FuzzySystems

Ranganath Muthu Professor, EEE SSN College of Engineering
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1. Fuzzy Overview
        

Systems -

Fuzzy Systems Fuzzy Logic A Little History Fuzzy Sets Fuzzy Sets Operations Fuzzy Rules Fuzzy Applications Fuzzy Logic Control References

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1.1Fuzzy Systems

Based on Human Thought Processes Systems that use objective and subjective knowledge of a problem Objective knowledge – mathematical models Subjective knowledge – linguistic information

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1.2 FuzzyLogic
Fuzzy logic provides a method to formalize reasoning when dealing with vague terms. Traditional computing requires finite precision which is not always possible in real world scenarios. Not every decision is either true or false, or as with Boolean logic either 0 or 1. Fuzzy logic allows for membership functions, or degrees of truthfulness and falsehoods. Or as with Boolean logic, not only 0 and 1 but all the numbers that fall

in between.
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1.3A little History

The idea behindfuzzy logic dates back to Plato, who recognized the logic system of true and false, and also an undetermined area – the uncertain. In the 1960’s Lotfi A. Zadeh Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, published an obscure paper on fuzzy sets that allowed for approximate information and uncertainty when generating complex solutions; a process that previously did not exist. Fuzzy Logic has been aroundsince the mid 60’s but was not readily accepted until the 80’s and

90’s. Although now prevalent throughout much of the world, China, Japan and Korea were the early adopters.
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1.4 Fuzzy Set

Classical (“crisp”) sets:
  

Fuzzy sets:

Membership in a set is all or nothing Membership function cS: Universe → {0, 1} cS(x) = 1 iff x ∈ S range of real numbers

Membership in a set is a degree

membership function cS: Universe → [0, 1]

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Linguistic Characterizations of Degree of Membership
Consider the set of “hot” days in Chennai in 2007.  Was July 17 “hot”? It might have been called one of:

  

“very hot” “sort of hot” “not hot”

The answer depends on the observer,

time, etc.
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Sounds similar to probability, but isn’t

Probability deals with likelihood

uncertainty,

Fuzzy logic deals with ambiguity, vagueness

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Fuzzy Sets
Sets with fuzzy boundaries
A = Set of tall people Crisp set A
1.0 1.0 .9 .5

Fuzzy set A
Membership
function

5’10’’

Heights

5’10’’ 6’2’’

Heights

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1.5Fuzzy-Set Operations
expressed using membership functions
1
A B

0
Fuzzy OR (union) Fuzzy AND (intersection)

cA U B(x) = max(cA (x), cB(x))
1
AUB

cA ∩ B(x) = min(cA (x), cB(x))
1
A∩B

0
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Fuzzy Complement (nottheonly possible model)
cA’(x) = 1 - cA(x).
1
A’

0

A

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Fuzzy Anomaly?
The intersection of a set with its complement is not necessarily empty.
cA’(x) = 1 - cA(x).

1

A

A’ A ∩ A’

0

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1.6Fuzzy Rules
“If our distance to the car in front is small, and the distance is decreasing slowly, then decelerate quite hard”  Fuzzy variables in blue  Fuzzy sets in red  Conditions are on membership in fuzzy sets  Actions place an output variable (decelerate) in a fuzzy set (the quite hard deceleration set)
 

We have a certain belief in the truth of the condition, and hence a certain strength of desire for the outcome Multiple rules may match to some degree, so we require a means to arbitrate and choose a particular goal - defuzzification

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1.7 General Fuzzified Applications

Quality Assurance Error Diagnostics Control Theory Pattern Recognition

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Specific Fuzzified Applications

Otis Elevators Vacuum Cleaners Hair Dryers Air Control in Soft Drink Production

Cranes Electric Razors Camcorders Television Sets Showers

Noise Detection on Compact Disks

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Expert Fuzzified Systems

Medical Diagnosis Legal Stock Analysi Market s Mineral Prospecting Weather Forecasting Economics Politics

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1.8Fuzzy System

Control

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1.9References
Nguyen, H. T. and Walker, E. A. , A First Course in Fuzzy Logic, CRC Press, 1999.  Jerry M.M. and Mendel J, Uncertain Rule-Based Fuzzy Logic Systems : Introduction and New Directions, Pearson Education, 2000.  Ross T.J., Fuzzy Logic with Engineering Applications, McGraw-Hill International, 1997.  Kartalopoulos, S.V., Understanding Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic, IEEE Press,

New York, 1996.
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