The aims of carrying out this projects works are: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) To apply and adapt a variety of problem solving strategies to solve problems To improve thinking skills To promote effective mathematical communication To develop mathemathical knowledge through problem solving in a way that increases students interests and confidence To use language of mathemathics to express mathemathical idea precisely To provide learning environment that stimulates and enhance effective learning To develop positive attitude toward mathemathics

I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my teacher Miss.Chen Nyuk as well as our principal Pn.Zuhairah Binti Yusuf who gave me the golden opportunity to do this wonderful project on the topic logarithm,which also helped me in doing a lot of researchs and I came to know about so many new things where I am really thankful to them.I appreciate their patience in guiding me to complete this project work. Secondly, I would also like to thank my mother,Punithavathi a/p Ramasamy specifically for guiding me throughout this project.She gave me full support in this project work both financially and mentally.I take this opportunity to express my profound gratitude and deep regards to my mother for her exemplary guidance, monitoring and constant encouragement throughout the course of this project.The blessing, help and guidance given by her time to time shall carry me a long way in the journey of life on which I am about to embark. I also take this opportunity to express a deep sense of gratitude to my fellow friends for their cordial support, valuable information and guidance, which helped me in completing this task through various stages.I am obliged to them for the valuable information provided by them in their respective fields. I am grateful for their cooperation during the period of my assignment. Last but not least,I would like to thank everyone who came in handy for helping me completing this project work.Again,thank you very much

One of the mathematical concepts which we must be familiar with is logarithm.Before the days of scientific calculators,logarithms were use used to multiply or divide extreme numbers using mathematical tables.For the calculations,ten was the most common base to use.Logarithm to the base of ten is also called the common logarithm.Other base such as two,five,eight can also be used.The ancient Babylonians had used bases up to 60. Logarithms have many applications in various fields of studies.In the early 17’th century,it was rapidly adopted by navigators,scientists,engineers and astronomers to perform computations more easily using slide rules and logarithm tables.


History on Logarithm
What is a logarithm? Ask a modern mathematician nowadays and you will get a very different answer from the one you might have got from a mathematician several centuries ago. Indeed, even the very first mathematicians who worked with the logarithmic relation would have given an explanation that would seem quite foreign to a modern mathematician. So how did the logarithmic relation come about, and how is it that the concept underwent so much change? We will address these questions by looking at the emergence of this concept, and examining some of the issues surrounding its origins. In fact, the question of the origins of the logarithmic relation does not have a simple answer. At least two scholars, the Scottish baron John Napier (1550-1617) and Swiss craftsman Joost Bürgi (1552-1632), produced independently systems that embodied the logarithmic relation and, within years of one another, produced tables for its use. This parallel insight is fascinating and rich in historical detail, and it reveals some methodological challenges for historians of mathematics. In light of all this, we will examine the ideas of these two scholars, as well as explore how historians have portrayed this intricate situation and the questions it raises about mathematics. In large part, we intend to re-introduce teachers to a concept that is often taught without any reference to its original appearance on the mathematical scene. We hope that a close examination of Napier's and Bürgi's conceptions will enable teachers to consider alternative placement for introducing the idea of logarithms – as part of or after a unit on sequences. Furthermore, we provide in what follows mathematical and historical content, as well as student exercises, to promote the teaching of the logarithmic relation from its historical roots, which are firmly situated in simultaneous consideration of arithmetic and geometric sequences.The logarithmic relation, captured in modern symbolic notation as log(a⋅b)=log(a)+log(b), is useful primarily because of its power to reduce multiplication and division to the less involved operations of addition and subtraction. When this relation hit the scene in the early seventeenth century, its impact was substantial and immediate. Modern historians of mathematics, John Fauvel and Jan van Maanen (2000), illustrate this vividly: When the English mathematician Henry Briggs learned in 1616 of the invention of logarithms by John Napier, he determined to travel the four hundred miles north to Edinburgh to meet the discoverer and talk to him in person. Indeed, Fauvel and van Maanen assert that “the meeting of Briggs and Napier is one of the great tales in the history of mathematics”.Unfortunately, it seems that many teachers (and their students) are not aware of this particular “great tale” – or, at most, superficially associate the names Briggs and Napier with the invention of the logarithm. Typically, these groups know little about the original conceptions of the logarithmic relation. An anecdote concerning a conversation between Fauvel (1995) and a colleague reinforces this. Fauvel recounted that when he inquired of his colleague how to teach logarithms, the colleague responded, “Whatever for? Surely no one needs to learn about those any more,

now that we have calculators and computers” (p. 39). Many teachers, when approached about the possibility of teaching logarithms using a historical context, may express the same opinion. Fauvel's counter-argument to his colleague was that “logarithms are a good and accessible example of something fundamentally changing its conceptual role within mathematics” . Indeed, examining the historical development of the logarithm with students by exploring arithmetic and geometric progressions allows students “a more deeply rooted understanding of what is going on” The modern concept of the logarithm typically appears late in a second algebra or precalculus course (grades 10 or 11 in the US), situated after a study of polynomial and rational functions, but before sequences and series and conic sections. This organization often leaves students with an impression of disconnectedness between mathematical topics. Complicating matters further, the logarithm is often presented only briefly in such an algebra or precalculus course, in order to lead to a broader study of logarithmic functions to match students' previous study of other functions (e.g., linear, polynomial, rational). Lastly, in order to focus on the study of logarithmic functions, instruction and curricular organization dictate that this function exist as the inverse of the exponential function. This, in particular, contrasts starkly with the historical circumstances: in fact, the trajectory of modern mathematical pedagogy does not imitate history, as exponentials arrived on the mathematical scene well after the introduction of the logarithm! Victor Katz (1995; 1997) provided a succinct argument for examining the development of logarithms from a historical perspective. He observed that Napier developed logarithms “for use in the extensive plane and spherical trigonometrical calculations necessary for astronomy”.Although the motivation for developing logarithms is significant, Katz noted that, in general, students today often know very little about astronomy and about the magnitude of both the numbers and the calculations involving such numbers that were necessary to advance the science of astronomy. Astronomical advances have remained critical throughout civilization, however, and Katz (1997) indicated that, “it is well for us to introduce it [astronomy] whenever possible”. Although there is a strong temptation simply to present the definition and several properties of the logarithm and exercises to practice each, we propose that incorporating original and parallel insights of the logarithm can enrich instruction and learning of the topic, both for this concept and more broadly for a student's understanding of mathematics and its relations and development. The late sixteenth century saw unprecedented development in many scientific fields; notably, observational astronomy, long-distance navigation, and geodesy science, or efforts to measure and represent the earth. These endeavors required much from mathematics. For the most part, their foundation was trigonometry, and trigonometric tables, identities, and related calculation were the subject of intensive enterprise. Typically, trigonometric functions were based on non-unity radii, such as R=10,000,000, to ensure precise integer output.Reducing the calculation burden that resulted from dealing with such large numbers for practitioners in these applied disciplines, and with it, the errors that inevitably crept into the results, became a prime objective for mathematicians. As a result, much energy and scholarly effort were directed towards the art of computation.

Accordingly, techniques that could bypass lengthy processes, such as long multiplications or divisions, were explored. Of particular interest were those that replaced these processes with equivalent additions and subtractions. One method originating in the late sixteenth century that was used extensively to save computation was the technique calledprosthaphaeresis, a compound constructed from the Greek terms prosthesis (addition) and aphaeresis (subtraction). This relation transformed long multiplications and divisions into additions and subtractions via trigonometric identities, such as: 2cos(A)cos(B)=cos(A+B)+cos(A−B). When one needed the product of two numbers x and y, for example, trigonometric tables would be consulted to find A and Bsuch that: x=cos(A)andy=cos(B). With A and B determined, cos(A+B) and cos(A−B) could be read from the table and half of the sum taken to find the original product in question. Thus the long multiplication of two numbers could be replaced by table look-up, addition, and halving. Such rules were recognized as early as the beginning of the sixteenth century by Johannes Werner in 1510, but their application specifically for multiplication first appeared in print in 1588 in a work by Nicolai Reymers Ursus (Thoren, 1988).Christopher Clavius extended the methods of prosthaphaeresis, of which examples can be found in his 1593 Astrolabium(Smith, 19590 Finally, with the scientific community focused on developing more powerful computational methods, the desire to capture symbolically essential mathematical ideas behind these developments was also growing. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, mathematicians such as Nicolas Chuquet (c. 1430–1487) and Michael Stifel (c. 1487–1567) turned their attention to the relationship between arithmetic and geometric sequences while working to construct notation to express an exponential relationship. The focus on mathematical symbolism in centuries prior and the growing attention to notation–particularly the experimentation with different versions of exponent notation–played a critical role in the recognition and clarification of such a relationship. Now the mathematical connection between a geometric and an arithmetic sequence could be made all the more apparent by symbolically capturing these sequences as successive exponential powers of a given number and the exponents themselves, respectively (see Figure 6). The work on the relationships between sequences was mathematically important per se, but was equally significant for providing the inspiration for the development of the logarithmic relation. John Napier Introduces Logarithms In such conditions, it is hardly surprising that many mathematicians were acutely aware of the issues of computation and were dedicated to relieving practitioners of the calculation burden. In particular, the Scottish mathematician John Napier was famous for his devices to assist with computation. He invented a well-known mathematical artifact, the ingenious numbering rods more quaintly known as “Napier's bones,” that offered mechanical means for facilitating computation. (For additional information on “Napier's bones,” see the article, “John Napier: His Life, His Logs, and His Bones” (2006).) In addition, Napier recognized the potential of the recent developments in mathematics, particularly those of prosthaphaeresis, decimal fractions, and symbolic index arithmetic, to tackle the issue of

reducing computation. He appreciated that, for the most part, practitioners who had laborious computations generally did them in the context of trigonometry. Therefore, as well as developing the logarithmic relation, Napier set it in a trigonometric context so it would be even more relevant.

Napier first published his work on logarithms in 1614 under the title Mirifici logarithmorum canonis descriptio, which translates literally as A Description of the Wonderful Table of Logarithms. Indeed, the very title Napier selected reveals his high ambitions for this technique---the provision of tables based on a relation that would be nothing short of “wonder-working” for practitioners. As well as providing a short overview of the mathematical details, Napier gave technical expression to his concept. He coined a term from the two ancient Greek terms logos, meaning proportion, and arithmos, meaning number; compounding them to produce the word “logarithm.” Napier used this word as well as the designations “natural” and “artificial” for numbers and their logarithms, respectively, in his text. Despite the obvious connection with the existing techniques of prosthaphaeresis and sequences, Napier grounded his conception of the logarithm in a kinematic framework. The motivation behind this approach is still not well understood by historians of mathematics. Napier imagined two particles traveling along two parallel lines. The first line was of infinite length and the second of a fixed length (see Figures 2 and 3). Napier imagined the two particles to start from the same (horizontal) position at the same time with the same velocity. The first particle he set in uniform motion on the line of infinite length so that it covered equal distances in equal times. The second particle he set in motion on the finite line segment so that its velocity was proportional to the distance remaining from the particle to the fixed terminal point of the line segment.

Figure 2. Napier's two parallel lines with moving particles Napier generated numerical entries for a table embodying this relationship. He arranged his table by taking increments of arc θ minute by minute, then listing the sine of each minute of arc, and then its corresponding logarithm. However in terms of the way he actually computed these entries, he would have in fact worked in the opposite manner, generating the logarithms first and then choosing those that corresponded to a sine of an arc, which accordingly formed the argument. For example, he would have computed values that appear in the first column of Table 1 via the relation:

pn+1=pn(1−1107)wherep0=107. pn 10000000.0000000 9999999.0000000 9999998.0000001 9999997.0000003 9999996.0000006 9999995.0000010 9999994.0000015 9999993.0000021 9999992.0000028 9999991.0000036 9999990.0000045 9999989.0000055 n=lognap(pn) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Table 1. Napier's logarithms The values in the first column (in bold) that corresponded to the Sines of the minutes of arcs (third column) were extracted, along with their accompanying logarithms (column 2) and arranged in the table. The appropriate values from Table 1 can be seen in rows one to six of the last three columns in Figure 4. Napier tabulated his logarithms from 0∘ to 45∘ in minutes of arc, and by symmetry provided values for the entire first quadrant. The excerpt in Figure 4 gives the first half of the first degree and, by symmetry, on the right the last half of the eighty-ninth degree. Corresponding angle (θ)

90∘00′ 89∘59′ 89∘58′ 89∘57′



To complete the tables, Napier computed almost ten million entries from which he selected the appropriate values. Napier himself reckoned that computing this many entries had taken him twenty years, which would put the beginning of his endeavors as far back as 1594.

Figure 4. The first page of Napier's tables (Image used courtesy of Landmarks of Science Series, NewsBank-Readex) Napier frequently demonstrated the benefits of his method. For example, he worked through a problem involving the computation of mean proportionals, sometimes known as the geometric mean. He reviewed the usual way in which this would have been computed, and pointed out that his technique using logarithms not only finds the answer “earlier” (that is, faster!), but also uses only one addition and one division by two! He stated: At about the same time in Switzerland, Joost Bürgi, a court clock maker by profession, grappled with the same issues of computation. Bürgi's key motivation was not only to facilitate computation, but also to produce a single table that could be applied to all arithmetical operations, rather than needing various tables to perform them all. In his work, Arithmetische und Geometrische Progress Tabulen (Arithmetic and Geometric Progression Tables), published in 1620, Bürgi noted that having separate tables for multiplication, division, square roots, and cube roots is “not alone irksome, but also laborious and cumbersome” (Preface, 1, xi-xii). Furthermore, Bürgi grounded his conception directly in the relation between two progressions. He stated that he was able to create one table for a multiplicity of calculations by considering two “self producing and corresponding progressions” (Preface, 1, xv-xvi): one arithmetic and the other geometric. To illustrate the underlying principle by means of “nice” numbers, he gave corresponding progressions based on the powers of two, as shown in Figure 6. Bürgi gave the relation of powers of two as an example, but in fact different parameters underpinned his logarithmic relation. As he noted, successive powers of two increase too quickly to be useful to interpolate between values so instead he used a common ratio of 1.0001, and the successive values were tabulated as follows:


Thus, each successive value in the table can be generated by multiplying the previous one by Bürgi used the factor of For example, the logarithm of


108 to allow for greater integer precision. 101907877 (a black number) can be found using the tables as follows (we must note that his logarithm values increased by 10 and were also multiplied by a factor of 10).
Logarithms represented at this time in so many ways both what was old and what was new. This relation looked back to reflect concerns of computation, but looked forward to nascent notions about mathematical functions. Although logarithms were primarily a tool for facilitating computation, they were but another of the crucial insights that directed the attention of mathematical scholars towards more abstract organizing notions. But one thing is very clear: the concept of logarithm as we understand it today as a function is quite different in many respects from how it was originally conceived. But eventually, through the work, consideration, and development of many mathematicians, the logarithm became far more than a useful way to compute with large unwieldy numbers. It became a mathematical relation and function in its own right. In time, the logarithm evolved from a labor saving device to become one of the core functions in mathematics. Today, it has been extended to negative and complex numbers and it is vital in many modern branches of mathematics. It has an important role in group theory and is key to calculus, with its straightforward derivatives and its appearance in the solutions to various integrals. Logarithms form the basis of the Richter scale and the measure of pH, and they characterize the music intervals in the octave, to name but a few applications. Ironically, the logarithm still serves as a labor saving device of sorts, but not for the benefit of human effort! It is often used by computers to approximate certain operations that would be too costly, in terms of computer power, to evaluate directly, particularly those of the form xn.

Application of logarithms in two different field of study.
Application #1::pH Measurement pH is a measure of acidity or alkanity and is surprisingly common measurement.For example,in the chemical industry,the acidity of the reagents in many types of reactor has to be controlled to enable optimum reaction conditions.In addition,in the water industry,the acidity of water for consumption and of effluent for discharge have to be controlled carefully to satisfy legislative requirements. pH is an electro-chemical measurement,invariably made by means of the so called glass electrode.It is notoriously difficult measurement to make because of factors such as drift and fouling.Understanding the significance of measurements requires an appreciation of electrochemical equilibria.Using pH for control puposes is problematic because of the inherent nonlinearities and time delays. The formal definition of pH is given by: pH= -log10[H+] where [ ] denotes concentration of ions in aqueous solutions with units of g ions/L.In the case of hydrogen,whose atomic and ionic weights are same,[H+] has units of g/L or kg m-3.The logarithmic scale means that pH increase one unit for each decrease by a factor of 10 in [H+]. Pure water dissociates very weakly to produce hydrogen and hydroxyl ions according to H2O  H+ + OHAt equilibrium at approximately 23oC,their concentration are such that [H+] + [OH-] =10-14 The diassociation must produce equal concentrations of H+ and OH- ions,so [H+] = [OH-] =10-7 Since pure water is neutral,by definition,it follows that for neutrality: pHwater = -log10[10-7]=7 This gives rise to familiar pH of 0-14,symmetrical about pH 7,of which 0-7 corresponds to acidic solutions and 7-14 to alkaline solutions.To evaluate pH of alkaline solutions,it is usual to substitute for H+ in the above equations: pHalkali = -log10 10-14 [OH-] Example: a) Suppose that you test apple juice and find that the hydrogen ion concentration is[H+] = 0.0003. Find the pH value and determine whether the juice is basic or acidic. = 14 + log10[OH-]

b) You test some ammonia and determine the hydrogen ion concentration to be [H+] = 1.3 × 10–9. Find the pH value and determine whether the ammonia is basic or acidic.In each case, I need to evaluate the pH function at the given value of [H+]. a) In the case of the apple juice, the hydrogen ion concentration is [H+] = 0.0003, so: pH = –log[H+] = –log[0.0003] = 3.52287874528.....which is less than 7, so this is acidic. b) In the case of the ammonia, the hydrogen ion concentration is [H+] = 1.3 × 10–9, so: pH = –log[H+] = –log[1.3 × 10–9] = 8.88605664769......which is more than 7, so this is basic.
EXAMPLE::Neutralization Control

Neutralization is the process whereby acid and base reagents are mixed to produce a product of specified pH.In the context of waste water and effluent treatement the objective is to adjust the pH to a value of 7 altough,in practice,any value in the range 6-8 is good enough.In many chemical reactions the pH has to be controlled at a value other than 7,which could be anywhere in the range of 0-14.Neutralization is always carried out in aqueous solutions,pH is a meaningless quantity otherwise.Note that a base that is soluble in water is usually referred to as an alkali. pH is without doubt the most difficult or common process variable to control.For example,the measurement is electrochemical,made with a glass and reference electrode pair as show below,and is prone to contamination,hysteresis and drift.The signal produced,being logarithmic,is highly non –linear.The process being controlled invariably has a wide range of both concentrations and flow rate.The rangeability of flow gives rise to variable residence times.To achieve satisfactory control,all of the issues have to be addresses.

A pH sensing instrument

Application #2::Radioactivity
In his article Light Attenuation and Exponential Laws in the last issue of Plus, Ian Garbett discussed the phenomenon of light attenuation, one of the many physical phenomena in which the exponential function crops up. In this second article he describes the phenomenon of radioactive decay, which also obeys an exponential law, and explains how this information allows us to carbon-date artefacts such as the Dead Sea Scrolls.

In the previous article, we saw that light attenuation obeys an exponential law. To show this, we needed to make one critical assumption: that for a thin enough slice of matter, the proportion of light getting through the slice was proportional to the thickness of the slice. Exactly the same treatment can be applied to radioactive decay. However, now the "thin slice" is an interval of time, and the dependent variable is the number of radioactive atoms present, N(t). Radioactive atoms decay randomly. If we have a sample of atoms, and we consider a time interval short enough that the population of atoms hasn't changed significantly through decay, then the proportion of atoms decaying in our short time interval will be proportional to the length of the interval. We end up with a solution known as the "Law of Radioactive Decay", which mathematically is merely the same solution that we saw in the case of light attenuation. We get an expression for the number of atoms remaining, N, as a proportion of the number of atoms N0 at time 0, in terms of time, t: N/N0 = e-lt, where the quantity l, known as the "radioactive decay constant", depends on the particular radioactive substance. Again, we find a "chance" process being described by an exponential decay law. We can easily find an expression for the chance that a radioactive atom will "survive" (be an original element atom) to at least a time t. The steps are the same as in the case of photon survival.

Mean lifetime of a Radioactive Atom
On average, how much time will pass before a radioactive atom decays? This question can be answered using a little bit of calculus. Suppose that we invert our function for N/N0 in terms of t, to get an expression for t as a function of N/N0. Once we have an expression for t, a "definite integral" will give us the mean value of t (this is how "mean value" is defined). From the equation above, taking logarithms of both sides we see that lt = -ln(N/N0) = ln(N0/N), so our equation for t is

t plotted against F

For convenience, we'll now write F for N/N0. Note that that the domain of F is the interval from zero to 1, which corresponds to the interval of time from zero to infinity. Plotting tagainst F with a value of l=1 gives the graph on the right. To find <t>, the mean value of time of survival, all we have to do is find the integral

which is a very tidy result! Incidentally, our formula for t gives us an easy way of finding the half-life, the time it takes for half the nuclei in a sample to decay. The half-life (often denoted t1/2) is just t(1/2) = (1/l) ln(2). The equivalent thickness for the medium in radiation attenuation is known as "half-value thickness". Similarly, in a population which grows exponentially with time there is the concept of "doubling time".

Libby's Legacy
We started the first article by talking about carbon dating and the Dead Sea scrolls. Let's look further at the technique behind the work that led to Libby being awarded a Nobel prize in 1960. Carbon 14 (C-14) is a radioactive element that is found naturally, and a living organism will absorb C-14 and maintain a certain level of it in the body. This is because there is carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange in the atmosphere, which leads to constant turnover of carbon molecules within the body cells. Once an organism dies there is no further CO2 exchange, and so the ratio of C-14 to the far more common carbon isotope, C-12, will begin to decrease as the C-14 atoms decay, yielding nitrogen (N-14) with the emission of an electron (or "beta particle") plus an anti-neutrino. The ratio of C-14 to C-12 in the atmosphere's carbon dioxide molecules is about 1.3×10-12, and this value is assumed constant for the main part of archaeological history since the formation of the earth's atmosphere. Knowing the level of activity of a sample of organic material enables us to deduce how much C-14 there is in the material at present. Since we also know the ratio of C-14 to C-12 originally, we can find the time that has passed since carbon exchange ceased, that is, since the organic material "died". In the case of the Dead Sea scrolls, important questions required answers. Were they forgeries? Did they really date from around the time of Christ? Before or after? Using Libby's radiocarbon dating technique, the scrolls have been dated, using the linen coverings the scrolls were wrapped in. One scroll, the Book of Isaiah, has been dated at 1917BC ±275 years, certainly long before the time of Christ. Some of the others are roughly contemporary with Christ. Let's take a look at an example of how dates are calculated using Libby's method.

Suppose a linen sample of 1 gram is analysed in a counter. The activity is measured at approximately 11.9 decays per minute. We'll denote the magnitude of the rate of decay of the Carbon 14 nuclei as R. This magnitude is equal to the rate that beta particles are detected. So

Recall that the exponential law for the number of Carbon 14 nuclei present says that

and so

which tells us that R=lN, and that the activity at t=0 (the time the linen was manufactured) is R(0) = lN0. Substituting gives us an exponential relation in terms of the measured activity:

Now the decay constant for Carbon-14 is l = 3.8394 × 10-12 per second. This corresponds to a half life of 5,730 years. We can calculate the number of Carbon-12 nuclei in 1 gram of carbon:

Using the (living) ratio of C-14 to C-12, this implies that the original (t = 0) number of Carbon 14 nuclei was

Now, rearranging the exponential activity law gives

R0 is simply (3.8394×10-12)(6.5221×1010) = 0.2504 decays per second. The measured rate is R(t) = 11.9 decays per minute = 0.1983 decays per second. The value for t that results is

which is approximately 1929 years. This an approximate age for some of the scrolls. In a similar way, dating charcoal found at Stonehenge gives ages of approximately 3798 ±275 years, and, when used on some of the oldest archaeological artefacts in the Americas, the technique gives ages of approximately 25,000 years, corresponding to a time of significantly lower sea levels and supporting the theory that the very first humans in the "New World" crossed the Bering Straits by foot from Siberia into Alaska. Incidentally, other "larger time scale" radio-dating techniques exist, apart from Libby's radiocarbon method. Here isotopes with longer half lives are used, which enables dating of geological formations and rocks. However, the essential ideas are analogous. For example, in lava form, molten lead and Uranium-238 (standard isotope) are constantly mixed in a certain ratio of their natural abundance. Once solidified, the lead is "locked" in place and since the uranium decays to lead, the lead-to-uranium ratio increases with time. In this way, some of the oldest rocks have been measured at approximately 3 billion years. Radioactive decay rates The decay rate, or activity, of a radioactive substance are characterized by: Constant quantities:
  

The half-life—t1/2, is the time taken for the activity of a given amount of a radioactive substance to decay to half of its initial value; see List of nuclides. The mean lifetime— τ, "tau" the average lifetime of a radioactive particle before decay. The decay constant— λ, "lambda" the inverse of the mean lifetime.

Although these are constants, they are associated with statistically random behavior of populations of atoms. In consequence predictions using these constants are less accurate for small number of atoms.

In principle the reciprocal of any number greater than one— a half-life, a third-life, or even a (1/√ 2)-life—can be used in exactly the same way as half-life; but the halflife t1/2 is adopted as the standard time associated with exponential decay. Time-variable quantities:
  

Total activity— A, is number of decays per unit time of a radioactive sample. Number of particles—N, is the total number of particles in the sample. Specific activity—SA, number of decays per unit time per amount of substance of the sample at time set to zero (t = 0). "Amount of substance" can be the mass, volume or moles of the initial sample.

These are related as follows:

where N0 is the initial amount of active substance — substance that has the same percentage of unstable particles as when the substance was formed. Units of radioactivity measurements The SI unit of radioactive activity is the becquerel (Bq), in honor of the scientist Henri Becquerel. One Bq is defined as one transformation (or decay or disintegration) per second. Since sensible sizes of radioactive material contains many atoms, a Bq is a tiny measure of activity; amounts giving activities on the order of GBq (gigabecquerel, 1 x 109 decays per second) or TBq (terabecquerel, 1 x 1012 decays per second) are commonly used. Another unit of radioactivity is the curie, Ci, which was originally defined as the amount of radium emanation (radon-222) in equilibrium with one gram of pure radium, isotope Ra-226. At present it is equal, by definition, to the activity of any radionuclide decaying with a disintegration rate of 3.7 × 1010 Bq, so that 1 curie (Ci) = 3.7 × 1010 Bq. The use of Ci is currently discouraged by the SI. Low activities are also measured in disintegrations per minute (dpm). Universal law of radioactive decay Radioactivity is one very frequent example of exponential decay. The law describes the statistical behavior of a large number of nuclides, rather than individual ones. In the following formalism, the number of nuclides or nuclide populationN, is of course a discrete variable (a natural number)—but for any physical sample N is so large (amounts of L = 1023, avagadro's constant) that it can be treated as a continuous

variable. Differential calculus is needed to set up differential equations for modelling the behaviour of the nuclear decay.

EXAMPLE::Nuclear Reactors
A device used to generate power, in which nuclear fission takes place as a controlled chain reaction, producing heat energy that is generally used to drive turbines and provide electric power. Nuclear reactors are used as a source of power in large power grids and in submarines. A Closer Look A nuclear reactor uses a nuclear fission chain reaction to produce energy. The cylindrical core of a reactor consists of fuel rods containing pellets of fissionable material, usually uranium 235 or plutonium 239. These unstable isotopes readily split apart into smaller nuclei (in the fission reaction) when they absorb a neutron; they release large quantities of energy upon splitting, along with more neutrons that may be absorbed by the nuclei of other isotopes, causing a chain reaction. The neutrons are expelled from the fission reaction at very high speeds, and are not likely to be absorbed at such speeds. Moderators such as heavy water are therefore needed to slow the neutrons to a speed at which they are readily absorbed. The fuel rods contain enough fissionable material arranged in close enough proximity to start a self-sustaining chain reaction. To regulate the speed of the reaction, the fuel rods are interspersed with control rods made of a material (usually boron or cadmium) that absorbs some of the neutrons given off by the fuel. The deeper the control rods are inserted into the reactor core, the more the reaction is slowed down. If the control rods are fully inserted, the reaction stops. The chain reaction releases enormous amounts of heat, which is transferred through a closed loop of radioactive water to a separate, nonradioactive water system, creating pressurized steam. The steam drives turbines to turn electrical generators.

Nuclear Reactor


The volume,V,in cm3,of a solid sphere and its diameter,D,in cm,are related by the equation V=mDn,where m and n are constants.You can find the value of m and n by conducting the activities below. A i) Choose six different spheres with diameters between 1 cm to 8 cm.Measure the diameters of the six spheres using a pair of vernier calipers. Sphere 1 2 3 4 5 6 Diameter (cm) 1.0 2.4 3.8 5.2 6.6 8.0

ii) Find the volume of each sphere without using the formula of volume. (You can use the apparatus in the science lab to help you) Archimedes’s principle states that the upward buoyant force is exerted on a body immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid the body displaces.In other words,an immersed object is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid it actually displaces Using the method of water displacement and knowing the water density is 1g/cm3,the volume of a solid sphere is equivalent to the weight of the water displaced (in grams),and thus it can be measured Sphere 1 2 3 4 5 6 Volume (cm3) 0.5236 7.2382 28.7310 73.6223 150.5329 268.0832

iii) Tabulate the values of the diameter ,D,in cm,and its corresponding volume,V,in cm3.

Sphere 1 2 3 4 5 6

Diameter (cm3) 1.0 2.4 3.8 5.2 6.6 8.0

Volume (cm3) 0.5236 7.2382 28.7310 73.6223 150.5329 268.0832

B Find the value of m and nusing logarithms with any two sets of values obtained in the table above. Sphere 1 2 3 4 5 6 Diameter (cm3) 1.0 2.4 3.8 5.2 6.6 8.0 Volume (cm3) 0.5236 7.2382 28.7310 73.6223 150.5329 268.0832

log10D 0.0000 0.3802 0.5798 0.7160 0.8195 0.9031

log10V -0.2810 0.8596 1.4584 1.8670 2.1776 2.4283

Given that the volume,V,of a solid sphere is V=mDn Taking logarithm on both sides yield which can be expanded to log10V=log10m + log10Dn log10V=log10m + n log10D


Using logarithms with any two sets of values s1(D1V1) and s2 (D1 V1),we have log10V1=log10m + n log10D1 log10V2=log10m + n log10D2 (3) (4)

From Eq.(3) and (4),it is obvious tha log10m can be eliminated by taking (3) (4) log10V1- log10V2= n log10D1- n log10D2 which can be simplified by the Laws of Logarithms log10 V1 = n log10 D1 V2 D2 Dividing both sides with log10 D1 , we can determine the value of n D2


n= log10V1
V2 log10D1 D2


although it is not necessary to find n in the reduced form of n= log
D1 D2

V1 V2


Let s1 (8.0,268.0382) and s2 (5.2,73.6223),we have V1 = 268.0832 = 3.64133 V2 73.6223 & D1 = 8.0 = 1.53846 D2 5.2

With n=3,the value of m can be determined by manipulating Eq.(1)


A) In our daily life,the realtion between two variables is not always in a linear form.For example,the relation between the volume,V,and the diameter,D,in Part 2 above.Plot V against D using suitable scales.

Relationship between V and D

B) When the graph V against D is drawn,the value of m and of n are not easily determined from the graph.If the non-linear relation is changed to a linear form,a line of best fit can be drawn and the values of the constants and other information can be obtained easily. a) Reduce the equation V= mDn to a linear form V=mDn log10V = log10 (mDn) log10V=log10Dn + log10m log10V=n log10D + log10m in which the reduced equation is a linear form of y=Mx + c, where y = log10V;M = n;x = log10D;and C = log10m. b) Using the data from Part 2,plot the graph and draw the line of best fit.

Linear Relationship between Log(V) and Log(D)

c) From the graph,find i) The value of m and of n,thus express V in terms of D, To obtain the value of m we must know the y-intercept,-0.281,because log10m= -0.281 m=10-0.281 m=0.5236 The value of n can be determined by calculating the slope of the graph,that is n= 2.4283-(-0.281) 0.9031 – 0 =3 Thus volume,V,of a solid sphere can be expressed in terms of D as V=0.5236(D3) (6) The volume of the sphere when the diameter is 5 cm,and log10D=log105=0.699 With this value 0.699 on the x-axis,we can look up on the linear graph and interpolate the corresponding value 1.816 on the y-axis. log10V=1.816 V=101.816 ~ 65.46 cm3 iii) The radius of the sphere when the volume is 180 cm3 log10V= log10180 = 2.25527


With this value 2.25527 on y-axis,we can look up on the linear graph and interpolate the corresponding value 0.845 on the x-axis. log10D= 0.845 r = D = 100.845 2 2 ~3.4992 cm

FURTHER EXPLORATION a) Compare the equation obtained in Part 3(B) c (i) with the formula of volume of sphere.Hence,find the value of π. The formula for volume of sphere is given by Vsphere = 4 πr3 Comparing the formula and Eq.(6),we have 4π D 3 2 4π D3 3 8 1π D3 3 2

= 0.5236(D3) = 0.5236(D3) = 0.5236(D3)

π = 0.5236 6 π = 0.5236 × 6 = 3.1416 b) Suggest another method to find the value of π.

One simple method is to determine the circumference,C,of a circle with diameter,D.The circumference of a circle is the length around it and the associate formula is given by C = πD To measure the circumference,C,of a circle with diameter,D effectively, the shadow of a solid sphere can be projected on a screen using a bright light source as shown below.Then,the diameter of the casted shadow can be scaled linearly according to the actual diameter of the solid sphere,because the formula shows the linear relationship

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