah Abdul Aziz. Its language is old pattern of Urdu see for detail Haqqani. 86 Imam ibn e Hajar al-asqalani had seen this Tafsīr that was written by Muhammad bn Muzahim and mentioned his “Sanad” . Alongwith other services he translated Qurān in Persian as Fathul Rahman. got certificate from Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi. Hindustani Mufassireen Aur Arabi Mufassirin. Pakistan. p. His prominent pupils are. Beruit. 1/6 Farahi. please see: Ibn e Hajar al-asqalāni: Tahzīb-altahzīb. p.. Tazkarah Tal Mufssirin. ‘A’la ad-Din Ahmed. Neelvi. Lahore: Anjmun Khuddāmul Qurān. Hameedudin: Rasail Imam al-farahi.100.87 Manan’ al-qattan: Mabahith fi Ulumil Qurān. Dar al Kutab AlIlmiya. Darul-Isha’at Attok. Burhāad din. Daral Isha’āt. He got admission in 1302 AH in Darul Ulum Daoband īn India. VIII. and Imam Muslim and Imam Tirmadhi also became his students. Muhammad Salim. Analyt Ullah Shah Gujrati and Qazi Noor Muhammad etc. First is about Muqadma.Al-Faisal Nashirān o Tajrān-e-Kutab. 5/112 “ ‫”رﺑﻂ‬ Zahid al Hussaini: Tazkiratu-mufassirin. p. Nizam ad Durai Fi Tanasib al Ayat Wa Sowar. p. Shah Wali Allah is well known reformer. Al-Fauz-ul-Kabir fi Usoolat Tafsir. Qazi: Tazkiratal-mufassirin. India so he called Mohaimi.54. Comprising 128 pages.326 He was Born at Mahāim near Mumbair.p. Abdul Haq is the well known mufassar. p. Allah. Majduddin. Hussain Ali was born at Wan Batchran near Mianwali in Pakistan. He was born in the era of Sind “ Kach / Kas” in the 2nd century of AlHijrah. Al-Qamus-al-muhīt. Word Nazm Baqāi. p.AH. 264.5. Muhammad Hussain. Shah Wali. (Nadvi. Tārīkh Dawat-o-Azee’mat – vol. Hālāt Muhammad Hussain Ali. Attock-Pakistan. philosopher and debator of the sub-continent. He traveled to the Arab for the sake of knowledge. a famous city of India. He got primary education from the same city.(68) AL-ADWA37:27 Trends of Nazm-Al-Qurān References 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11. 1393/1973. ‘Tuheedi Muhammad Ishaq. 1415. religious scholar and Muhadith was born in Delhi India. Ghulam Allah Khan Sarfraz Khan. Tafsīr-e-Haqqāni.22. 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 The full name of Abd bn Humaid is Abdul Hamīd. Please see: Zahid Al-Husaini . Adra Qulstan Islam Sargodha. 1425AHp. Nasharul Qurān. Al-Mahaim.

Please see. Hence he started his own journal ‘Tarjaman al-Qurān in 1932. Tafsirul Qurān Kalamul Rahman. Ibid Ashraf Ali Thanvi. “Tuhfatal Hind”. a town in Azamgrah and took charge of Madras at al-Islāh. p.(69) AL-ADWA37:27 Trends of Nazm-Al-Qurān 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Nashr Muhammad Ishaq Tuheedi ‘Hussain Ali. P:7-24 Farāhi. Hindus and Qadiyanies. Ubāidullah was born in Sialkat 1289 AH. 11-12. Biyān ul Qurān. Majmu’a Tafāsīr farahi. p. Pakistan. Maktaba Akhwat Urdu Bazar Lahore. 1991. Lahore. Sabqal Ghayāt Fi Nasqal Ayāt. and was a maternal cousine of the famous theologian. He was debated a lot of with cristians. Then he got admission in Daral ūloom Deoband.See:Abad Shahpuri. He was Sikh by birth and converted Muslim by reading book. Faran Foundation. 10. He wrote a number of books on Ilmul Kalām. Ashraf Ali was born at Thana Bhawan Muzaffar Nagar. Majmoah Tafasir e Farahi. 558 Ibid. Persian and Islamic Sciences. Amin Ahsan. Tarikh-e-Jamat Islami. Part I. Shah Wali Allah Aur Un ka Falsfa. Preface p. He was promoter of Shah Wali Ullah’s thought and wisdom. Muqaddima Tafsir Nizam al Qurān. p: 21-24 Farāhi. Farahi Taught Arabic at various institutions including Aligarh and Dar-al-uloom Hyderabad. Ashraf Ali.P. he got admission in Aligrah Muslim College on the recommendation of Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan (d:1897). He fondered Jamat-e-Islami in 1941. Faran Foundation Lahore. p:28 Ibid. II. India. He wrote a lot of books. See Tazkara tal Mufsrine. translated by Amin Ahsan Islahi. p. (Preface) Ibid. He belonged to a distinguished Family. Tafheem-ul-Qurān 1/42 Tafheem-ul-Qurān 1/182 Farāhi was born in Phreha (hence the name’Farahi’..See:Tazkrah tal Mafssirin. Lahore. He delivered the dars-e-Qurān a long tiem on pattern of Shah Wali Allah. He worked as journalist in many weekly and monthly journals. 1412/1991. 573 Mauddudi was born Aurangabad-India. Taj company Ltd. Pakistan in 1963. p. Its translator is Mutrajam Qurān-e-Aziz Mahsā. It has been published by Annjuman-e-Khuddam Din Sheranwala Darvaza Lahore. Sanaullah. He was born at Lahore.325 Sindhi.historian Muhammad Shibli Numani (d:1914) after studying the Arabic. p:47 Ibid. 16 Ibid Amartsr is a famous city of Inda. Bulghatul Hairān Fi Rabt Ayat al Furqan. a village in district of Azamgrah (U. See for details: Islāhi. He was famous by Hakīm al Umāt and wrote many books. p:27 . Bulghahtal Hairān. Then he came Sarae Mīr. Hamid ad Din.India). It contains the terms of Shah Waliullah. Ubaidullah. He promoted his thoughts by this journal.P:325 Amratsri.

Tadabbur al Qur’ān in 8 volumes. Mustasir Mir Coherence in the Quran. Tadabbr-e-Quran. Mubad-e-Tadabbur Quran. p. p:77 Ibid. He hwas written a large number of books and articles diverse Islamic subjects but his major work is Tafsīr. 1/41 Islami. a village in Azamgrah-India. Amin Ahsan. p:194-195 Islāhi . Ibid. p. Islāhi. P:194-195 Ibid. known as ‘Islāhi’.8.(70) AL-ADWA37:27 Trends of Nazm-Al-Qurān 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Ibid. 1/24-27 .201-202 Ibid. See: Mustanvi Mir.9. Tadabbur e Qurān. Ibid. 1986.206 Islāhi. p. He was the graduate of Madrassat-al-Islah. p:32 Amin Ahsan Islāhi was born in Bumbore. Also see. Coherence in the Qur’ān ‘American Trust publications. 1/14-34.

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